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Sample records for 6-year-old spayed female

  1. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated.

  2. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face.

  3. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  4. Fantasy play in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wall, S M; Pickert, S M; Gibson, W B

    1989-05-01

    We studied the verbal pretend play of 5- and 6-year-old boys and girls to delineate age and sex differences during the later preoperational period. Sixteen children with average language ability were paired by age and sex and were videotaped for three 15-min intervals. Verbal interactions were transcribed, and the pretend play was classified as object fantasy, imaginative action plans/themes, or fantasy roles. Language used for pretend play increased in proportion to all utterances with age. Older children referred to more invented objects than younger ones but primarily in the service of realistic action formats. Girls' conversations were scored as having significantly more verbal pretending than boys' and a higher proportion of it referred to play roles. There were both age and sex differences in the types of themes, toys used, and roles enacted, including more sex-typed behavior in older children. The continued increase in the proportion of pretend play to all verbal interaction with age and the characteristics of play behavior is consistent with developmental theory.

  5. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Z<-1) is one of the malnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). Receiving a cooked meal significantly decreased wasting (15.2-13.2%) in all children (p < 0.05). Nutritional intervention with cooked meal for 175 days had significant reduction in wasting in all children.

  6. Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Tyagi, Himanshu; Agrawal, Gaurav; Anil, S R

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old female child was admitted with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion since last 3 years. She was saturating 100% on room air with stable vitals. On clinical examination, left precordial bulge was seen with prominent epigastric pulsations. Chest X-ray showed rightward shift of mediastinum and huge homogenous opacity occupying almost entire left lung field. On two-dimensional echocardiography, a large aneurysmal mass was seen occupying left hemithorax which was suspected to be arising from pulmonary artery but its exact site of origin could not be determined. A small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also seen. PDA could be seen directly supplying the aneurysm (Fig. 1). CT angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. It showed a huge aneurysmal sac measuring 12 cm × 8.9 cm × 14 cm, arising from left pulmonary artery (LPA) opposite to the site of insertion of PDA. Sac was occupying most of the left lung and pushing down the left diaphragm (Fig. 2). Cause of formation of such a huge aneurysm could not be found out. Surgery was performed and mouth of the sac was closed along with ligation of duct, repair of LPA and drainage of the sac. After surgery, lung expansion was good. Patient was discharged and she is doing well.

  7. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  8. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  9. The Microgenetic Emergence of Cooperative Play in 6-Year-Olds Developmentally At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; van der Leeden, Rien

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative play was investigated by a controlled pre/post-test intervention design with 28 dyads of 6-year-old students developmentally at-risk. Selection was based upon cut-off scores on a language development test and a nonverbal IQ test, and same-sex pairs were matched within classrooms. Co-variables were: socio economic status, free play time…

  10. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  11. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  12. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  13. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives.

  14. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  15. Reaction of 5 and 6 year olds to dental injection after viewing the needle: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maragakis, G M; Musselman, R J; Ho, C C

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the practice of hiding the needle prior to dental anesthesia administration to children. Fourteen 5 and 6 year olds received dental treatment in two sessions. The needle was shown in one session and hidden in the other. Eleven children were cooperative and 3 uncooperative irrespective of approach. The children's behavior correlated with fears expressed by the mothers. Our initial fndintgs do not support the practice of hiding the needle. PMID:17091654

  16. Prevalence of Speech Delay in 6-Year-Old Children and Comorbidity with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeney, Jane L.

    1999-01-01

    This study estimated the incidence of speech delay based on a demographically representative sub-sample of 1,328 monolingual English-speaking 6-year-old children. Among six major findings were: (1) the prevalence of speech delay was 3.8 percent; (2) speech delay was 1.5 times more prevalent in boys than girls; and (3) comorbidity of speech delay…

  17. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  18. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E; Palileo, Coleen M; Sheridan, Rachel M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with an 18-month history of a left lower eyelid lesion that was refractory to medical management. The lesion was excised, and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a cellular neurothekeoma. Clinical presentation of such lesions is similar to a chalazion or epidermal inclusion cyst. Cellular neurothekeoma is benign and has a low risk of recurrence after excision with clear margins. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid is extremely rare, with only 5 previously reported cases. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid presenting in a boy.

  19. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. PMID:24315421

  20. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis.

  1. Reliability and Validity of "Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ozgul; Dagal, Asude B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents' evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children's responsible behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors.…

  2. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  3. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Berti, Gabriela Oliveira; Hesse, Daniela; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Bönecker, Marcelo José Strazzeri

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI) in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil) were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007) criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4%) was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor). There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors. PMID:26313347

  4. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis.

  5. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  6. Phonological development in 4-6-year-old moderately hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition of clear phonological rules is of utmost importance for a child when he/she is learning to decode and convey meanings using spoken language. Fifteen Finnish-speaking children, five normally hearing (NH) 3-year-olds and 10 moderately hearing impaired (HId) 4-6-year-olds were studied here. Speech samples consisting of 62 words were collected from each child during a picture naming task. Frequent phonetic (articulation) errors together with normal (but delayed) and deviant phonological processes of HId children were found in this study. The frequency and quality of the processes seemed to be related more to the grade of HI than, for example, the age of the child. Implications for speech therapy are briefly discussed.

  7. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  8. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  9. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person’s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years old attending the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 400 children selected using a multistage sampling method. Data were collected by interviews. The questionnaire included two sections: a demographic section with questions about the demographic characteristics of the children and parents and a children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and different statistical tests were used (P < 0.05). Results The mean age of the children was 64.27 ± 9.3 months. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 36.25%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with age, height, body mass index, residence of children, father’s occupation, mother’s diseases, father’s drug abuse, and parents’ marital status (P < 0.05). Conclusions Sleep disorders in children threaten growth and development, and are dangerous for their health. Sleep disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children’s learning and behavioral problems. PMID:27651942

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection with a duodenal ulcer in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hajikano, Miharu; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Takita, Yuko; Okada, Takuya; Asai, Makiko; Fujimatsu, Mariko; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kamisago, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Takehisa; Shioya, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Akira

    2006-10-01

    A 6-year-old boy was hospitalized because of dark feces and facial pallor of 1 weeks duration. Other gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, were absent, but he felt dizziness when standing and fatigue on effort. Hematologic studies revealed iron-deficiency anemia, and endoscopy showed gastric erosions and a duodenal ulcer. All test results for Helicobacter pylori infection, including H. pylori antigen in stool, anti-H. pylori IgG immunoassay in serum, and the (13)C-urea breath test, were positive. Because an H. pylori-associated gastric ulcer had been diagnosed with endoscopy in the patients father 3 years earlier, father-son transmission was suspected. The patient was treated with triple-agent eradication therapy (proton pump inhibitor [lansoprazol], amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) for 2 weeks. One month after therapy was completed, eradication of H. pylori was confirmed by negative results on the stool antigen test. Peptic ulcer disease can occur in young children, as in this case. The stool antigen test kit is a useful and reliable method that can be used even in preschool children to diagnose H. pylori infection. PMID:17106182

  11. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  12. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person’s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years old attending the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 400 children selected using a multistage sampling method. Data were collected by interviews. The questionnaire included two sections: a demographic section with questions about the demographic characteristics of the children and parents and a children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and different statistical tests were used (P < 0.05). Results The mean age of the children was 64.27 ± 9.3 months. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 36.25%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with age, height, body mass index, residence of children, father’s occupation, mother’s diseases, father’s drug abuse, and parents’ marital status (P < 0.05). Conclusions Sleep disorders in children threaten growth and development, and are dangerous for their health. Sleep disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children’s learning and behavioral problems.

  13. [Ulcerative colitis in a 6-year-old boy with severe coeliac disease - a case report].

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewcz, Agnieszka; Kominek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine elicited by the gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible people. In coeliac patients there is higher incidence of other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The coexistence of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is rare. The spectrum of presentation of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease may be similar. However, those disorders require various therapeutic approaches. Thus, early recognition of the overlap between coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is crucial to apply appropriate treatment and to prevent possible complications. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with a delay in physical and psychomotor development, rickets, severe anaemia and bloody diarrhoea. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease and ulcerative disease. The coexistence of both disorders is extremely rare in childhood. However, ulcerative colitis should be considered in coeliac children on restrictive gluten-free diet with persistent diarrhoea or bleeding from lower gastrointestinal tract. Screening for coeliac disease should be considered in children with ulcerative colitis with impaired physical development and lack of remission despite of proper treatment.

  14. Water Arsenic Exposure and Intellectual Function in 6-Year-Old Children in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Kline, Jennie; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; LoIacono, Nancy J.; Levy, Diane; Cheng, Zhongqi; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    Background We recently reported results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 10-year-olds in Bangladesh, who had been exposed to arsenic from drinking water in their home wells. Objectives We present results of a similar investigation of 301 randomly selected 6-year-olds whose parents participated in our ongoing prospective study of the health effects of As exposure in 12,000 residents of Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods Water As and manganese concentrations of tube wells at each home were obtained by surveying all study region wells. Children and mothers were first visited at home, where the quality of home stimulation was measured, and then seen in our field clinic, where children received a medical examination wherein weight, height, and head circumference were assessed. We assessed children’s intellectual function using subtests drawn from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, version III, by summing weighted items across domains to create Verbal, Performance, Processing Speed, and Full-Scale raw scores. Children provided urine specimens for measuring urinary As and were asked to provide blood samples for blood lead measurements. Results Exposure to As from drinking water was associated with reduced intellectual function before and after adjusting for water Mn, for blood lead levels, and for sociodemographic features known to contribute to intellectual function. With covariate adjustment, water As remained significantly negatively associated with both Performance and Processing Speed raw scores; associations were less strong than in our previously studied 10-year-olds. Conclusion This second cross-sectional study of As exposure expands our concerns about As neurotoxicity to a younger age group. PMID:17384779

  15. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    de Weerth, C; Zijlmans, M A C; Mack, S; Beijers, R

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test is composed of three short tasks that children have to perform in front of a judge. The tasks are rigged so as to provoke (partial) failure in the child's performance. Participants were 42 children (M = 68.0 months, SD = 4.3). Six saliva samples were taken during the testing session to obtain cortisol measurements of baseline concentrations, stress reactivity, and recovery. Our findings showed that this paradigm was effective in provoking a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration in the group as a whole, with no effects of possible confounders (child's sex, age or school, parental educational level, time of testing, sex of experimenter, and sex of judge). The mean cortisol concentration increase for the group was 127.5% (SD = 190.9); 61% of the children could be classified as reactors (mean increase of 214%, SD = 201.5), and 39% as non-reactors (mean decrease of 7.8%, SD = 16.8). To our knowledge, this is the first study in this age group that shows a significant cortisol response for the group as a whole to a standardized laboratory paradigm. As such, this paradigm is a promising tool to be used in future research on early life interactions between physiology and psychology.

  16. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  17. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  18. Network-Level Connectivity Dynamics of Movie Watching in 6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert W.; Short, Sarah J.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32) = 5.02, p = 0.0001). More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention). For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32) = −2.46, p = 0.02; Seed-based: t(32) = −1.62, p =0.12) and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32) = 2.84, p = 0.008; Seed-based: t(32) = 2.28, p =0.03), which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to

  19. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  20. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  1. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  2. Systemic Hypertension and Transient Ischemic Attack in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Fibromuscular Dysplasia Treated with Percutaneous Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-15

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  3. Systemic hypertension and transient ischemic attack in a 6-year-old girl with fibromuscular dysplasia treated with percutaneous angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  4. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours over a School-Year: Differences between 6-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammarberg, Annie; Hagekull, Berit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms.…

  5. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  6. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  7. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  8. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature. PMID:27746877

  9. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children.

  10. Ultrasound screening for neoplasms in children up to 6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzejewski, Grzegorz; Wozniak, Magdalena M.; Pawelec, Agata; Matera, Albert; Kunach, Magdalena; Madej, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Andrzej P.; Nowakowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the ultrasound (US) screening program was to detect neoplastic lesions in children, together with other pathologies of the developmental age in the area of the neck, abdomen, female pelvis, and scrotum in boys. US screening scans, including cervical, abdominal, pelvical, and scrotal US, were performed in the population of asymptomatic children aged from 9 months to 6 years. The children were scanned in Mobile Pediatric US Unit, consisting of 2 independent consulting rooms. The scans of 14,324 children were analyzed, 7247 boys and 7077 girls. Totally 42,538 US examinations were performed, including 14,187 cervical scans, 14,259 abdominal scans, 6942 female pelvical scans, and 7150 scrotal scans. Totally 5426 abnormalities were detected, which represent 12.7% of all examinations and 30% of patients. Three tumors were recognized, which are renal malignant tumor diagnosed as Wilms tumor, neurogenic tumor of the rib, and teratoma of the testis. US screening in pediatric population can be used to reveal lesions inaccessible to clinical examination, like tumors or other pathologies of developmental age before the onset of clinical symptoms. Due to the large number of detected abnormalities it should be recommended to the whole population of certain age. PMID:27759641

  11. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Unnikrishnan Krishnan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6–8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43%) children and in the awake record only of 6 (16%) children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4%) had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2) and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR) for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children's maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ)] or the children's characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures. PMID:27570381

  12. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  13. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  14. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Katge, Farhin; Mithiborwala, Sajjad; Pammi, Thejokrishna

    2013-01-01

    Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth. PMID:23878747

  15. [Intramural duodenal hematoma and acute pancreatitis as a complication of diagnostic biopsy of a duodenal 6-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Krzesiek, Elżbieta; Iwańczak, Barbara; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Patkowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Hematoma duodenum is a very rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract when biopsy of the duodenum is performed (average frequency is estimated as 1:1,250 biopsies). Most often, it affects children and young adults without any risk factors. Symptoms result from obstruction of the duodenum and compression of the adjacent structures. Conservative treatment, which consists of parenteral nutrition and aspiration of gastric contents until the absorption of hematoma and patency of the gastrointestinal tract returns, is preferred. This paper describes a 6-year-old boy diagnosed due to short stature and low weight in whom the diagnostic biopsy of the duodenum caused formation of a hematoma in the descending duodenum and led to total ileus and acute pancreatitis. The boy was treated conservatively with good result and complete resolution of symptoms was achived.

  16. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  17. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  18. Improvements in Lung Function and Height among Cohorts of 6-Year-Olds with Cystic Fibrosis from 1994 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, Donald R.; Pasta, David J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize spirometry and height changes in cohorts of 6-year-olds with cystic fibrosis (CF). Study design Global Lung Initiative (GLI) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC and CDC height-for-age (HFA) Z-scores were generated for 6-year-olds in the from the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) each year from 1994 and 2012. Z-score mean differences were analyzed by t-test and time trends of means by least squares regression for all children and for subgroups (sex, F580del mutation genotype, Medicaid insurance, and prenatal/newborn screening identification). Z-score distributions were compared by two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Results 11,670 children with CF were studied, of whom 50.5% were males, 50.2% had the F508del/F508del genotype, and 46.6% were insured by Medicaid. Mean HFA, FEV1 and FVC Z-scores increased significantly over the period in the entire population and all subgroups (P<0.001), but FEV1/FVC Z-scores were below normal and did not change significantly. In 2012, children identified by screening had significantly higher mean HFA (P=0.002), FEV1 (P<0.001) and FVC (P<0.001) Z-scores than those not screened, with 90% of FVC and 71.4% of FEV1 Z-scores greater than predicted by the Normal distribution; FEV1/FVC Z-scores were not different between screening groups. Conclusions Consistent, significant increases in HFA, FEV1, and FVC occurred from 1994–2012, but FEV1/FVC, a measure of airway obstruction, did not appreciably change. FVC and FEV1 Z-score distributions suggest that normative equation reference populations under-predict lung volumes of children with CF, but the reason(s) for this remain unclear. PMID:25134852

  19. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  20. Mirror writing in 5- to 6-year-old children: The preferred hand is not the explanation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jean-Paul; Koch, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Non-pathological, spontaneous mirror writing, whether complete or partial, has long been associated with writing with the left hand and attributed to the fact that abductive writing, which most people find easier, is from right to left when people write with their left hand. However, recent research suggests another explanation: children who do not know the orientation of the letters and digits may apply an implicit right-writing rule which causes them to invert mainly left-oriented characters (e.g., J, 3). But would left-hand writers apply such a rule? The present study examines the relationship between these two explanations of mirror writing and asks whether they coexist in children who write with their left hand. Is the abductive writing explanation specific to mirror writing by left-hand writers and the implicit right-writing rule specific to right-hand writers? A comparison of 59 children who wrote with their left hand and 59 children who wrote with their right hand (matched for age and school experience) provided clear evidence against the abductive-writing explanation and in favour of the right-writing rule for both groups. Therefore, spontaneous mirror writing in typical 5- to 6-year-olds does not seem to be a function of preferred writing hand.

