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Sample records for 6-year-old boy presented

  1. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  2. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  3. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E; Palileo, Coleen M; Sheridan, Rachel M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with an 18-month history of a left lower eyelid lesion that was refractory to medical management. The lesion was excised, and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a cellular neurothekeoma. Clinical presentation of such lesions is similar to a chalazion or epidermal inclusion cyst. Cellular neurothekeoma is benign and has a low risk of recurrence after excision with clear margins. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid is extremely rare, with only 5 previously reported cases. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid presenting in a boy.

  4. [Ulcerative colitis in a 6-year-old boy with severe coeliac disease - a case report].

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewcz, Agnieszka; Kominek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine elicited by the gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible people. In coeliac patients there is higher incidence of other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The coexistence of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is rare. The spectrum of presentation of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease may be similar. However, those disorders require various therapeutic approaches. Thus, early recognition of the overlap between coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is crucial to apply appropriate treatment and to prevent possible complications. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with a delay in physical and psychomotor development, rickets, severe anaemia and bloody diarrhoea. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease and ulcerative disease. The coexistence of both disorders is extremely rare in childhood. However, ulcerative colitis should be considered in coeliac children on restrictive gluten-free diet with persistent diarrhoea or bleeding from lower gastrointestinal tract. Screening for coeliac disease should be considered in children with ulcerative colitis with impaired physical development and lack of remission despite of proper treatment.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection with a duodenal ulcer in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hajikano, Miharu; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Takita, Yuko; Okada, Takuya; Asai, Makiko; Fujimatsu, Mariko; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kamisago, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Takehisa; Shioya, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Akira

    2006-10-01

    A 6-year-old boy was hospitalized because of dark feces and facial pallor of 1 weeks duration. Other gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, were absent, but he felt dizziness when standing and fatigue on effort. Hematologic studies revealed iron-deficiency anemia, and endoscopy showed gastric erosions and a duodenal ulcer. All test results for Helicobacter pylori infection, including H. pylori antigen in stool, anti-H. pylori IgG immunoassay in serum, and the (13)C-urea breath test, were positive. Because an H. pylori-associated gastric ulcer had been diagnosed with endoscopy in the patients father 3 years earlier, father-son transmission was suspected. The patient was treated with triple-agent eradication therapy (proton pump inhibitor [lansoprazol], amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) for 2 weeks. One month after therapy was completed, eradication of H. pylori was confirmed by negative results on the stool antigen test. Peptic ulcer disease can occur in young children, as in this case. The stool antigen test kit is a useful and reliable method that can be used even in preschool children to diagnose H. pylori infection. PMID:17106182

  6. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours over a School-Year: Differences between 6-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammarberg, Annie; Hagekull, Berit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms.…

  7. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  8. [Intramural duodenal hematoma and acute pancreatitis as a complication of diagnostic biopsy of a duodenal 6-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Krzesiek, Elżbieta; Iwańczak, Barbara; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Patkowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Hematoma duodenum is a very rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract when biopsy of the duodenum is performed (average frequency is estimated as 1:1,250 biopsies). Most often, it affects children and young adults without any risk factors. Symptoms result from obstruction of the duodenum and compression of the adjacent structures. Conservative treatment, which consists of parenteral nutrition and aspiration of gastric contents until the absorption of hematoma and patency of the gastrointestinal tract returns, is preferred. This paper describes a 6-year-old boy diagnosed due to short stature and low weight in whom the diagnostic biopsy of the duodenum caused formation of a hematoma in the descending duodenum and led to total ileus and acute pancreatitis. The boy was treated conservatively with good result and complete resolution of symptoms was achived.

  9. Functional MRI in a 6-year-old boy with unilateral cortical malformation: concordant representation of both hands in the unaffected hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Staudt, M; Pieper, T; Grodd, W; Winkler, P; Holthausen, H; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in a 6-year-old boy with a complex malformation of the right hemisphere who suffered from pharmaco-refractory epilepsy. Clinical examination revealed left-sided hemiparesis and marked mirror movements of the opposite hand both during paretic and non-paretic hand movements. Functional MRI of repetitive unimanual grasping demonstrated that the two hands share a common cortical representation located in the central motor region of the unaffected left hemisphere. The affected right hemisphere did not show any activation during either task. This case study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of motor fMRI in young children before they undergo epilepsy surgery. PMID:11521214

  10. Clinical and molecular genetic findings in a 6-year-old Bosnian boy with triple A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toromanovic, Alma; Tahirovic, Husref; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Koehler, Katrin; Kind, Barbara; Zdravkovic, Dragan; Hasanhodzic, Mensuda; Huebner, Angela

    2009-03-01

    The triple A syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterised by the triad of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia and alacrima. In most patients, neurological and dermatological abnormalities are associated features. We report on the first Bosnian patient with triple A syndrome. Endocrine investigation confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency at the age of 5.8 years. Two months later, achalasia was diagnosed, and in the presence of alacrima, the patient satisfies the diagnostic criteria of triple A syndrome. In addition, a large number of associated neurological and dermatological features were present in this patient. Moreover, he has dysmorphic facial features, which have not been previously described in triple A syndrome. Triple A syndrome was confirmed by molecular analysis, revealing a nonsense mutation p.W84X in the AAAS gene. The parents are both heterozygous carriers of the mutation. The affected twin brother unfortunately died from hypoglycaemic shock, despite a normal cortisol rise in an ACTH stimulation test. Further, triple A syndrome patients carrying the identical homozygous p.W84X mutation have to be studied to assess a genotype-phenotype relationship for this mutation.

  11. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  12. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF. PMID:27625935

  13. A case of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites without peripheral natural killer cell lymphocytosis in a 6-year-old Korean boy.

    PubMed

    Seon, Han-Su; Roh, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kang, Eun-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is a rare disease characterized by intense skin reactions such as bulla and necrotic ulcerations at bite sites, accompanied by general symptoms such as high-grade fever and malaise occurred after mosquito bites. It has been suggested that HMB is associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and natural killer (NK) cell leukemia/lymphoma. We describe here a Korean child who presented with 3-yr history of HMB without natural killer cell lymphocytosis. He has been ill for 6 yr with HMB. Close observation and examination for the development of lymphoproliferative status or hematologic malignant disorders is needed.

  14. Fantasy play in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wall, S M; Pickert, S M; Gibson, W B

    1989-05-01

    We studied the verbal pretend play of 5- and 6-year-old boys and girls to delineate age and sex differences during the later preoperational period. Sixteen children with average language ability were paired by age and sex and were videotaped for three 15-min intervals. Verbal interactions were transcribed, and the pretend play was classified as object fantasy, imaginative action plans/themes, or fantasy roles. Language used for pretend play increased in proportion to all utterances with age. Older children referred to more invented objects than younger ones but primarily in the service of realistic action formats. Girls' conversations were scored as having significantly more verbal pretending than boys' and a higher proportion of it referred to play roles. There were both age and sex differences in the types of themes, toys used, and roles enacted, including more sex-typed behavior in older children. The continued increase in the proportion of pretend play to all verbal interaction with age and the characteristics of play behavior is consistent with developmental theory.

  15. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face.

  16. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  17. Prevalence of Speech Delay in 6-Year-Old Children and Comorbidity with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeney, Jane L.

    1999-01-01

    This study estimated the incidence of speech delay based on a demographically representative sub-sample of 1,328 monolingual English-speaking 6-year-old children. Among six major findings were: (1) the prevalence of speech delay was 3.8 percent; (2) speech delay was 1.5 times more prevalent in boys than girls; and (3) comorbidity of speech delay…

  18. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  19. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  20. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  1. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature. PMID:27746877

  2. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  3. [Partial rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a 6-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Sesia, S B; Hasler, C-C; Köhler, M; Mayr, J

    2007-10-01

    In children, avulsion fractures of the patella are observed more frequently than ruptures of the quadriceps tendon. In cases of suspected lesions of the quadriceps tendon, conventional x-ray imaging and ultrasound comparison of both patellae is recommended. Arthroscopy is helpful for diagnosing concomitant intra-articular knee lesions and permits evacuation of the hemarthrosis.

  4. Inattention and Hyperactivity Predict Alterations in Specific Neural Circuits among 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Tuan, Ta Anh; Zhong, Jidan; Meaney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers is highly dependent upon parental reports. Such reports are compromised by parental attitudes and mental health. Our study aimed to examine associations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity from maternal reports on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) with brain…

  5. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  6. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Katge, Farhin; Mithiborwala, Sajjad; Pammi, Thejokrishna

    2013-01-01

    Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth. PMID:23878747

  7. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  8. The Microgenetic Emergence of Cooperative Play in 6-Year-Olds Developmentally At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; van der Leeden, Rien

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative play was investigated by a controlled pre/post-test intervention design with 28 dyads of 6-year-old students developmentally at-risk. Selection was based upon cut-off scores on a language development test and a nonverbal IQ test, and same-sex pairs were matched within classrooms. Co-variables were: socio economic status, free play time…

  9. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  10. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  11. Water Arsenic Exposure and Intellectual Function in 6-Year-Old Children in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Kline, Jennie; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; LoIacono, Nancy J.; Levy, Diane; Cheng, Zhongqi; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    Background We recently reported results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 10-year-olds in Bangladesh, who had been exposed to arsenic from drinking water in their home wells. Objectives We present results of a similar investigation of 301 randomly selected 6-year-olds whose parents participated in our ongoing prospective study of the health effects of As exposure in 12,000 residents of Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods Water As and manganese concentrations of tube wells at each home were obtained by surveying all study region wells. Children and mothers were first visited at home, where the quality of home stimulation was measured, and then seen in our field clinic, where children received a medical examination wherein weight, height, and head circumference were assessed. We assessed children’s intellectual function using subtests drawn from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, version III, by summing weighted items across domains to create Verbal, Performance, Processing Speed, and Full-Scale raw scores. Children provided urine specimens for measuring urinary As and were asked to provide blood samples for blood lead measurements. Results Exposure to As from drinking water was associated with reduced intellectual function before and after adjusting for water Mn, for blood lead levels, and for sociodemographic features known to contribute to intellectual function. With covariate adjustment, water As remained significantly negatively associated with both Performance and Processing Speed raw scores; associations were less strong than in our previously studied 10-year-olds. Conclusion This second cross-sectional study of As exposure expands our concerns about As neurotoxicity to a younger age group. PMID:17384779

  12. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    de Weerth, C; Zijlmans, M A C; Mack, S; Beijers, R

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test is composed of three short tasks that children have to perform in front of a judge. The tasks are rigged so as to provoke (partial) failure in the child's performance. Participants were 42 children (M = 68.0 months, SD = 4.3). Six saliva samples were taken during the testing session to obtain cortisol measurements of baseline concentrations, stress reactivity, and recovery. Our findings showed that this paradigm was effective in provoking a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration in the group as a whole, with no effects of possible confounders (child's sex, age or school, parental educational level, time of testing, sex of experimenter, and sex of judge). The mean cortisol concentration increase for the group was 127.5% (SD = 190.9); 61% of the children could be classified as reactors (mean increase of 214%, SD = 201.5), and 39% as non-reactors (mean decrease of 7.8%, SD = 16.8). To our knowledge, this is the first study in this age group that shows a significant cortisol response for the group as a whole to a standardized laboratory paradigm. As such, this paradigm is a promising tool to be used in future research on early life interactions between physiology and psychology.

  13. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives.

  14. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  15. Reaction of 5 and 6 year olds to dental injection after viewing the needle: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maragakis, G M; Musselman, R J; Ho, C C

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the practice of hiding the needle prior to dental anesthesia administration to children. Fourteen 5 and 6 year olds received dental treatment in two sessions. The needle was shown in one session and hidden in the other. Eleven children were cooperative and 3 uncooperative irrespective of approach. The children's behavior correlated with fears expressed by the mothers. Our initial fndintgs do not support the practice of hiding the needle. PMID:17091654

  16. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. PMID:24315421

  17. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis.

  18. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Kaczorowski, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Markiewicz, Bartosz D.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). Case Report We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Conclusions Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment. PMID:25866593

  19. Reliability and Validity of "Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ozgul; Dagal, Asude B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents' evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children's responsible behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors.…

  20. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  1. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Berti, Gabriela Oliveira; Hesse, Daniela; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Bönecker, Marcelo José Strazzeri

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI) in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil) were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007) criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4%) was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor). There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors. PMID:26313347

  2. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis.

  3. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  4. Phonological development in 4-6-year-old moderately hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition of clear phonological rules is of utmost importance for a child when he/she is learning to decode and convey meanings using spoken language. Fifteen Finnish-speaking children, five normally hearing (NH) 3-year-olds and 10 moderately hearing impaired (HId) 4-6-year-olds were studied here. Speech samples consisting of 62 words were collected from each child during a picture naming task. Frequent phonetic (articulation) errors together with normal (but delayed) and deviant phonological processes of HId children were found in this study. The frequency and quality of the processes seemed to be related more to the grade of HI than, for example, the age of the child. Implications for speech therapy are briefly discussed.

  5. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  6. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person’s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years old attending the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 400 children selected using a multistage sampling method. Data were collected by interviews. The questionnaire included two sections: a demographic section with questions about the demographic characteristics of the children and parents and a children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and different statistical tests were used (P < 0.05). Results The mean age of the children was 64.27 ± 9.3 months. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 36.25%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with age, height, body mass index, residence of children, father’s occupation, mother’s diseases, father’s drug abuse, and parents’ marital status (P < 0.05). Conclusions Sleep disorders in children threaten growth and development, and are dangerous for their health. Sleep disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children’s learning and behavioral problems. PMID:27651942

  7. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Z<-1) is one of the malnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). Receiving a cooked meal significantly decreased wasting (15.2-13.2%) in all children (p < 0.05). Nutritional intervention with cooked meal for 175 days had significant reduction in wasting in all children.

  8. Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Tyagi, Himanshu; Agrawal, Gaurav; Anil, S R

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old female child was admitted with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion since last 3 years. She was saturating 100% on room air with stable vitals. On clinical examination, left precordial bulge was seen with prominent epigastric pulsations. Chest X-ray showed rightward shift of mediastinum and huge homogenous opacity occupying almost entire left lung field. On two-dimensional echocardiography, a large aneurysmal mass was seen occupying left hemithorax which was suspected to be arising from pulmonary artery but its exact site of origin could not be determined. A small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also seen. PDA could be seen directly supplying the aneurysm (Fig. 1). CT angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. It showed a huge aneurysmal sac measuring 12 cm × 8.9 cm × 14 cm, arising from left pulmonary artery (LPA) opposite to the site of insertion of PDA. Sac was occupying most of the left lung and pushing down the left diaphragm (Fig. 2). Cause of formation of such a huge aneurysm could not be found out. Surgery was performed and mouth of the sac was closed along with ligation of duct, repair of LPA and drainage of the sac. After surgery, lung expansion was good. Patient was discharged and she is doing well.

  9. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  10. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person’s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years old attending the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 400 children selected using a multistage sampling method. Data were collected by interviews. The questionnaire included two sections: a demographic section with questions about the demographic characteristics of the children and parents and a children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and different statistical tests were used (P < 0.05). Results The mean age of the children was 64.27 ± 9.3 months. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 36.25%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with age, height, body mass index, residence of children, father’s occupation, mother’s diseases, father’s drug abuse, and parents’ marital status (P < 0.05). Conclusions Sleep disorders in children threaten growth and development, and are dangerous for their health. Sleep disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children’s learning and behavioral problems.

  11. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  12. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  13. Effects of delays on 6-year-old children’s self-generation and retention of knowledge through integration

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (stem facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In Experiment 1, children integrated the stem facts at Session 1 and retained the self-generated memory traces over 1 week. In Experiment 2, 1-week delays were imposed either between the to-be-integrated facts (between-stem delay) or after the stem facts but before the test (before-test delay). Integration performance was diminished in both conditions. Moreover, memory for individual stem facts was lower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that self-generation through integration promoted memory for explicitly taught information. The results indicate the importance of tests for promoting self-generation through integration as well as for retaining newly self-generated and explicitly taught information. PMID:23563162

  14. Network-Level Connectivity Dynamics of Movie Watching in 6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert W.; Short, Sarah J.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32) = 5.02, p = 0.0001). More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention). For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32) = −2.46, p = 0.02; Seed-based: t(32) = −1.62, p =0.12) and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32) = 2.84, p = 0.008; Seed-based: t(32) = 2.28, p =0.03), which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to

  15. Mirror writing in 5- to 6-year-old children: The preferred hand is not the explanation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jean-Paul; Koch, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Non-pathological, spontaneous mirror writing, whether complete or partial, has long been associated with writing with the left hand and attributed to the fact that abductive writing, which most people find easier, is from right to left when people write with their left hand. However, recent research suggests another explanation: children who do not know the orientation of the letters and digits may apply an implicit right-writing rule which causes them to invert mainly left-oriented characters (e.g., J, 3). But would left-hand writers apply such a rule? The present study examines the relationship between these two explanations of mirror writing and asks whether they coexist in children who write with their left hand. Is the abductive writing explanation specific to mirror writing by left-hand writers and the implicit right-writing rule specific to right-hand writers? A comparison of 59 children who wrote with their left hand and 59 children who wrote with their right hand (matched for age and school experience) provided clear evidence against the abductive-writing explanation and in favour of the right-writing rule for both groups. Therefore, spontaneous mirror writing in typical 5- to 6-year-olds does not seem to be a function of preferred writing hand.

  16. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    PubMed

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described. PMID:24733506

  17. A 6-year-old boy with Sulzberger and Garbe dermatosis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tabara, Katarzyna; Noweta, Marcin; Bienias, Wojciech; Kaszuba-Bartkowiak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sulzberger-Garbe disease was described in 1937. Not more than a hundred of cases of the disease have been reported in the literature. Despite a quite specific picture, there are no features that could undeniably be attributed to this particular disease entity. Discoid exudative and lichenoid lesions are main lesions in this dermatosis. The disease is associated with severe pruritus. The lesions are located on the trunk and extremities as well as the genitals. Eosinophilia is frequently found in the course of the disease. Sulzberger-Garbe dermatosis has been diagnosed mainly in middle-aged males of Jewish origin but it can occur in both sexes at any age. Good therapeutic response to systemic corticosteroids has been observed. It is still controversial whether the disease should be classified as an independent clinical entity. PMID:24494005

  18. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  19. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  20. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  1. Systemic Hypertension and Transient Ischemic Attack in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Fibromuscular Dysplasia Treated with Percutaneous Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-15

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  2. Systemic hypertension and transient ischemic attack in a 6-year-old girl with fibromuscular dysplasia treated with percutaneous angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  3. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  4. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  5. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire in a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Kamath, Vikram; Chauhan, Bhumir; de Souza, Romnesh; Nair, Rithesh; Sapare, Anil; Kekatpure, Minal

    2015-05-01

    A six-year-old boy was diagnosed as recurrent posterior circulation stroke secondary to basilar artery occlusion with rapid progression of symptoms. Etiology of stroke was a dissection of V3 segment of left vertebral artery, which was treated using endovascular technique 26 hours after worsening of symptoms. Since the guidelines for acute revascularization in pediatric stroke are not well established, there is limited experience in the use of mechanical devices for acute ischemic stroke revascularization in children. To our knowledge, this is one of the youngest reported cases of acute ischemic stroke from Asia managed with newer mechanical clot removal devices. PMID:26060522

  6. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire in a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Kamath, Vikram; Chauhan, Bhumir; de Souza, Romnesh; Nair, Rithesh; Sapare, Anil; Kekatpure, Minal

    2015-05-01

    A six-year-old boy was diagnosed as recurrent posterior circulation stroke secondary to basilar artery occlusion with rapid progression of symptoms. Etiology of stroke was a dissection of V3 segment of left vertebral artery, which was treated using endovascular technique 26 hours after worsening of symptoms. Since the guidelines for acute revascularization in pediatric stroke are not well established, there is limited experience in the use of mechanical devices for acute ischemic stroke revascularization in children. To our knowledge, this is one of the youngest reported cases of acute ischemic stroke from Asia managed with newer mechanical clot removal devices.

  7. Ultrasound screening for neoplasms in children up to 6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzejewski, Grzegorz; Wozniak, Magdalena M.; Pawelec, Agata; Matera, Albert; Kunach, Magdalena; Madej, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Andrzej P.; Nowakowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the ultrasound (US) screening program was to detect neoplastic lesions in children, together with other pathologies of the developmental age in the area of the neck, abdomen, female pelvis, and scrotum in boys. US screening scans, including cervical, abdominal, pelvical, and scrotal US, were performed in the population of asymptomatic children aged from 9 months to 6 years. The children were scanned in Mobile Pediatric US Unit, consisting of 2 independent consulting rooms. The scans of 14,324 children were analyzed, 7247 boys and 7077 girls. Totally 42,538 US examinations were performed, including 14,187 cervical scans, 14,259 abdominal scans, 6942 female pelvical scans, and 7150 scrotal scans. Totally 5426 abnormalities were detected, which represent 12.7% of all examinations and 30% of patients. Three tumors were recognized, which are renal malignant tumor diagnosed as Wilms tumor, neurogenic tumor of the rib, and teratoma of the testis. US screening in pediatric population can be used to reveal lesions inaccessible to clinical examination, like tumors or other pathologies of developmental age before the onset of clinical symptoms. Due to the large number of detected abnormalities it should be recommended to the whole population of certain age. PMID:27759641

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI-scanning in 5- and 6-year-old children: training protocol and motion assessment.