  1. The role of pause as a prosodic boundary marker: language ERP studies in German 3- and 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Schipke, Christine S; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-07-01

    Spoken language is hierarchically structured into prosodic units divided by prosodic breaks. The largest prosodic breaks in an utterance are intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), which are defined by three acoustic cues, namely, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pausing. Previous studies have revealed that the electrophysiological marker of IPB perception, the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), is established between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, we examined the neural activity underlying IPB perception in children by targeting their reliance on pausing; hypothesized to be a key boundary cue in German. To evaluate the role of pausing, we tested IPB perception without the boundary pause, but with pitch change and preboundary lengthening. We tested children at the age of 3 years, when the CPS in response to IPBs has just emerged, and at 6 years, when language abilities are further developed. Results revealed that 6-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, show the CPS in response to IPBs without full prosodic marking. These results indicate developmental differences with respect to the role of pausing as a prosodic boundary cue in German. The correlation of children's IPB perception and their syntactic abilities further corroborates the close prosody-syntax interaction in children's advancing ability to process phrase structure.

  2. Effects of delays on 6-year-old children’s self-generation and retention of knowledge through integration

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (stem facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In Experiment 1, children integrated the stem facts at Session 1 and retained the self-generated memory traces over 1 week. In Experiment 2, 1-week delays were imposed either between the to-be-integrated facts (between-stem delay) or after the stem facts but before the test (before-test delay). Integration performance was diminished in both conditions. Moreover, memory for individual stem facts was lower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that self-generation through integration promoted memory for explicitly taught information. The results indicate the importance of tests for promoting self-generation through integration as well as for retaining newly self-generated and explicitly taught information. PMID:23563162

  3. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    PubMed

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described. PMID:24733506

  4. Sex Differences in the Effects of Inherited Bitter Thiourea Sensitivity on Body Weight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kathleen L.; Reid, Adrienne; MacDougall1, Megan C.; Cassano, Hope; Song, Joo Lee; Deng, Liyong; Lanzano, Patricia; Chung, Wendy K.; Kissileff, Harry R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that inherited taste blindness to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may be a risk factor for obesity, but this literature has been highly controversial. The objectives of this study were (i) to confirm findings that show an interaction between PROP status and sex on BMI z-score, and (ii) to determine if sex also interacts with variations in TAS2R38 (phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) genotype) to influence weight status in 4–6 year olds. Also, we tested whether nontaster children consumed more fat and total energy at laboratory-based meals. Seventy-two ethnically diverse children who ranged in weight status were classified as tasters (N = 52) or nontasters (N = 20) using a standard PROP screening solution. Anthropometric measures were taken, and at the end of each visit, children ate ad libitum from test meals intended for exploratory purposes. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva and alleles at TAS2R38 were genotyped for A49P polymorphisms. In 75.8% of children, PTC genotype predicted PROP phenotype, whereas in 24.4%, genotype did not predict phenotype. PROP nontaster males had higher BMI z-scores than taster-males and females in both groups (P < 0.05), but due to a three-way interaction between PROP phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype, and sex, this relationship was only true for children who were homozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele (P < 0.0005). There were no differences in test-meal intake as a function of PROP phenotype or TAS2R38 genotype. These results suggest that the TAS2R38 variation, PROP phenotype, and sex interact to impact obesity risk in children. Future studies should be done to determine how this trait influences energy balance. PMID:19779476

  5. Event-related brain potentials to change in the frequency and temporal structure of sounds in typically developing 5-6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ervast, Leena; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Zachau, Swantje; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Heinänen, Kaisu; Veijola, Mari; Heikkinen, Elisa; Suominen, Kalervo; Luotonen, Mirja; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-12-01

    The brain's ability to recognize different acoustic cues (e.g., frequency changes in rapid temporal succession) is important for speech perception and thus for successful language development. Here we report on distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) in 5-6-year-old children recorded in a passive oddball paradigm to repeated tone pair stimuli with a frequency change in the second tone in the pair, replicating earlier findings. An occasional insertion of a third tone within the tone pair generated a more merged pattern, which has not been reported previously in 5-6-year-old children. Both types of deviations elicited pre-attentive discriminative mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN) responses. Temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) showed a similar topographical pattern with fronto-central negativity for MMN and LDN. We also found a previously unreported discriminative response complex (P340-N440) at the temporal electrode sites at about 140 ms and 240 ms after the frequency deviance, which we suggest reflects a discriminative processing of frequency change. The P340 response was positive with a clear radial distribution preceding the fronto-central frequency MMN by about 30 ms. The results indicate that 5-6-year-old children can detect frequency change and the occasional insertion of an additional tone in sound pairs as reflected by MMN and LDN, even with quite short within-stimulus intervals (150 ms and 50 ms). Furthermore, MMN for these changes is preceded by another response to deviancy, temporal P340, which seems to reflect a parallel but earlier discriminatory process. PMID:26342552

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI-scanning in 5- and 6-year-old children: training protocol and motion assessment.

    PubMed

    Theys, Catherine; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) are widely used to study structural and functional neural connectivity. However, as these techniques are highly sensitive to motion artifacts and require a considerable amount of time for image acquisition, successful acquisition of these images can be challenging to complete with certain populations. This is especially true for young children. This paper describes a new approach termed the 'submarine protocol', designed to prepare 5- and 6-year-old children for advanced MRI scanning. The submarine protocol aims to ensure that successful scans can be acquired in a time- and resource-efficient manner, without the need for sedation. This manuscript outlines the protocol and details its outcomes, as measured through the number of children who completed the scanning procedure and analysis of the degree of motion present in the acquired images. Seventy-six children aged between 5.8 and 6.9 years were trained using the submarine protocol and subsequently underwent DTI and rfMRI scanning. After completing the submarine protocol, 75 of the 76 children (99%) completed their DTI-scan and 72 children (95%) completed the full 35-minute scan session. Results of diffusion data, acquired in 75 children, showed that the motion in 60 of the scans (80%) did not exceed the threshold for excessive motion. In the rfMRI scans, this was the case for 62 of the 71 scans (87%). When placed in the context of previous studies, the motion data of the 5- and 6-year-old children reported here were as good as, or better than those previously reported for groups of older children (i.e., 8-year-olds). Overall, this study shows that the submarine protocol can be used successfully to acquire DTI and rfMRI scans in 5 and 6-year-old children, without the need for sedation or lengthy training procedures.

  7. Study of occlusal characteristics of primary dentition and the prevalence of maloclusion in 4 to 6 years old children in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhayya, Deepak P; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Dixit, Uma B; Shivaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and to determine the different occlusal characteristics in primary dentition of 4 to 6 years old children in India. Materials and Methods: The target population comprised 4 to 6 years old children attending different nursery, kindergarten and primary schools of Bagalkot city. Stratified cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample. Each subject was assessed for various occlusal characteristics. Results: Occlusal characteristic found were flush terminal plane (52.5%), class I canine relationship (84%), maxillary developmental spaces (35.4%), primate spaces in maxilla (47.6%), mandibular crowding (4.6%), mandibular midline shift (5.6%), anterior multiple tooth crossbite (1.3%), scissors bite (0.6%), anterior open bite (1%), over bite of 0-2 mm (81.6%) and overjet of 0-2 mm (84.5%). The age wise difference for the occlusal characteristics was statistically significant. Conclusions: The data revealed that most of the children had malocclusion. This highlights the importance of identifying children who are in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health or aesthetic reasons. PMID:23559929

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Sendai virus-based human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Adderson, Elisabeth; Branum, Kristen; Sealy, Robert E; Jones, Bart G; Surman, Sherri L; Penkert, Rhiannon; Freiden, Pamela; Slobod, Karen S; Gaur, Aditya H; Hayden, Randall T; Allison, Kim; Howlett, Nanna; Utech, Jill; Allay, Jim; Knight, James; Sleep, Susan; Meagher, Michael M; Russell, Charles J; Portner, Allen; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2015-03-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), resulting in tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States alone. No licensed vaccine is yet available. We have developed murine PIV-1 (Sendai virus [SeV]) as a live Jennerian vaccine for hPIV-1. Here, we describe vaccine testing in healthy 3- to 6-year-old hPIV-1-seropositive children in a dose escalation study. One dose of the vaccine (5 × 10(5), 5 × 10(6), or 5 × 10(7) 50% egg infectious doses) was delivered by the intranasal route to each study participant. The vaccine was well tolerated by all the study participants. There was no sign of vaccine virus replication in the airway in any participant. Most children exhibited an increase in antibody binding and neutralizing responses toward hPIV-1 within 4 weeks from the time of vaccination. In several children, antibody responses remained above incoming levels for at least 6 months after vaccination. Data suggest that SeV may provide a benefit to 3- to 6-year-old children, even when vaccine recipients have preexisting cross-reactive antibodies due to previous exposures to hPIV-1. Results encourage the testing of SeV administration in young seronegative children to protect against the serious respiratory tract diseases caused by hPIV-1 infections.

  9. The effect of Filmed modeling on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental treatment: A randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Paryab, Mehrsa; Arab, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Filmed modeling in comparison with commonly used Tell-Show-Do technique (T.S.D) on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental practice. Materials and Methods: Forty six children aged 4-6 years were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated into two groups. Group I: At the first visit, the procedure of Tell-Show-Do, and at the second visit, the treatment procedures were performed by the dentist for the children. Group II: At the first visit, children watched a film consisting of the procedure of Tell-Show-Do performed on a child model. At the second visit, treatment procedures were performed. In both groups, during the treatment procedure, index of heart rate was measured and behaviors of children were recorded. The children's anxious and cooperative behaviors on the recordings were quantified according to Venham and Frankl rating scales, respectively. The data were compared between two groups using T-test method. All statistical references were made at 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate measures, clinical anxiety and cooperative behavior scores of children between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusion: Filmed modeling can be an efficient alternative method to Tell-Show-Do technique in pre-appointment preparation of the 4-6 years old children during dental treatment. PMID:25225565

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Resting-State Functional MRI-Scanning in 5- and 6-Year-Old Children: Training Protocol and Motion Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Catherine; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) are widely used to study structural and functional neural connectivity. However, as these techniques are highly sensitive to motion artifacts and require a considerable amount of time for image acquisition, successful acquisition of these images can be challenging to complete with certain populations. This is especially true for young children. This paper describes a new approach termed the ‘submarine protocol’, designed to prepare 5- and 6-year-old children for advanced MRI scanning. The submarine protocol aims to ensure that successful scans can be acquired in a time- and resource-efficient manner, without the need for sedation. This manuscript outlines the protocol and details its outcomes, as measured through the number of children who completed the scanning procedure and analysis of the degree of motion present in the acquired images. Seventy-six children aged between 5.8 and 6.9 years were trained using the submarine protocol and subsequently underwent DTI and rfMRI scanning. After completing the submarine protocol, 75 of the 76 children (99%) completed their DTI-scan and 72 children (95%) completed the full 35-minute scan session. Results of diffusion data, acquired in 75 children, showed that the motion in 60 of the scans (80%) did not exceed the threshold for excessive motion. In the rfMRI scans, this was the case for 62 of the 71 scans (87%). When placed in the context of previous studies, the motion data of the 5- and 6-year-old children reported here were as good as, or better than those previously reported for groups of older children (i.e., 8-year-olds). Overall, this study shows that the submarine protocol can be used successfully to acquire DTI and rfMRI scans in 5 and 6-year-old children, without the need for sedation or lengthy training procedures. PMID:24718364

  11. Tongue reconstruction with minimal donor site morbidity using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kawaguchi, Runa; Suesada, Nobuko; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Tongue reconstruction was performed using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl with undifferentiated sarcoma of the tongue. After hemi-glossectomy with upper neck dissection, a 3-lobed DIEP free flap was used for the reconstruction. Donor site was closed primarily with suturing umbilicus in proper position. No flap loss, leakage, or infection occurred. Postoperatively, the patient was able to consume a normal diet without difficulty or aspiration and displayed good speech function. No donor site morbidity, e.g., herniation or bulging, was observed, and the patient was able to perform their normal daily activities. DIEP flaps provide a pliable skin paddle, an adequate amount of adipose tissue, and reduced donor site morbidity, even in children. We did not have any difficulty harvesting the DIEP flap or with the microvascular anastomosis. We consider DIEP free flaps to be the ideal option for pediatric tongue reconstruction.

  12. Treatment of an acute promyelocytic leukemia relapse using arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rock, Nathalie; Mattiello, V; Judas, C; Huezo-Diaz, P; Bourquin, J P; Gumy-Pause, F; Ansari, M

    2014-03-01

    In adult therapy, arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are recognized as active treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The efficacy of this combination in pediatric APL has not yet been well established. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with relapsed APL, with a PML-RARα mutation, treated with a combination of ATO and ATRA. Over a period of 5 months, she received in total, 75 doses of intravenous ATO and 40 doses of oral ATRA. Currently, 22 months after relapse, she is still in complete remission. Here, we describe treatment of a relapsed APL in a child with limited treatment of ATO and ATRA and review the literature. PMID:24498972

  13. Functional MRI in a 6-year-old boy with unilateral cortical malformation: concordant representation of both hands in the unaffected hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Staudt, M; Pieper, T; Grodd, W; Winkler, P; Holthausen, H; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in a 6-year-old boy with a complex malformation of the right hemisphere who suffered from pharmaco-refractory epilepsy. Clinical examination revealed left-sided hemiparesis and marked mirror movements of the opposite hand both during paretic and non-paretic hand movements. Functional MRI of repetitive unimanual grasping demonstrated that the two hands share a common cortical representation located in the central motor region of the unaffected left hemisphere. The affected right hemisphere did not show any activation during either task. This case study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of motor fMRI in young children before they undergo epilepsy surgery. PMID:11521214

  14. Developmental change in the acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is imprecise and hence differs from exact counting. Evidence suggests that the resolution of the ANS, as specified by a Weber fraction, increases with age such that adults can discriminate numerosities that infants cannot. However, the Weber fraction has yet to be determined for participants of any age between 9 months and adulthood, leaving its developmental trajectory unclear. Here we identify the Weber fraction of the ANS in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children and in adults. We show that the resolution of this system continues to increase throughout childhood, with adultlike levels of acuity attained surprisingly late in development. PMID:18793076

  15. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate in accordance with 9 CFR part 86 and without...

  16. A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: the case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Chatham, Christopher H; Wiseheart, Melody; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Good executive function has been linked to many positive outcomes in academic performance, health, and social competence. However, some aspects of executive function may interfere with other cognitive processes. Childhood provides a unique test case for investigating such cognitive trade-offs, given the dramatic failures and developments observed during this period. For example, most children categorically switch or perseverate when asked to switch between rules on a card-sorting task. To test potential trade-offs with the development of task switching abilities, we compared 6-year-olds who switched versus perseverated in a card-sorting task on two aspects of inhibitory control: response inhibition (via a stop signal task) and interference control (via a Simon task). Across two studies, switchers showed worse response inhibition than perseverators, consistent with the idea of cognitive trade-offs; however, switchers showed better interference control than perseverators, consistent with prior work documenting benefits associated with the development of executive function. This pattern of positive and negative associations may reflect aspects of working memory (active maintenance of current goals, and clearing of prior goals) that help children focus on a single task goal but hurt in situations with conflicting goals. Implications for understanding components of executive function and their relationships across development are discussed.

  17. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  18. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Kaczorowski, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Markiewicz, Bartosz D.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). Case Report We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Conclusions Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment. PMID:25866593

  19. Primary central nervous system lymphoma causing multiple spinal cord compression and carcinomatous meningitis in a 6-year-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed A; Sobani, Zain A; Enam, Syed Ather; Enam, Kishwar; Ashraf, M Shamvil

    2011-05-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the brain, spinal cord, and leptomeninges. Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) and spinal cord compression in PCNSL are very rare and usually present in advanced stages of the disease. The average survival time of a CM patient is about 4 to 6 weeks, which may be extended to about 4 to 6 months with treatment. Here we present a case of CM and spinal cord compression by multiple PCNSL in a 6-year-old girl, who has survived 2 years and 9 months posttreatment with no recurrence. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first case reporting survival after CM. The patient presented with weakness of her right arm, right leg, and left side of the face. Examination revealed mild facial asymmetry with left facial lower motor neuron palsy and lateral gaze restriction of left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of her spinal cord showed postcontrast enhancement of the intradural structures on the spinal canal at levels C3-C6 and L1-L5 and along with the intracranial leptomeninges. Histopathological examination of the neoplastic tissue from cauda equina revealed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After chemotherapy her disease regressed and magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of recurrence or residual disease. In our experience the response to chemotherapy was remarkable and recommend that aggressive tumor resection strategies should be reserved for cases with severe signs of spinal compression. PMID:21464767

  20. A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: the case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Chatham, Christopher H; Wiseheart, Melody; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Good executive function has been linked to many positive outcomes in academic performance, health, and social competence. However, some aspects of executive function may interfere with other cognitive processes. Childhood provides a unique test case for investigating such cognitive trade-offs, given the dramatic failures and developments observed during this period. For example, most children categorically switch or perseverate when asked to switch between rules on a card-sorting task. To test potential trade-offs with the development of task switching abilities, we compared 6-year-olds who switched versus perseverated in a card-sorting task on two aspects of inhibitory control: response inhibition (via a stop signal task) and interference control (via a Simon task). Across two studies, switchers showed worse response inhibition than perseverators, consistent with the idea of cognitive trade-offs; however, switchers showed better interference control than perseverators, consistent with prior work documenting benefits associated with the development of executive function. This pattern of positive and negative associations may reflect aspects of working memory (active maintenance of current goals, and clearing of prior goals) that help children focus on a single task goal but hurt in situations with conflicting goals. Implications for understanding components of executive function and their relationships across development are discussed. PMID:24791710

  1. Anterior Reconstruction of C2–C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1–C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1–C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies. PMID:26835212

  2. Anterior Reconstruction of C2-C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1-C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1-C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies.

  3. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  4. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  5. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  6. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without further restriction under this subpart....

  7. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  8. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  9. Air-displacement plethysmography pediatric option in 2-6 years old using the four-compartment model as a criterion method.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Allison, David B

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy, precision, bias, and reliability of percent fat (%fat) determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the pediatric option against the four-compartment model in 31 children (4.1 ± 1.2 years, 103.3 ± 10.2 cm, 17.5 ± 3.4 kg). %Fat was determined by (BOD POD Body Composition System; COSMED USA, Concord, CA) with the pediatric option. Total body water (TBW) was determined by isotope dilution ((2)H(2)O; 0.2 g/kg) while bone mineral was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar iDXA v13.31; GE, Fairfield, CT and analyzed using enCore 2010 software). The four-compartment model by Lohman was used as the criterion measure of %fat. The regression for %fat by ADP vs. %fat by the four-compartment model did not deviate from the line of identity where: y = 0.849(x) + 4.291. ADP explained 75.2% of the variance in %fat by the four-compartment model while the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 2.09 %fat. The Bland-Altman analysis showed %fat by ADP did not exhibit any bias across the range of fatness (r = 0.04; P = 0.81). The reliability of ADP was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV), within-subject SD, and Cronbach's α. The CV was 3.5%, within-subject SD was 0.9%, and Cronbach's α was 0.95. In conclusion, ADP with the pediatric option is accurate, precise, reliable, and without bias in estimating %fat in children 2-6 years old.

  10. Developmental changes in the influence of conventional and instrumental cues on over-imitation in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Cristina-Andreea; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that children in the preschool period are fastidious imitators who copy models with such high levels of fidelity that task efficiency may be compromised. This over-imitative tendency, and the pervasive nature of it, has led to many explorations and theoretical interpretations of this behavior, including social, causal, and conventional explanations. In support of the conventional account, recent research has shown that children are more likely to over-imitate when the task is framed using conventional verbal cues than when it is framed using instrumental verbal cues. The aim of the current study was to determine whether 3- to 6-year-old children (N=185, mean age=60 months) would over-imitate when presented with instrumental and conventional verbal cues, which varied only minimally and were more directly comparable between instrumental and conventional contexts than those used in previous studies. In addition to varying the overall context, we also varied the instrumental prompt used such that the cues provided ranged in the extent to which they provided explicit instruction to omit the irrelevant actions. Counter to our predictions, and the high levels of over-imitation witnessed in previous studies, the older children frequently over-imitated irrespective of the context provided, whereas the youngest children over-imitated selectively, including the irrelevant actions only when the task was presented in a conventional frame. We propose that the age differences found following an instrumental presentation are a result of the youngest children being more open to the motivation of learning the causality of the task, whereas the older children were more strongly motivated to adopt a social convention. PMID:26774258

  11. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  12. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  13. Results of a free spay/neuter program in a Hispanic colonia on the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Poss, Jane E; Bader, Julia O

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study, conducted in a small, impoverished Hispanic community on the Texas-Mexico border, was to evaluate the level of participation in a bilingual spay/neuter program offered free of charge to residents with companion animals. Prior to the sterilization project, approximately 11% of dogs and about 27% of cats with guardians underwent surgical sterilization. Over an 8-month period, the spay/neuter program sterilized about 47% of dogs and 38% of cats who had guardians in the community. In spite of residents' early reluctance to neuter their dogs, the project sterilized nearly equal numbers of male and female dogs (200 male; 201 female).

  14. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  15. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  16. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  17. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  18. Outcome of one-stage surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children from 1.5 to 6 years old. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Deng, Yu; Fang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of one-stage treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in patients after walking age. A Total of 58 children (67 hips) were retrospectively investigated to assess the efficacy and safety of one-stage treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children from 1.5 to 6 years of age with a mean follow-up of 4.00±0.43 (range 3-6.8) years. Eleven (19%) were male, forty-seven (81%) were female. Our method consisted of open reduction, Salter innominate osteotomy, femoral shortening and derotation. The patients were distributed into three groups according to the age at which they were operated: 12 (20.7%) patients with 12 hips (17.9%) were operated between 1.5 and 2 years of age (Group I), 35 (60.3%) patients with 44 hips (65.7%) were operated between 2 and 4 years (Group II), 11 (19%) patients with 11 hips (16.4%) were operated between 4 and 6 years (Group III). Clinical and radiological assessment at final follow-up showed that the outcome was not significantly different between group I and group II. But clinically, there was significant difference between group I and group III, and also between group II and group III. Although in the outcome of radiological assessment there was no significant difference between group I and group II compared with group III. The rate of avascular nerosis in group I was lower than in group II or in group III. Children with DDH between 1.5 and 6 years of age were treated successfully with one-stage treatment, but in our hands the best age at surgery is before 4 years of age. PMID:26435230

  19. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  20. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S.; Hahn, Samantha L.; Harris, William S.; Kinabo, Joyce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described. Objective The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1) whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2) the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2–6 years of age. Methods A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression. Results Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ) was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T) ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured. Conclusions The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2–6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population. PMID:27137223

  1. Impact of a bilingual mobile spay/neuter clinic in a U.S./Mexico border city.

    PubMed

    Poss, Jane E; Everett, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There are between 4 and 10 million dogs and cats killed annually in the United States. Although there are no accurate national estimates of the number of companion animals who are sterilized surgically. Approximately 26,000 companion animals are euthanized annually in El Paso County, Texas, located on the U.S./Mexico border. In an effort to determine if a readily available spay/neuter program would be cost effective and eventually help to lower the county's euthanasia rate, a mobile spay/neuter clinic began operation for a 5-month period in 2004, using a volunteer veterinarian and paid staff. Sterilizations performed totaled 1,108: 959 dogs (372 males and 587 females) and 149 cats (50 males and 99 females). The per companion animal sterilization cost of 15.13 dollars (27.83 dollars had the veterinarian been paid) was considerably cheaper than the rate of 57 dollars per companion animal achieved by a local voucher program contracting with private veterinarians to perform reduced-cost sterilizations. PMID:16649953

  2. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination.

  3. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians' 2016 Veterinary Medical Care Guidelines for Spay-Neuter Programs.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Brenda; Bushby, Philip A; McCobb, Emily; White, Sara C; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Appel, Leslie D; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Wilford, Christine L; Bohling, Mark W; Eddlestone, Susan M; Farrell, Kelly A; Ferguson, Nancy; Harrison, Kelly; Howe, Lisa M; Isaza, Natalie M; Levy, Julie K; Looney, Andrea; Moyer, Michael R; Robertson, Sheilah Ann; Tyson, Kathy

    2016-07-15

    As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs. PMID:27379593

  4. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs.

    PubMed

    Looney, Andrea L; Bohling, Mark W; Bushby, Philip A; Howe, Lisa M; Griffin, Brenda; Levy, Julie K; Eddlestone, Susan M; Weedon, James R; Appel, Leslie D; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Ferguson, Nancy J; Sweeney, David J; Tyson, Kathy A; Voors, Adriana H; White, Sara C; Wilford, Christine L; Farrell, Kelly A; Jefferson, Ellen P; Moyer, Michael R; Newbury, Sandra P; Saxton, Melissa A; Scarlett, Janet M

    2008-07-01

    As efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned dogs and cats have increased, greater attention has been focused on spay-neuter programs throughout the United States. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of programs have been developed to increase delivery of spay-neuter services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, feral cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to ensure a consistent level of care, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. The guidelines consist of recommendations for preoperative care (eg, patient transport and housing, patient selection, client communication, record keeping, and medical considerations), anesthetic management (eg, equipment, monitoring, perioperative considerations, anesthetic protocols, and emergency preparedness), surgical care (eg, operating-area environment; surgical-pack preparation; patient preparation; surgeon preparation; surgical procedures for pediatric, juvenile, and adult patients; and identification of neutered animals), and postoperative care (eg, analgesia, recovery, and release). These guidelines are based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, microbiology, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs. PMID:18593314

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Spay and Neuter Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    White, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This study examined musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in spay and neuter veterinarians using an internet-based questionnaire. Hand pain was most common in the right thumb and wrist, and body pain was most common in the lower back, shoulders, and neck. Several work-related risk factors for discomfort were discovered, including long career in spay and neuter, increasing weekly hours in surgery, and decreasing job satisfaction. Although most respondents felt posture during surgery was important, few spay and neuter veterinarians have received any instruction in posture or ergonomics in surgery. Abstract A cross-sectional study to investigate musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) surveyed 219 veterinarians who currently or previously perform spays and neuters at least 4 hours per week. Participants were asked about the presence and severity of hand and body MSD during the previous month, whether MSD interfered with work or daily activities, whether they attributed their MSD to their spay/neuter work, and whether MSD had ever necessitated absence from work. The period prevalence of MSD was 99.1%, with 76.7% experiencing hand or wrist pain and 98.2% experiencing body pain. Hand discomfort was most commonly reported in the right thumb and/or thumb base (49.8%) and the right wrist (37.9%). Body discomfort was most commonly reported in the lower back (76.7%), shoulders (72.6%), and neck (71.7%). Increasing career length, increasing weekly hours in surgery and decreasing job satisfaction were the work-related factors with the greatest relative contribution accounting for variation in hand pain severity and total pain. Although 94.4% of respondents felt that posture during surgery is important, only 30.6% had received any instruction in posture and positioning for surgery. Future interventions should aim to optimize surgical efficiency, surgeon work schedules, and working environment. Analysis and intervention studies are required to determine further causes of

  6. Female Urethral Duplication: Rare Anomaly with Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Gowrishankar; Ramesh, S

    2015-01-01

    Urethral duplication (UD) in females is a rare congenital anomaly and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation requires thorough investigations to delineate anatomy which is imperative for surgical reconstruction to provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We describe the successful management of a 6-year-old girl with UD (presented as ambiguous genitalia and urinary incontinence) along with a review of pertinent literature. PMID:27512541

  7. Female Urethral Duplication: Rare Anomaly with Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M. Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Gowrishankar; Ramesh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral duplication (UD) in females is a rare congenital anomaly and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation requires thorough investigations to delineate anatomy which is imperative for surgical reconstruction to provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We describe the successful management of a 6-year-old girl with UD (presented as ambiguous genitalia and urinary incontinence) along with a review of pertinent literature. PMID:27512541

  8. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... the drawings for the abdomen insert so that the abdominal insert dimensions on the drawings reflect... published October 21, 2009, 74 FR 53987, Docket No. NHTSA-09-0166. First, to improve the durability of the... corrects the drawings for the abdomen insert so that the abdominal insert dimensions on the...

  9. Characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had cats sterilized through this program.

    PubMed

    Benka, Valerie A; McCobb, Emily

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had their cats sterilized through this program. DESIGN Cross-sectional anonymous survey and telephone interviews. SAMPLE 1,188 (anonymous surveys) and 99 (telephone interviews) cat owners. PROCEDURES Owners who had a cat sterilized at clinics held between January 2006 and December 2008 were invited to complete anonymous surveys. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with owners who had a cat sterilized during clinics held in 2009. RESULTS Most cats had never been seen by a veterinarian previously; "too expensive" was the most common reason for this. Total annual household income was significantly associated with the number of times the cat had been examined by a veterinarian and reason why the cat had not been spayed or neutered previously. Most cats were acquired through informal means and without actively being sought, and there was often a time lag between acquisition and sterilization. Undesirable behavior and avoiding pregnancy were primary motivations for neutering and spaying, respectively. Nearly half of owners who indicated they would have had their cat sterilized through a private veterinarian if the clinic had not been available stated that the surgery would have been delayed because of cost. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that spay-neuter decisions were related to owner income and procedure cost, that elimination of the reduced-cost spay-neuter program would likely have exacerbated the spay-delay problem, and that gradations of financial need should be considered when evaluating relationships between income and spay-neuter decisions. PMID:27556262

  10. Serum tryptophan and its metabolites in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy as treatment of pyometra or as elective spay surgery.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Pastor, Josep; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2015-05-01

    This study compares serum concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in healthy bitches and bitches with bacterial uterine infection (pyometra). The effects of surgery were also assessed by measuring these variables in both groups of dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Presurgery, mean (±standard deviation) TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations and IDO activity were 68.44 ± 21.77, 2.00 ± 0.33, 112.11 ± 111.91 μmol/L, and 29.22 ± 10.10, respectively, in the healthy dogs; and 40.16 ± 12.11, 8.27 ± 3.94, 411.11 ± 199.60 μmol/L, and 205.92 ± 154.20, respectively, in the dogs with pyometra. Tryptophan and KYN levels had normalized on suture removal (10 days after surgery) though IDO activity and KYNA concentrations remained elevated during the postoperative period compared with presurgery values in both study groups. Our results suggest that KYNA concentrations and IDO activity could be useful indicators of the inflammation induced by pyometra and could be also used to monitor recovery following ovariohysterectomy in both healthy dogs and dogs with pyometra. PMID:25670154

  11. Primary corneal melanocytoma in a Collie.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Bianca; Leis, Marina L; Sayi, Soraya

    2015-09-01

    A 6-year-old female, spayed Collie was referred to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for a 12-month history of a progressive right corneal mass. A superficial keratectomy was performed and histopathology revealed a corneal melanocytoma with complete excision. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (12 months). This is the first known report of an isolated corneal melanocytoma in a canine. PMID:25296627

  12. [Partial rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a 6-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Sesia, S B; Hasler, C-C; Köhler, M; Mayr, J

    2007-10-01

    In children, avulsion fractures of the patella are observed more frequently than ruptures of the quadriceps tendon. In cases of suspected lesions of the quadriceps tendon, conventional x-ray imaging and ultrasound comparison of both patellae is recommended. Arthroscopy is helpful for diagnosing concomitant intra-articular knee lesions and permits evacuation of the hemarthrosis.