    PubMed

    Theys, Catherine; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) are widely used to study structural and functional neural connectivity. However, as these techniques are highly sensitive to motion artifacts and require a considerable amount of time for image acquisition, successful acquisition of these images can be challenging to complete with certain populations. This is especially true for young children. This paper describes a new approach termed the 'submarine protocol', designed to prepare 5- and 6-year-old children for advanced MRI scanning. The submarine protocol aims to ensure that successful scans can be acquired in a time- and resource-efficient manner, without the need for sedation. This manuscript outlines the protocol and details its outcomes, as measured through the number of children who completed the scanning procedure and analysis of the degree of motion present in the acquired images. Seventy-six children aged between 5.8 and 6.9 years were trained using the submarine protocol and subsequently underwent DTI and rfMRI scanning. After completing the submarine protocol, 75 of the 76 children (99%) completed their DTI-scan and 72 children (95%) completed the full 35-minute scan session. Results of diffusion data, acquired in 75 children, showed that the motion in 60 of the scans (80%) did not exceed the threshold for excessive motion. In the rfMRI scans, this was the case for 62 of the 71 scans (87%). When placed in the context of previous studies, the motion data of the 5- and 6-year-old children reported here were as good as, or better than those previously reported for groups of older children (i.e., 8-year-olds). Overall, this study shows that the submarine protocol can be used successfully to acquire DTI and rfMRI scans in 5 and 6-year-old children, without the need for sedation or lengthy training procedures.

  9. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children.

  10. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  11. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or

  12. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  13. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  14. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Unnikrishnan Krishnan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6–8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43%) children and in the awake record only of 6 (16%) children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4%) had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2) and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR) for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children's maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ)] or the children's characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures. PMID:27570381

  15. Anterior Reconstruction of C2–C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1–C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1–C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies. PMID:26835212

  16. Anterior Reconstruction of C2-C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1-C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1-C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies.

  17. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Resting-State Functional MRI-Scanning in 5- and 6-Year-Old Children: Training Protocol and Motion Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Catherine; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) are widely used to study structural and functional neural connectivity. However, as these techniques are highly sensitive to motion artifacts and require a considerable amount of time for image acquisition, successful acquisition of these images can be challenging to complete with certain populations. This is especially true for young children. This paper describes a new approach termed the ‘submarine protocol’, designed to prepare 5- and 6-year-old children for advanced MRI scanning. The submarine protocol aims to ensure that successful scans can be acquired in a time- and resource-efficient manner, without the need for sedation. This manuscript outlines the protocol and details its outcomes, as measured through the number of children who completed the scanning procedure and analysis of the degree of motion present in the acquired images. Seventy-six children aged between 5.8 and 6.9 years were trained using the submarine protocol and subsequently underwent DTI and rfMRI scanning. After completing the submarine protocol, 75 of the 76 children (99%) completed their DTI-scan and 72 children (95%) completed the full 35-minute scan session. Results of diffusion data, acquired in 75 children, showed that the motion in 60 of the scans (80%) did not exceed the threshold for excessive motion. In the rfMRI scans, this was the case for 62 of the 71 scans (87%). When placed in the context of previous studies, the motion data of the 5- and 6-year-old children reported here were as good as, or better than those previously reported for groups of older children (i.e., 8-year-olds). Overall, this study shows that the submarine protocol can be used successfully to acquire DTI and rfMRI scans in 5 and 6-year-old children, without the need for sedation or lengthy training procedures. PMID:24718364

  18. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  19. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  20. Improvements in Lung Function and Height among Cohorts of 6-Year-Olds with Cystic Fibrosis from 1994 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, Donald R.; Pasta, David J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize spirometry and height changes in cohorts of 6-year-olds with cystic fibrosis (CF). Study design Global Lung Initiative (GLI) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC and CDC height-for-age (HFA) Z-scores were generated for 6-year-olds in the from the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) each year from 1994 and 2012. Z-score mean differences were analyzed by t-test and time trends of means by least squares regression for all children and for subgroups (sex, F580del mutation genotype, Medicaid insurance, and prenatal/newborn screening identification). Z-score distributions were compared by two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Results 11,670 children with CF were studied, of whom 50.5% were males, 50.2% had the F508del/F508del genotype, and 46.6% were insured by Medicaid. Mean HFA, FEV1 and FVC Z-scores increased significantly over the period in the entire population and all subgroups (P<0.001), but FEV1/FVC Z-scores were below normal and did not change significantly. In 2012, children identified by screening had significantly higher mean HFA (P=0.002), FEV1 (P<0.001) and FVC (P<0.001) Z-scores than those not screened, with 90% of FVC and 71.4% of FEV1 Z-scores greater than predicted by the Normal distribution; FEV1/FVC Z-scores were not different between screening groups. Conclusions Consistent, significant increases in HFA, FEV1, and FVC occurred from 1994–2012, but FEV1/FVC, a measure of airway obstruction, did not appreciably change. FVC and FEV1 Z-score distributions suggest that normative equation reference populations under-predict lung volumes of children with CF, but the reason(s) for this remain unclear. PMID:25134852

  1. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  2. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  3. The role of pause as a prosodic boundary marker: language ERP studies in German 3- and 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Schipke, Christine S; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-07-01

    Spoken language is hierarchically structured into prosodic units divided by prosodic breaks. The largest prosodic breaks in an utterance are intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), which are defined by three acoustic cues, namely, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pausing. Previous studies have revealed that the electrophysiological marker of IPB perception, the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), is established between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, we examined the neural activity underlying IPB perception in children by targeting their reliance on pausing; hypothesized to be a key boundary cue in German. To evaluate the role of pausing, we tested IPB perception without the boundary pause, but with pitch change and preboundary lengthening. We tested children at the age of 3 years, when the CPS in response to IPBs has just emerged, and at 6 years, when language abilities are further developed. Results revealed that 6-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, show the CPS in response to IPBs without full prosodic marking. These results indicate developmental differences with respect to the role of pausing as a prosodic boundary cue in German. The correlation of children's IPB perception and their syntactic abilities further corroborates the close prosody-syntax interaction in children's advancing ability to process phrase structure.

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma causing multiple spinal cord compression and carcinomatous meningitis in a 6-year-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed A; Sobani, Zain A; Enam, Syed Ather; Enam, Kishwar; Ashraf, M Shamvil

    2011-05-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the brain, spinal cord, and leptomeninges. Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) and spinal cord compression in PCNSL are very rare and usually present in advanced stages of the disease. The average survival time of a CM patient is about 4 to 6 weeks, which may be extended to about 4 to 6 months with treatment. Here we present a case of CM and spinal cord compression by multiple PCNSL in a 6-year-old girl, who has survived 2 years and 9 months posttreatment with no recurrence. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first case reporting survival after CM. The patient presented with weakness of her right arm, right leg, and left side of the face. Examination revealed mild facial asymmetry with left facial lower motor neuron palsy and lateral gaze restriction of left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of her spinal cord showed postcontrast enhancement of the intradural structures on the spinal canal at levels C3-C6 and L1-L5 and along with the intracranial leptomeninges. Histopathological examination of the neoplastic tissue from cauda equina revealed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After chemotherapy her disease regressed and magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of recurrence or residual disease. In our experience the response to chemotherapy was remarkable and recommend that aggressive tumor resection strategies should be reserved for cases with severe signs of spinal compression. PMID:21464767

  5. Developmental changes in the influence of conventional and instrumental cues on over-imitation in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Cristina-Andreea; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that children in the preschool period are fastidious imitators who copy models with such high levels of fidelity that task efficiency may be compromised. This over-imitative tendency, and the pervasive nature of it, has led to many explorations and theoretical interpretations of this behavior, including social, causal, and conventional explanations. In support of the conventional account, recent research has shown that children are more likely to over-imitate when the task is framed using conventional verbal cues than when it is framed using instrumental verbal cues. The aim of the current study was to determine whether 3- to 6-year-old children (N=185, mean age=60 months) would over-imitate when presented with instrumental and conventional verbal cues, which varied only minimally and were more directly comparable between instrumental and conventional contexts than those used in previous studies. In addition to varying the overall context, we also varied the instrumental prompt used such that the cues provided ranged in the extent to which they provided explicit instruction to omit the irrelevant actions. Counter to our predictions, and the high levels of over-imitation witnessed in previous studies, the older children frequently over-imitated irrespective of the context provided, whereas the youngest children over-imitated selectively, including the irrelevant actions only when the task was presented in a conventional frame. We propose that the age differences found following an instrumental presentation are a result of the youngest children being more open to the motivation of learning the causality of the task, whereas the older children were more strongly motivated to adopt a social convention. PMID:26774258

  6. Event-related brain potentials to change in the frequency and temporal structure of sounds in typically developing 5-6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ervast, Leena; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Zachau, Swantje; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Heinänen, Kaisu; Veijola, Mari; Heikkinen, Elisa; Suominen, Kalervo; Luotonen, Mirja; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-12-01

    The brain's ability to recognize different acoustic cues (e.g., frequency changes in rapid temporal succession) is important for speech perception and thus for successful language development. Here we report on distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) in 5-6-year-old children recorded in a passive oddball paradigm to repeated tone pair stimuli with a frequency change in the second tone in the pair, replicating earlier findings. An occasional insertion of a third tone within the tone pair generated a more merged pattern, which has not been reported previously in 5-6-year-old children. Both types of deviations elicited pre-attentive discriminative mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN) responses. Temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) showed a similar topographical pattern with fronto-central negativity for MMN and LDN. We also found a previously unreported discriminative response complex (P340-N440) at the temporal electrode sites at about 140 ms and 240 ms after the frequency deviance, which we suggest reflects a discriminative processing of frequency change. The P340 response was positive with a clear radial distribution preceding the fronto-central frequency MMN by about 30 ms. The results indicate that 5-6-year-old children can detect frequency change and the occasional insertion of an additional tone in sound pairs as reflected by MMN and LDN, even with quite short within-stimulus intervals (150 ms and 50 ms). Furthermore, MMN for these changes is preceded by another response to deviancy, temporal P340, which seems to reflect a parallel but earlier discriminatory process. PMID:26342552

  7. Emergency Department Utilization and Determinants of Use by 0- to 6-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in Taipei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Ya-Wen; Chwo, Miao-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have explored emergency services for children, there are few published reports of the utilization of emergency services by children with disabilities. The present study attempts to provide data regarding the utilization of, and factors affecting, emergency department visits by disabled children in Taipei. A general census of…

  8. Study of occlusal characteristics of primary dentition and the prevalence of maloclusion in 4 to 6 years old children in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhayya, Deepak P; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Dixit, Uma B; Shivaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and to determine the different occlusal characteristics in primary dentition of 4 to 6 years old children in India. Materials and Methods: The target population comprised 4 to 6 years old children attending different nursery, kindergarten and primary schools of Bagalkot city. Stratified cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample. Each subject was assessed for various occlusal characteristics. Results: Occlusal characteristic found were flush terminal plane (52.5%), class I canine relationship (84%), maxillary developmental spaces (35.4%), primate spaces in maxilla (47.6%), mandibular crowding (4.6%), mandibular midline shift (5.6%), anterior multiple tooth crossbite (1.3%), scissors bite (0.6%), anterior open bite (1%), over bite of 0-2 mm (81.6%) and overjet of 0-2 mm (84.5%). The age wise difference for the occlusal characteristics was statistically significant. Conclusions: The data revealed that most of the children had malocclusion. This highlights the importance of identifying children who are in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health or aesthetic reasons. PMID:23559929

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Sendai virus-based human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Adderson, Elisabeth; Branum, Kristen; Sealy, Robert E; Jones, Bart G; Surman, Sherri L; Penkert, Rhiannon; Freiden, Pamela; Slobod, Karen S; Gaur, Aditya H; Hayden, Randall T; Allison, Kim; Howlett, Nanna; Utech, Jill; Allay, Jim; Knight, James; Sleep, Susan; Meagher, Michael M; Russell, Charles J; Portner, Allen; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2015-03-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), resulting in tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States alone. No licensed vaccine is yet available. We have developed murine PIV-1 (Sendai virus [SeV]) as a live Jennerian vaccine for hPIV-1. Here, we describe vaccine testing in healthy 3- to 6-year-old hPIV-1-seropositive children in a dose escalation study. One dose of the vaccine (5 × 10(5), 5 × 10(6), or 5 × 10(7) 50% egg infectious doses) was delivered by the intranasal route to each study participant. The vaccine was well tolerated by all the study participants. There was no sign of vaccine virus replication in the airway in any participant. Most children exhibited an increase in antibody binding and neutralizing responses toward hPIV-1 within 4 weeks from the time of vaccination. In several children, antibody responses remained above incoming levels for at least 6 months after vaccination. Data suggest that SeV may provide a benefit to 3- to 6-year-old children, even when vaccine recipients have preexisting cross-reactive antibodies due to previous exposures to hPIV-1. Results encourage the testing of SeV administration in young seronegative children to protect against the serious respiratory tract diseases caused by hPIV-1 infections.

  10. The effect of Filmed modeling on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental treatment: A randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Paryab, Mehrsa; Arab, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Filmed modeling in comparison with commonly used Tell-Show-Do technique (T.S.D) on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental practice. Materials and Methods: Forty six children aged 4-6 years were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated into two groups. Group I: At the first visit, the procedure of Tell-Show-Do, and at the second visit, the treatment procedures were performed by the dentist for the children. Group II: At the first visit, children watched a film consisting of the procedure of Tell-Show-Do performed on a child model. At the second visit, treatment procedures were performed. In both groups, during the treatment procedure, index of heart rate was measured and behaviors of children were recorded. The children's anxious and cooperative behaviors on the recordings were quantified according to Venham and Frankl rating scales, respectively. The data were compared between two groups using T-test method. All statistical references were made at 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate measures, clinical anxiety and cooperative behavior scores of children between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusion: Filmed modeling can be an efficient alternative method to Tell-Show-Do technique in pre-appointment preparation of the 4-6 years old children during dental treatment. PMID:25225565

  11. Tongue reconstruction with minimal donor site morbidity using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kawaguchi, Runa; Suesada, Nobuko; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Tongue reconstruction was performed using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl with undifferentiated sarcoma of the tongue. After hemi-glossectomy with upper neck dissection, a 3-lobed DIEP free flap was used for the reconstruction. Donor site was closed primarily with suturing umbilicus in proper position. No flap loss, leakage, or infection occurred. Postoperatively, the patient was able to consume a normal diet without difficulty or aspiration and displayed good speech function. No donor site morbidity, e.g., herniation or bulging, was observed, and the patient was able to perform their normal daily activities. DIEP flaps provide a pliable skin paddle, an adequate amount of adipose tissue, and reduced donor site morbidity, even in children. We did not have any difficulty harvesting the DIEP flap or with the microvascular anastomosis. We consider DIEP free flaps to be the ideal option for pediatric tongue reconstruction.

  12. Treatment of an acute promyelocytic leukemia relapse using arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rock, Nathalie; Mattiello, V; Judas, C; Huezo-Diaz, P; Bourquin, J P; Gumy-Pause, F; Ansari, M

    2014-03-01

    In adult therapy, arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are recognized as active treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The efficacy of this combination in pediatric APL has not yet been well established. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with relapsed APL, with a PML-RARα mutation, treated with a combination of ATO and ATRA. Over a period of 5 months, she received in total, 75 doses of intravenous ATO and 40 doses of oral ATRA. Currently, 22 months after relapse, she is still in complete remission. Here, we describe treatment of a relapsed APL in a child with limited treatment of ATO and ATRA and review the literature. PMID:24498972

  13. Developmental change in the acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is imprecise and hence differs from exact counting. Evidence suggests that the resolution of the ANS, as specified by a Weber fraction, increases with age such that adults can discriminate numerosities that infants cannot. However, the Weber fraction has yet to be determined for participants of any age between 9 months and adulthood, leaving its developmental trajectory unclear. Here we identify the Weber fraction of the ANS in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children and in adults. We show that the resolution of this system continues to increase throughout childhood, with adultlike levels of acuity attained surprisingly late in development. PMID:18793076

  14. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  15. A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: the case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Chatham, Christopher H; Wiseheart, Melody; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Good executive function has been linked to many positive outcomes in academic performance, health, and social competence. However, some aspects of executive function may interfere with other cognitive processes. Childhood provides a unique test case for investigating such cognitive trade-offs, given the dramatic failures and developments observed during this period. For example, most children categorically switch or perseverate when asked to switch between rules on a card-sorting task. To test potential trade-offs with the development of task switching abilities, we compared 6-year-olds who switched versus perseverated in a card-sorting task on two aspects of inhibitory control: response inhibition (via a stop signal task) and interference control (via a Simon task). Across two studies, switchers showed worse response inhibition than perseverators, consistent with the idea of cognitive trade-offs; however, switchers showed better interference control than perseverators, consistent with prior work documenting benefits associated with the development of executive function. This pattern of positive and negative associations may reflect aspects of working memory (active maintenance of current goals, and clearing of prior goals) that help children focus on a single task goal but hurt in situations with conflicting goals. Implications for understanding components of executive function and their relationships across development are discussed.

  16. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  17. A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: the case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Chatham, Christopher H; Wiseheart, Melody; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Good executive function has been linked to many positive outcomes in academic performance, health, and social competence. However, some aspects of executive function may interfere with other cognitive processes. Childhood provides a unique test case for investigating such cognitive trade-offs, given the dramatic failures and developments observed during this period. For example, most children categorically switch or perseverate when asked to switch between rules on a card-sorting task. To test potential trade-offs with the development of task switching abilities, we compared 6-year-olds who switched versus perseverated in a card-sorting task on two aspects of inhibitory control: response inhibition (via a stop signal task) and interference control (via a Simon task). Across two studies, switchers showed worse response inhibition than perseverators, consistent with the idea of cognitive trade-offs; however, switchers showed better interference control than perseverators, consistent with prior work documenting benefits associated with the development of executive function. This pattern of positive and negative associations may reflect aspects of working memory (active maintenance of current goals, and clearing of prior goals) that help children focus on a single task goal but hurt in situations with conflicting goals. Implications for understanding components of executive function and their relationships across development are discussed. PMID:24791710

  18. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  19. Sex Differences in the Effects of Inherited Bitter Thiourea Sensitivity on Body Weight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kathleen L.; Reid, Adrienne; MacDougall1, Megan C.; Cassano, Hope; Song, Joo Lee; Deng, Liyong; Lanzano, Patricia; Chung, Wendy K.; Kissileff, Harry R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that inherited taste blindness to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may be a risk factor for obesity, but this literature has been highly controversial. The objectives of this study were (i) to confirm findings that show an interaction between PROP status and sex on BMI z-score, and (ii) to determine if sex also interacts with variations in TAS2R38 (phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) genotype) to influence weight status in 4–6 year olds. Also, we tested whether nontaster children consumed more fat and total energy at laboratory-based meals. Seventy-two ethnically diverse children who ranged in weight status were classified as tasters (N = 52) or nontasters (N = 20) using a standard PROP screening solution. Anthropometric measures were taken, and at the end of each visit, children ate ad libitum from test meals intended for exploratory purposes. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva and alleles at TAS2R38 were genotyped for A49P polymorphisms. In 75.8% of children, PTC genotype predicted PROP phenotype, whereas in 24.4%, genotype did not predict phenotype. PROP nontaster males had higher BMI z-scores than taster-males and females in both groups (P < 0.05), but due to a three-way interaction between PROP phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype, and sex, this relationship was only true for children who were homozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele (P < 0.0005). There were no differences in test-meal intake as a function of PROP phenotype or TAS2R38 genotype. These results suggest that the TAS2R38 variation, PROP phenotype, and sex interact to impact obesity risk in children. Future studies should be done to determine how this trait influences energy balance. PMID:19779476

  20. Air-displacement plethysmography pediatric option in 2-6 years old using the four-compartment model as a criterion method.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Allison, David B

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy, precision, bias, and reliability of percent fat (%fat) determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the pediatric option against the four-compartment model in 31 children (4.1 ± 1.2 years, 103.3 ± 10.2 cm, 17.5 ± 3.4 kg). %Fat was determined by (BOD POD Body Composition System; COSMED USA, Concord, CA) with the pediatric option. Total body water (TBW) was determined by isotope dilution ((2)H(2)O; 0.2 g/kg) while bone mineral was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar iDXA v13.31; GE, Fairfield, CT and analyzed using enCore 2010 software). The four-compartment model by Lohman was used as the criterion measure of %fat. The regression for %fat by ADP vs. %fat by the four-compartment model did not deviate from the line of identity where: y = 0.849(x) + 4.291. ADP explained 75.2% of the variance in %fat by the four-compartment model while the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 2.09 %fat. The Bland-Altman analysis showed %fat by ADP did not exhibit any bias across the range of fatness (r = 0.04; P = 0.81). The reliability of ADP was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV), within-subject SD, and Cronbach's α. The CV was 3.5%, within-subject SD was 0.9%, and Cronbach's α was 0.95. In conclusion, ADP with the pediatric option is accurate, precise, reliable, and without bias in estimating %fat in children 2-6 years old.

  1. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  2. Case Report: "Purely" Psychiatric Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in an Adolescent Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…

  3. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  4. Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with thromboembolism in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wendy L M

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent complaint in the pediatric emergency department. A 13-year-old boy presented with complaints of abdominal pain, hematemesis, headache, and leg pain. Further investigation revealed an advanced-stage gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple thromboembolism including the greater saphenous vein and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This case points out the challenges of diagnosing this rare condition and treating the primary tumor and thromboembolism in the setting of both hypercoagulable state and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25738239

  5. Wilson disease with hepatic presentation in an eight-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Abuduxikuer, Kuerbanjiang; Li, Li-Ting; Qiu, Yi-Ling; Wang, Neng-Li; Wang, Jian-She

    2015-08-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism that can cause fatal neurological and hepatic disease if not diagnosed and treated. The youngest child with normal liver function reported so far is an 8-mo-old Japanese boy with low ceruloplasmin levels, and the youngest child with elevated aminotransferase ever reported so far is a 9-mo-old Korean boy with confirmed by genetic testing. Here we report an 8-mo-old Chinese boy presented with elevated liver enzymes, and low serum ceruloplasmin level. Genetic analysis of ATP7B gene detected two heterozygous disease causing mutations (c.2621C>T/p.A874V and c.3809A>G/p.N1270S), and parental origins were determined. Persistent elevation of serum aminotransferase in this infant was normalized after zinc therapy. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest patient with elevated liver enzymes ever reported worldwide. We hope that this will raise awareness among pediatricians, leading to earlier diagnosis, timely treatment, and better clinical outcome.

  6. [Identification processes in the analysis of a child. Treatment of a boy presenting with tics].

    PubMed

    Klaniczay, S

    1987-01-01

    A child of eight is in analysis for tics which started a year ago. He is very tense. Enuresis and sleeping and eating difficulties also occur from time to time. The clinical material presented concerns chiefly the initial phase of the treatment in which intense castration anxiety appeared under different forms. Interpretation was based on the fact that this boy, nine years old, still regularly crept into this parents' bed at night. Certain types of identification processes play an important role in the treatment of this child.

  7. The Effects of Training in Music and Phonological Skills on Phonological Awareness in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children of Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Patscheke, Hanne; Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrant families often have great difficulties with language and disadvantages in schooling. Phonological problems appear especially common. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether music training has a positive effect on the phonological awareness in these children. The effects of a music program were compared with an established phonological skills program and with a sports control group. Preschoolers of immigrants (19 boys, 20 girls) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. All groups were trained three times a week for 20 min each, over a period of 14 weeks. Phonological awareness was tested prior to the beginning of the training and after the training phase. At the pre-test, no differences between the groups were found regarding phonological awareness and control variables (age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, language background, music experience). At the post-test, the music group and the phonological skills group showed a significant increase in phonological awareness of large phonological units. The effect size of the music training was larger compared to the phonological skills program. In contrast, the sports control group showed no significant increase in phonological awareness. The current results indicate that a music program could be used as an additional opportunity to promote phonological skills in children of immigrant families.

  8. Residential Risk Factors for Atopic Dermatitis in 3- to 6-Year Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Yan, Shuxian; Zheng, Qile; Li, Fei; Chai, Weihan; Wu, Minmin; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan; Xu, Jinhua; Zhao, Zhuohui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common among pre-school children in Shanghai. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for childhood AD from the perspectives of home environment, demographics and parents-grandparents’ atopic disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai in April–June, 2010. Preschool children’s parents or guardians were invited to participate a questionnaire survey in six districts (two urban and four suburban/rural) and 6624 children were finally recruited (51.3% boys). AD diagnosis was based on the U.K. Working Party’s (UKWP) criteria. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 8.5% of children ever had AD. Around 10.2% of the mothers had lived in newly renovated/decorated homes (NRDH) during the prenatal period (one year before or during pregnancy) and 9.5% got new home furniture (NHF) during the same period. AD was more common in children when mothers had lived in NRDH homes during the prenatal period (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.03–1.93), the current home had indoor mold (2.00, 1.48–2.70), parents-grandparents’ had atopic diseases (3.85, 3.05–4.87), the children had food allergy (3.40, 2.63–4.40) or children lived in urban area (1.52, 1.18–1.96). Associations between AD and NRDH, NHF and indoor molds were only significant in children without parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases. There was an interaction effect between parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases and NRDH (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Home renovation/ redecoration, new furniture and indoor mold, urban residency, heredity disposition and food allergy can be risk factors for childhood AD in Shanghai. PMID:27240388

  9. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  10. Phonetic Processing during the Acquisition of New Words in 3-to-6-Year-Old French-Speaking Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores phonetic processing in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) when they have to learn phonetically similar words. Forty-six 34-to-78-month-old French-speaking deaf children with CIs were tested on 16 different trials. In each trial, they were first trained with two word-object pairings, and then a third object was…

  11. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5-6 Years-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  12. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5–6 Years-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  13. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857

  14. Coordination of precision grip in 2-6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    David, Fabian J; Baranek, Grace T; Wiesen, Chris; Miao, Adrienne F; Thorpe, Deborah E

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills.

  15. Nutritional adequacy of boys in orphanages.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Sankhla, A; Dashora, P K

    1996-03-01

    In India, nutritionists gathered information on dietary intake, measured the diet, and calculated nutritional composition of the diet of 118 boys, 4-12 years old, living in all the orphanages in Udaipur, to determine the adequacy of their diet. The orphans consumed inadequate amounts of all food stuffs. For example, the boys consumed 76.2-91.5% of recommended intake for cereals, 30% for pulses, less than 50% for milk, and 30-45% for fats and oils. They consumed almost no leafy vegetables (0/75 g for 4-6 year olds; 1.5/75 g for 7-9 year olds; and 0.8/100 g for 10-12 year olds), but they consumed more than the recommended intake of other vegetables. The orphans were not provided fruits, meat, fish, or eggs. Only those 4-6 years old had adequate intake of protein. Energy and calcium intakes were significantly low in all age groups (p 0.01, except for calcium intake in 4-6 year olds [p 0.05]). In all age groups, phosphorous intake was adequate while iron intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (p 0.01). Beta-carotene intake was insufficient in all age groups (p 0.01). In fact, beta-carotene intake in 7-9 year olds did not even reach 20% of the recommended daily intake. Only the 4-6 year olds had adequate intake of niacin. Vitamin C intake was 30% of recommended levels. These findings show that these school age orphans had inadequate intake of almost all nutrients due to a daily diet limited in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, leafy vegetable, fats and oils, and sugar. The orphanages should include seasonal green vegetables and other low-cost nutritious foods in the diet of orphan boys. PMID:8772844

  16. Effects of Superimposition and Background Fading on the Sight-Word Reading of a Boy with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkan, Binyamin; McClannahan, Lynn E.; Krantz, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We used a multiple-baseline design across materials to assess the effects of stimulus superimposition and background fading on the sight-word reading skills of a 6-year-old boy with autism. Before the study began, the boy was taught to make verbal responses when shown 15 photographs of physical education activities and equipment. During baseline…

  17. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  18. DOCK8 deficiency in a boy who presented with a giant aortic aneurysm between aortic root and iliac bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Patıroğlu, Türkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Doğan, Mehmet Sait; Üzüm, Kazım

    2016-06-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive, inherited form of hyper-immunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) syndrome, characterized by persistent cutaneous viral infections, elevated IgE, eosinophilia, and allergic manifestations. The case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with giant aortic aneurysm between the aortic root and iliac bifurcation is described in the present report. Aortic aneurysm of this size has not yet been reported. PMID:27372622

  19. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  20. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S.; Hahn, Samantha L.; Harris, William S.; Kinabo, Joyce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described. Objective The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1) whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2) the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2–6 years of age. Methods A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression. Results Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ) was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T) ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured. Conclusions The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2–6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population. PMID:27137223

  1. Giant spheno-ethmoidal osteoma in a 14-year boy presenting with visual impairment and facial deformity: Short review

    PubMed Central

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Suri, Ashish; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Osteoma located in the paranasal sinus is a slow growing benign tumor. It commonly occurs in frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses in the order of frequency. Giant osteoma is very rare in the pediatric population, and only nine cases of giant osteoma are reported till date in the form of isolated case reports. Authors report a giant spheno-ethmoidal osteoma in a 14-year-old boy, who presented with progressive visual impairment and proptosis of the left eye for last 1-year. Total excision was carried out using transcranial extradural approach. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and showed remarkable visual recovery along with cosmesis. PMID:25878745

  2. Distinctive findings in a boy with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halayem, Soumeyya; Hamza, Mariem; Maazoul, Faouzi; Ben Turkia, Hadhemi; Touati, Maissa; Tebib, Neji; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-04-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked condition characterized by pre and post natal overgrowth, facial malformations, and visceral, skeletal, and neurological anomalies. The physical characteristics of SGBS have been well documented; however there is a lack of description regarding the behavioral phenotype. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy, with confirmed deletion of 6-8 exons of the glypican-3 gene (GPC3) who presents three distinctive findings: the persistence of the craniopharyngeal canal, an immune-allergic specificity, and a scarcely behavioral phenotype consisting in the association of Austim Spectrum Disorder with accompanying mild intellectual disability and language impairments. He also fulfilled the criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder according to DSM 5 criteria. The specificities of the case are discussed in the light of recent pathophysiological data. PMID:26692054

  3. Distinctive findings in a boy with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halayem, Soumeyya; Hamza, Mariem; Maazoul, Faouzi; Ben Turkia, Hadhemi; Touati, Maissa; Tebib, Neji; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-04-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked condition characterized by pre and post natal overgrowth, facial malformations, and visceral, skeletal, and neurological anomalies. The physical characteristics of SGBS have been well documented; however there is a lack of description regarding the behavioral phenotype. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy, with confirmed deletion of 6-8 exons of the glypican-3 gene (GPC3) who presents three distinctive findings: the persistence of the craniopharyngeal canal, an immune-allergic specificity, and a scarcely behavioral phenotype consisting in the association of Austim Spectrum Disorder with accompanying mild intellectual disability and language impairments. He also fulfilled the criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder according to DSM 5 criteria. The specificities of the case are discussed in the light of recent pathophysiological data.

  4. Sin Fronteras Boy: Students Create Collaborative Websites to Explore the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Around one table, four 4th-grade girls chat quietly as they write on their laptops: Ruby interviews Alejandra about her experience crossing the U.S.-Mexico border as a 6-year-old. Meanwhile, Cindy turns notes from an interview with her uncle into a narrative about his immigration experience. Next to them, four boys work on the "Sin Fronteras Boy"…

  5. Traumatic penile amputation in a 15-year-old boy presenting late in northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhammad Ujudud; Abdulmajid, Umar Farouk; Mashi, Sharfuddeen Abbas; Yunusa, Bashir

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a serious urological emergency, although rare whenever it happens, there is a need to refer the patient early to urologist within 24 h, with the stump wrapped in saline; unfortunately, our patient presented late and as such could not benefit from penile reimplantation. PMID:27525085

  6. Brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata caused by new small hemizygous deletion in a boy presenting with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vrečar, Irena; Rudolf, Gorazd; Peterlin, Borut; Lovrecic, Luca

    2015-01-01

    X-linked recessive type chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1) is a congenital disorder of cartilage and bone development with typical findings of stippled epyphises, nasomaxillary hypoplasia and short distal phalanges in a male patient. Disease is caused due to the loss of arylsulfatase E activity and only 55 patients with genetically confirmed disease have been reported so far. In 60-75 % of all patients the mutation in ARSE gene is detected by sequence analysis and in further 25 % of patients Xp deletions or rearrangements are causative and may be identified by classical chromosome studies. We report on a male patient refered to clinical geneticist for congenital hearing loss and mild dysplastic signs, both phenotypic features being relatively unspecific and non suggestive of CDPX1 in first instance. Array comparative genomic hybridisation showed approximatelly 3 kb big deletion, spaning intron and exon 7 of arylsulfatase E gene located in Xp22.33. This explained the cause of hearing loss, being present in 26-89 % od CDPX1 patients, as well as additional non prominent skeletal characteristics described by geneticist in our patient - mild midface hypoplasia and mild brachytelephalangy. Reported case introduces different presenting clinical phenotype for CDPX1, emphasizing different expressivity in this disorder. PMID:26526591

  7. Mixed nutcracker syndrome with left renal vein duplication: A severe and exceptional presentation in an 18-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Othmen, Mouna Ben; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is rare and often misdiagnosed because it embraces an extended non-pathognomonic spectrum of symptoms that imply a difficult diagnosis. Ultimately it may be associated with substantial morbidity and even life-threatening events. Mixed NCS with renal vein duplication is an exceptional variety, have previously been reported to the best of our knowledge. We report a rare case of an 18-year-old boy who presented with a long history of abdominal, pelvic and left flank pain, fatigue and higher bilateral varicocele. Computed tomographic angiography, Doppler ultrasonography and venography were performed revealed left renal vein duplication with dilated retroaortic and preaortic branchs, entrapped respectively between the aorta and the vertebral column and in the aortico-mesenteric space, with extensive and complex varices of the deep pelvic venous plexus; promoting the mixed renal NCS. Auto transplantation of the left kidney was suggested, but refused by the patient; and only the varicocele was managed. The patient is still suffering from his severe initial symptoms. Diagnosis is difficult and should be considered in patients with inexplicable flank or abdominal pain. Our purpose is to raise clinician's awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25836700

  8. Lessons That Linger: A 40-Year Follow-Along Note about a Boy with Autism Taught to Communicate by Gestures When Aged Six

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, C. D.; Fruchter, D.; Dean, J.; Konstantareas, M. M.; Sloman, L.

    2016-01-01

    We draw on an article published in 1973 in this journal. We described how we taught "Geoff," a 6-year old boy with autism, an elementary form of sign language during the course of 24 one-hour sessions held over a 12-week period (Webster et al. in "J Autism Child Schizophr" 3:337-346, 1973; Fruchter in "Autism: new…

  9. Gangrenous Appendicitis in a Boy with Mobile Caecum.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Zeynep; Gunduz, Metin; Sekmenli, Taner; Kivrak, Hatice Yazar

    2015-04-01

    A mobile caecum and ascending colon is an uncommon congenital disorder, and it is even rarer as the cause of an acute abdomen during childhood. This report presents the case of a 6-year-old boy with acute gangrenous appendicitis with a mobile caecum and ascending colon. Data from the surgical course, as well as laboratory and imaging studies, were acquired and carefully examined. Emergency ultrasound (US) was performed and revealed no signs of appendicitis in the right lower quadrant. Serial imaging study, including non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), was performed. An imaging study identified epigastric appendicitis with mobile caecum. Surgery was executed under general anesthesia with a median incision extending from the epigastrium to the suprapubic region. The caecum was mobile and placed in the right epigastric area, next to the left lobe of the liver and gallbladder. The gangrenous appendix was discovered posterior to the caecum and transverse colon, enlarging to the left upper quadrant. Appendectomy was executed, the gangrenous appendix was confirmed pathologically, and the patient was released 4 days later. In the US, if there are unusual clinical findings or no findings in patients with abdominal pain, CT is beneficial in determining the location of the caecum and appendix and preventing misdiagnosis in children. PMID:26060548

  10. Atypical rabies encephalitis in a six-year-old boy: clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Muranjan, Mamta; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Amoghimath, Raghavendraswami; Sankhe, Shilpa; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2015-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy from India developed an atypical form of rabies following a stray dog bite and as a consequence of not receiving the standard World Health Organization recommended post-exposure prophylaxis for category III wounds. Serial rising rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test helped confirm the diagnosis of rabies. The child has survived for 4 months since the onset of illness, albeit with neurological sequelae.

  11. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  12. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  13. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia: a novel GNAS mutation in a Brazilian boy presenting with an early primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cresio; Sampaio, Silvana; Barbieri, Anna Maria; Mantovani, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a rare disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone due to the resistance to its action in target tissues. We report a new GNAS mutation causing PHP Ia and an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. A 3-year-old boy was diagnosed with obesity, delayed pyschomotor development, and round face. The laboratory evaluation at the age of 1 year showed primary hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone. These data led to the diagnosis of PHP Ia. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in GNAS exon 1 (TCG→CGC, Cys3→Arg) in both the child and his mother. Although previously reported cases described delayed subclinical hypothyroidism as the more common thyroid abnormality, we report a not previously described GNAS mutation associated with an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. These observations broaden the clinical spectrum of PHP Ia and its associated mutations. PMID:23412865

  14. Boys and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores key gender differences in motivation from a quantitative perspective and presents findings from a qualitative study into boys' perceptions of motivating teachers and motivating pedagogy. Data collected from 3773 high school students suggest that girls score significantly higher than boys in their belief in the value of school,…

  15. Dissecting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery treated with heparin infusion in a 6-year-old child; neurological recovery with delayed spontaneous thrombosis: case illustration and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anichini, G; Passacantilli, E; Lenzi, J; Guidetti, G; Santoro, A

    2012-04-01

    Aneurysms in the pediatric population are a rare pathology with specific features which requires a deep knowledge of their pathogenesis for the best therapeutic choice; the authors report their experience with a patient presenting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. A six-year-old girl came to our observation after sudden onset of headache and left hemiparesis. Angio-MRI and angio-CT scan showed a right MCA dissecting aneurysms associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. Patient started a therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), replaced, 15 days later, with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA). Patient showed a rapid and almost complete neurological recovery, despite several radiological exams confirmed a complete occlusion of the right MCA. As many other authors noted, dissecting aneurysms in the pediatric population are probably due to a defect of the entire arterial wall. Combination of stenosis, turbulence and partial thrombosis of the aneurysm led to a complete occlusion of artery involved, leading to the formation of collateral circles. In our case, complete thrombosis was probably delayed with anticoagulant therapy and the progressive reinforcement of collateral circles lead to the patient's neurological recovery.

  16. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  17. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools.

    PubMed

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils.

  18. Barrio Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    An autobiography, "Barrio Boy" is the story of Little Ernie, a boy born in the tiny mountain village of Jalcocotan in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. Divided into 5 parts, the book offers vivid descriptions of the author's early life--his family, his friends, his surroundings, as well as events in the journey from Jalcocotan that eventually ended in…

  19. Proptosis as the presenting sign of giant prolactinoma in a prepubertal boy: successful resolution of hydrocephalus by use of medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Cackett, Peter; Eunson, Graeme; Bath, Louise; Mulvihill, Alan

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a 13-year-old prepubertal boy who presented with a left-sided proptosis, bilateral papilloedema and hydrocephalus who was subsequently diagnosed with a giant prolactinoma invading the left orbit. He was commenced on dopamine receptor agonists in the form of quinagolide and cabergoline, and made an excellent response to medical therapy alone, with resolution of hydrocephalus, restoration of normal vision and a 98% reduction in serum prolactin. The rapid improvement achieved negated the requirement for surgery and this highlights the efficacy of the dopamine agonists in the management of giant prolactinomas, even in the presence of neurological symptoms.

  20. An immunohistochemical study in a fatal case of acute interstitial pneumonitis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) in a 15-year-old boy presenting as sudden death.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Di Donato, Sabina; Neri, Margherita; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2007-11-15

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, is a distinct type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia affecting patients of both genders without pre-existing lung diseases. We describe the case of a fulminant form of AIP and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIP with reference to the histological pattern. A 15-year-previously-healthy male boy presented to the Hospital with a 6-day history of malaise, fever and cough. The clinical prodromes were followed by the acute onset of increasing shortness of breath rapidly progressing in acute respiratory failure. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral diffuse airspace opacification; the high resolution CT confirmed the presence of bilateral, symmetric diffuse ground-glass attenuation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, but died after few hours. An autopsy was performed within 24h. The histological examination of lung specimens showed a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage. immunohistochemical, microbiological and toxicological tests were also carried out. The clinical presentation, the histological findings and the exclusion of infective, traumatic, toxic and metabolic causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) allowed us to conclude that the boy was affected by AIP. In conclusion, AIP is a diagnosis of exclusion. It has a mortality rate ranging about 50%, despite mechanical ventilation. In fatal cases of AIP diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation, radiological, histological and microbiological findings and can be further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.

  1. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency.