  13. Inattention and Hyperactivity Predict Alterations in Specific Neural Circuits among 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Tuan, Ta Anh; Zhong, Jidan; Meaney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers is highly dependent upon parental reports. Such reports are compromised by parental attitudes and mental health. Our study aimed to examine associations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity from maternal reports on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) with brain…

  14. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  15. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or body composition measures. Differences in these novel components by sex, birth weight, SEP and skin colour may indicate their potential relevance to disease risks. PMID:26880232

  16. Teaching 5- and 6-Year-Olds to Count: Knowledge of South African Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feza, Nosisi N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics learning and teaching continues to be a challenge in the South African education system. This challenge is observed in the poor performance of students in national and international assessments. Research suggests that teachers' content knowledge and knowledge of teaching mathematics contribute significantly to students' performance. In…

  17. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... head toward breast or bottle n Communicates through body language, fussing or crying n Starts to smile n Raises head when on tummy n Calms down when rocked, cradled or sung to n Begins to smile at ... to one body part n May walk up steps and run ...

  18. Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2007-03-01

    The home food environment is central to the development of healthy eating behaviours, but associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are not yet fully understood. The aims of this study were to explore parents' views regarding factors that influence children's food choices and parents' decision-making regarding the food they provide to their children. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. Key concepts and themes were coded independently by two investigators. Participants include seventeen parents (16 mothers and 1 father) of children in their first year of formal schooling (aged 5-6 years). Five main themes emerged from the interviews: food marketing, food availability/food exposure, feeding strategies, modelling of eating and opportunities for food involvement. Parents believed that food marketing influenced their child's food preferences but differed in the ways they managed these influences. The food made available to children was also seen to influence what a child ate. Yet, although some parents believed it was the parents' role to determine what foods were made available to their child, others offered food on the basis of the child's tastes or preferences. The use of food as a reward was a feeding strategy employed by many parents. Family mealtimes were seen as an important opportunity for modelling of eating behaviour by parents. Peers were also seen to influence children's food preferences and eating behaviour. Finally, many parents believed that involving children in the preparation of food had a positive impact on children's food choices. Associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are complex and involve multiple mediators. Parents' views on the promoters and reinforcers of their decision-making regarding food and their child's food choices provide useful insights into these mediating factors. Increased understanding of these relationships is likely to enhance obesity prevention efforts.

  19. Attachment Representations in 6-Year-Old Children from One and Two Parent Families in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Konig, Lilith

    2007-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of attachment theory, coping with the separation and divorce of parents requires that children reorganize their mental model of attachment. Secure attachment models may be disrupted, while insecure attachment models may be strengthened. According to findings from research on divorce, this process of family…

  20. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire in a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Kamath, Vikram; Chauhan, Bhumir; de Souza, Romnesh; Nair, Rithesh; Sapare, Anil; Kekatpure, Minal

    2015-05-01

    A six-year-old boy was diagnosed as recurrent posterior circulation stroke secondary to basilar artery occlusion with rapid progression of symptoms. Etiology of stroke was a dissection of V3 segment of left vertebral artery, which was treated using endovascular technique 26 hours after worsening of symptoms. Since the guidelines for acute revascularization in pediatric stroke are not well established, there is limited experience in the use of mechanical devices for acute ischemic stroke revascularization in children. To our knowledge, this is one of the youngest reported cases of acute ischemic stroke from Asia managed with newer mechanical clot removal devices. PMID:26060522

  2. Refinement of Speech Breathing in Healthy 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek, Carol A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Watson, Peter J.; Jones, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to offer a better understanding of the development of neuromotor control for speech breathing and provide a normative data set that can serve as a useful standard for clinical evaluation and management of young children with speech disorders involving the breathing subsystem. Method: Speech breathing was…

  3. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire in a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Kamath, Vikram; Chauhan, Bhumir; de Souza, Romnesh; Nair, Rithesh; Sapare, Anil; Kekatpure, Minal

    2015-05-01

    A six-year-old boy was diagnosed as recurrent posterior circulation stroke secondary to basilar artery occlusion with rapid progression of symptoms. Etiology of stroke was a dissection of V3 segment of left vertebral artery, which was treated using endovascular technique 26 hours after worsening of symptoms. Since the guidelines for acute revascularization in pediatric stroke are not well established, there is limited experience in the use of mechanical devices for acute ischemic stroke revascularization in children. To our knowledge, this is one of the youngest reported cases of acute ischemic stroke from Asia managed with newer mechanical clot removal devices.

  4. Anchoring in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children Relates to Predictors of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring…

  5. Assessment of Language Comprehension of 6-Year-Old Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Donna S.; Freeman, Lisa Rothman

    1980-01-01

    Results show that comprehension of word types (nouns, verbs, etc.) and linguistic structure can be orderly, producing a hierarchy of complexity similar to that found in normally hearing children. However, performance was about three years behind that of normally hearing peers. Journal availability: Elsevier North Holland, Inc., 52 Vanderbilt…

  6. Anchoring in 4- to 6-year-old children relates to predictors of reading.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring hypothesis were tested: (a) that anchoring facilitates rapid naming and phonological short-term memory in children prior to the onset of formal reading instruction and (b) that anchoring makes a unique contribution to performance in two early predictors of reading (letter knowledge and phonological awareness). In line with those predictions, naming times were faster and memory spans were longer under conditions that encouraged the use of anchoring processes than under conditions that afforded little anchoring. Furthermore, performance in the anchoring-affording condition predicted significant amounts of variance in phonological awareness and letter knowledge even after controlling for the contribution of the conditions that did not afford anchoring. Therefore, we suggest that anchoring might contribute to the development of reading-related processes during the preschool years independent of the development of specific reading-related skills such as phonological processing.

  7. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  8. Sampling Survey on Intellectual Disability in 0-6-Year-Old Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Z.-H.; Bo, S.-Y.; Zhang, X.-T.; Liu, M.; Zhang, Z.-X.; Yang, X.-L.; Ji, S.-R.; Yan, H.; Sui, X.-L.; Na, X.; Guo, S.-H.; Wu, Z.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the current status of intellectually disabled children and the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in children aged 0-6 years and its risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence to formulate relevant policies for helping intellectually disabled children. Methods: Multiphase, stratified, unequal proportional…

  9. Can 5-6 Year Old Children Orientate Themselves in a Cave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovignot, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Spatial capacities of 36 children ages 5-6 were tested in 3 experiments involving an electronic maze, map training and testing, and finding the way out of a cave using a map. All subjects could use simple maps; this ability improved with age. However, no subject navigated the cave without help, perhaps because of stress or task complexity. (SV)

  10. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangjfer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (less than or equal to 0.3/km(2)) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females greater than or equal to 14 years old. Females greater than or equal to 2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (greater than or equal to 14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P less than or equal to 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at die time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the precious year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate

  11. The lot of female child in an economically weaker society.

    PubMed

    Grover, V L; Roy, S N

    1990-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the demographic profile of female children 0-14 years old living in urban slums in Delhi, India. The sample included 1680 slum dwellers in 386 households, of whom 733 were children 0-14 years old. The sex ratio of the sample population was 900 females per 1000 males, compared to the national ratio of 933 females per 1000 males. The sample population included 796 females and 884 males. The sex ratio among children 0-14 years old in the sample was 960 females per 1000 males. School enrollment of children 5-14 years old numbered 232 (50.4%): 46% males and 27.5% females. The lower enrollment of females in slum areas compared to the national average was attributed to the greater participation of young girls in domestic work. 22% of children 0-14 years old were married. The infant mortality rate was 143.2/1000 live births. The crude death rate was 19.64/1000 population, which was 150% higher than the national rate. Female mortality among those 0-6 years old was higher than male mortality; after 6 years of age, male mortality was higher. The study revealed the needs of female children in urban slum areas of India. Government and voluntary agencies must work together in the areas of social work, nutrition, education, health among the poor urban female population in India. PMID:12346029

  12. Spaying and Neutering

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. This may not eliminate the dog or cat’s behaviors associated with the breeding instinct. • Vasectomy: only the ... hormones. This may not eliminate the dog or cat’s behaviors associated with the breeding instinct. Nonsurgical sterilization There ...

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J.; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examine evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18–30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. Method This group of children was assessed at age 6, two years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naïve to previous intervention group status. Results The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, two years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6. The two groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. Conclusion These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated below 30 months of age in altering the longer term developmental course of autism. PMID:26088663

  14. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  15. The relationships between quantity-number competencies, working memory, and phonological awareness in 5- and 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Kurt; Krajewski, Kristin; Preβler, Anna-Lena; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the interdependencies among phonological awareness, verbal working memory components, and early numerical skills in children 1 year before school entry are addressed. Early numerical skills were conceptualized as quantity-number competencies (QNC) at both basic (QNC Level 1) and advanced (QNC Level 2) levels. In a sample of 1,343 children aged 5 and 6, structural equation modelling provided support for the isolated number words hypothesis (Krajewski & Schneider, 2009, J. Exp. Child Psychol., 103, 516-531). This hypothesis claims that phonological awareness contributes to the acquisition of QNC Level 1, such as learning the number word sequence, but not of QNC Level 2, which requires the linkage of number words to quantities. In addition, phonological awareness relied on verbal working memory, especially with regard to the phonological loop, central executive, and episodic buffer. The results were congruent with the idea that phonological awareness mediates the impact of verbal working memory on QNCs. The relationships between verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and QNCs were comparable in monolingual and bilingual children.

  16. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  17. A 6-year-old boy with Sulzberger and Garbe dermatosis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tabara, Katarzyna; Noweta, Marcin; Bienias, Wojciech; Kaszuba-Bartkowiak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sulzberger-Garbe disease was described in 1937. Not more than a hundred of cases of the disease have been reported in the literature. Despite a quite specific picture, there are no features that could undeniably be attributed to this particular disease entity. Discoid exudative and lichenoid lesions are main lesions in this dermatosis. The disease is associated with severe pruritus. The lesions are located on the trunk and extremities as well as the genitals. Eosinophilia is frequently found in the course of the disease. Sulzberger-Garbe dermatosis has been diagnosed mainly in middle-aged males of Jewish origin but it can occur in both sexes at any age. Good therapeutic response to systemic corticosteroids has been observed. It is still controversial whether the disease should be classified as an independent clinical entity. PMID:24494005

  18. Emergency Department Utilization and Determinants of Use by 0- to 6-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in Taipei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Ya-Wen; Chwo, Miao-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have explored emergency services for children, there are few published reports of the utilization of emergency services by children with disabilities. The present study attempts to provide data regarding the utilization of, and factors affecting, emergency department visits by disabled children in Taipei. A general census of…

  19. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  20. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  1. Humpty Dumpty and Rosa Parks: Making Space for Critical Dialogue with 5- and 6-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Using a critical inquiry curriculum is about teaching children to read the word and the world. Early childhood teachers apply this theory by helping children question events and texts they interact with in their communities. For example, teachers can help children understand why certain events happened, including whose voices may have been…

  2. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; Sessink, Nienke Y; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-12-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (equal sex distribution, ages 4-6) and 56 non-overweight children (matched on age, sex, demographics) were selected to participate. Children's purchases of low and high caloric snacks, drinks, and dinner products in a miniature supermarket were recorded. Mother and child-reported maternal restriction were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Kid's CFQ. Compared to non-overweight children, overweight children choose more high-calorie foods when role-playing a mother. Maternal restriction did not differ between overweight and non-overweight children. Both children's and mothers' reported maternal restriction were unrelated to food choices and there were no significant interactions between restriction and weight status on food choices. In conclusion, while parental restriction seems to be unrelated to children's food choices, family food patterns might have great impact already at young ages.

  3. Clinical and molecular genetic findings in a 6-year-old Bosnian boy with triple A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toromanovic, Alma; Tahirovic, Husref; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Koehler, Katrin; Kind, Barbara; Zdravkovic, Dragan; Hasanhodzic, Mensuda; Huebner, Angela

    2009-03-01

    The triple A syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterised by the triad of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia and alacrima. In most patients, neurological and dermatological abnormalities are associated features. We report on the first Bosnian patient with triple A syndrome. Endocrine investigation confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency at the age of 5.8 years. Two months later, achalasia was diagnosed, and in the presence of alacrima, the patient satisfies the diagnostic criteria of triple A syndrome. In addition, a large number of associated neurological and dermatological features were present in this patient. Moreover, he has dysmorphic facial features, which have not been previously described in triple A syndrome. Triple A syndrome was confirmed by molecular analysis, revealing a nonsense mutation p.W84X in the AAAS gene. The parents are both heterozygous carriers of the mutation. The affected twin brother unfortunately died from hypoglycaemic shock, despite a normal cortisol rise in an ACTH stimulation test. Further, triple A syndrome patients carrying the identical homozygous p.W84X mutation have to be studied to assess a genotype-phenotype relationship for this mutation.

  4. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3-6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Ansari, Ghassem; Soleymani, Ali Asghar; Shayeghi, Shahnaz; Fotuhi Ardakani, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods.A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3-6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale), who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were randomly given ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures compared to oral sedation (P<0.05). Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05). The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physiological limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001) with a more sleepy face (P=0.004). Conclusion.. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children. PMID:26236429

  5. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF. PMID:27625935

  6. Problem Solving by 5-6 Years Old Kindergarten Children in a Computer Programming Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, G.; Gouli, E.; Mavroudi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Computer programming is considered an important competence for the development of higher-order thinking in addition to algorithmic problem solving skills. Its horizontal integration throughout all educational levels is considered worthwhile and attracts the attention of researchers. Towards this direction, an exploratory case study is presented…

  7. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  8. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  9. Imaging diagnosis--computed tomographic, surgical, and histopathologic characteristics of an infiltrative angiolipoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kraun, Michael B; Nelson, Nathan C; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old female spayed Shetland Sheepdog presented for evaluation of a subcutaneous mass over the right prescapular region. The mass had been cytologically diagnosed as a lipoma by the referring veterinarian 20 months prior, but had grown significantly and was very firm. CT scan of the mass was suggestive of neoplasia; however, the tissue of origin could not be determined. Histopathologic evaluation diagnosed infiltrative angiolipoma, and marginal resection of the tumor was performed. Infiltrative angiolipomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms uncommonly reported in veterinary medicine. This report correlates the clinical, CT, and histopathologic characteristics of an infiltrative angiolipoma.