  2. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. PMID:27602064

  3. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  4. Boys Will Be "Boys": Variability in Boys' Experiences of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Herb; Adkins, Matthew; Gladu, Andrea; Jackson-Davis, Khalie; Kussin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine grade 2 boys participated in a study of the effects of book genre and sex of reading model on boys' (a) view of reading as feminine, (b) intrinsic motivation toward reading, (c) interest in reading, and (d) attitude to reading. Differential effects occurred in boys based on whether they liked or disliked reading and whether they viewed…

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 2 patient presenting with medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalimullah, Jan; Sohail, Abdul Malik Amir Humza; Shahjehan, Rai Dilawar; Siddique, Sabeehuddin; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with a frequency of 1 in 25,000 live births and a penetrance of almost 100% by the sixth decade of life. The main tumors occurring in NF2 patients are bilateral vestibular schwannomas, other peripheral, cranial and spinal nerve schwannomas, intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas, ependymomas, and gliomas. Case Description: We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with a 1-month history of nausea and recurrent vomiting. Physical examination was positive for ataxic gait and left-sided facial nerve palsy. Family history was positive for NF2 in the patient's father and paternal uncle. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed a solid enhancing lesion arising from the right cerebellar cortex, which was effacing the fourth ventricles and causing hydrocephalus. Craniotomy and excision of the lesion were performed. Histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis to be desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Based on the patients’ subsequent history and family history, he was diagnosed to be a case of NF2. Conclusion: This is the first case of medulloblastoma occurring in a patient with NF2 and raises the possibility of an association between medulloblastoma and NF2. PMID:26539318

  6. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 6. 9. Correlation of present and previous electric-field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reno; Fowles, H.M.

    1985-09-01

    On most previous nuclear detonations, signatures and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signals associated with the detonations was obtained at distances such that normal radiation field characteristics apply. On Small Boy, measurements were made from stations located much closer in, such as to be inside, on the boundary of and just outside the limits of the ionized sphere created by the nuclear burst. The electric-field characteristics in these regions were unknown. In the hope of providing continuity from the region of the unknown into the reasonably well-understood region of the radiation field, this project was requested to make the typical radiation-field type of measurement that had been made on previous detonations. This report covers the signature characteristics and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signal from Small Boy as seen from outside the immediate region of theoretical generating mechanism.

  7. Post-vaccination MDEM associated with MOG antibody in a subclinical Chlamydia infected boy.

    PubMed

    Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection.

  8. Post-vaccination MDEM associated with MOG antibody in a subclinical Chlamydia infected boy.

    PubMed

    Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection. PMID:26922251

  9. [Precocious puberty in boys].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Szkróbka, Witold; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Precocious puberty in boys is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 9 years. It is divided into two categories: central precocious puberty, characterized by the premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and peripheral precocious puberty presents when premature sexual development is dependent on steroid production regardless of gonadotropin secretion. Although precocious puberty occurs more frequently in girls, in the case of boys it is more often associated with identifiable organic disorders of the central nervous system, adrenal glands or testes. The diagnosis should include detailed anamnesis and clinical examination, measurement of pituitary and sex hormones, assessment of bone age, and imaging of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands and testes. Indications for treatment are based on the type of precocious puberty and its progression rate, advancement of bone age, predicted adult height and psychological evaluation. The purpose of this article was to discuss the etiopathogenesis of precocious puberty in boys and to provide the approach to its diagnosis, differentiation and treatment.

  10. The emergence of chronic peer victimization in boys' play groups.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D; Dodge, K A; Coie, J D

    1993-12-01

    This investigation utilized a contrived play group procedure to examine the behavioral patterns leading to chronic victimization by peers in middle childhood. 30 play groups, each of which consisted of 6 unacquainted African-American 6-year-old or 8-year-old boys, met for 45-min sessions on 5 consecutive days. Play group interactions were videotaped and then examined. 13 boys who came to be chronically victimized by their play group peers were identified, along with matched nonvictim contrasts. Victims demonstrated lower rates of assertive behaviors, such as persuasion attempts and social conversation initiatives, and higher rates of nonassertive behaviors, such as submissions to peers' social initiatives, than contrasts. This nonassertive behavior pattern appears to have preceded the development of chronic victimization. Children who eventually emerged as victims were pervasively submissive, beginning in the initial 2 sessions. However, marked individual differences in victimization by peers did not become apparent until the final 3 sessions. These data provide evidence of strong linkages between submissive social behavior and the emergence of chronic victimization by peers. PMID:8112117

  11. The Wolf Boy

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are discussed. We highlight the importance of early life events in determining mental health risk and resiliency. PMID:21120097

  12. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  13. Supporting Boys as Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  14. Bring Back the Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Boy culture is out of sync with school culture. There are several reasons for this, including zero tolerance policies that are too often taken to extremes, the lack of male teachers, and the compression of the curriculum. What's more, boy culture is not socially accepted, and boys quickly come to feel that they are not good at school. For many…

  15. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... the drawings for the abdomen insert so that the abdominal insert dimensions on the drawings reflect... published October 21, 2009, 74 FR 53987, Docket No. NHTSA-09-0166. First, to improve the durability of the... corrects the drawings for the abdomen insert so that the abdominal insert dimensions on the...

  16. Do We Really Have a "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the findings of "The Evidence Suggests Otherwise: The Truth About Boys and Girls," a report conducted by Education Sector senior policy analyst Sara Mead. This report examines trends in achievement and education attainment and concludes that the recent surge of concern about boys' academic performance has been…

  17. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  18. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  19. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  20. Eskimo Boy Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Byron

    "Eskimo Boy Today" provides the reader with an account of what it is like to be a young Eskimo boy living in Barrow, Alaska, today. Accounts of his life at school depict the typical curriculum and learning activities, while accounts of his home life depict typical foods, clothing, and housing. The natural resources and their relationship to the…

  1. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  2. Rocky Boy's Elementary School (Rocky Boy, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    Describing the development of Rocky Boy Reservation's American Indian controlled elementary school, this paper addresses the following: Background (the Bureau of Indian Affairs day school era prior to 1960 and the transition in 1970 to a tribally controlled elementary school); Philosophy (equal emphasis on Chippewa-Cree and U.S. culture; parental,…

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness of obese boys.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and may be linked to coronary heart diseases that appear later in life but its risk related behaviour patterns are evident during childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in obese boys of West Bengal, India. Obese boys (N = 49) in the age range of 10-16 years were separated from their non-obese counterparts (N = 70) according to international age-wise cut off points of body mass index (BMI) and VO2max was evaluated by Queen's College Step Test (QCT). Lean body mass (LBM) was measured by skinfold method. Absolute VO2max was significantly higher (P<0.001) among obese boys because of higher values of body mass and LBM, which in turn exhibited significant correlation (r = 0.82 and r = 0.93, respectively; P<0.001) with VO2max. But VO2max per kg of body mass was significantly higher among non-obese boys but the VO2max per unit of body surface area was significantly higher (P<0.001) in obese group. VO2max is largely dependent on body mass and LBM whereas excessive fat mass imposes unfavourable burden on cardiac function and oxygen uptake by working muscles. This indicates that reduced oxygen utilization by adipose tissue during exercise reduces the overall VO2max.

  4. ''It's Magic!'' the Effects of Presentation Modality on Children's Event Memory, Suggestibility, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Gelhaar, Tim; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of presentation modality (live, video, and slide show) on children's memory, suggestibility, recognition, and metamemorial monitoring processes. A total of 270 children in three age groups (5- and 6-year-olds, 7- and 8-year-olds, and 9- and 10-year-olds) watched a magic show and were questioned about it…

  5. Teaching Boys: A Relational Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider-Roth, Miriam B.; Albert, Marta K.; Bircann-Barkey, Ingrid; Gidseg, Eric; Murray, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Focus of Study: This article investigates how teachers' relationships with boys can be central in bolstering boys' resilience and connection to their work in schools. Specifically, we examine how teachers understand the ways that their relationships with boys shape their teaching practice as well as their understandings of boys' learning in…

  6. Teaching 5- and 6-Year-Olds to Count: Knowledge of South African Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feza, Nosisi N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics learning and teaching continues to be a challenge in the South African education system. This challenge is observed in the poor performance of students in national and international assessments. Research suggests that teachers' content knowledge and knowledge of teaching mathematics contribute significantly to students' performance. In…

  7. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... head toward breast or bottle n Communicates through body language, fussing or crying n Starts to smile n Raises head when on tummy n Calms down when rocked, cradled or sung to n Begins to smile at ... to one body part n May walk up steps and run ...

  8. Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2007-03-01

    The home food environment is central to the development of healthy eating behaviours, but associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are not yet fully understood. The aims of this study were to explore parents' views regarding factors that influence children's food choices and parents' decision-making regarding the food they provide to their children. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. Key concepts and themes were coded independently by two investigators. Participants include seventeen parents (16 mothers and 1 father) of children in their first year of formal schooling (aged 5-6 years). Five main themes emerged from the interviews: food marketing, food availability/food exposure, feeding strategies, modelling of eating and opportunities for food involvement. Parents believed that food marketing influenced their child's food preferences but differed in the ways they managed these influences. The food made available to children was also seen to influence what a child ate. Yet, although some parents believed it was the parents' role to determine what foods were made available to their child, others offered food on the basis of the child's tastes or preferences. The use of food as a reward was a feeding strategy employed by many parents. Family mealtimes were seen as an important opportunity for modelling of eating behaviour by parents. Peers were also seen to influence children's food preferences and eating behaviour. Finally, many parents believed that involving children in the preparation of food had a positive impact on children's food choices. Associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are complex and involve multiple mediators. Parents' views on the promoters and reinforcers of their decision-making regarding food and their child's food choices provide useful insights into these mediating factors. Increased understanding of these relationships is likely to enhance obesity prevention efforts.

  9. Attachment Representations in 6-Year-Old Children from One and Two Parent Families in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Konig, Lilith

    2007-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of attachment theory, coping with the separation and divorce of parents requires that children reorganize their mental model of attachment. Secure attachment models may be disrupted, while insecure attachment models may be strengthened. According to findings from research on divorce, this process of family…

  10. Refinement of Speech Breathing in Healthy 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek, Carol A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Watson, Peter J.; Jones, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to offer a better understanding of the development of neuromotor control for speech breathing and provide a normative data set that can serve as a useful standard for clinical evaluation and management of young children with speech disorders involving the breathing subsystem. Method: Speech breathing was…

  11. Anchoring in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children Relates to Predictors of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring…

  12. Assessment of Language Comprehension of 6-Year-Old Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Donna S.; Freeman, Lisa Rothman

    1980-01-01

    Results show that comprehension of word types (nouns, verbs, etc.) and linguistic structure can be orderly, producing a hierarchy of complexity similar to that found in normally hearing children. However, performance was about three years behind that of normally hearing peers. Journal availability: Elsevier North Holland, Inc., 52 Vanderbilt…

  13. Anchoring in 4- to 6-year-old children relates to predictors of reading.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring hypothesis were tested: (a) that anchoring facilitates rapid naming and phonological short-term memory in children prior to the onset of formal reading instruction and (b) that anchoring makes a unique contribution to performance in two early predictors of reading (letter knowledge and phonological awareness). In line with those predictions, naming times were faster and memory spans were longer under conditions that encouraged the use of anchoring processes than under conditions that afforded little anchoring. Furthermore, performance in the anchoring-affording condition predicted significant amounts of variance in phonological awareness and letter knowledge even after controlling for the contribution of the conditions that did not afford anchoring. Therefore, we suggest that anchoring might contribute to the development of reading-related processes during the preschool years independent of the development of specific reading-related skills such as phonological processing.

  14. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  15. Sampling Survey on Intellectual Disability in 0-6-Year-Old Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Z.-H.; Bo, S.-Y.; Zhang, X.-T.; Liu, M.; Zhang, Z.-X.; Yang, X.-L.; Ji, S.-R.; Yan, H.; Sui, X.-L.; Na, X.; Guo, S.-H.; Wu, Z.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the current status of intellectually disabled children and the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in children aged 0-6 years and its risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence to formulate relevant policies for helping intellectually disabled children. Methods: Multiphase, stratified, unequal proportional…

  16. Can 5-6 Year Old Children Orientate Themselves in a Cave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovignot, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Spatial capacities of 36 children ages 5-6 were tested in 3 experiments involving an electronic maze, map training and testing, and finding the way out of a cave using a map. All subjects could use simple maps; this ability improved with age. However, no subject navigated the cave without help, perhaps because of stress or task complexity. (SV)

  17. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures.

  18. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error.

  19. Challenging Underachievement in Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Muijs, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Background: Underachievement among boys and particular ethnic groups is a major challenge to the education system. Purpose: This paper reports on one local education authority's attempts to address this concern by investigating the characteristics of its schools demonstrating success with the groups causing most concern: black Caribbean, black…

  20. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  1. Female Urethral Duplication: Rare Anomaly with Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Gowrishankar; Ramesh, S

    2015-01-01

    Urethral duplication (UD) in females is a rare congenital anomaly and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation requires thorough investigations to delineate anatomy which is imperative for surgical reconstruction to provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We describe the successful management of a 6-year-old girl with UD (presented as ambiguous genitalia and urinary incontinence) along with a review of pertinent literature. PMID:27512541

  2. Female Urethral Duplication: Rare Anomaly with Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M. Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Gowrishankar; Ramesh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral duplication (UD) in females is a rare congenital anomaly and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation requires thorough investigations to delineate anatomy which is imperative for surgical reconstruction to provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We describe the successful management of a 6-year-old girl with UD (presented as ambiguous genitalia and urinary incontinence) along with a review of pertinent literature. PMID:27512541

  3. Parents' and boys' perceptions of boys' body size for average and high BMI boys.

    PubMed

    Brann, Lynn S

    2011-07-01

    A study on 49 preadolescent boys and their parents was performed to determine if differences existed in boys' body esteem and body size perceptions and to determine how accurately parents perceive their sons' body size. The boys were grouped by their body mass index (BMI) into average and high BMI groups. The boys completed the Body Esteem Scale; the boys and the parents rated the boys' body size perceptions. No differences were found in the boys' body esteem. The boys in the high BMI group perceived themselves as bigger than the boys in the average BMI group, and the parents of the boys with a high BMI perceived their sons as bigger. The boys in the high BMI group rated their current figure as heavier than their ideal figure. The results supported that the boys and the parents were aware of the boys' current body size. However, the parents of the boys with high BMI were more accepting of a larger ideal body figure. PMID:21689273

  4. Adrenoleukodystrophy in a Chinese boy.

    PubMed

    Wong, V

    1992-07-01

    We report the first Chinese boy with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who presented with hyperpigmentation, behavioral change and demyelination shown in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. ALD was confirmed by the elevation of very long chain fatty acid in the serum and biochemical evidence of adrenal insufficiency. A trial of special diet with restriction of very long chain fatty acid and addition of glyceryl trierucate/glycerol trioleate oil (GTEO or Lorenzo's oil) failed to prevent clinical deterioration. The child had progressive visual loss and spastic tetraparesis despite dietary manipulation, adrenal steroid replacement and intravenous gammaglobulin treatment.

  5. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  6. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  7. A Boy with Relentless Pruritus: Job’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Wozniak, Susan E.; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Abdulmassih, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 6 Final Diagnosis: Job’s Syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) Symptoms: Pruritus Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Allergology Objective: Rare disease Background: Job’s syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency disease that has an annual approximate incidence of less than 1/1,000,000. This manuscript aims to provide education regarding diagnosis and management strategies of this syndrome worldwide. Case Report: A 6-year-old boy was seen at the clinic secondary to persistent pruritus interfering with sleep. At the age of 2 months, the patient developed diffuse eczematous and desquamating skin lesions. He was subsequently diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and managed conservatively. From 2 months to 7 years of age, intermittent exacerbations of dermatitis persisted despite an aggressive treatment regimen. The serum IgE level increased exponentially over a period of 7 years, with a peak value of 57,400 IU/ml. Molecular genetic testing revealed a dominant negative mutation within the SH2 domain of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT3) gene. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Job’s syndrome. Management included proper skin care, prophylactic antibiotics, immunomodulating agents, and psychotherapy. Conclusions: Job’s syndrome can often go unrecognized and masquerade as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, genetic testing for this condition should be obtained in all patients with treatment-refractory AD. Additionally, psychotherapy can be a successful management strategy for the grating psychological impact that can be imposed on children with excessive pruritus. PMID:26897360

  8. Leadership in Boys' Education: 16 Case Studies from Public and Private, Rural and Urban, Primary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Hartman, Deborah, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    Concern about boys' education in Australia and New Zealand led to the Leadership in Boys' Education Conference in May 1999. This book contains edited conference presentations focusing on boys' educational needs. The book also presents case studies related to academic achievement, school structure, discipline and bullying, broadening boys' options,…

  9. Glabellar dermoid cyst: A case presentation.

    PubMed

    Celik, Tuba

    2016-09-01

    Dermoid cysts are one of the most common non-inflammatory space-occupying orbital lesions in the pediatric population. They are ectodermal cysts which may contain squamous epithelium with dermal contents such as skin, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, or sweat glands. Dermoid cyts are often innocent, however complications such as inflammation of the fistula or preseptal cellulitis are occasionally seen. We present a case of a 6-year-old girl with a glabellar dermoid cyst and describe the appropriate investigations and definitive treatment. PMID:26885559

  10. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Cabanes, Guénaël; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd

    2011-01-28

    Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.

  11. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  12. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  13. Disaffiliated Boys: Perspectives on Friendship and School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Mary Jackman; Bishop, Penny A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the perceptions of disaffiliated white middle school boys in a rural setting. In this article, the authors discuss the results and implications of a qualitative research study, examining how these boys perceive school as responding, or not responding, to their needs. Five critical needs of students are…

  14. Psychophysiological Correlates of Developmental Changes in Healthy and Autistic Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismüller, Benjamin; Thienel, Renate; Youlden, Anne-Marie; Fulham, Ross; Koch, Michael; Schall, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated neurodevelopmental changes in sound processing by recording mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to various degrees of sound complexity in 18 mildly to moderately autistic versus 15 healthy boys aged between 6 and 15 years. Autistic boys presented with lower IQ and poor performance on a range of executive and social…

  15. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  16. Multiple salivary mucoceles in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Kainth, B; Ward-Booth, P

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of multiple mucoceles in a 4-year-old boy is reported. The patients presented with multiple sessile swellings on his lower lip, with no obvious local aetiology. The patient was otherwise well. The lesions were excised surgically and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief review of mucoceles. PMID:9728101

  17. The Politics of Policy in Boys' Education: Getting Boys "Right"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores boy-focused education policy and how different educators struggle to implement or resist it in their schools. Weaver-Hightower examines masculinity politics in Australia and the United States, mapping how these politics create panic over raising and educating boys the "Right" way. Contextualizing this policy with movements for…

  18. A comparison of textual and echoic prompts on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior in a six-year-old boy with autism

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Amy S.; Williams, Randy L.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of textual and echoic prompts was conducted to determine which form of prompts was more effective for teaching intraverbal behavior to a 6-year-old boy with autism. A multiple baseline design across three sets of questions measured (a) the number of full-sentence target answers, (b) partial answers that made sense, and (c) partial answers that did not make sense, or no response, to direct questions asked. A fading procedure using either scripted textual or scripted echoic prompts was employed to evoke the child's correct answers. Although both forms of prompts were effective, results indicated that textual prompts were much more effective. These findings suggest that textual prompts may be effective in teaching complex skills to children with autism. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:22477229

  19. Lessons that Linger: A 40-Year Follow-Along Note About a Boy with Autism Taught to Communicate by Gestures when Aged Six.

    PubMed

    Webster, C D; Fruchter, D; Dean, J; Konstantareas, M M; Sloman, L

    2016-07-01

    We draw on an article published in 1973 in this journal. We described how we taught "Geoff," a 6-year old boy with autism, an elementary form of sign language during the course of 24 one-hour sessions held over a 12-week period (Webster et al. in J Autism Child Schizophr 3:337-346, 1973; Fruchter in Autism: new directions in research and education, pp 184-186, 1980). Here, we describe how it is that Geoff has maintained the vestiges of what we taught him (and indeed what he taught us) over the long span. This basic communication strategy has endured well and continues to contribute to his enjoyment of life.

  20. Repeating and recalling preverbal memories through play: the psychoanalysis of a six-year-old boy who suffered trauma as an infant.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Inge-Martine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of trauma on the later development of a 6-year-old boy. The trauma disturbed his development and psychic functioning in almost every area, including his attainment of object constancy, capacity to regulate affects and tolerate frustration, his sense of self and self-protective functioning, as well as his capacity to symbolize. Three phases can be distinguished in his analysis based on his capacity to deal with memories of his traumatic past: initially attempting to forget but expressing them through persistent increased arousal and re-enactment behavior followed by recalling and re-enacting salient incidences, and finally, remembering and playing through early memories in displacement. Each phase was characterized by an increasing level of affect regulation, symbolic play, and capacity to tolerate and think about the unbearable. The paper explores the different ways in which chronic trauma and the salient traumatic event, experienced in infancy are repeated, recalled, and expressed verbally and through behavior.

  1. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  2. Teenage Boys, Spirituality and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretson, Kath

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study concerning adolescent boys and spirituality, and specifically on data gathered from interviews with 20 boys of 15-17 years. The data from these interviews will inform the development of a questionnaire to be used more widely in the next stage of the research. The paper also explains and justifies the analytical…

  3. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  4. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  5. Bridges to Literacy for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence dating back to the 1930s and receiving increased attention today shows that boys tend to lag behind girls in reading achievement. The author asserts that we can help boys become thoughtful, accomplished readers, if we view their existing competencies, interests, and personal experiences as assets rather than as impediments to achievement.…

  6. [The Ability to Successfully Perform Different Kinds of Cognitive Activity Is Reflected in the Topological Features of Intracortical Interactions (Sex Differences in Boys and Girls Aged 5-6 Years)].

    PubMed

    Panasevich, E A; Tsitseroshin, M N

    2015-01-01

    We studied the correlation of intellectual development according to The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC test) with the spatial organization of resting EEG in 52 children aged 5-6 years. It was found that the patterns of interregional interactions of different parts of the cortex which correspond with the best performance in the subtests in boys (n = 23) and girls (n = 29) have significant topological differences. In girls, successful subtest performance positively correlated to a greater extent with interhemispheric interactions; in boys--long longitudinal rostral-caudal interactions between various regions of the cortex. The results showed that there are important gender differences in the spatial organization of brain activity associated with the performance of different cognitive activities in preschool children. The successful performance of various subtests by boys required considerable variability in the organization of spatial patterns of interregional interactions; on the contrary, the spatial structure of these patterns in girls was relatively invariable. Obviously, for the successful performance of various cognitive activities at this age in boys, the cortex need to form highly specialized organization of intracortical interactions, while in girls the brain uses relatively similar reorganization of interactions. The data suggest that 5-6-year-old boys and girls use different cognitive strategies when performing the same subtests of the WISC test.

  7. The psychoeducational profile of boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rovet, J; Netley, C; Keenan, M; Bailey, J; Stewart, D

    1996-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) affects about 1 in 900 males due to an extra X chromosome. Although there are no obvious physical features associated with childhood KS, many boys demonstrate a cognitive deficit in verbal processing. The first section of this article integrates the extant literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with KS. The second section presents our findings from a 20-year study involving one of the largest unselected cohorts of boys with KS. We followed 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls from 6 until 20 years of age. Boys with KS are shown to demonstrate a verbal cognitive deficit and significant underachievement in reading and spelling, as well as in arithmetic. These problems, which are evident from early school years, increase with age such that by late adolescence, boys with KS are four to five grade levels behind. In addition, we also found that they were most likely to have a generalized type of learning disability, with very few boys indicating a pure reading or pure arithmetic problem. They also showed deficits in written language skills and acquisition of knowledge-based subject material were also problematic. Despite significant underachievement and frequent grade failure, many boys with KS had completed high school, and a few were also pursuing postsecondary educations. The discussion section examines how their language-based disability affects comprehension and learning, leading to underachievement. PMID:8820203

  8. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  9. Getting Clued In: Inferential Processing and Comprehension Monitoring in Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the ability of children with ADHD to make inferences and monitor ongoing understanding of texts, to shed light on their academic difficulties. Method: A total of 29 boys with ADHD and 41 comparison boys between the ages of 7 and 12 participated. Three tasks measure how boys create and evaluate inferences,…

  10. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  11. Understanding boys': thinking through boys, masculinity and suicide.

    PubMed

    Mac An Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2012-02-01

    In the UK, the media are reporting increasing rates of childhood suicide, while highlighting that increasing numbers of pre-adolescent boys (in relation to girls) are diagnosed as mentally ill. In response, academic, professional and political commentators are explaining this as a consequence of gender. One way of doing this has been to apply adult defined understandings of men and masculinities to the attitudes and behaviours of pre-adolescent boys. As a consequence, explanations of these trends point to either 'too much' masculinity, such as an inability to express feelings and seek help, or 'not enough' masculinity that results in isolation and rejection from significant others, such as peer groups. Using a discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with 28 children aged 9-13 (12 male, 16 females) and 12 school staff at a school in North East England, this article questions the viability of using normative models of masculinity as an explanatory tool for explaining boys' behaviours and suggests that researchers in the field of gender and suicide consider how boys' genders may be constituted differently. We develop this argument in three ways. First, it is argued that studies that use masculinity tend to reduce the formation of gender to the articulation of power across and between men and other men and women. Second, we argue that approaches to understanding boys' behaviours are simplistically grafting masculinity as a conceptual frame onto boy's attitudes and behaviours. In response, we suggest that it is important to re-think how we gender younger boys. The final section focuses specifically on the ways that boys engage in friendships. The significance of this section is that we need to question how notions of communication, integration and isolation, key features of suicide behaviours, are framed through the local production of friendships.

  12. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  13. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  14. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal part of the growth process. Wet Dreams Boys may wake up in the morning to ... in their pajama pants and sheets. These " wet dreams ," or nocturnal emissions, are caused by an ejaculation, ...

  15. Empathy in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder: A Comparison to Externalizing Clinical Control Boys and Community Control Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…

  16. Body Talk for Boys Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for boys on…

  17. Getting Prepared: Nonformal Education in Boy Scouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; Shinkwin, Anne

    An intensive study of boys' experiences in two Boy Scout groups shows that scout programs provide important educational functions that schools and homes do not. Detailed field notes were taken on 75 events of the 2 groups, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 boys and their parents to explore what parents and boys felt they were…

  18. Gender typing of game choices and qualities of boys' play behavior.

    PubMed

    Klein, A R; Bates, J E

    1980-06-01

    Relationships between gender choices and both movement patterns and social behavior were studied in first- and second-grade boys. Three-child, structured play groups were each composed of a boy whose mother saw him as high masculine in play preference on the Games Inventory, one seen as average, and one low masculine. Behaviors rated from videotapes included gender presentation variables, (e.g., leg separation), indicators of dominance and personal comfort (e.g., range of movements), and indicators of social skill and peer response (e.g., interaction initiations). The low masculine boys were found to be the most feminine in their gender presentation, least dominant and aggressive, and the lest socially successful of the boys. The greatest difference was between the low and the high masculine boys. The average masculine boys' scores were generally intermediate, but more similar to the low masculine boys on some variables and more similar to the high masculine boys on others. These conclusions apply to a grou interaction play task, but not to an initial noninteractive play task. A secondary study in which girls played with low and average masculine boys is also reported. Here it was found that low masculine boys were generally intermediate between average boys and girls on gender presentation and dominance variables, but lowest of the groups on social interaction variables. PMID:7400465

  19. Boys Will Be Boys; Cows Will Be Cows: Children's Essentialist Reasoning about Gender Categories and Animal Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marianne G.; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies (N = 456) compared the development of concepts of animal species and human gender, using a switched-at-birth reasoning task. Younger children (5- and 6-year-olds) treated animal species and human gender as equivalent; they made similar levels of category-based inferences and endorsed similar explanations for development in these 2…

  20. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed. PMID:6880245

  1. Where the Boys Were

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent release of "Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education", by the American Association of University Women, presents an opportunity to review the extraordinary success of women in education over the last four decades. The release also presents an opportunity to review the failure of the entire education system--from…

  2. The pursuit of muscularity among adolescent boys in Fiji and Tonga.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Goundar, Ramneek; Schultz, Jimaima; Waqa, Gade; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2007-12-01

    The desire for muscularity is tied to Western views of the male gender role, which prescribe that men be strong, physically fit and athletically successful. Although, these ideals have been primarily studied among Western adolescent boys, there is emerging evidence that the same ideals are valued and promoted among males from the Pacific Islands. The aim of the present study was to examine body image concerns associated with muscularity and the reasons for these concerns among Fijian and Tongan adolescent boys. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 Indigenous Fijian, 24 Indo-Fijian, and 24 Tongan boys aged between 13 and 20 years. A thematic analysis of boys' narratives showed that the pursuit of muscularity was a dominant theme for many boys. Boys' reasons for pursing muscularity included the attainment of strength and fitness, sporting performance, physical work, dominance, and health. These findings are examined in relation to previous research with Western adolescent boys. PMID:18089282

  3. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  4. The Trouble with "Rainbow Boys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Few pieces of GLBTQ fiction have received the popular and scholarly acclaim awarded to Alex Sanchez's "Rainbow Boys" series. Although "problem novels" are rarely taken seriously as literature, the books--the first novel in particular--have joined the few pieces of GLBTQ literature incorporated into educational discourse and curriculum. In this…

  5. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  6. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  7. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  8. Physical Development of Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected on groups of 7-year-old New Zealand boys, identified as hyperactive-only, aggressive-hyperactive, aggressive-only and nonaggressive/nonhyperactive did not confirm the hypothesis that hyperactive-only Ss would show delayed maturation. However, hyperactive-only Ss were significantly more lean than Ss in other groups.…

  9. Turning Our Backs on Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Statistics indicate that young males are far more likely than young females to suffer from self-destructive behavior, commit suicide, and be in special education programs. Some schools are aggressively recruiting male teachers; others have found that all-male classes can help hold boys' interest. Some maintain the schools have short-changed girls…

  10. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J.; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examine evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18–30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. Method This group of children was assessed at age 6, two years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naïve to previous intervention group status. Results The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, two years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6. The two groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. Conclusion These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated below 30 months of age in altering the longer term developmental course of autism. PMID:26088663

  11. The relationships between quantity-number competencies, working memory, and phonological awareness in 5- and 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Kurt; Krajewski, Kristin; Preβler, Anna-Lena; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the interdependencies among phonological awareness, verbal working memory components, and early numerical skills in children 1 year before school entry are addressed. Early numerical skills were conceptualized as quantity-number competencies (QNC) at both basic (QNC Level 1) and advanced (QNC Level 2) levels. In a sample of 1,343 children aged 5 and 6, structural equation modelling provided support for the isolated number words hypothesis (Krajewski & Schneider, 2009, J. Exp. Child Psychol., 103, 516-531). This hypothesis claims that phonological awareness contributes to the acquisition of QNC Level 1, such as learning the number word sequence, but not of QNC Level 2, which requires the linkage of number words to quantities. In addition, phonological awareness relied on verbal working memory, especially with regard to the phonological loop, central executive, and episodic buffer. The results were congruent with the idea that phonological awareness mediates the impact of verbal working memory on QNCs. The relationships between verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and QNCs were comparable in monolingual and bilingual children.

  12. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  13. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  14. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  15. Humpty Dumpty and Rosa Parks: Making Space for Critical Dialogue with 5- and 6-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Using a critical inquiry curriculum is about teaching children to read the word and the world. Early childhood teachers apply this theory by helping children question events and texts they interact with in their communities. For example, teachers can help children understand why certain events happened, including whose voices may have been…

  16. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; Sessink, Nienke Y; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-12-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (equal sex distribution, ages 4-6) and 56 non-overweight children (matched on age, sex, demographics) were selected to participate. Children's purchases of low and high caloric snacks, drinks, and dinner products in a miniature supermarket were recorded. Mother and child-reported maternal restriction were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Kid's CFQ. Compared to non-overweight children, overweight children choose more high-calorie foods when role-playing a mother. Maternal restriction did not differ between overweight and non-overweight children. Both children's and mothers' reported maternal restriction were unrelated to food choices and there were no significant interactions between restriction and weight status on food choices. In conclusion, while parental restriction seems to be unrelated to children's food choices, family food patterns might have great impact already at young ages.

  17. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3-6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Ansari, Ghassem; Soleymani, Ali Asghar; Shayeghi, Shahnaz; Fotuhi Ardakani, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods.A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3-6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale), who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were randomly given ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures compared to oral sedation (P<0.05). Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05). The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physiological limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001) with a more sleepy face (P=0.004). Conclusion.. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children. PMID:26236429

  18. Problem Solving by 5-6 Years Old Kindergarten Children in a Computer Programming Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, G.; Gouli, E.; Mavroudi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Computer programming is considered an important competence for the development of higher-order thinking in addition to algorithmic problem solving skills. Its horizontal integration throughout all educational levels is considered worthwhile and attracts the attention of researchers. Towards this direction, an exploratory case study is presented…

  19. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  20. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  1. PE is not for me: when boys' masculinities are threatened.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-03-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small groups with 5 middle school boys from two schools. We identified three significant themes that merge the stories and experiences of masculinity hierarchies in sport-based physical education. First, we found that four social practices (content, pedagogies, teacher-student relationships, and peer cultures) in these physical education settings privileged some masculinities over others. Second, we examined the role that embodiment played, both in how the boys wore their oppression and in how their bodies resisted marginalizing situations. Third, we describe the contrasts these boys drew between physical activities experienced in sport-based physical education and physical activity experiences in other areas of their lives. We used Connell and Messerschmidt's (2005) reconceptualization of the theory of hegemonic masculinity for understanding how competitive sport-based physical education functioned to oppress boys with masculinities that were deemed abnormal. Additionally, we introduce feminist poststructuralism as a possible theoretical lens for interpreting boys' bodies as also being active agents in social practices rather than being only passive objects who are oppressed and dominated.

  2. Transjugular Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty Through a Bidirectional Glenn Shunt for Dysplastic Pulmonary Valve Stenosis in an 8.7-Year-Old Boy with Inaccessible Femoral Veins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Luen

    2016-04-01

    An 8.7-year-old boy was affected by exertional dyspnea with cyanosis of the lip at 6 years old. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 66%. A bidirectional Glenn shunt (BGS) was constructed to successfully elevate SpO2 to 88%. Unfortunately, he again experienced exertional dyspnea with flagrant cyanosis of the lip at 8.5 years old. SpO2 decreased to 65%. Echocardiography revealed a dysplastic pulmonary valve with severe stenosis. Considering the potential growth of the right ventricle and the branch pulmonary arteries, transjugular balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) through a BGS was performed as a palliative treatment for cyanosis in this boy because of inaccessible femoral veins. After gradational BPV, the opening of the pulmonary valve was dilated from 2.59 mm to 6.65 mm, the pressure gradient decreased from 60 mmHg to 25 mmHg, and the SpO2 increased to 85%. He became physically active and was free of exertional dyspnea at the 12-month follow-up. BGS is irrefutably an alternative vascular access through which transjugular BPV could be performed to ameliorate cyanosis due to dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis in patients with inaccessible femoral vessels.

  3. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  4. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  5. Putting the "Boy Crisis" in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Girls have been posting higher reading scores than boys for decades, but other trends suggest they may also have surpassed boys in overall academic performance. Girls have higher high school grade-point averages, are more widely represented as school valedictorians, and attend and graduate from college in greater numbers than boys. All this has…

  6. Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

  7. Little boy black and blue.

    PubMed

    Greene, Amanda E; Roosevelt, Genie E; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Tooth decay is common in US children, especially for children in low-income families. More than half of second-grade children have cavities. Therefore, root canal procedures are becoming more common in children. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with a rare complication of a root canal procedure secondary to sodium hypochlorite toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite, a commonly used root canal irrigant, and its toxicity are reviewed. PMID:21822090

  8. The Absent Father: Gender Identity Considerations for Art Therapists Working with Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has shown that boys from father-absent homes exhibit greater feminine role identification, delinquency, mental disorders, poor academic performance, and poor self-esteem. This article presents case studies that demonstrate crises of masculine identification for adolescent boys whose lives lack either a present father or male…

  9. Bilateral optic neuritis in a boy - More than the eyes.

    PubMed

    Loh, M A; Alex Khoo, P C; Chong, M F

    2016-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disorder in children with variable presentation. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented with bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and responded very well to treatment. He was also positive for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies, which is part of an emerging endophenotype within autoimmune neurological disorders in childhood. PMID:27326949

  10. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Aggression, academic behaviors, and popularity perceptions among boys of color during the transition to middle school.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity.

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Boys' Driven Exercise and Fasting During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T

    2016-10-01

    Boys appear to engage in eating disorder behavior, particularly nonpurging compensatory behaviors such as driven exercise and fasting, at higher rates than previously thought. Little is known about the development of these behaviors in adolescent boys. In a sample of 631 non-binge eating and non-purging boys studied once in 5th grade and 6 times over the 3 years of middle school (grades 6 through 8), we found that (a) for some youth, driven exercise and fasting were present from grade 6; (b) different boys progressed along different trajectories of engagement in driven exercise and fasting, with some boys engaging in no driven exercise or fasting (65.8 % and 83.5 %, respectively), some boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting throughout middle school (25.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively), and other boys discontinuing engagement in driven exercise (9 %); (c) 5th grade depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership; and (d) boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting in 8th grade remained distressed. Boys' engagement in driven exercise and fasting behavior merits the attention of researchers and clinicians.

  13. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  14. Streetsmart Schoolsmart: Urban Poverty and the Education of Adolescent Boys. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2012-01-01

    In "Streetsmart Schoolsmart", two respected scholars present original research on youth gangs and school success to explain why some boys become disengaged and join gangs while others do not. Chapters vividly describe how urban boys from different ethnic backgrounds (Asian, African American, and Latino) approach schooling and identify the…

  15. The Experience and Expression of Homesickness in Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated homesickness in boys ages 8 through 16. Results indicated that homesickness was prevalent and varied in intensity, was experienced as a combination of depression and anxiety, was presented most often as internalizing behavior, and was more typical for younger boys. The most-homesick became increasingly so during the separation,…

  16. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  18. Severe Respiratory Distress in a Child with Pulmonary Idiopathic Hemosiderosis Initially Presenting with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Potalivo, A; Finessi, L; Facondini, F; Lupo, A; Andreoni, C; Giuliani, G; Cavicchi, C

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage in children but should be considered in children with anemia of unknown origin who develop respiratory complications. It is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, and iron-deficiency anemia. Pathogenesis is unclear and diagnosis may be difficult along with a variable clinical course. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a severe iron-deficiency anemia, but he later developed severe acute respiratory failure and hemoptysis requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The suspicion of IPH led to the use of immunosuppressive therapy with high dose of corticosteroids with rapid improvement in clinical condition and discharge from hospital.

  19. [Giant intracranial aneurysm in three years old boy: case report].

    PubMed

    de Tella, Osvaldo Inácio; Crosera, João Francisco; Herculano, Marco Antonio; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are rare in the pediatric age group and differ from adults' aneurysms in size, localization and incidence. We report a 3-year-old boy with giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was submitted to surgical treatment and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  20. Establishing Five Derived Mands in Three Adolescent Boys with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Three 14-year-old boys with diagnoses of autism learned to mand for the delivery or removal of tokens by presenting nonsense syllables (A[subscript 1-5], respectively). A match-to-sample procedure was used t o establish conditional discriminations between the 5 A stimuli and 5 B stimuli and between the B stimuli and 5 C stimuli. Subsequently, each…

  1. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  2. Teaching Boys: Towards a Theory of Gender-Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to the social and educational challenges facing boys and men around the world. Next, it highlights how the outcomes for males of African descent across the Americas, in particular the USA, are especially troubling. Moreover, a critique is presented about the recruitment campaigns that see increasing the number of Black…

  3. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  4. Theory of Mind, Attention, and Executive Function in Kindergarten Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Mary Elizabeth; Ball, Steven E.; Henley, Tracy B.; Besozzi, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), attention, and executive function in 66 kindergarten boys drawn from four rural school districts. Three stories designed to test understanding of first and second order mental states were administered. Executive function and attention were assessed, respectively, by scores…

  5. Osteosarcoma in a sixteen-month old boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Sundari, M N; Masir, N

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of a sixteen-month old boy with osteosarcoma of the left humerus. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in Malaysia. This case illustrates that osteosarcoma although rare does occur in a very young child. The child died six weeks after presentation due to disseminated disease. PMID:10972039

  6. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  7. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  8. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.

  9. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research. PMID:25345000

  10. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating…

  11. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  12. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  13. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  14. Circumcision for the prevention of significant bacteriuria in boys.