  10. Suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy in a female rottweiler dog

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, James Oliver; Leschnik, Michael; Nell, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old, 46-kg spayed female rottweiler dog was presented with sudden onset of disorientation, bilateral convergent strabismus, and enophthalmos. Diagnostic workup revealed hypothyroid-associated cranial neuropathy. Symptoms abated considerably upon treatment with levothyroxine-sodium (T4) at an initial dose of 800 μg/kg body weight (BW), PO, q12h, which was reduced 3 days later to 600 μg/kg BW, q12h due to severe agitation and panting. Two weeks later the dosage of the levothyroxine-sodium (T4) was reduced to 400 μg/kg BW in the morning and 600 μg/kg BW in the evening. Eight weeks after the initial presentation, the dog had recovered with only mild convergent strabismus in the right eye. This is the first case report of suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy resulting in these symptoms. PMID:24082164

  11. Family Network, Workplace Network, and Their Influence on Condom Use: A Qualitative Study Among Older Female Sex Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chun; Guida, Jennifer; Morisky, Donald E; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the components of social networks and their influence on condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. In-depth interviews with 63 older FSWs and 6 focus group interviews with pimps and owners of roadside salons and hotels were conducted in 3 Chinese cities. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years old (SD = 6.9 years) and the mean age of starting sex work was 38.6 years old (SD = 6.6 years). Two types of networks that influenced condom use were identified: family networks (relationship with children and husbands) and workplace networks (relationship with peers, clients, pimps, and owners). Relationships between older FSWs and their children negatively influenced condom use. Low levels of network support and norms regarding condom use were observed in the relationship between older FSWs and their clients, whereas positive social support and norms were prevalent among older FSWs who had frequent contact with peers. Norms for condom use existed among pimps and owners but were counterbalanced by monetary gains. Future human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions for older FSWs should take the different features of social network components into consideration. PMID:25411685

  12. Family Network, Workplace Network, and Their Influence on Condom Use: A Qualitative Study Among Older Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun; Guida, Jennifer; Morisky, Donald E.; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the components of social networks and their influence on condom use among older female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. In-depth interviews with 63 older FSWs and 6 focus groups interviews with pimps and owners of roadside salons and hotels were conducted in three Chinese cities. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years old (SD = 6.9 years) and the mean age of starting sex work was 38.6 years old (SD = 6.6 years). Two types of networks that influenced condom use were identified: family networks (relationship with children and husbands) and workplace networks (relationship with peers, clients, pimps and owners). Relationships between older FSWs and their children negatively influenced condom use. Low levels of network support and norms regarding condom use were observed in the relationship between older FSWs and their clients, whereas positive social support and norms were prevalent among older FSWs who had frequent contact with peers. Norms for condom use existed among pimps and owners, but were counterbalanced by monetary gains. Future HIV interventions for older FSWs should take the different features of social network components into consideration. PMID:25411685

  13. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine in 15 month-6-year-old German children. Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Stehr, K; Heininger, U; Uhlenbusch, R; Angersbach, P; Hackell, J; Eckhardt, T

    1995-03-01

    Immunization against pertussis has been re-recommended for healthy children in Germany in 1991. In addition the former restriction of immunizing only in the first 2 years of life was abolished. In children born before 1991 immunization rates against pertussis were 15% or less. With the new recommendations physicians are now faced with an increasing demand of parents for catch-up vaccinations in these children. Since they were immunized against diphtheria and tetanus previously monovalent pertussis vaccines are needed for this indication. Therefore a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine was studied in 249 German children 15 months to 6 years of age. Three doses were administered at 6-10 week intervals. Reactogenicity and antibody responses against the vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), 69-kd antigen (pertactin) and fimbriae-2 (agglutinogen) were investigated. Local and systemic reactions were minimal in frequency and severity. Antibody responses against all vaccine antigens were pronounced with 93%-100% of vaccinees demonstrating at least four fold titre rises above pre-immunization after the third dose. These findings indicate that this monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine with excellent immunogenicity and low reactogenicity is an appropriate candidate for closing immunization gaps in older children in countries with previously low vaccination rates against pertussis. Based on the results of this study the monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine was licensed in Germany in January 1994. PMID:7758519

  15. Coordination of precision grip in 2-6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    David, Fabian J; Baranek, Grace T; Wiesen, Chris; Miao, Adrienne F; Thorpe, Deborah E

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills.

  16. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies.

  17. Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Following a 1986 study reporting a predominance of ambivalent attachment among insecure Sapporo infants, the generalizability of attachment theory and methodologies to Japanese samples has been questioned. In this 2nd study of Sapporo mother-child dyads (N = 43), the authors examined attachment distributions for both (a) child, based on M. Main…

  18. Intervention for improving comprehension in 4-6 year old children with specific language impairment: practicing inferencing is a good thing.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Chantal; Nadeau, Line; Trudeau, Natacha; Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Maxès-Fournier, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Few studies report on therapy to improve language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). We address this gap by measuring the effect of a systematic intervention to improve inferential comprehension using dialogic reading tasks in conjunction with pre-determined questions and cues. Sixteen children with a diagnosis of SLI aged 4-6 participated in 10 weekly treatment sessions carried out by their regular therapists. Baseline and maintenance periods were also tabulated. Two experimental measures and a standardized test revealed that children's total scores and the quality of their responses post-treatment were better than those obtained pre-treatment. However, perhaps due to the use of non-equivalent probes, this change could not be interpreted solely as a significant effect of intervention. These results nevertheless suggest that a systematically designed intervention focusing on the comprehension of specific types of questions requiring inferencing and using a carefully scaffolded cueing strategy can be beneficial.

  19. [PREVALENCE OF THINNESS, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG 4-TO-6-YEAR-OLD SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN IN 2013; SITUATION IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    González García, Alberto; Álvarez Bueno, Celia; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Sánchez López, Mairena; Solera Martínez, Montserrat; Díez Fernández, Ana; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivos: tanto el exceso de peso como la delgadez se relacionan con diversos problemas de salud que pueden continuar hasta la edad adulta. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 4-6 años de las provincias de Cuenca y Ciudad Real (España), mediante criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y comparar estas cifras con otros estudios europeos. Métodos: estudio observacional-transversal que incluyó a 1.585 escolares realizado en septiembre de 2013. Las mediciones de peso y talla fueron realizadas por enfermeras entrenadas y mediante procedimientos estandarizados. El estatus ponderal se definió según los criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: según criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad, la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 20,51%, 11,84% y 8,58%, respectivamente; y del 3,97%, 13,92% y 10,79% cuando se utilizaron los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo ni provincia para ninguna categoría de estatus ponderal. Para ambos criterios, la prevalencia de delgadez fue menor a medida que aumentaba la edad, mientras que la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de exceso de peso podría haber tocado techo en España, aunque continúa siendo un importante problema de salud pública. El aumento de la prevalencia de bajo peso debería ocupar un lugar relevante en las intervenciones de salud pública.

  20. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857

  1. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  2. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  3. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  4. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  5. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5-6 Years-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  6. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  7. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children's oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents' knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents' knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion . The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents' knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits.

  8. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children’s oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents’ knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents’ knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents’ knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits. PMID:27092216

  9. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  10. Intervention for Improving Comprehension in 4-6 Year Old Children with Specific Language Impairment: Practicing Inferencing Is a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Nadeau, Line; Trudeau, Natacha; Filiatrault-Veilleux, Pamela; Maxes-Fournier, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies report on therapy to improve language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). We address this gap by measuring the effect of a systematic intervention to improve inferential comprehension using dialogic reading tasks in conjunction with pre-determined questions and cues. Sixteen children with a diagnosis of…

  11. The Best Ways of Teaching English to Children: Using Children's Operas in Teaching to 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achkasova, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to consider how to strengthen links between English, music, arts, and acting, maximizing the potential for children to become successful language learners at a young age. It will show how children's opera can act as a catalyst for learning and using the language. The findings demonstrate that teaching English with a…

  12. Residential Risk Factors for Atopic Dermatitis in 3- to 6-Year Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Yan, Shuxian; Zheng, Qile; Li, Fei; Chai, Weihan; Wu, Minmin; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan; Xu, Jinhua; Zhao, Zhuohui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common among pre-school children in Shanghai. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for childhood AD from the perspectives of home environment, demographics and parents-grandparents’ atopic disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai in April–June, 2010. Preschool children’s parents or guardians were invited to participate a questionnaire survey in six districts (two urban and four suburban/rural) and 6624 children were finally recruited (51.3% boys). AD diagnosis was based on the U.K. Working Party’s (UKWP) criteria. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 8.5% of children ever had AD. Around 10.2% of the mothers had lived in newly renovated/decorated homes (NRDH) during the prenatal period (one year before or during pregnancy) and 9.5% got new home furniture (NHF) during the same period. AD was more common in children when mothers had lived in NRDH homes during the prenatal period (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.03–1.93), the current home had indoor mold (2.00, 1.48–2.70), parents-grandparents’ had atopic diseases (3.85, 3.05–4.87), the children had food allergy (3.40, 2.63–4.40) or children lived in urban area (1.52, 1.18–1.96). Associations between AD and NRDH, NHF and indoor molds were only significant in children without parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases. There was an interaction effect between parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases and NRDH (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Home renovation/ redecoration, new furniture and indoor mold, urban residency, heredity disposition and food allergy can be risk factors for childhood AD in Shanghai. PMID:27240388

  13. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  14. Developmental Change in the Acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-Year-Olds and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is…

  15. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5–6 Years-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  16. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:27458687

  17. Creating Child-Centered Materials for Math and Science: 3-6 Year Olds. Step By Step: A Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Judith Rothschild; Daniels, Ellen R.

    In child-centered education programs, children construct their own knowledge from their experiences and interactions with the world around them, and teachers foster children's growth and development by building on children's interests, needs, and strengths within a safe and caring environment. The Step by Step educational program developed a…

  18. Phonetic Processing during the Acquisition of New Words in 3-to-6-Year-Old French-Speaking Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores phonetic processing in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) when they have to learn phonetically similar words. Forty-six 34-to-78-month-old French-speaking deaf children with CIs were tested on 16 different trials. In each trial, they were first trained with two word-object pairings, and then a third object was…

  19. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  20. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  1. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (<37 weeks' gestation, mean 34 weeks) were compared with 4336 term-born children in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort at age 5-6 years. Associations between SDQ scores and SES (maternal education and perceived income adequacy) were examined with multivariate linear regression analysis. The mean mother-reported total difficulties score was significantly higher for preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  2. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  3. The Effects of Training in Music and Phonological Skills on Phonological Awareness in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children of Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Patscheke, Hanne; Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrant families often have great difficulties with language and disadvantages in schooling. Phonological problems appear especially common. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether music training has a positive effect on the phonological awareness in these children. The effects of a music program were compared with an established phonological skills program and with a sports control group. Preschoolers of immigrants (19 boys, 20 girls) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. All groups were trained three times a week for 20 min each, over a period of 14 weeks. Phonological awareness was tested prior to the beginning of the training and after the training phase. At the pre-test, no differences between the groups were found regarding phonological awareness and control variables (age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, language background, music experience). At the post-test, the music group and the phonological skills group showed a significant increase in phonological awareness of large phonological units. The effect size of the music training was larger compared to the phonological skills program. In contrast, the sports control group showed no significant increase in phonological awareness. The current results indicate that a music program could be used as an additional opportunity to promote phonological skills in children of immigrant families.

  4. Dynamic Testing of Analogical Reasoning in 5- to 6-Year-Olds: Multiple-Choice versus Constructed-Response Training Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Heiser, Willem J.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) analogy items are often used in cognitive assessment. However, in dynamic testing, where the aim is to provide insight into potential for learning and the learning process, constructed-response (CR) items may be of benefit. This study investigated whether training with CR or MC items leads to differences in the strategy…

  5. Increasing Teacher/Parent Awareness of Developmentally Appropriate Movies for 3-6 Year Olds through Use of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, Merilyn R.

    This practicum identified a lack of standards for movie viewing by children age 3 through 6 at a preschool child care center, and proposed a rating scale to determine the suitability of videotaped films. Staff and parents of students seemed unaware of potential long-term adverse affects of some movies, such as desensitizing children to violence,…

  6. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow (Poland). Part 4: Copper.

    PubMed

    Barton, H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure of children to copper (Cu) from household drinking water (DW). DW samples were collected between 1997 and 2004 in approximately 650 households and pre-schools using a double-sampling method (morning - W1; evening - W2). The study group comprised approximately 300 children (5-7 years old) living in Krakow (urban, peripheral) and rural areas in southern Poland. Cu concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. There was no significant relationship between the sampling period and Cu concentration, but statistically significant differences were found between urban and non-urban (rural, peripheral) sites and between morning and evening samples. Geometric means of Cu concentration in evening DW (95% confidence interval, in microg L(-1)) were 8 (1-110), 20 (1-274) and 12 (0-364) in urban, peripheral and rural sites, respectively. DW contamination after overnight standing was comparable in all sites (average increase approximately 20 microg Cu L(-1)). The adopted threshold of 100 microg Cu L(-1) was exceeded in evening DW by 3.6 and 15% in urban and non-urban households, respectively. Exceedance of the EC limit (2 mg L(-1)) was not significant. The mean predicted contribution of evening DW to Cu intake by children were 18-37 microg day(-1) or 0.8-1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) but were 2-3-fold higher for morning DW. The Polish RDA (1 mg Cu day(-1)) was exceeded for morning (evening) DW in 3.7 (0.2)% of children, with a mean intake of 159 (118)% of RDA. The observed copper levels and predicted intakes can be considered low and should not raise nutritional or toxicological concerns for the age group studied. Nevertheless, due to overnight contamination, the suggestion that the stagnant portion of drinking water should be discarded remains valid. PMID:19680974

  7. A case of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites without peripheral natural killer cell lymphocytosis in a 6-year-old Korean boy.

    PubMed

    Seon, Han-Su; Roh, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kang, Eun-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is a rare disease characterized by intense skin reactions such as bulla and necrotic ulcerations at bite sites, accompanied by general symptoms such as high-grade fever and malaise occurred after mosquito bites. It has been suggested that HMB is associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and natural killer (NK) cell leukemia/lymphoma. We describe here a Korean child who presented with 3-yr history of HMB without natural killer cell lymphocytosis. He has been ill for 6 yr with HMB. Close observation and examination for the development of lymphoproliferative status or hematologic malignant disorders is needed.

  8. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  9. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  10. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  11. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  12. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in a dog exposed to jerky treats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; BABA, Kenji; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. The dog was fed beef and chicken jerky treats daily in addition to a commercial diet. Laboratory tests revealed azotemia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis and glucosuria with normoglycemia. Urine amino acid analysis showed significant amino acid loss into the urine. Thus, Fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, and based on the case history and extensive diagnostic testing, excessive consumption of jerky treats was strongly suspected as the cause. Glucosuria resolved 7 days after the withdrawal of jerky treats and fluid therapy. Aminoaciduria was substantially, but not completely, improved 3 months after diagnosis. Mild azotemia remained, suggesting chronic renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fanconi syndrome following the consumption of jerky treats in Japan. PMID:26062568

  14. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  15. Acute exercise performed close to the anaerobic threshold improves cognitive performance in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Córdova, C; Silva, V C; Moraes, C F; Simões, H G; Nóbrega, O T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of acute exercise performed at different intensities in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT) on abilities requiring control of executive functions or alertness in physically active elderly females. Forty-eight physically active elderly females (63.8 +/- 4.6 years old) were assigned to one of four groups by drawing lots: control group without exercise or trial groups with exercise performed at 60, 90, or 110% of AT (watts) and submitted to 5 cognitive tests before and after exercise. Following cognitive pretesting, an incremental cycle ergometer test was conducted to determine AT using a fixed blood lactate concentration of 3.5 mmol/L as cutoff. Acute exercise executed at 90% of AT resulted in significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA) improvement in the performance of executive functions when compared to control in 3 of 5 tests (verbal fluency, Tower of Hanoi test (number of movements), and Trail Making test B). Exercising at 60% of AT did not improve results of any tests for executive functions, whereas exercise executed at 110% of AT only improved the performance in one of these tests (verbal fluency) compared to control. Women from all trial groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in the Simple Response Time (alertness) test (P = 0.001). Thus, physical exercise performed close to AT is more effective to improve cognitive processing of older women even if conducted acutely, and using a customized exercise prescription based on the anaerobic threshold should optimize the beneficial effects. PMID:19377796

  16. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  17. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  18. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  19. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  20. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  1. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  3. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, D L; Wiggins, M E

    1997-10-01

    Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated.