    PubMed

    Nayir, A

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether circumcision affects significant bacteriuria in boys. During a 60-month prospective study, 100 boys with microbiologically confirmed symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) were evaluated. Twelve patients with abnormal ultrasonography findings were excluded from the study. Eighteen of the boys had not been circumcised due to parental choice. The remaining 70 boys with normal renal ultrasonography were randomly allocated into two groups. In the first group 35 boys ranging in age from 6 months to 10 years (mean 33.2+/-30.9 months) were observed for 6 months and urinary cultures were taken monthly. When they had a positive urine culture (with or without any symptoms), they received antibiotic treatment. After 6 months they were circumcised and then observed for another 6-month period. Group 2 comprised 35 boys aged from 3 months to 9 years (mean 29.1+/-36.7 months). They were circumcised immediately after the first UTI and were followed for 6 months. Urine samples were obtained by the bag technique in infants and by the mid-stream technique in older patients. In the uncircumcised group, the rate of significant bacteriuria per patient did not change in two 6-month follow-up periods (3.46+/-0.91 and 3.33+/-0.97 episodes). In group 1, the rate of positive urine cultures dropped from 3.57+/-1.11 to 0.14+/-0.35 episodes after circumcision (P<0.001). In the second group, the rate of significant bacteriuria was 0.17+/-0.38 episodes after circumcision. Among the uncircumcised patients, symptomatic UTI was observed in 6 cases (3 cases in the first period of group 1, 1 case in the first and 2 cases in the second period of the uncircumcised group), whereas after circumcision no patient had symptomatic UTI. The mean age at circumcision was 42.7+/-28.4 months. No complication due to circumcision occurred in any patient. UTI may also occur in boys after the 1st year of life. The present study indicated that circumcision in boys

  15. Girls and Boys Like to Read and Write Different Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisuo-Storm, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…

  16. Body Talk for Parents of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses education about menstruation and girls' and boys' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's son. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  17. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York is a case in point.…

  18. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  19. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  20. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  1. Sexual Abuse of Boys: Current Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Terryann

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding the sexual abuse of boys. Although boys may be equally at risk for sexual victimization as girls, they are a unique clinical group whose needs have not been addressed significantly. Awareness and prevention components in community education and media can raise public awarness. (JAC)

  2. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  3. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  4. Evolution and Development of Boys' Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Hoard, Mary K.; Vigil, Jacob; Numtee, Chattavee

    2003-01-01

    An evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of one-on-one and coalitional male-male competition provides a theoretical frame for conceptualizing the evolved functions and proximate developmental forms of the social behavior of boys, and for appreciating why the behavior of boys differs from that of girls. We propose the accompanying selection…

  5. Boy Scouts, School Policies and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's anti-gay and anti-atheist youth policies are forcing school districts to reconsider sponsoring troops and allowing meetings on campus. To most school boards, banning Boy Scouts organizations seems unthinkable. The meeting-space question boils down to existence of anti-discrimination policies. (MLH)

  6. Self-Perceived Weight and Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Jampel, Jonathan D.; Murray, Stuart B.; Griffiths, Scott; Blashill, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic steroid misuse is a growing concern among adolescent boys, and chronic misuse is associated with multisystemic health consequences. However, little is known about weight related predictors of anabolic steroid misuse. We examined the prediction of lifetime anabolic steroid misuse as a function of self-perceived weight status among US adolescent boys. Methods Analysis was undertaken using the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative data set sampling public and private high school students throughout the United States. Data from a total of 6,000 US adolescent boys were used in the present study. Results The prevalence of ever misusing anabolic androgenic steroids was 12.6% among boys who viewed themselves as very underweight, 11.9% for boys who viewed themselves as very overweight, compared with 3.8% for boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight. Compared to boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight, boys who self-perceived themselves as very underweight (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.7–17.7, p < .001) and very overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–7.7, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risk of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. Conclusions Large effect size estimates were revealed, suggesting that anabolic androgenic steroid misuse is not solely a function of boys desiring increased mass; boys who desire leanness are also likely to misuse anabolic androgenic steroids. Future prevention efforts should target not only boys who view themselves as underweight but also those who perceive themselves as overweight. PMID:26598061

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Angela John; McDuffie, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the profile of psychiatric symptoms in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) using a parent report instrument. In addition, by comparing boys with FXS to boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) utilizing multiple matching strategies, we examined between-group differences in the types of psychiatric symptoms observed and in the strength of their concurrent associations. Across all matching strategies, symptoms of manic/hyperactive behaviors and general anxiety were more frequently reported for boys with FXS than for boys with nonsyndromic ASD. Results also indicated a positive association between social avoidance and general anxiety in FXS that was stronger than that observed in nonsyndromic ASD across all matching strategies. Theoretical and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:24629733

  8. Long-Term Observation of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, Resultant High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-06-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, resultant high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy. A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were observed at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations showed a resultant high myopia. Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were observed. Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided.

  9. Germline PTPN11 and somatic PIK3CA variant in a boy with megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MCAP)--pure coincidence?

    PubMed

    Döcker, Dennis; Schubach, Max; Menzel, Moritz; Spaich, Christiane; Gabriel, Heinz-Dieter; Zenker, Martin; Bartholdi, Deborah; Biskup, Saskia

    2015-03-01

    Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome that is diagnosed by clinical criteria. Recently, somatic and germline variants in genes that are involved in the PI3K-AKT pathway (AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA) have been described to be associated with MCAP and/or other related megalencephaly syndromes. We performed trio-exome sequencing in a 6-year-old boy and his healthy parents. Clinical features were macrocephaly, cutis marmorata, angiomata, asymmetric overgrowth, developmental delay, discrete midline facial nevus flammeus, toe syndactyly and postaxial polydactyly--thus, clearly an MCAP phenotype. Exome sequencing revealed a pathogenic de novo germline variant in the PTPN11 gene (c.1529A>G; p.(Gln510Arg)), which has so far been associated with Noonan, as well as LEOPARD syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing (>100 × coverage) did not reveal any alteration in the known megalencephaly genes. However, ultra-deep sequencing results from saliva (>1000 × coverage) revealed a 22% mosaic variant in PIK3CA (c.2740G>A; p.(Gly914Arg)). To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a PTPN11 germline variant in an MCAP patient. Data from experimental studies show a complex interaction of SHP2 (gene product of PTPN11) and the PI3K-AKT pathway. We hypothesize that certain PTPN11 germline variants might drive toward additional second-hit alterations.

  10. Germline PTPN11 and somatic PIK3CA variant in a boy with megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MCAP)--pure coincidence?

    PubMed

    Döcker, Dennis; Schubach, Max; Menzel, Moritz; Spaich, Christiane; Gabriel, Heinz-Dieter; Zenker, Martin; Bartholdi, Deborah; Biskup, Saskia

    2015-03-01

    Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome that is diagnosed by clinical criteria. Recently, somatic and germline variants in genes that are involved in the PI3K-AKT pathway (AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA) have been described to be associated with MCAP and/or other related megalencephaly syndromes. We performed trio-exome sequencing in a 6-year-old boy and his healthy parents. Clinical features were macrocephaly, cutis marmorata, angiomata, asymmetric overgrowth, developmental delay, discrete midline facial nevus flammeus, toe syndactyly and postaxial polydactyly--thus, clearly an MCAP phenotype. Exome sequencing revealed a pathogenic de novo germline variant in the PTPN11 gene (c.1529A>G; p.(Gln510Arg)), which has so far been associated with Noonan, as well as LEOPARD syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing (>100 × coverage) did not reveal any alteration in the known megalencephaly genes. However, ultra-deep sequencing results from saliva (>1000 × coverage) revealed a 22% mosaic variant in PIK3CA (c.2740G>A; p.(Gly914Arg)). To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a PTPN11 germline variant in an MCAP patient. Data from experimental studies show a complex interaction of SHP2 (gene product of PTPN11) and the PI3K-AKT pathway. We hypothesize that certain PTPN11 germline variants might drive toward additional second-hit alterations. PMID:24939587

  11. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  12. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  13. Boy preference in Korea: a review of empirical studies related to boy preference.

    PubMed

    Kong, C J; Cha, J H

    1974-01-01

    Findings related to 20 empirical studies relating to boy preference in Korea during the past 10 years are summarized under 5 headings: 1) boy preference in the familial values; 2) boy preference in the ideal number of children; 3) boy preference in family planning behavior; 4) relationship between boy preference attitude and fertility behavior; and 5) social-psychological characteristics associated with boy preference attitude. Studies made at the turn of the 1960s were descriptive and viewed boy preference only as a dependent variable; since the late 1960s, boy preference began to receive attention as a factor contributing to fertility behavior. A son was regarded as important for support in old age and family lineage. Until the 1960s, the ideal number of sons had always exceeded that of daughters by 1 person. In the 1970s, the difference was reduced to .5. Several studies showed that sex composition of children affects the rate of contraceptive practice: the greater the number of living sons, the higher the likelihood of women using contraceptives. The same was not true for living daughters. Mothers with more sons than daughters have a stronger boy preference attitude than mothers of girl-skewed or balanced families. Boy preference attitude was positively related to the number of living children and the number of pregnancies.

  14. A rare case of metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma of proximal femur presenting with constitutional symptoms in a six-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Sudesh, Pebam

    2012-03-01

    Primary metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma is rare. To our knowledge, very few such cases have been reported in the English literature. Insidious onset of pain is the most common complaint in patients with chondroblastoma. A clinical presentation of constitutional symptoms along with a metaphyseodiaphyseal lesion on radiographs in a young child usually points toward a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma or infection. Here, we document a case of metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma of femur in a 6-year-old child presenting with chief local complaints of an intermediate onset pain and swelling along with systemic complaints of fever and malaise. The patient was operated by excision of the tumor and reconstruction using autogenous-free fibular graft.

  15. Efficacy of "talking books" for a group of reading disabled boys.

    PubMed

    Abelson, A G; Petersen, M

    1983-10-01

    No significant differences in proficiency of reading-listening comprehension among 24 reading-disabled boys in Grades 4, 5, and 6 were noted after hearing "talking book," taped stories, and teacher-read presentations. PMID:6634340

  16. Patterns of Lower Limb Muscle Activity in Young Boys During a One Foot Static Balance Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Charles S.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1987-01-01

    This study of 10 seven- to nine-year-old boys was undertaken to determine the electromyographic activity of four muscles in the supporting leg during one foot static balancing. Results are presented and analyzed. (Author/MT)

  17. Giant Omphalocele in an Adolescent Boy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tanveer; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O S

    2015-04-01

    Omphalocele is a congenital abdominal wall defect that permits herniation of abdominal viscera into the umbilical cord. We here report a case of a giant omphalocele in an adolescent boy that has not been reported at this age before.

  18. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization.

  19. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting with acute reversible cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Prasun, Pankaj; Altinok, Deniz; Misra, Vinod K

    2015-05-01

    Acute focal neurologic deficits are a rare but known presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, particularly in females. We describe here a 6-year-old girl with newly diagnosed ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency who presents with an episode of acute cortical blindness lasting for 72 hours in the absence of hyperammonemia. Her symptoms were associated with a subcortical low-intensity lesion with overlying cortical hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the occipital lobes. Acute reversible vision loss with these MRI findings is an unusual finding in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Our findings suggest a role for oxidative stress and aberrant glutamine metabolism in the acute clinical features of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency even in the absence of hyperammonemia. PMID:24850570

  20. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  1. Burkitt's lymphoma in a young Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudio M; Lopes, Ana Paula M; Meneghini, Alexandre J; Silva, Geisa B L; Monteiro, Mariana C; Botelho, Tessa de L

    2010-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is not an uncommon malignancy in the paediatric population. It is a high-grade non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma which may present as endemic, sporadic and human immunodeficiency-associated subtypes. The African, or endemic, variant usually involves the maxilla and other facial bones while head and neck manifestations in sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma are rare. We described a case of oral Burkitt's lymphoma involving the right jaw in a 4-year-old boy. The patient presented with a rapidly-enlarging swelling of one month duration, toothache-like pain and radiographical appearance of 'floating teeth' in the right mandible. Incisional biopsy revealed small round tumour cells with scarce cytoplasm and multiple small nuclei interspersed by phagocytic macrophages. The tumour cells were immunopositivity for CD20 and CD10, expressed weak positivity for CD3, negative for CD5 and showed > 90% positivity for Ki-67. Tumour remission was achieved with six cycles of chemotherapy with the CHOP regime. PMID:20614728

  2. Acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Pniewska, Anna; Pawłowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acute opercular syndrome is a rare described syndrome caused by a sudden damage of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, located around the insula. A rare cause of this syndrome can be an infectious agent, particularly herpes simplex virus. Quick diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment significantly reduce the risk of neurological consequences and mortality. We present a case of encephalitis of unknown etiology and severe course, with the symptoms of acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy. PMID:27154445

  3. [Klinefelter syndrome in a boy with symptoms of precocious puberty].

    PubMed

    Bieniasz, Jolanta; Wikiera, Beata; Głąb, Ewa; Noczyńska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most frequent sex chromosomal aberration. It is usually not recognized before puberty and many patients remain never diagnosed. Delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are typical in this syndrome. Early diagnosis and therapy with androgens is important for patients. We present case of 8-year old boy with Klinefelter syndrome who was admitted to our department because of precocious puberty.

  4. Man-boy friendships on trial: on the shift in the discourse on boy love in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Maasen, T

    1990-01-01

    Ideas on man-boy friendships prevailing in early 20th century Germany are analyzed in this paper. The friendships based on the concept of pedagogical Eros, as propagated by Gustav Wyneken (1875-1964) in his Wickersdorf Free School Community, are presented as an example. Wyneken's conviction in 1921 for acts of vice with minors and the diverse reactions in the homosexual and youth movements and the popular press shed light on the viewpoints then held regarding these friendships. As a result of this confrontation, the Platonic model was superseded by the medico-sexological model which has continued to dominate thought on man-boy friendships up to the present day. PMID:2086639

  5. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The boys completed probes…

  6. Issues in Quality Child Care: A Boys Town Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Tom, Ed.; Herron, Ron, Ed.; Hyland, Terry, Ed.; Sterba, Michael, Ed.

    For more than 80 years, Boys Town's mission has been to change the way America cares for its at-risk children. This collection of articles describes how Boys Town carries out its mission via the Boys Town Teaching Model. The essence of the Boys Town teaching model is two-fold: building relationships with children and teaching skills to youth. To…

  7. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  8. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  9. Participation in leisure activities among boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a neural developmental disorder expressed in various life settings. Yet, previous studies have focused mainly on children's function in school and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to examine participation patterns in outside formal school activities among boys with ADHD compared to typical boys. Participants included 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. All participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Several aspects of participation were examined: diversity, intensity, enjoyment, place, and partners in 49 extra curricular activities. The findings indicate that boys with ADHD reported significant lower intensity rates of participation in most activity domains. Furthermore, boys with ADHD also reported higher diversity scores and lower enjoyment in 'formal' activities. Yet, no significant differences were found with regard to activity place and partners. These findings enhance the importance of providing therapy that refers to after school activities. Accordingly, CAPE can be useful for assessing boys with ADHD and planning appropriate intervention programs. PMID:20705424

  10. Myeloradicular Form of Neuroschistosomiasis in a Six-Year-Old Boy Infected With Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Salgado, João Victor; Salgado, Izabel Athayde da Silva Cruz; Braga Júnior, Leônidas Lopes; Serra, Silane Calland Marques; Barros, Verbena Maria de Carvalho; Silva, Maria José Alves; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2015-12-01

    Neuroschistosomiasis is a severe disease caused by the presence of Schistosoma eggs and/or adult worms in the central nervous system. Schistosomal transverse myelitis represents a rare clinical form with nonspecific clinical findings, and it is thus underdiagnosed, especially in children. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old patient with the myeloradicular form of neuroschistosomiasis. PMID:26780026

  11. [Urethral meatal stenosis in boys easily overlooked].

    PubMed

    Sijstermans, K; Hack, W W M; Bos, S D; van der Horst, H J R

    2005-12-10

    Three boys aged 8, 5, 3 and 9 years, respectively, appeared to have urethral meatal stenosis. In the first patient this appeared during a check-up following treatment for balanitis. Patient history revealed that his micturition duration was longer than before. In the second patient, who underwent surgical correction for hypospadia, it was discovered because he took longer to urinate than his brother. In the third patient stenosis was observed during an appointment for a retracted testicle; he had been circumcised earlier for cultural reasons. Meatomy was performed under anaesthesia in all 3 patients, after which the micturition duration and stream velocity were normal. The third patient continued to have an extremely large bladder capacity and residual volume. Meatal stenosis may lead to obstructive uropathy, urinary tract infection and eventually damage to renal parenchyma. Symptomatic presentation can be late. Diagnostic tests include urine analysis and culture, and uroflowmetry. Visual inspection by spreading the meatal dimple to visualise a pinhole urethra cannot be overemphasised.

  12. Acquired cryptorchidism in a boy with disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Yamauchi, Katsuji; Matsui, Futoshi; Shimada, Kenji; Ida, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that boys with severe hypospadias are at increased risk for acquired cryptorchidism. The reports suggested that prenatal and postnatal androgen disruption might be correlated with this condition. We experienced a case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD), which was ultimately diagnosed at surgery for acquired cryptorchidism. Ascent of the scrotal contents of the left side was detected in a 7-yr-old boy with the 46, XX karyotype, who had a history of perineal hypospadias repair. Intraoperative findings revealed the left gonad consisted of 2 segments, and this was histologically diagnosed as ovotestis by biopsy specimen. Resection of the ovarian segment was performed simultaneously. Exploration of the contralateral gonad showed the same findings. This is the first report of acquired cryptorchidism observed in a patient with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia.

  13. Two Boy Scout Troops: The Impact of the Troop Culture on What Boys Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkwin, Anne; Kleinfeld, Judith

    Troop ideology as defined by the scoutmaster and other involved adults radically altered the learning experiences of boys in two Boy Scout troops, even though both adhered to the official program. Using observation and interviews, researchers studied all aspects of the troops over 7 months. One troop, whose scoutmaster was benevolent and…

  14. Boys Only: One Co-Educational Primary School's Experience of a Classroom for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over retention of boys as well as poor academic performance and behaviour, in a New Zealand co-educational primary school, led the school to trial, a "boys-only class". This case study reports interview and questionnaire commentary obtained at the beginning and end of the year from the principal, the teacher, pupils and parents, to…

  15. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  16. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  17. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  18. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  19. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  20. Association of a Monoamine Oxidase-A Gene Promoter Polymorphism with ADHD and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAO-A gene and severity of ADHD and anxiety in boys with ASD. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 5- to 14-year-old boys with ASD (n = 43). Planned…

  1. Cardiocutaneous syndrome (Naxos disease) in a Bangladeshi boy

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Toufiqur; Chowdhury, Abu Hana

    2016-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare autosomal recessive form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with woolly hair and palmoplantar keratoderma. The cardiomyopathy presents by adolescence with syncope, ventricular tachycardia (VT) of left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology, and/or ventricular fibrillation. The diagnosis and management of ARVC are at present in evolution; the recently published modified Task Force Criteria for diagnosis and International Task Force consensus statement for treatment of ARVC will hopefully bring about uniformity in recognition and management of Naxos disease as well. Here, typical phenotype and diagnostic work up have been presented in a Bangladeshi boy with the Cardiocutaneous syndrome. PMID:27747171

  2. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  3. Color associations to mood stories in first grade boys.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Bailetti, A M; Cerbus, G

    1977-12-01

    Choices of color crayons to portray mood stories were studied in a sample of first grade boys. The total sample (180) was divided into three treatment groups (60 subjects in each) who were told either the "Angry Boy" story, the "Happy Boy" story, or the "Sad Boy" story. Each subject selected one of six color crayons (red, yellow, green, blue, brown, or purple) to color the boy "to look" angry, happy, or sad. Racial, socioeconomic, and within-group differences were not significant, but significant differences were found between groups given angry and sad stories (x2 equal to 22.23, df equal to 5, p is less than .01). red was significantly associated with the angry boy when compared with the sad boy, while brown was significantly more often preferred for the sad boy than for the happy boy. By the age of first grade consequently the general preference for red by children is already significantly altered. PMID:604879

  4. Gliomatosis cerebri.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Kalra, Veena; Garg, Ajay; Suri, Vaishali; Suri, Ashish

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old boy who presented with worsening hemiplegia, behaviour problems and seizures after an episode of encephalitis-like illness is reported. MRI revealed diffuse signal change and swelling of the left cerebral hemisphere. The diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri was confirmed by brain biopsy. Parents refused radiotherapy and the child worsened and died 6 months after diagnosis.

  5. Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Alvarez-Montero, R; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rapariz, J M

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular dislocation is an exceptional lesion. Rarer still is its presentation in childhood. We describe the clinical case of a 6-year-old boy, the victim of a road accident. He had a tibiofibular dislocation associated with a metaphyseal fracture of the tibia.

  6. Sleep Onset Problems in Two Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Epilepsy: Assessment and Treatment in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, A. P. H. M.; Didden, R.; de Moor, J. M. H.; Renier, W. O.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems such as bedtime difficulties, frequent night waking and excessive daytime sleepiness are prevalent in children with epilepsy. In the present study, functional assessment of sleep onset problems in two young children with epilepsy was performed. Effects of bedtime fading and antipsychotic medication (pipamperon) in a 6-year-old boy,…

  7. Compartment syndrome resulting from undetected ulnar artery injury in the absence of a forearm fracture.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Priyanka; Lloyd-Hughes, Hawys; Halsey, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented following a transient crush injury to his forearm. He displayed mild abrasions but no laceration or associated fractures. The injury resulted in traumatic rupture of the ulnar artery, which caused a large forearm haematoma and an acute forearm compartment syndrome. Prompt clinical diagnosis and operative intervention were required to prevent disastrous consequences.

  8. Syntactic Complexity during Conversation of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Johanna R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Berni, Mary C.; Anderson, Kathleen L.; Sideris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the syntax of boys who have fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with that of (a) boys who have Down syndrome (DS) and (b) typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Thirty-five boys with FXS only, 36 boys with FXS with ASD, 31 boys with DS, and 46 TD boys participated. Conversational…

  9. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  10. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  11. A Boy's Alternative to Bodice-Rippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the genre of fantasy novels, noting its popularity with adolescent readers (especially boys). Notes sources helpful to teachers and school librarians, and lists a few personal favorite fantasy novels. Offers a brief note on whether the Harry Potter books can be considered young adult literature. (SR)

  12. TEACHERS' INTERACTIONS WITH BOYS AND WITH GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID H.; SEARS, PAULINE S.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE TEACHERS' PART IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF CHILDREN IN ADOPTING AND MAINTAINING A SEX-ROLE THAT WILL HELP THEM REACH A SENSE OF REAL IDENTITY. ANSWERS WERE SOUGHT FOR TWO QUESTIONS--(1) DO TEACHERS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO BOYS AND GIRLS, AND (2) IF SO, WHAT EFFECT MAY THIS HAVE ON THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL…

  13. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  14. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  15. Gene Therapy for "Bubble Boy" Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan

    2016-07-14

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites that destroy the immune system, causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), often referred to as the "bubble boy" disease. Strimvelis is a European Medicines Agency approved gene therapy for ADA-SCID patients without a suitable bone marrow donor.

  16. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  17. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  18. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  19. Manifestations of Namibian Boy's Underachievement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimba, Roderick F.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the 2012 grade 10 and grade 12 Namibian examination data indicate that girls received higher grades than boys across the then 13 education regions (Educational Management Information System, EMIS, 2012). University of Namibia graduation statistics for the period of 2002 to 2012 revealed that the institution consistently produced…

  20. A Young Boy Grows Away from Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoladore, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates a little boy's journey from autistic-like symptoms into more adaptive ways of coping with trauma and separation. Drawing from the psychoanalytic literature on autism and trauma, it discusses how traumatic events in the first two years of life may cause a child to withdraw from social relationships and cause developmental…

  1. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  2. [The acoustic changes of the voice in the singing boys during the permutation period].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'sky, S I

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that the determination of the fundamental frequency (Fo) of the speech by means of computer-assisted acoustic analysis makes it possible to detect the onset of vocal mutation in the singing boys. A total of 30 singing boys were available for the examination. They were allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of 15 boys at the age between 11 years 10 months and 12 years 4 months. Group 2 consisted of 15 boys aged between 12 years 10 months and 13 years 2 months. All the participants of the study underwent an acoustic test in combination with indirect laryngoscopy. It was shown that fundamental frequency of the speech in the boys of group 2 was significantly lower than in group 1. The difference amounted to two half-tones and could be regarded as the onset of vocal pre-mutation. It is concluded that the acoustic analysis of the speech should be employed to determine the time of vocal pre-mutation in the singing boys. The singing teachers can use this method all by themselves. PMID:27213658

  3. Boys May Be Boys, but Do They Have to Read and Write that Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author, a mother of twin boys in middle school, shares excerpts from her sons' writings which she thinks are too violent and action oriented. She marvels at their knack for pacing, detail, and metaphor, but in the back of her mind she wonders what the content will make readers think of them as a boy and of her as a parent. She…

  4. Research in Review. Kindness and Compassion: Convincing the Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses research which states that girls' attitudes about animals are generally more humane than boys'. Suggests practical implications from the research. Lists resources which may be helpful to boys. (CW)

  5. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... that nourishes the developing fetus, is different in boys and girls. "The placenta is critical for pregnancy success, and ... vary based on whether they are carrying a boy or a girl, the researchers said. The study was published online ...

  6. Complex translocation in a boy with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, L M; Labarta, J D; De Negrotti, T C; Migliorini, A M

    1985-01-01

    We report a boy with a trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRP syndrome), severe mental retardation, and transient megacephaly, whose karyotype showed complex, apparently balanced, translocations with breakpoints in bands 3q13, 8p22, 8q13, 11p12, and 11q21. The fact that cases presenting with phenotypes corresponding to the TRP II syndrome and deletions of the long arm of chromosome 8 have been recently reported prompted us to report this case to help in the clarification of the possible relation between 8q chromosomal mutation and the aetiology of TRP syndromes. Images PMID:4045963

  7. Reduced platelet aggregation in a boy with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Dey, F; Möller, A; Kemkes-Matthes, B; Wilbrand, J-F; Krombach, G A; Neubauer, B; Hahn, A

    2012-11-01

    Pediatric scurvy is a rare condition characterized by perifollicular petechiae and bruising, hemorrhagic gingivitis and musculoskeletal symptoms, all assumed to be predominantly related to abnormal collagen structure. We report on a 9-year-old autistic boy with vitamin C deficiency due to a highly limited food range presenting with multiple petechiae, gum bleeding and debilitating bone pain, in whom platelet aggregometry revealed a distinctly reduced thrombocyte aggregation, normalizing after vitamin C supplementation. This observation indicates that platelet dysfunction may additionally contribute to the hemorrhagic diathesis in scurvy, and demonstrates that ascorbic acid deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained acquired thrombocytopathy. PMID:23070864

  8. Reduced platelet aggregation in a boy with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Dey, F; Möller, A; Kemkes-Matthes, B; Wilbrand, J-F; Krombach, G A; Neubauer, B; Hahn, A

    2012-11-01

    Pediatric scurvy is a rare condition characterized by perifollicular petechiae and bruising, hemorrhagic gingivitis and musculoskeletal symptoms, all assumed to be predominantly related to abnormal collagen structure. We report on a 9-year-old autistic boy with vitamin C deficiency due to a highly limited food range presenting with multiple petechiae, gum bleeding and debilitating bone pain, in whom platelet aggregometry revealed a distinctly reduced thrombocyte aggregation, normalizing after vitamin C supplementation. This observation indicates that platelet dysfunction may additionally contribute to the hemorrhagic diathesis in scurvy, and demonstrates that ascorbic acid deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained acquired thrombocytopathy.

  9. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables.

  10. Pineal anlage tumor in a 5-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Joffre E; Raghavan, Ravi; Totaro, Laura; Zouros, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Pineal tumors are rare neoplasms that are categorized into pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. Pineal anlage tumors are primary pineal tumors with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. The authors review the literature and report the case of a 5-month-old boy with a pineal anlage tumor. This is only the sixth case of a pineal anlage tumor reported in the English-language literature adding to the understanding of this tumor's presentation, immunomorphological and molecular characteristics, embryological origin, radiological appearance, treatment outcome, and prognosis.

  11. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  12. Flanagan's Island: How Boys Town Rescues Troubled Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jendryka, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Describes Boys Town, founded in 1917, as a model for foster care and an attractive alternative to a welfare system that undermines parental responsibility. Boys Town now operates satellite facilities for boys and girls in nine communities, as well as seven emergency shelters, a hospital, and a national hotline. (SLD)

  13. Gendered Practices in the Education of Gifted Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Vuyk, M. Alexandra; Rea, Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    Gifted girls and gifted boys are more alike than they are different, although researchers remain fascinated with sex differences. Small differences between gifted boys and girls in achievements, interests, careers, and relationships can become exaggerated through gendered educational practices. Kindergarten "red-shirting" of boys and the denial of…

  14. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  15. What Does a "Boy-Oriented" Teacher Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Nancy Marie; Gehringer, Jean

    This paper, one in a series of four describing a boy-oriented program for elementary school children, addresses the problem of staffing an elementary school with teachers who will be able to effectively teach boys as well as girls. It suggests that empathy toward both boys and girls, personal warmth and security in the classroom, a high degree of…

  16. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  17. "Boys Don't Do Dance, Do They?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Warwick Arts Centre launched the "Boys Dancing" project through the formation of the West Midlands Boys Dance Alliance. Aimed exclusively at boys and young men, the project has offered a range of performance-making opportunities with male professionals including Liam Steel (DV8, Stan Won't Dance) and David McKenna (Beingfrank Physical…

  18. The Mutilated Boy and the Press: A Rumor Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    Responsible editors avoid printing falsehoods, but the public sometimes demands that rumors be covered in the press. One example of such rumors and the way editors deal with them is the "Mutilated Boy." The "Mutilated Boy" rumor has been circulating for decades and involves a brutal attack upon a small boy in a public rest room. The "crime" is…

  19. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  20. A surprising content of congenital hernia: complete splenogonadal fusion band

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Prakash Manikka; Reddy, Ajit Kumar; Nutakki, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Splenogonadal fusion is a rare congenital anomaly. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with a left inguinoscrotal swelling. With a clinical diagnosis of left congenital inguinal hernia the patient was taken up for explorative laparotomy where a transperitoneal band was noted adherent to the left testis. Biopsy revealed normal splenic tissue. Postoperatively the boy was imaged and a diagnosis of splenogonadal fusion was made. This article illustrates the imaging features of this rare anomaly. PMID:24671325

  1. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  2. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  3. Raising Boys: Why Boys Are Different and How To Help Them Become Happy and Well-Balanced Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Steve

    Noting that by 15 years of age, boys are three times more likely than girls to die from all causes combined, but especially from accidents, violence, and suicide, this book suggests that boys have special needs and offers suggestions for effective parenting. Chapter 1, "What Is It with Boys?," provides an overview. Chapter 2, "The Three Stages of…

  4. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine in 15 month-6-year-old German children. Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Stehr, K; Heininger, U; Uhlenbusch, R; Angersbach, P; Hackell, J; Eckhardt, T

    1995-03-01

    Immunization against pertussis has been re-recommended for healthy children in Germany in 1991. In addition the former restriction of immunizing only in the first 2 years of life was abolished. In children born before 1991 immunization rates against pertussis were 15% or less. With the new recommendations physicians are now faced with an increasing demand of parents for catch-up vaccinations in these children. Since they were immunized against diphtheria and tetanus previously monovalent pertussis vaccines are needed for this indication. Therefore a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine was studied in 249 German children 15 months to 6 years of age. Three doses were administered at 6-10 week intervals. Reactogenicity and antibody responses against the vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), 69-kd antigen (pertactin) and fimbriae-2 (agglutinogen) were investigated. Local and systemic reactions were minimal in frequency and severity. Antibody responses against all vaccine antigens were pronounced with 93%-100% of vaccinees demonstrating at least four fold titre rises above pre-immunization after the third dose. These findings indicate that this monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine with excellent immunogenicity and low reactogenicity is an appropriate candidate for closing immunization gaps in older children in countries with previously low vaccination rates against pertussis. Based on the results of this study the monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine was licensed in Germany in January 1994. PMID:7758519

  6. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies.

  7. Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Following a 1986 study reporting a predominance of ambivalent attachment among insecure Sapporo infants, the generalizability of attachment theory and methodologies to Japanese samples has been questioned. In this 2nd study of Sapporo mother-child dyads (N = 43), the authors examined attachment distributions for both (a) child, based on M. Main…

  8. Intervention for improving comprehension in 4-6 year old children with specific language impairment: practicing inferencing is a good thing.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Chantal; Nadeau, Line; Trudeau, Natacha; Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Maxès-Fournier, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Few studies report on therapy to improve language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). We address this gap by measuring the effect of a systematic intervention to improve inferential comprehension using dialogic reading tasks in conjunction with pre-determined questions and cues. Sixteen children with a diagnosis of SLI aged 4-6 participated in 10 weekly treatment sessions carried out by their regular therapists. Baseline and maintenance periods were also tabulated. Two experimental measures and a standardized test revealed that children's total scores and the quality of their responses post-treatment were better than those obtained pre-treatment. However, perhaps due to the use of non-equivalent probes, this change could not be interpreted solely as a significant effect of intervention. These results nevertheless suggest that a systematically designed intervention focusing on the comprehension of specific types of questions requiring inferencing and using a carefully scaffolded cueing strategy can be beneficial.

  9. [PREVALENCE OF THINNESS, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG 4-TO-6-YEAR-OLD SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN IN 2013; SITUATION IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    González García, Alberto; Álvarez Bueno, Celia; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Sánchez López, Mairena; Solera Martínez, Montserrat; Díez Fernández, Ana; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivos: tanto el exceso de peso como la delgadez se relacionan con diversos problemas de salud que pueden continuar hasta la edad adulta. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 4-6 años de las provincias de Cuenca y Ciudad Real (España), mediante criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y comparar estas cifras con otros estudios europeos. Métodos: estudio observacional-transversal que incluyó a 1.585 escolares realizado en septiembre de 2013. Las mediciones de peso y talla fueron realizadas por enfermeras entrenadas y mediante procedimientos estandarizados. El estatus ponderal se definió según los criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: según criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad, la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 20,51%, 11,84% y 8,58%, respectivamente; y del 3,97%, 13,92% y 10,79% cuando se utilizaron los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo ni provincia para ninguna categoría de estatus ponderal. Para ambos criterios, la prevalencia de delgadez fue menor a medida que aumentaba la edad, mientras que la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de exceso de peso podría haber tocado techo en España, aunque continúa siendo un importante problema de salud pública. El aumento de la prevalencia de bajo peso debería ocupar un lugar relevante en las intervenciones de salud pública.

  10. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  11. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  12. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  13. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children's oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents' knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents' knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion . The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents' knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits.

  14. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children’s oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents’ knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents’ knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents’ knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits. PMID:27092216

  15. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  16. Intervention for Improving Comprehension in 4-6 Year Old Children with Specific Language Impairment: Practicing Inferencing Is a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Nadeau, Line; Trudeau, Natacha; Filiatrault-Veilleux, Pamela; Maxes-Fournier, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies report on therapy to improve language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). We address this gap by measuring the effect of a systematic intervention to improve inferential comprehension using dialogic reading tasks in conjunction with pre-determined questions and cues. Sixteen children with a diagnosis of…

  17. The Best Ways of Teaching English to Children: Using Children's Operas in Teaching to 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achkasova, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to consider how to strengthen links between English, music, arts, and acting, maximizing the potential for children to become successful language learners at a young age. It will show how children's opera can act as a catalyst for learning and using the language. The findings demonstrate that teaching English with a…

  18. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  19. Outcome of one-stage surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children from 1.5 to 6 years old. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Deng, Yu; Fang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of one-stage treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in patients after walking age. A Total of 58 children (67 hips) were retrospectively investigated to assess the efficacy and safety of one-stage treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children from 1.5 to 6 years of age with a mean follow-up of 4.00±0.43 (range 3-6.8) years. Eleven (19%) were male, forty-seven (81%) were female. Our method consisted of open reduction, Salter innominate osteotomy, femoral shortening and derotation. The patients were distributed into three groups according to the age at which they were operated: 12 (20.7%) patients with 12 hips (17.9%) were operated between 1.5 and 2 years of age (Group I), 35 (60.3%) patients with 44 hips (65.7%) were operated between 2 and 4 years (Group II), 11 (19%) patients with 11 hips (16.4%) were operated between 4 and 6 years (Group III). Clinical and radiological assessment at final follow-up showed that the outcome was not significantly different between group I and group II. But clinically, there was significant difference between group I and group III, and also between group II and group III. Although in the outcome of radiological assessment there was no significant difference between group I and group II compared with group III. The rate of avascular nerosis in group I was lower than in group II or in group III. Children with DDH between 1.5 and 6 years of age were treated successfully with one-stage treatment, but in our hands the best age at surgery is before 4 years of age. PMID:26435230

  20. Developmental Change in the Acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-Year-Olds and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is…

  1. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:27458687

  2. Creating Child-Centered Materials for Math and Science: 3-6 Year Olds. Step By Step: A Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Judith Rothschild; Daniels, Ellen R.

    In child-centered education programs, children construct their own knowledge from their experiences and interactions with the world around them, and teachers foster children's growth and development by building on children's interests, needs, and strengths within a safe and caring environment. The Step by Step educational program developed a…

  3. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  4. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (<37 weeks' gestation, mean 34 weeks) were compared with 4336 term-born children in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort at age 5-6 years. Associations between SDQ scores and SES (maternal education and perceived income adequacy) were examined with multivariate linear regression analysis. The mean mother-reported total difficulties score was significantly higher for preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  5. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  6. Dynamic Testing of Analogical Reasoning in 5- to 6-Year-Olds: Multiple-Choice versus Constructed-Response Training Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Heiser, Willem J.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) analogy items are often used in cognitive assessment. However, in dynamic testing, where the aim is to provide insight into potential for learning and the learning process, constructed-response (CR) items may be of benefit. This study investigated whether training with CR or MC items leads to differences in the strategy…

  7. Increasing Teacher/Parent Awareness of Developmentally Appropriate Movies for 3-6 Year Olds through Use of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, Merilyn R.

    This practicum identified a lack of standards for movie viewing by children age 3 through 6 at a preschool child care center, and proposed a rating scale to determine the suitability of videotaped films. Staff and parents of students seemed unaware of potential long-term adverse affects of some movies, such as desensitizing children to violence,…

  8. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow (Poland). Part 4: Copper.

    PubMed

    Barton, H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure of children to copper (Cu) from household drinking water (DW). DW samples were collected between 1997 and 2004 in approximately 650 households and pre-schools using a double-sampling method (morning - W1; evening - W2). The study group comprised approximately 300 children (5-7 years old) living in Krakow (urban, peripheral) and rural areas in southern Poland. Cu concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. There was no significant relationship between the sampling period and Cu concentration, but statistically significant differences were found between urban and non-urban (rural, peripheral) sites and between morning and evening samples. Geometric means of Cu concentration in evening DW (95% confidence interval, in microg L(-1)) were 8 (1-110), 20 (1-274) and 12 (0-364) in urban, peripheral and rural sites, respectively. DW contamination after overnight standing was comparable in all sites (average increase approximately 20 microg Cu L(-1)). The adopted threshold of 100 microg Cu L(-1) was exceeded in evening DW by 3.6 and 15% in urban and non-urban households, respectively. Exceedance of the EC limit (2 mg L(-1)) was not significant. The mean predicted contribution of evening DW to Cu intake by children were 18-37 microg day(-1) or 0.8-1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) but were 2-3-fold higher for morning DW. The Polish RDA (1 mg Cu day(-1)) was exceeded for morning (evening) DW in 3.7 (0.2)% of children, with a mean intake of 159 (118)% of RDA. The observed copper levels and predicted intakes can be considered low and should not raise nutritional or toxicological concerns for the age group studied. Nevertheless, due to overnight contamination, the suggestion that the stagnant portion of drinking water should be discarded remains valid. PMID:19680974

  9. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  10. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  11. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls.

  12. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced "near transfer" effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced "far transfer" effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old.

  13. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced “near transfer” effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced “far transfer” effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old. PMID:26284014

  14. Assessment of pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Swapnil J.; Kathrotia, Rajesh G.; Pathak, Narendra R.; Jani, Madhusudan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly escalating in India in all age groups. School-based data indicate a prevalence rate between 5.6% and 24% in children and adolescents. Adolescent obesity is associated with a greater long-term risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, studies investigating pulmonary functions in obese adolescents are few. The present study assesses pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys from a school in Baroda city, Gujarat. Aims: (i) To assess the dynamic lung functions in obese adolescent boys. (ii) To determine the predominant lung function impairment associated with obesity in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Dynamic lung functions were measured in 30 obese adolescent boys and an equal number of age-matched controls using MEDI:SPIRO software (Maestros Mediline Systems Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India). Results: Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly decreased in the obese group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary functions in the study population correlated negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. The strongest negative correlation was between BMI and FEV1/FVC (P < 0.001) and between BMI, MVV, and Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF25–75%) (P < 0.001). Waist-to-hip ratio in the study population correlated negatively with MVV (P < 0.01), but not with FEV1/FVC. Conclusions: Lung function impairment, particularly decreased MVV and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, is associated with obesity in adolescence. In addition, pulmonary functions deteriorate with increasing obesity in adolescence and correlate negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study reveals another health hazard associated with obesity and highlights the need to aggressively reduce weight at a

  15. Antiretroviral treatment induced catatonia in 16-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lingeswaran, Anand

    2014-01-01

    We present a 16-year-old boy, who had presented to us with catatonic features of mutism, withdrawal, passive negativism, grimacing, gesturing, echopraxia, and excitement of 5 days duration while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a period of 2 years. He had history of birth asphyxia and acquired HIV infection from his father when the same syringe and needle was used on both of them in a medical setting where the father and son had consulted for treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin. He was the eldest of a three children family in which the biologic father had acquired HIV through extramarital sexual contact with HIV-infected sex workers but was unaware of his HIV positive status till our patient, the 16-year-old was admitted and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at 14 years of age. The boy's mother had only acquired HIV after having three children with the HIV-positive husband, thus leaving the other two children HIV negative. The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. This case highlights the risks of ART and breach of universal precautions.

  16. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  17. Why, Mrs. Robinson? The seduction of teenage boys by women in classic films.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing three classic films, and psychoanalytic developmental theory, this paper explores the conscious and unconscious reasons why older women become sexually involved with teenage boys. After a presentation of aspects of young adult and midlife female development and a psychodynamic explanation for the developmental similarities between adolescence and menopause, each of the three films is summarized. The dynamics behind the women's behavior, as presented in the films, are discussed. The third section of the paper discusses similarities and differences among the three women and the negative effects on the boys' development.

  18. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  19. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM.

  20. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM. PMID:18293125

  1. Tor: Case Study of a Boy with Autism between the Age of Three and Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C Reuterskiold; Nettelbladt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented on a boy between the ages of three and eight. At age three he received a diagnosis of language impairment and at age six a diagnosis of high-functioning autism. Results are presented from extensive assessments at four points in time, including interviews with his mother and teachers. The results indicate that the…

  2. Precocious puberty presenting with menarche at the age of 6 years - a case report.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A

    2014-07-01

    Precocious puberty or central precocious puberty can be very confusing and truly unexpected. After all who know children could go into puberty too early? There is treatment for this condition. Present report has stated that central precocious puberty is becoming more frequent. Many factors may contribute to children who exhibit signs of early precocious puberty. Here we are reporting a case of premature menarche of 6 years old girl who initially presented with continuous per vaginal bleeding for 3 months as a onset of menarche later on after clinical examination and investigations she was diagnosed a precocious puberty due to juvenile premature hypothyroidism. After the successful treatment with thyroxin, level of TSH gradually was decreased and subsequently normal. There after per vaginal bleeding stopped and clinically improved. PMID:25178615

  3. HPA axis function predicts development of working memory in boys with FXS.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Jessica F; Hahn, Laura J; Hooper, Stephen R; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane E

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines verbal working memory over time in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to nonverbal mental-age (NVMA) matched, typically developing (TD) boys. Concomitantly, the relationship between cortisol-a physiological marker for stress-and verbal working memory performance over time is examined to understand the role of physiological mechanisms in cognitive development in FXS. Participants were assessed between one and three times over a 2-year time frame using two verbal working memory tests that differ in complexity: memory for words and auditory working memory with salivary cortisol collected at the beginning and end of each assessment. Multilevel modeling results indicate specific deficits over time on the memory for words task in boys with FXS compared to TD controls that is exacerbated by elevated baseline cortisol. Similar increasing rates of growth over time were observed for boys with FXS and TD controls on the more complex auditory working memory task, but only boys with FXS displayed an association of increased baseline cortisol and lower performance. This study highlights the benefit of investigations of how dynamic biological and cognitive factors interact and influence cognitive development over time. PMID:26760450

  4. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  5. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  6. Media use and school achievement--boys at risk?