  4. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. PMID:27287052

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  6. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  7. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) detects a large X chromosome deletion including FMR1, FMR2, and IDS in a female patient with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Probst, Frank J; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Enciso, Victoria B; Ou, Zhishuo; Cooper, M Lance; Eng, Patricia; Li, Jiangzhen; Gu, Yanghong; Stratton, Robert F; Chinault, A Craig; Shaw, Chad A; Sutton, V Reid; Cheung, Sau Wai; Nelson, David L

    2007-06-15

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new clinical test for the detection of well-characterized genomic disorders caused by chromosomal deletions and duplications that result in gene copy number variation (CNV). This powerful assay detects an abnormality in approximately 7-9% of patients with various clinical phenotypes, including mental retardation. We report here on the results found in a 6-year-old girl with mildly dysmorphic facies, obesity, and marked developmental delay. CMA was requested and showed a heterozygous loss in copy number with clones derived from the genomic region cytogenetically defined as Xq27.3-Xq28. This loss was not cytogenetically visible but was seen on FISH analysis with clones from the region. Further studies confirmed a loss of one copy each of the FMR1, FMR2, and IDS genes (which are mutated in Fragile X syndrome, FRAXE syndrome, and Hunter syndrome, respectively). Skewed X-inactivation has been previously reported in girls with deletions in this region and can lead to a combined Fragile X/Hunter syndrome phenotype in affected females. X-inactivation and iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) enzyme activity were therefore examined. X-inactivation was found to be random in the child's peripheral leukocytes, and IDS enzyme activity was approximately half of the normal value. This case demonstrates the utility of CMA both for detecting a submicroscopic chromosomal deletion and for suggesting further testing that could possibly lead to therapeutic options for patients with developmental delay.

  8. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  9. Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2011-09-23

    The widespread phenomenon of polyandry (mating by females with multiple males) is an evolutionary puzzle, because females can sustain costs from promiscuity, whereas full fertility can be provided by a single male. Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high. Fifteen generations after inbred populations had passed through genetic bottlenecks, we recorded increased levels of female promiscuity compared with noninbred controls, most likely due to selection from prospective fitness gains through polyandry. These data illustrate how this common mating pattern can evolve if population genetic bottlenecks increase the risks of fitness depression due to fertilization by sperm carrying genetically incompatible haplotypes.

  10. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is ...

  11. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  12. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  13. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  14. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  15. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  16. A resolution recognizing the members of the United States Army and the physicians of Maine Medical Center for the open-heart surgery they performed on a 6-year-old Iraqi girl.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2009-05-04

    05/04/2009 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5085) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  18. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  19. Dissecting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery treated with heparin infusion in a 6-year-old child; neurological recovery with delayed spontaneous thrombosis: case illustration and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anichini, G; Passacantilli, E; Lenzi, J; Guidetti, G; Santoro, A

    2012-04-01

    Aneurysms in the pediatric population are a rare pathology with specific features which requires a deep knowledge of their pathogenesis for the best therapeutic choice; the authors report their experience with a patient presenting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. A six-year-old girl came to our observation after sudden onset of headache and left hemiparesis. Angio-MRI and angio-CT scan showed a right MCA dissecting aneurysms associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. Patient started a therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), replaced, 15 days later, with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA). Patient showed a rapid and almost complete neurological recovery, despite several radiological exams confirmed a complete occlusion of the right MCA. As many other authors noted, dissecting aneurysms in the pediatric population are probably due to a defect of the entire arterial wall. Combination of stenosis, turbulence and partial thrombosis of the aneurysm led to a complete occlusion of artery involved, leading to the formation of collateral circles. In our case, complete thrombosis was probably delayed with anticoagulant therapy and the progressive reinforcement of collateral circles lead to the patient's neurological recovery.

  20. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  1. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  2. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools.

    PubMed

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils.

  3. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  4. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  5. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  6. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  7. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  8. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  9. [Specificity of female unemployment].

    PubMed

    Saint-pierre, M H

    1985-10-01

    The author develops the argument that "female unemployment should not be tackled in the same way as male unemployment because women's situation within the family and in the labor market is different. The author proposes a new vision of female unemployment, taking into account the dialectical situation experienced by women because of their double role, in the sphere of reproduction as well as in the sphere of economic production." The primary geographic focus is on the situation in Quebec. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  10. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  11. Expanding the phenotypic profile of Kleefstra syndrome: A female with low-average intelligence and childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Lawson, Patrick; Sprouse, Courtney; Stapleton, Emily; Sadeghin, Teresa; Gropman, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Kleefstra syndrome (KS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder most commonly caused by deletion in the 9q34.3 chromosomal region and is associated with intellectual disabilities, severe speech delay, and motor planning deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first patient (PQ, a 6-year-old female) with a 9q34.3 deletion who has near normal intelligence, and developmental dyspraxia with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). At 6, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence testing (WPPSI-III) revealed a Verbal IQ of 81 and Performance IQ of 79. The Beery Buktenica Test of Visual Motor Integration, 5th Edition (VMI) indicated severe visual motor deficits: VMI = 51; Visual Perception = 48; Motor Coordination < 45. On the Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test-R (ROWPVT-R), she had standard scores of 96 and 99 in contrast to an Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary-R (EOWPVT-R) standard scores of 73 and 82, revealing a discrepancy in vocabulary domains on both evaluations. Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4) on PQ's first evaluation reveals a significant difference between auditory comprehension and expressive communication with standard scores of 78 and 57, respectively, further supporting the presence of CAS. This patient's near normal intelligence expands the phenotypic profile as well as the prognosis associated with KS. The identification of CAS in this patient provides a novel explanation for the previously reported speech delay and expressive language disorder. Further research is warranted on the impact of CAS on intelligence and behavioral outcome in KS. Therapeutic and prognostic implications are discussed. PMID:26833960

  12. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  13. Female genital actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Beedham, T; Ellice, R; Smith, H; Usherwood, M M

    1979-10-01

    Four cases of female genital actinomycosis are added to the reported total of about 300. The relationship of the disease to the normal microbial flora, intrauterine contraceptive device usage and pelvic sepsis is explored. It is suggested that the disease may be more frequent than hitherto realized.

  14. Functional female pelvic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Klutke, C G; Siegel, C L

    1995-08-01

    This article reviews important aspects of female pelvic anatomy with particular emphasis on the structures important for pelvic organ support and urinary control. The pelvis and supporting structures, the pelvic floor, and the relationships of the pelvic organs are described and illustrated by MR imaging.

  15. Growing up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecroyd, Catherine Ann

    1989-01-01

    Claims that too many authors of young adult fiction do not use females in the main character roles. Provides examples of novels which are written by women and focus on a girl's coming of age, without falling back on stereotypes. (MG)

  16. Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

  17. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, K E

    1998-05-01

    Although there are many similarities between men and women involved in sport activities, certain issues are unique to the female athlete. This article presents and brings to light some of the more important concerns that are specific to women engaged in sports. PMID:9626483

  18. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  19. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  20. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  1. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    PubMed

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  3. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  4. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  5. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.

  6. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Erdogan; Fynes, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman's quality of life. It also has an economical and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship, past sexual functioning, social class, education, employment, life stressors, personality factors, the presence of a sexual partner, and partner's age and health. It is very important to adopt the most efficient approach to gather information, and this may be achieved via standardized questionnaires or open-ended questions. Therapy should be tailored according to the patient's needs and may involve a multidisciplinary team approach including psychosexual counselor/sexologist/therapist and the physician. There is still more work needed to optimize the care of women with this problem. Priority should be given to international standardization and training of health care professionals.

  7. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  8. Nurturing and Individuation in Female/Female Therapy Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sandra Beth

    As therapy relationships between female therapists and female clients become more prevalent, there is a need to address the attributes of these relationships. Psychoanalytic object relations theory and feminist theory can be used to arrive at a meaningful context for viewing the dimension of intimacy. Psychoanalytic literature on the mother/infant…

  9. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  10. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.

  11. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  12. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  13. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  14. Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, Max, Ed.

    This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

  15. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  16. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  17. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  18. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  19. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  20. The culture of female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Morris, R

    1996-12-01

    The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed.

  1. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  2. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  3. Building emissions: Female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Joost

    2015-12-01

    The temperature in many office buildings is set according to a method from the 1960s. Consideration of the different metabolic rates of male and females is necessary to increase comfort and reduce energy consumption.

  4. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  5. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  6. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  7. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  8. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  9. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  10. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  11. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  12. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  13. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  14. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  15. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  16. An Update on Gifted Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  17. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  18. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  19. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  20. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

  1. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  2. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  3. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  4. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  5. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  6. Developing Female Coaches: Strategies from Women Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for the development of aspiring female coaches based on the ideas of existing high-performance female coaches. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with national-level female coaches in the United Kingdom, four recurrent ideas for developing female coaches in a male-dominated profession emerged.…

  7. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  8. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related.

  9. Welfare reform and female headship.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

    2004-05-01

    While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families.

  10. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  11. Clitoridectomy: female circumcision in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H

    Female circumcision, or clitoridectomy, has been mentioned in ancient writings from many parts of the world. There are 4 different degrees of total or partial clitoridectomy involving removal of different parts of the female genitalia. The most radical, Sudanese or Pharonic circumcision, is not now practiced in very many areas. The procedure is generally performed 1-2 years preceding puberty. Therefore, it cannot really be considered a rite of passage. Complications following the procedure are mentioned. The are 4 reasons for having the procedure performed: 1) religious; 2) aesthetic; 3) for prevention of undesirable sexual stimulation; and 4) tradition. In Egypt, the 4th most radical type of clitoridectomy is not practiced. The other 3 types are practiced by both Muslims and Christian Copts. During a stay in Egypt during 1966-67, the author had a chance to observe the incidence of the procedure among all classes of Egyptian women.

  12. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  13. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  14. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  15. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  16. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

  17. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  18. Stroke and the female brain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem. The female population carries a higher stroke burden than the male population, both because females have a longer life expectancy and because most stroke deaths occur in women. Differences between the sexes in relation to stroke are increasingly being recognized; for example, among stroke survivors, women tend to have worse outcomes than men, as indicated by more-severe disability and an increased likelihood of institutionalization in women. Women and men with stroke also differ in their risk factor profiles, and they respond differently to primary-prevention and acute stroke treatment. Women experience variations in endogenous estrogens throughout their life cycle and might also be exposed to exogenous estrogens, both of which markedly affect the brain. An understanding of the effects of endogenous and exogenous estrogens on cerebral hemodynamics could guide research into explaining how hormone therapy increases the risk of stroke in postmenopausal women. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effect of endogenous and exogenous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the female brain. It also proposes potential research approaches, the results of which could fill in gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of estrogen in the brain.

  19. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  20. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  1. Female representation by type of class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However, female representation varies by type of class. In both 1993 and 2009, conceptual physics courses had the highest proportion of female students, and AP Physics C had the lowest. The good news is that female representation exhibits growth in all types of classes. In fact, the jump from 27% of the AP Physics C students being female in 1993 to 32% in 2009 represents an almost 20% growth in female representation; this compares favorably to the 9.3% growth overall.

  2. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  3. Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Cultural views of the female breast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana P

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript discusses historical and contemporary cultural views of the female breast. It also considers implications of these views for female health and for use of this information by health educators.

  5. Health Considerations in Female Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian Y; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2016-02-01

    Female participation in running is at a historical high. Special consideration should be given to this population, in whom suboptimal nutritional intake, menstrual irregularity, and bone stress injury are common. Immature athletes should garner particular attention. Advances in the understanding of the Triad and Triad-related conditions have largely informed the approach to the health of this population. Clinicians should be well versed in the identification of Triad-related risk factors. A multidisciplinary team may be necessary for the optimal treatment of at-risk runners. Nonpharmacologic strategies to increase energy availability in athletes should be used as first-line treatment. PMID:26616182

  6. Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

  7. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  8. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  12. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  13. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  14. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  15. What's wrong with female circumcision?

    PubMed

    Nelson, D

    1994-03-16

    Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity.

  16. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  17. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin.

  18. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  19. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.

  20. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  1. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  2. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases. PMID:19496462

  3. [Smoking and female reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sajdak, Stefan; Witczak, Kamila; Sroka, Lukasz; Samulak, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological data shows that 9 millions of Poles are in smokers group, 43% of them are women. Smoking has significant negative impact on different fields of female sexual and reproductive life, like menstrual cycle, fertility, gynecological cancers and early menopause. Smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of ill health for both mother and foetus-it increases risk of placental complications, pregnancy induced hypertension, reduced fetal growth and perinatal death. Many of adverse effects of smoking is at least partially reversible after stopping smoking, so large public information campaigns can be useful for increasing women awareness of smoking hazards. Gynecologist, as a first contact specialist, has a responsibility to provide accurate information on the risks smoking poses both to the health of the smoker and to give clear, firm advice to stop smoking and offer suitable support.

  4. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  5. Female genital mutilation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately.

  6. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.

  7. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  8. Female feeding priority in bonobos, Pan paniscus, and the question of female dominance.

    PubMed

    White, Frances J; Wood, Kimberley D

    2007-08-01

    The question of whether bonobos show feeding priority and female dominance has been proposed and examined, both in the wild and in captive studies, with differing results. The relationship between female dominance and female feeding priority has been best studied in prosimian primates. These studies use established criteria of females consistently evoking submissive behavior from males in dyadic encounters for determining female dominance. Although the relationship is complex, female dominance in prosimians is associated with preferential access to food. Data from studies of wild habituated bonobos in the Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo, are examined for evidence of both female feeding priority and female social dominance using similar criteria as used for prosimians. Bonobos showed evidence of female feeding priority in small, but not in large, food patches. Male-male competition for mating opportunities at the start of the food bout was related to some, but not all, differences in time spent feeding between the sexes. Female dominance similar to that seen in prosimians was not observed in these bonobos. Males were consistently dominant in dyadic interactions. Female feeding priority with male dyadic social dominance implies that male deference during feeding cannot be excluded as one explanation of interpretations of female dominance in bonobos. Additionally, dominance of male bonobos by females appears to require the presence of female coalition partners. As in other primates with female feeding priority, bonobo females express this trait where food is economically defendable. Unlike prosimians, however, bonobo female feeding priority may result from male deference and the importance of female coalitions in nondyadic interactions.

  9. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

  10. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  11. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-07-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele.

  12. Belarusian female physicists: Statistics and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya

    2013-03-01

    The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.