    PubMed

    Mössle, Thomas; Kleimann, Matthias; Rehbein, Florian; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2010-09-01

    In work done at the German Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) various methods have been used to investigate how specific inappropriate media usage patterns affect academic performance in children and adolescents. The findings are paralleled by current international research indicating a negative relationship between these two variables. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 5,529 fourth grade students and a longitudinal panel study with 1,157 primary schoolchildren, a key finding can be demonstrated: the more time students spend on consuming media and the more violent its contents are, the worse are their marks at school, even when controlling for vital factors such as family, educational, or immigrant background. In particular, boys who gender-specifically are better equipped with electronic media devices, who partially have extensive media usage times and who strongly prefer violent media content, are at the risk of showing poor school performance. In fact, a decrease in academic performance of boys can be observed in German school statistics. By presenting first results of a school-based intervention programme, a promising approach to the reduction of detrimental effects of electronic media use on school performance is introduced.

  7. Priapism in teenage boys following depot testosterone.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, James F; Davis, Nikki; Davies, Justin H; Rees, Roland W; Steinbrecher, Henrik A

    2012-01-01

    Priapism is rare in children and may result in erectile dysfunction and sexual aversion behaviours. Testosterone therapy is commonly regarded as safe in children and is widely used in constitutional delay of growth and puberty, hypogonadism, hypospadias and micropenis. We report two cases of priapism in teenage boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty after a change in the formulation of depot testosterone. One case required surgical intervention and the other was preceded by stuttering priapism. These cases illustrate the importance of patient and/or parent counselling before testosterone administration and consideration of lower doses in at-risk patients.

  8. The Trouble with Boys: Observations about Boys' Post-Secondary Aspirations, Attendance and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Boys have a slight advantage in the number of live births in the US (about 101:100), so, all things being equal, it is reasonable to assume that they would populate institutions at about the same rate as girls. However, institutions are social structures, and in social systems all things are almost "never" equal, so, clearly, there are other…

  9. The Boys in Schools Bulletin: Practical Initiatives Addressing Boys' Needs, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 2 of a quarterly bulletin for educators in Australia providing a practical focus to improving boys' schooling. The April 1999 issue focuses on the role of school executives, or administrators, on supporting educational initiatives. This issue includes articles describing the development of a program-based…

  10. Boys, Books, and Boredom: A Case of Three High School Boys and Their Encounters with Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.; Pernicek, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the literacy gender gap through the documented experiences of 3 representative high schools boys and their teacher--how they view themselves as students, their dispositions toward schooling and education, and their engagement with literacy--as a way to further understand how literacy teachers can better work with them. We offer a case…

  11. Boys Growing Up: Understanding Boys' Sexual Health Education and Its Implications for Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, B. M.; Kushner, S.

    Recent research has begun to examine heterosexual male behavior and the early experiences of masculinity. This pilot research project used naturalistic inquiry methodologies to investigate the experience and education of boys/young men in relation to matters of sexual health and masculinity and to develop an understanding of the relationship among…

  12. "Boys Will Be Boys": What Do Early Childhood Teachers Have to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways in which a selected group of early childhood teachers in grades one and two, located in a predominantly white middle-class context in Durban, South Africa ascribe meaning to young boys they teach. The study finds that early childhood teachers are bearers of masculinity and incorporate taken-for-granted assumptions of…

  13. Both Boys and Girls Are More Scared of Boys Than of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.

    Explored were feelings of envy, warmth, and fear that children experience toward boys and girls engaged in same-gender role, cross-gender role, and gender-role-neutral behaviors. A total of 120 children participated in the study: 60 first and second graders, and 60 fifth and sixth graders, with equal numbers of males and females in each grade.…

  14. When Boys Won't Be Boys: Discussing Gender with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Hannah; Katch, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this Voices Inside Schools essay, Hannah Katch and Jane Katch reflect on gender roles and how they are enacted in the classroom. When Timothy, a student in Jane's kindergarten class, refuses to count himself as one of the boys during a math lesson, Jane begins a conversation about social constructions of gender with her daughter, Hannah.…

  15. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  16. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. PMID:26202155

  17. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves.

  18. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  19. Genetic Polymorphisms Related to Testosterone Metabolism in Intellectually Gifted Boys

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities. PMID:23382957

  20. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  1. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  2. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  3. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  4. Assessing Does Not Mean Threatening: The Purpose of Assessment as a Key Determinant of Girls' and Boys' Performance in a Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchal, Carine; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Darnon, Céline; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio; Martinot, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Is it possible to reach performance equality between boys and girls in a science class? Given the stereotypes targeting their groups in scientific domains, diagnostic contexts generally lower girls' performance and non-diagnostic contexts may harm boys' performance. Aim: The present study tested the effectiveness of a…

  5. A Voice-Detecting Sensor and a Scanning Keyboard Emulator to Support Word Writing by Two Boys with Extensive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Chiapparino, Claudia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the use of a voice-detecting sensor interfaced with a scanning keyboard emulator to allow two boys with extensive motor disabilities to write. Specifically, the study (a) compared the effects of the voice-detecting sensor with those of a familiar pressure sensor on the boys' writing time, (b) checked which of the sensors…

  6. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  7. Gendered Literacy Experiences: The Effects of Expectation and Opportunity for Boys' and Girls' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this article intends to contribute to an understanding of how out-of-school literacies can influence the present and future learning of adolescents. Evidence suggests that students, boys particularly, are becoming literate in many ways through out-of-school activities (e.g., video games, Internet browsing, chatrooms), but…

  8. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  9. Common Sense Parenting of Toddlers and Preschoolers. A Girls and Boys Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bridget A.; York, Steven M.

    Based on the view that parents need to balance nurturing behaviors that demonstrate love and affection with the discipline that children need in order to learn and thrive, this book presents the Common Sense Parenting program from Girls and Boys Town as adapted for parents of toddlers and preschoolers. Offering logical techniques and foundations…

  10. Parenting, Family Loneliness, and Peer Functioning in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to consider the associations between family functioning (parenting and family loneliness) and peer functioning in a sample of boys with ADHD (N = 110) and their mothers (N = 108) and fathers (N = 53). Results indicated that higher paternal warmth was associated with more peer acceptance, less peer rejection, and…

  11. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  12. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  13. Lost Boys. Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Presents four conclusions about why boys turn violent and how parents and teachers can save them: violence prevention is everybody's business; education for parents and teachers is crucial; child abuse prevention is the cornerstone of preventing lethal youth violence; and detoxifying the social environment of children and youth is essential to…

  14. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Rajesh K.; Koti, Kalyan; Kongara, Srikanth; Meher, Gautham E.

    2011-01-01

    A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters. PMID:22029036

  15. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  16. "In Far Cathay": Representations of China in "The Boy's Own Paper", 1879-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how "knowledge" of China was presented for Victorian and Edwardian children in "The Boy's Own Paper" ("BOP") between 1879 and 1914. It considers how genre affects the representation of China in the "BOP" by comparing travel narratives and adventure stories. First, it focuses on non-fiction about China, examining the rhetorical…

  17. Economic, Social and Embodied Cultural Capitals as Shapers and Predictors of Boys' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the result of a quantitative survey as a part of a larger mixed-methods study conducted across two case study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on Black Caribbean boys' levels of educational aspirations in relation to their economic, social, and embodied cultural capital. The study utilizes Bourdieu's notions of capital,…

  18. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  19. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  20. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Hedawoo, J. B.; Nagdeve, N. G.; Sarve, G. N.

    2010-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus is reported because of its rarity. The patient presented with dysphagia for 3 months and weight loss. The case was treated with radical excision, with excellent immediate response. PMID:20975784

  2. [A case of porphyria cutanea tarda in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, M; Danik, E; Bendkowski, W

    1995-06-01

    A rare case of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in an 11-year-old boy is presented. The clinical manifestations were typical. Results of porphyrin analyses of urine and serum with a fluorescence emission maximum around 398 nm revealed a pattern consistent with PCT. PMID:8692611

  3. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  4. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  5. Patella fracture in a boy with bilateral inferior pole bipartite patellae.

    PubMed

    Peek, A C; Barry, M

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a 12 year old boy who had bilateral inferior pole fragment (Saupe type 1) bipartite patellae, and who sustained a traumatic separation through the right patella while playing basket ball, the left remaining asymptomatic. We have reviewed and discussed the previously published literature and case reports.

  6. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  7. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal.

  8. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  9. Subepidermal calcified nodule in a 7-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaohui; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Stein, Sarah L

    2007-01-01

    A 7-month-old healthy white boy presented for evaluation of a papule on his right ear. His mother reported a small cut-like lesion at this site shortly after birth that had gradually grown over time. The patient was born full term via repeat cesarean section. On physical examination, located on the right superior helix, there was a 5-6 mm, pink, firm papule with a rough scaly surface and peripheral erythema (Figure 1). The lesion was shave excised and sent for histologic analysis. Microscopic examination revealed a defect of the epidermis with underlying fibrin deposits (Figure 2). Subjacent to the ulcer, there was chondroid tissue, granulation tissue with prominent vascularity, and an extensive amount of amorphous calcified material throughout the dermis extending to the base of the specimen (Figure 3). The clinical and pathologic findings were consistent with a subepidermal calcified nodule (SCN), an uncommon idiopathic calcinosis. The lesion was surgically removed with good results.

  10. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal. PMID:24166967

  11. [Circumscript myositis ossificans in a four-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabello García, D; Rodríguez Fernández, A; Gómez Río, M; Moreno, M J; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; Martín Castro, A; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 4 year old boy with no previous personal or family history of interest, who attended the Paediatric Department of our hospital after a physical examination revealed a painful induration in the left arm which had increased in size; imaging tests were consistent with a calcified mass in soft tissues, without cortical involvement, suspected of being malignant. Two-phase bone scintigraphy was requested in which a soft tissue lesion, not suggestive of malignancy, was detected. The biopsy was negative for malignant cells. However, in view of the progressive increase in size of the lesion, FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was performed, showing a hypermetabolic mass consistent with malignancy in the left arm, for which the patient underwent surgery for suspected possible parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:18817666

  12. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  13. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  14. Sciatica in a Five-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rafeemanesh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of back pain during childhood is 50%; in 22% of these cases, a specific diagnosis can be found. Osteoid osteoma is a rare benign tumor that occursonly in 20% of cases and involves the spine. The aim of this report is to explain an atypical case of lumbar osteoid osteoma with significant neurologic deficit at a very young age. A five-year-old boy was presented with refractory pain in the low back and left extremity for approximately one year. Positive clinical findings were antalgic gait, stiff lumbar spine, weak left big toe extension force and a positive straight leg rising test on the left side. Paraclinical studies revealed osteoid osteoma in the left-sided pedicle of the fifth lumbar vertebra. With surgical excision, he recovered immediately. Lumbar osteoid osteoma should be suspected as the cause of low back pain or sciatalgia in any young patient. PMID:24967051

  15. The Prepubertal Boy: Common Genital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-09-01

    The examination of the newborn is one of the most common yet crucial tasks performed by the pediatrician. The initial hospital visit (immediately after the birth), with the confirmation that an infant is healthy, often sets the tone for the future relationship between the physician and the family. Many routine visits during the first few years also find the parents looking for the same reassurance from their doctor. However, when there is concern for the health of the newborn, toddler, or young child, the physician must balance appropriate medical intervention with words of comfort and consolation. This article delineates the need for when more immediate attention is warranted from those situations where watchful waiting can be advised, with specific attention to the male genitalia of the prepubertal boy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e311-e313.].

  16. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates.

  17. The Prepubertal Boy: Common Genital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-09-01

    The examination of the newborn is one of the most common yet crucial tasks performed by the pediatrician. The initial hospital visit (immediately after the birth), with the confirmation that an infant is healthy, often sets the tone for the future relationship between the physician and the family. Many routine visits during the first few years also find the parents looking for the same reassurance from their doctor. However, when there is concern for the health of the newborn, toddler, or young child, the physician must balance appropriate medical intervention with words of comfort and consolation. This article delineates the need for when more immediate attention is warranted from those situations where watchful waiting can be advised, with specific attention to the male genitalia of the prepubertal boy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e311-e313.]. PMID:27622912

  18. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates. PMID:26244484

  19. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day. PMID:26799666

  20. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day.

  1. Spondyloarthropathy presenting at a young age: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Golda H; Renaud, Deborah L; Sundaram, Murali; Reed, Ann M

    2007-02-01

    The diagnosis of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSA) is rarely entertained in young children who present with back and leg pain. We present a case of a 6-year-old male who presented with a 3-year history of severe back and leg pain and a positive Gower's sign, and was given a presumed diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Presenting serologic evaluation included a mildly elevated sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP). Computed tomography of the pelvis demonstrated large erosions affecting both sacro-iliac joints. Despite the unusually young age of this patient, ankylosing spondylitis seemed the most plausible diagnosis. Following rheumatological evaluation and treatment for JSA, he showed significant clinical improvement. His disease, however, has not entirely remitted with signs of enthesitis at the Achilles tendon and knees. We present this case to illustrate that JSA could account for symptoms at an early age and not considering it could lead to multiple medical visits and diagnoses. To our knowledge, based on a search of the World literature, this would appear to be the youngest case of JSA reported with demonstrable severe sacroiliitis.

  2. Sensory Contributions to Balance in Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; De Clercq, Dirk; Van Coster, Rudy; Oostra, Ann; Dewitte, Griet; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Cambier, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…

  3. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  4. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  5. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  6. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: Study They were more likely to ... When I compared 4- and 5-year-old boys and girls who had the same levels of behavior problems -- ...

  7. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  8. Boy Story: Do You Really Want Guys in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to transform a down-on-its-luck library into an irresistible place for boys. She suggests to begin with vision, energy, and a lot of hard work. Based on the author's 30-plus years of experience working with students, she knows boys respond well to a scholarly environment. In fact, it is one of the ways…

  9. Reaching Boys: An International Study of Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Despite a continuing stream of concern on the part of researchers, demographers, and cultural pundits about a crisis in boys' social development and schooling, surprisingly little attention has been paid to what is perhaps the richest pool of data: current, observable teaching practices that clearly work with boys. In schools of all types in all…

  10. Superhero Toys and Boys' Physically Active and Imaginative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The influence of superhero versus nonsuperhero toys on boys' physically active and imaginative play was studied in 29 dyads (n = 58 middle-class preschool boys; M age = 54.95 mos, SD = 5.28 mos). Each dyad participated in two play sessions: 1) superhero toys (media related) and 2) nonsuperhero (nonmedia related) toys. Dyads were observed for the…

  11. Contributions and Implications of the Medford, Oregon, Boys' Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. H.

    The overall and long-range purposes of the Medford Boys' Growth Study are: (1) to construct physical and motor growth curves and growth acceleration curves of boys seven to 18 years old; (2) to relate these traits to physiological maturity, physique type, nutritional status, socio-personal adjustment, interests, and scholastic aptitude and…

  12. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  13. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  14. Boyz to Men? Teaching to Restore Black Boys' Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson Billings, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Many schools see teaching African American boys as a daunting challenge. However, in many schools the primary focus of Black male children's educational experience is maintaining order and discipline rather than student learning and academic achievement. By the time Black boys reach the 3rd or 4th grade their teachers and other school personnel no…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  16. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  17. Connecting Boys with Books 2: Closing the Reading Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his hugely successful "Connecting Boys with Books" (2003), the author delved into the problem that reading skills of pre-adolescent boys lag behind those of girls in the same age group. In this companion book, Sullivan digs even deeper, melding his own experiences as an activist with perspectives gleaned from other industry experts to help…

  18. The Problem of Boys' Literacy Underachievement: Raising Some Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Boys' literacy underachievement continues to garner significant attention and has been identified by journalists, educational policymakers, and scholars in the field as the cause for much concern. It has been established that boys perform less well than girls on literacy benchmark or standardized tests. According to the National Assessment of…

  19. There Is the Hope: Abused Boys Finding God through Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The author, a narrative arts educator, was teaching an after-school drama program to 11 abused boys in a residential treatment center. The program promised them the opportunity to tell and stage their own story. The author began by sharing a story about an abused boy he befriended in seminary who ended up killing himself. The following week, he…

  20. Do Boys Need Different Remedial Reading Instruction from Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Recent inquiries into the underachievement of boys in reading have called into question whether they require different forms of reading instruction from girls. A number of reading programs and initiatives have been developed to address this issue, including programs based on increasing boys' motivation, improving behaviour, embracing the use of…

  1. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap between Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of accountability on schools has intensified the need to understand the impact of intervention strategies and best practices on literacy. Of particular concern is the underachievement of boys and identifying the learning differences between boys and girls. Examined in this quantitative study were the strategies and practices…

  3. Gender Identity Conflict in Young Boys following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Three boys, aged 4-7, wanted to be feminine and dressed in women's clothes following a difficult divorce with custody and visitation strife. In brief psychotherapy, gender seemed related to issues of loss and aggression. On followup, all three were symptomatically improved. Gender disturbance symptom in boys may come about as regressive reaction…

  4. Boys Booked on Barbershops: A Cutting-Edge Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2007-01-01

    The barbershop is a community institution, one of the most familiar and stable businesses in any neighborhood. Men and boys frequent barbershops, and barbers get to know their customers by name and personality. Boys Booked on Barbershops (B-BOB) is an innovative literacy program designed to make the most of a naturally occurring opportunity: the…

  5. The Relation of Parenting Transitions to Boys' Adjustment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, D. M.

    The hypothesis that children are placed at increased risk for adjustment problems when parents divorce and remarry was tested with a sample of 206 boys in the fourth grade. It was also hypothesized that the relation of parenting transitions and boys' adjustment would be mediated by family management practices. Subjects attended schools in…

  6. Helping Muslim Boys Succeed: The Case for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…

  7. Stylizing Standard Dutch by Moroccan Boys in Antwerp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines ethnographic data that show Belgian adolescents of Moroccan descent stylizing Standard Dutch. Analysis addresses the importance of this variety in Belgian-Flemish society and in the school these boys attended, and shows how in interviews with Moroccan boys the hegemonic status of this variety is generally accepted. In…

  8. Science Education in the Boy Scouts of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Rachel Sterneman

    2009-01-01

    This study of science education in the Boy Scouts of America focused on males with Boy Scout experience. The mixed-methods study topics included: merit badge standards compared with National Science Education Standards, Scout responses to open-ended survey questions, the learning styles of Scouts, a quantitative assessment of science content…

  9. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  10. Do Girls and Boys need Different Electronic Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan; Luik, Piret

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers have found differences in the ways in which boys and girls use computers, but there has been no systematic investigation into what types of electronic textbook are good for girls and which are good for boys. This paper describes an experimental investigation in which 35 units from electronic textbooks on mathematics, history,…

  11. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  12. Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M., Ed.; Kiselica, Mark S., Ed.

    This book serves as both a scholarly and practical guide for teachers, school psychologists, and parents on helping boys and adolescent males grow up. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive handbook on understanding and responding to the developmental, cultural, and special concerns of boys and adolescent males. It attempts to provide…

  13. Rehearsing Masculinity: Challenging the "Boy Code" in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Dance education experiences of boys and male youth are investigated in terms of dominant constructions of contemporary Western masculinity and the potential limitations these hegemonic discourses may place on male participation. Recent research on boys and male youth in dance, although limited, suggests prevailing social stigma, heteronormative…

  14. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001

  15. Behavioural Differences Between Online Sexual Groomers Approaching Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    van Gijn-Grosvenor, Evianne L; Lamb, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the behavior of convicted offenders who had approached profiles of boys and girls online for offline sexual encounters. A detailed coding scheme was designed to code and analyze offenders' grooming behaviors in transcripts of conversational interactions between convicted offenders and 52 volunteer workers purporting to be girls and 49 volunteer workers who masqueraded as boys. Behavioral differences and commonalities associated with the gender of the groomed child decoys were examined. Results showed that offenders approaching boys were significantly older and pretended to be younger than offenders approaching girls. When compared to offenders grooming boy decoys, offenders grooming girl decoys typically built more rapport, were less sexually explicit, and approached sexual topics carefully and indirectly. Offenders also used more strategies to conceal contact with girls than with boys. PMID:27472510

  16. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  17. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed.

  18. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  19. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6-12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers' attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  20. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707