  13. Permanent tooth sizes in 46,XY females.

    PubMed Central

    Alvesalo, L; Varrela, J

    1980-01-01

    The teeth of seven Finnish patients with complete testicular-feminization syndrome (46,XY females) were studied to obtain further information about their growth and possible somatic determinants on the Y chromosome. The sizes of the permanent teeth of the 46,XY females were found to be as large as those of control males and definitely larger than those of control females. Testicular feminization is caused by androgen insensitivity, and persons affected are phenotypically females. Hence, these results also indicate the influence of the Y chromosome on dental determination. PMID:7424913

  14. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-01-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele. PMID:10445289

  15. Methamphetamine enhances sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winland, Carissa; Haycox, Charles; Bolton, Jessica L; Jampana, Sumith; Oakley, Benjamin J; Ford, Brittany; Ornelas, Laura; Burbey, Alexandra; Marquette, Amber; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on sexual behavior in female rats. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats were injected with MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline prior to a test for mate choice wherein females could mate with two males simultaneously. Female rats treated with saline returned to their preferred mate faster after receiving intromissions and visited their preferred mate at a higher rate than their non-preferred mate. In contrast, MA-treated female rats spent a similar amount of time with their preferred and non-preferred mate and failed to return to their preferred mate faster than to their non-preferred mate following intromissions. Two weeks later, the females received the same drug treatment but were tested for partner preference wherein females could spend time near a male or female stimulus rat. All subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus. However, the MA-treated rats visited the male stimulus more frequently and spent less time near the female stimulus than the saline-treated rats. Similar to Experiment 1, female rats in Experiment 2 were tested for mate choice and then two weeks later tested for partner preference; however, females received three daily injections of MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Females treated chronically with MA returned to both males faster following intromissions than females treated with saline, independent of preference (i.e., preferred mate and non-preferred mate). Furthermore, MA-treated rats were more likely to leave either male (i.e., preferred or non-preferred mate) than saline-treated rats after receiving sexual stimulation. Although MA-treated subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus, they spent less time near either when compared to saline-treated subjects. The present results demonstrate that MA affects sexual behavior in female rats partly by increasing locomotion and partly by directly affecting sexual

  16. Changes in Female Career Goals and Attitudes during College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    Research has indicated that female models are important for female college students in their career decisions. To examine the effect of female role models on the career choices of college females, 57 freshmen students were provided with role models through interaction with female faculty advisers, and through exposure to female career women in a…

  17. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  18. Dilemma of Growing Up Black and Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Algea O.

    How do black females attempt to resolve the dilemma of femininity and high achievement goals? This paper discusses and reviews the nature of that relationship between femininity and high achievement need which has generally been of a reverse nature. The dilemma of being female for the black women is that she is being urged by society in general to…

  19. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  20. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  1. Turning Point Values of Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Vivian Center

    While the literature reveals interpersonal relations important to females, little specific data is available on values of adolescent females. Social comparison research reveals that when objective measures are unavailable to set standards, individuals compare traits and abilities with similar others. This tendency is more pronounced in periods of…

  2. Neurogenetics: sex and the female brain.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-09-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  3. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  5. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  6. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  7. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  8. Female mate choice in a neotropical frog.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M J

    1980-07-25

    Female Physalaemus pustulosus choose their mates and are more likely to choose larger males. There is a significant negative correlation between the size of the male and the fundamental frequency of one of the components of its advertisement call. Playback experiments demonstrate that females are capable of choosing larger males by distinguishing among differences in spectral components of the advertisement call. PMID:17831371

  9. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  10. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  11. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  12. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi. PMID:9621726

  13. Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

    1999-01-01

    Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

  14. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  15. Career Management Issues of Female Business Expatriates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Responses to a career management survey from 309 male and 79 female business expatriates revealed that, controlling for demographic differences, females could less often meet their career goals with the corporation. They were less likely to regard expatriation as a useful career move. Explanations were derived from relevant research literature.…

  16. Female Bonding among Low Income Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.

    There has been much work on social networks and interpersonal worlds, but until recently little discussion of the unique aspects of women's networks. To examine the factors that constrain or facilitate such female bonding, 43 low-income urban mothers were interviewed. For these respondents, female bonding was a significant aspect of their lives.…

  17. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  18. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown.

  19. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  20. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  1. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    PubMed

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition. PMID:26267502

  2. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  3. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    PubMed

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition.

  4. Forced swim test: What about females?

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Katerina; Mikail, Hudu G; Kafetzopoulos, Vasilios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Dalla, Christina

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies screening for novel antidepressants, male and female animals should be used. However, in a widely used antidepressant test, the forced swim test (FST), sex differences between males and females are not consistent. These discrepancies may discourage the inclusion of females in FST studies. In order to overcome this problem and provide a detailed insight regarding the use of female animals in the FST, we designed the following experiment and we performed a thorough analysis of the relevant literature. Male and female Wistar adult rats were subjected to the FST and sertraline was used as an antidepressant in two doses (10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 3 injections in 24 h). Rodents were subjected in the two FST sessions during all possible combinations of the estrous cycle stages. We found that females exhibited higher levels of immobility than males and this sex difference was alleviated following antidepressant treatment. Sertraline at both doses enhanced swimming in both sexes, but females appeared more responsive to lower sertraline doses regarding immobility levels. Surprisingly, the high sertraline dose enhanced climbing particularly in proestrous and diestrous. Marked sex differences were also observed in the frequency of head swinging, with females exhibiting lower counts than males. Conclusively, when screening for new antidepressants, it is recommended to use standard FST procedures and if possible to include females in all phases of the cycle. Using only one dose of an investigational drug in females in certain phases of the cycle could result to false negative results.

  5. First Class of Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to

  6. Sexual signalling by females: do unmated females increase their signalling effort?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-06-01

    Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort.

  7. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse.

  8. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  9. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality.

  10. Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christopher W.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the quality of genes passed on to the next generation. Thus, older males may produce relatively poor-quality offspring. To better understand how male age influences female mate preference and offspring quality, we used a genetic algorithm model to study the effect of age-related increases in male genetic load on female mate preference. When we incorporate age-related increases in mutation load in males into our model, we find that females evolve a preference for younger males. Females in this model could determine a male's age, but not his inherited genotype nor his mutation load. Nevertheless, females evolved age-preferences that led them to mate with males that had low mutation loads, but showed no preference for males with respect to their somatic quality. These results suggest that germ-line quality, rather than somatic quality, should be the focus of female preference in good genes models. PMID:17895980

  11. Rethinking progesterone regulation of female reproductive cyclicity

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kaiyu; Cui, Wei; Dhakal, Pramod; Wolfe, Michael W.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Vivian, Jay L.; Roby, Katherine F.; Soares, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with key roles in the regulation of female fertility. Much has been learned of the actions of PGR signaling through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors and genetic manipulation, using mouse mutagenesis. Characterization of rats with a null mutation at the Pgr locus has forced a reexamination of the role of progesterone in the regulation of the female reproductive cycle. We generated two Pgr mutant rat models, using genome editing. In both cases, deletions yielded a null mutation resulting from a nonsense frame-shift and the emergence of a stop codon. Similar to Pgr null mice, Pgr null rats were infertile because of deficits in sexual behavior, ovulation, and uterine endometrial differentiation. However, in contrast to the reported phenotype of female mice with disruptions in Pgr signaling, Pgr null female rats exhibit robust estrous cycles. Cyclic changes in vaginal cytology, uterine histology, serum hormone levels, and wheel running activity were evident in Pgr null female rats, similar to wild-type controls. Furthermore, exogenous progesterone treatment inhibited estrous cycles in wild-type female rats but not in Pgr-null female rats. As previously reported, pharmacologic antagonism supports a role for PGR signaling in the regulation of the ovulatory gonadotropin surge, a result at variance with experimentation using genetic ablation of PGR signaling. To conclude, our findings in the Pgr null rat challenge current assumptions and prompt a reevaluation of the hormonal control of reproductive cyclicity. PMID:27035990

  12. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed.

  13. Stability of partner choice among female baboons.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Cheney, Dorothy L; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    In a wide range of taxa, including baboons, close social bonds seem to help animals cope with stress and enhance long-term reproductive success and longevity. Current evidence suggests that female baboons may benefit from establishing and maintaining highly individuated relationships with a relatively small number of partners. Here, we extend previous work on the stability of female baboons' social relationships in three different ways. First, we assess the stability of females' social relationships in two distinct and geographically distant sites using the same method. Second, we conduct simulations to determine whether females' social relationships were more stable than expected by chance. Third, we examine demographic sources of variance in the stability of close social bonds. At both sites, females' relationships with their most preferred partners were significantly more stable than expected by chance. In contrast, their relationships with less preferred partners were more ephemeral, often changing from year to year. While nearly all females experienced some change in their top partners across time, many maintained relationships with top partners for several years. Females that lived in smaller groups and had more close kin available had more stable social relationships than those that lived in larger groups and had fewer close kin available.

  14. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, J.; Liu, F.; Wu, J.; Dai, W.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results showed that the body volume divided by the square of the height, defined as volume height index (VHI), is the most important and direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness. In determining the female attractiveness, human observers may first use VHI as a visual cue, which is also a key indicator of health and fertility owing to its strong linear relation to BMI. To fine-tune the judgement, observers may then use body proportions, the most important of which are the ratio of waist height over the chin height (WHC) (a measure of the length of legs over total tallness) and the deviation of WHR from the ideal ratio. It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics. PMID:15101692

  15. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  16. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

  17. On the function of female ornaments: male bluethroats prefer colourful females

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, T.; Forsgren, E.; Hansen, L. T. T.

    1997-01-01

    Female ornaments in animals with conventional sex roles have traditionally been considered non-functional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate choice experiments with bluethroats (Luscinia s. svecica), a passerine bird in which females vary considerably in coloration of an ornamental throat patch. In outdoor aviaries placed in prime breeding habitat, males were allowed to choose between a colourful and a drab female. We found that males associated more with, and performed more sexual behaviours towards, colourful females. Female coloration was not age-related, but correlated significantly with body mass and tarsus length. Thus, we have demonstrated both a male preference for female ornamentation, and a relationship between ornament expression and female body size, which may be indicative of quality. Our results refute the correlated response hypothesis and support the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected.

  18. Female urbanward migration and human resource issues.

    PubMed

    Zosa-feranil, I

    1990-01-01

    Of those migrating to urban centers in the Philippines, a disproportionate number of them are young females, most of whom end up working in the service sector. Between 1975-80, 1.3 million people migrated to urban centers, 56% of whom were females. Furthermore, a 1980 census indicates that 13% of all urban migrants were females age 15-19, and almost 1/4 of them were women in their 20s. Figures also show that single females make up a substantial portion of the urban migrants. Compared to the men migrating into the cities, the female urban migrants had lower educational attainments. Many of uneducated migrants do not integrate as easily, and are relegated to the periphery of urban centers. The search for employment serves as the driving force for urban migration, and in fact, the level of female participation in the workforce is high. But while male migrants work mostly as craftsmen or in the production sector, most female migrants work in the service sector. This category includes domestic workers, laundry women, cooks and waitresses, hospitality girls, and prostitutes. Generally attracting single, young females, the service sector has easy entry, which helps explain the high rate of female employment. The author explains that this trend is cause for concern, considering that the number of people involved is large, that the service sector provides low earning, and that it lends itself to the exploitation of the workers. Nonetheless, the author says that the migration pattern might only be transitory, and the urban migration might be a liberating process for women, but explains that further research is needed concerning the upward mobility of urban migrants.

  19. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  20. Female genital mutilation: perspectives, risks, and complications.

    PubMed

    Morris, R I

    1999-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities. PMID:10373987

  1. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  2. Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Bezzola, Pauli

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year old spayed, female Labrador retriever, with an 8-month history of weight loss, increased heart rate, and hyperactivity, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and a thyroid neoplasm. Thyrotoxic heart disease is documented in this case. PMID:11842596

  3. Females that experience threat are better teachers.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-05-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  4. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  5. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... They occur while she is growing in her mother's womb. Female reproductive organs include the vagina , ovaries, ... those found on boys. Certain drugs that the mother takes can pass into the baby's bloodstream and ...

  6. The real females of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-11-01

    When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species. PMID:23280923

  7. The real females of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-11-01

    When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species.

  8. The Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the ways several women have written persuasive discourse and identifies a female rhetorical mode involving indirection, open-endedness, additive attention to small details, restraint, and noncombativeness. (DD)

  9. Urban female teenagers' perceptions of medical communication.

    PubMed

    Clowers, M

    2000-01-01

    Although it is clear that health care must be age-appropriate to be effective, little is known about the care-related preferences of adolescent females. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine teenagers' preferences in regard to medical communication, so that care providers in a number of disciplines can make their interactions with young females more satisfactory and successful. Specifically, examples of female teenagers' best and worst encounters with physicians are reported. It was found that female teenagers prefer physicians who comfort, use humor, are understanding, and explain procedures. Physicians who rush, behave rudely, or are "too personal" are viewed negatively. It was concluded that relational communication skill development must be a priority of educators and service providers if caregiving is to be maximized with this important patient group.

  10. Hobby or job? Mexican female health workers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M E

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the role and status of female health workers in the primary health care service (PHC) of the Secretary of Health in the Federal District of Mexico is presented. Women are key workers in the health service; however, since the creation of the PHC service, women appear to have been kept in low-pay, low-status jobs. Data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews with female health workers in the Federal District illustrate the situation. Female health workers' status is determined by the structure and operation of the PHC system; by family and personal needs; by the cultural context of Mexican society; and by the fact that some female health workers view their job as a hobby, placing family considerations above career enhancement. PMID:8002424

  11. A case of unrecognized female epispadias

    PubMed Central

    Tantibhedhyangkul, Julierut; Copland, Susannah D.; Haqq, Andrea M.; Price, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To present a case of unrecognized female epispadias Design Case Report Setting University-based reproductive endocrinology and fertility clinic Patient A 16-year-old female with epispadias, history of mild urinary incontinence, auditory neuropathy and functional hyperandrogenism Main Outcome Measure Peripheral blood array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) Results The patient was referred for evaluation of excessive weight gain, secondary amenorrhea and abnormal external genitalia. Examination under anesthesia revealed bilateral labia minora hypertrophy, bifid clitoris and a patulous urethra, consistent with female epispadias. Hormonal evaluation showed functional hyperandrogenism while peripheral blood array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) showed no chromosomal deletions or duplications. Conclusion Female epispadias is a rare abnormality, not commonly recognized by most practitioners. The diagnosis is supported by a history of urinary incontinence and physical findings of bifid clitoris and patulous urethra. The condition can have serious physical and psychological consequences leading to a gross disruption of social function. PMID:18314106

  12. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  13. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  14. Infanticide in great reed warblers: secondary females destroy eggs of primary females

    PubMed

    Hansson; Bensch; Hasselquist

    1997-08-01

    In 1994-1995 artificial nests with attached model eggs were put into territories that were known to have been occupied by male great reed warblers, Acrocephalus arundinaceusin previous years. Because the eggs were made of soft plasticine, predators left peckmarks in them and this enabled us to identify predators by comparing peckmarks with reference marks made by various species. Previous field data had suggested that infanticidal behaviour existed in our study population, as nests of primary females suffered a three times higher rate of nest loss during the egg-laying period than nests of secondary and monogamous females. The presence of infanticide was supported by the experiment. Small peckmarks resembling those of a great reed warbler occurred almost exclusively in territories occupied by great reed warblers, in particular when a new female settled in the territory. The newly settled females built nests closer to depredated than non-depredated nests. That small peckmarks occurred when new females settled strongly suggests that it is secondary female great reed warblers that commit infanticide on eggs of primary females. Females of low harem rank are expected to gain from infanticidal behaviour because a low ranked female gets a higher proportion of male parental investment when the nest of the primary female fails. PMID:9268460

  15. Female genomic response to mate information

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Julie K.; Klausner, Jill Q.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Females should be choosier than males about prospective mates because of the high costs of inappropriate mating decisions. Both theoretical and empirical studies have identified factors likely to influence female mate choices. However, male–male social interactions also can affect mating decisions, because information about a potential mate can trigger changes in female reproductive physiology. We asked how social information about a preferred male influenced neural activity in females, using immediate early gene (IEG) expression as a proxy for brain activity. A gravid female cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) chose between two socially equivalent males and then saw fights between these two males in which her preferred male either won or lost. We measured IEG expression levels in several brain nuclei including those in the vertebrate social behavior network (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to be important in social behavior. When the female saw her preferred male win a fight, SBN nuclei associated with reproduction were activated, but when she saw her preferred male lose a fight, the lateral septum, a nucleus associated with anxiety, was activated instead. Thus social information alone, independent of actual social interactions, activates specific brain regions that differ significantly depending on what the female sees. In female brains, reproductive centers are activated when she chooses a winner, and anxiety-like response centers are activated when she chooses a loser. These experiments assessing the role of mate-choice information on the brain using a paradigm of successive presentations of mate information suggest ways to understand the consequences of social information on animals using IEG expression. PMID:21106763

  16. [Impact of radiotherapy on female fertility].

    PubMed

    Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Cao, Kim; Mbagui, Rodrigue; Slocker-Escarpa, Andrea; Chargari, Cyrus; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Radiation therapy may have deleterious effects on female fertility. It can cause ovarian dysfunction, uterine damages or disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. These effects occur at varying dose levels usually relatively low compared to the prescribed doses. Other co-factors influence the effects of radiation therapy on fertility, such as age or therapy with alkylating agents. This review aims to make an update on the current state of knowledge about the impact of radiotherapy on female fertility.

  17. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    PubMed

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  18. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  19. Females excel at basic face perception.

    PubMed

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.

  20. Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Huston, L J; Wojtys, E M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify possible predisposing neuromuscular factors for knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes by investigating anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, muscle reaction time, and muscle recruitment order in response to anterior tibial translation. We recruited four subject groups: elite female (N = 40) and male (N = 60) athletes and sex-matched nonathletic controls (N = 40). All participants underwent a subjective evaluation of knee function, arthrometer measurement of anterior tibial translation, isokinetic dynamometer strength and endurance tests at 60 and 240 deg/sec, and anterior tibial translation stress tests. Dynamic stress testing of muscles demonstrated less anterior tibial translation in the knees of the athletes (both men and women) compared with the nonathletic controls. Female athletes and controls demonstrated more anterior tibial laxity than their male counterparts and significantly less muscle strength and endurance. Compared with the male athletes, the female athletes took significantly longer to generate maximum hamstring muscle torque during isokinetic testing. Although no significant differences were found in either spinal or cortical muscle reaction times, the muscle recruitment order in some female athletes was markedly different. The female athletes appeared to rely more on their quadriceps muscles in response to anterior tibial translation; the three other test groups relied more on their hamstring muscles for initial knee stabilization.

  1. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  2. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  3. Predictably Philandering Females Prompt Poor Paternal Provisioning.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julia; Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Winney, Isabel; Simons, Mirre; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    2016-08-01

    One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect). Our exceptionally extensive long-term data set of repeated observations of a wild passerine allows us to disentangle paternal care adjustment within males-within pairs and between males-while accounting for environmental variables. We found a within-male adjustment of paternal provisioning, but not incubation effort, relative to the cuckoldry in their nest. This effect was mainly driven by females differing consistently in their fidelity. There was no evidence that this within-male adjustment also took place across broods with the same female, and we found no between-male effect. Interestingly, males that gained more extrapair paternity provided less care. Data from a cross-foster experiment suggested that males did not use kin recognition to assess paternity. Our results provide insight into the role of individual variation in parental care and mating systems. PMID:27420786

  4. Influence of female age, sperm senescence and multiple mating on sperm viability in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Fedorka, Kenneth M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm viability has been associated with the degree of promiscuity across species, as well as the degree of reproductive success within species. Thus, sperm survival within the female reproductive tract likely plays a key role in how mating systems evolve. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, however, the extent and cause of sperm death has been the subject of recent debate. Here, we assess sperm death within the female reproductive tract of D. melanogaster following single and multiple matings in order to elucidate the extent of death and its potential mechanisms, including an acute female response to mating, female age and/or sperm senescence. We found no evidence that sperm viability was influenced by an acute female response or female age. We also found that rival ejaculates did not influence viability, supporting recent work in the system. Instead, the majority of death appears to be due to the aging of male gametes within the female, and that at least some dead resident sperm remain in the female after multiple mating. In contrast to earlier in vivo work, we found that overall sperm death was minimal (8.7%), indicating viability should have a negligible influence on female remating rates.

  5. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  6. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    PubMed

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  7. PHARMACOLOGY OF SEROTONIN AND FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Uphouse, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin’s (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT1A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784

  8. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E. Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial—breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  9. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  10. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  11. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  12. Female dominance and female social relationships among yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Bentley-Condit, V K; Smith, E O

    1999-01-01

    Adult females in a female-bonded, cercopithecine species such as baboons are characterized by hierarchically ranked matrilines, i.e., female offspring assume rankings just beneath those of their mothers. In this system of closely ranked matrilines, a female should engage in significantly more affiliative interactions with those individuals who are closely ranked to herself than with those individuals who are more distantly ranked. We examine the hypothesis that females in this troop of feral yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus) who are closely ranked will also show close social affiliation. We collected focal data on 23 feral, adult female subjects (253 possible dyads) over approximately 1 year at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. Following Bramblett's [Behav Brain Sci 4: 435, 1981] method of dominance tabulation and utilizing a modified version of Smuts' [Sex and friendship in baboons, Hawthorne: Aldine Publishing Co., 1985] preferred partner index, we describe and compare the dominance matrix and hierarchy, preferred proximity partner and grooming partner sociograms, and the social networks of these 23 focal females. Over 1,400 interactions were utilized in the dominance tabulations, 41 statistically significant proximity partner preferences were documented, and 100 grooming dyads were recorded. We examine both partners' ranks and the presence of an infant as possible factors influencing proximity and grooming partner preferences. We find that in this population there is no direct correspondence between females' ranks and their affiliation partners. Neither proximity nor grooming preferences are consistently predictable from partners' ranks. While proximity preferences were not significantly influenced by the presence of an infant, grooming partner preferences were. Females with infants had more grooming partners and were more often involved in unidirectional grooming relationships as the recipients than were females without infants. We

  13. Why do ovigerous females approach courting males? Female preferences and sensory biases in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chun-Chia; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2016-08-01

    Perceptual biases explain the origin and evolution of female preference in many species. Some responses that mediate mate choice, however, may have never been used in nonmating contexts. In the fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, mate-searching females prefer faster wave rates and leading wave; however, it remains unclear whether such responses evolved in a mating context (i.e., the preference has effect on the fitness of the female and her offspring that arise from mating with a particular male) or a nonmating contexts (i.e., a female obtains direct benefits through selecting the male with a more detectable trait). Here, we compared the preferences of mate-searching with those of ovigerous females that are searching for a burrow and do not concern about male "quality." Results showed that as both mate-searching and ovigerous females preferentially approached robotic males with faster wave rates. This suggests that wave rate increases detectability/locatability of males, but the mating preference for this trait is unlikely to evolve in the mating context (although it may currently function in mate choice), as it does not provide fitness-related benefit to females or her offspring. Wave leadership, in contract, was attractive to mate-searching females, but not ovigerous females, suggesting that female preference for leadership evolves because wave leadership conveys information about male quality. We provide not only an empirical evidence of sensory biases (in terms of the preference for faster wave), but the first experimental evidence that mating context can be the only selection force that mediates the evolution of male sexual traits and female preference (in terms of the preference for leading wave). PMID:27551397

  14. Resistance Training for Pediatric Female Dancers.

    PubMed

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury. PMID:27245945

  15. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  16. Placentophagia in Weanling Female Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548

  17. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  18. Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported. Aim To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women. Methods We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”. Results Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported. Conclusion There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs. PMID:25089153

  19. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

  20. The craniofacial complex in 47, XXX females.

    PubMed

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Krusinskie, Viktorija; Alvesalo, Lassi; Sidlauskas, Antanas

    2005-08-01

    A study of the craniofacial complex in four 47, XXX Finnish females, or females with an extra X chromosome, was carried out using cephalometric analysis comprising linear and angular measurements. The lengths of the anterior and posterior cranial bases, the calvarium, mandibular ramus and posterior and upper anterior face heights were found to be significantly shorter than in female controls, while the angles between the foraminal and clival planes, the mandibular plane and cranial base, the maxillary and occlusal planes, the maxillary and mandibular planes and the foraminal and mandibular planes, and also the gonial angle, were significantly enlarged. The present findings of reduced linear measurements, together with the results of studies on the craniofacial complex of 47, XXY and 47, XYY males, suggest dimensional variation between these groups from the promoting effect of an extra Y chromosome and the retarding effect of an extra X chromosome on craniofacial growth.

  1. [Drug therapy of female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Hampel, C; Gillitzer, R; Pahernik, S; Melchior, S W; Thüroff, J W

    2005-03-01

    Drug treatment for female urinary incontinence requires a thorough knowledge of the differential diagnosis and pathophysiology of incontinence as well as of the pharmacological agents employed. Pharmacotherapy has to be tailored to suit the incontinence subtype and should be carefully balanced according to efficacy and side effects of the drug. Women with urge incontinence require treatment that relaxes or desensitizes the bladder (antimuscarinics, estrogens, alpha-blockers, beta-mimetics, botulinum toxin A, resiniferatoxin, vinpocetine), whereas patients with stress incontinence need stimulation and strengthening of the pelvic floor and external sphincter (alpha-mimetics, estrogens, duloxetine). Females with overflow incontinence need reduction of outflow resistance (baclofen, alpha-blockers, intrasphincteric botulinum toxin A) and/or improvement of bladder contractility (parasympathomimetics). If nocturia or nocturnal incontinence are the major complaints, control of diuresis is obtained by administration of the ADH analogue desmopressin. Future developments will help to further optimize the pharmacological therapy for female urinary incontinence.

  2. Profile of female firesetters. Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L A

    1993-08-01

    We studied 28 female arsonists and 28 female controls admitted to Holloway Prison over four months to examine the psychological and situational antecedents to firesetting so that the behaviour could be targeted for treatment. Over 92% of the arson group had received a psychiatric diagnosis. Both groups had similarly high rates of early deprivation and abuse. None of the female arsonists had set a fire for financial gain. There was no evidence of sexual arousal being associated with firesetting; only two women described their firesetting in terms that suggest a level of compulsion--one of these was alcoholic, the other was diagnosed as severely personality disordered. Several behavioural and psychological antecedents to offending were identified which could be targeted for treatment: low self-esteem, depression, limited communication skills, and deficits in anger management. The relapse prevention model is suggested as a possible intervention for recidivistic arsonists. PMID:8075918

  3. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  4. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  5. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  6. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. PMID:27463236

  7. Sexual Equality, Female Labor Force Participation and Female Crime: Testing Some Common Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Cecil L.

    This study measures the impact of sexual equality on the differences between male and female involvement in crime. The units of analysis were all 100 counties in North Carolina. Data for the dependent variable, male-female involvement in crime, were obtained from the North Carolina Police Information Network. The 1970 U.S. Census was the source of…

  8. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  9. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species.

  10. 'How many female scientists do you know?'.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The stereotypical scientist wears a lab-coat, is often eccentric and is usually male. Images of female scientists in popular culture remain rare. Some of the first portrayals of women in science occurred in a handful of British films made during the 1950s and 1960s. These films reflected the difficulties experienced by women in science at the time, but they might also explain why representations of female scientists in film continue to downplay their role as scientists and emphasize their identity as women.

  11. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women.

  12. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    PubMed

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  13. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know. PMID:26611132

  14. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women. PMID:26612064

  15. Impulsive nonconformity in female chat room users.

    PubMed

    Fullwood, Chris; Galbraith, Niall; Morris, Neil

    2006-10-01

    Heavy chat room use has been associated with social isolation, introversion, impulse control problems, and risk taking. Such characteristics form part of the cluster of traits associated with schizotypy. This study used multiple regression to examine the relationship between age, sex, four dimensions of schizotypy, and frequency of reported chat room use. The only significant association with schizotypy was between frequency of chat room use and impulsive nonconformity (IN) in females. These findings may be explained by the increased risk associated with female chat room use.

  16. [An XXX female with essential thrombocythemia].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tadanobu; Hagiwara, Kioyuki; Makita, Kaori; Mugitani, Atuko; Ohta, Kensuke; Yamane, Takahisa; Takubo, Takayuki; Hino, Masayuki

    2003-07-01

    We describe an XXX female patient accompanied with essential thrombocythemia. To our knowledge this is the first case ever to have been reported. The patient was asymptomatic, but her platelet count had increased to 111.2 x 10(4)/microliter, and she was diagnosed as having essential thrombocythemia based on the diagnostic criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group. At the same time, chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells revealed that she was an XXX female. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the course of treatment.

  17. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.

  18. Understanding and management of female pattern alopecia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt

    2008-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss is devastating to many of the 21 million U.S. women who suffer from it. It is essential to differentiate female pattern hair loss from other types of hair loss to ensure appropriate treatment. Through use of follicular units, follicular families, and follicular pairing between existing hair follicles, natural-looking results can be achieved in women. Hair transplants create the benefit of increasing density and providing options for hair styling and can be combined with medications, devices, and styling aids such as minoxidil, low-level laser therapy, and topical powder makeup, respectively.

  19. The effect of female mating status on male offspring traits.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, D; Lubin, Y; Harari, A R

    2014-01-01

    In haplodiploid insects, males develop from unfertilized eggs; consequently, unmated females can reproduce. In a patchy, highly structured population, where brothers compete for mates and the reproductive return through sons is lower, females should minimize the number of male offspring. Consequently, unmated females are likely to have a reduced fitness compared to mated females. Here, we tested the oviposition behaviour of the haplodiploid beetle Coccotrypes dactyliperda. In this species, the unmated female can mate with her son to produce daughters. We predicted that unmated females could increase their fitness by (1) producing only few and small sons sufficient for mother-son mating and (2) dispersing to a patch occupied by conspecific females in order to increase their or their sons' chance of mating. We demonstrate that (1) unmated females are common (23 % of all females), (2) they oviposit more frequently than mated females in occupied patches, (3) unmated females oviposit more eggs than mated females-this is in spite of the trade-offs, evident in this study, between the number of sons and the number of the mother's future offspring after mating, (4) unmated females have a higher proportion of dispersing sons, and (5) sons of unmated females are smaller than sons of mated females. We conclude that the incidence of unmated females in the structured populations of C. dactyliperda is explained by plasticity in their oviposition behaviour. We discuss conditions where a high incidence of unmated females can persist as a successful strategy in structured populations.

  20. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  1. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  2. Two Noninvasive Methods to Measure Female Maturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozinetz, Claudia A.

    1986-01-01

    Data from a sample of 278 females, aged 7 to 13, were used to compare two methods of measuring maturation. The methods were self-assessment of secondary sex characteristics and prediction of adult height. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  3. Altruistic colony defense by menopausal female insects.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Keigo; Kutsukake, Mayako; Fukatsu, Takema; Shimada, Masakazu; Shibao, Harunobu

    2010-07-13

    Recent studies have suggested that an extended postreproductive life span, such as life after menopause in human females, will evolve when the indirect (kin-selected) fitness benefits from altruistic behavior are greater than the direct fitness benefits from continuing reproduction. Under some conditions in which postreproductive altruism is more beneficial and/or continuing reproduction is more costly, the postreproductive life span can be shaped by natural selection. However, indirect fitness benefits during postreproductive survival have been documented mainly in intelligent mammals such as humans and cetaceans, in which elder females possess enhanced social knowledge through learning. Here we show that postreproductive females of the gall-forming aphid Quadrartus yoshinomiyai (Nipponaphidini) can gain indirect fitness benefits through their altruistic colony defense. These females cease reproduction around the time of gall opening and defend the colony by sticking themselves to intruding predators with a waxy secretion that is accumulated in their body with aging. Our results suggest that the presence of an age-related trait for altruistic behavior promotes the evolution of postreproductive altruism in this social insect via kin selection under natural selection imposed by predators.

  4. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  5. Eating Behavior in Junior High School Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Addys B.; Thelen, Mark H.

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed 175 female junior high school students in an effort to ascertain both their present eating behavior and their attitudes regarding dieting and concern about body weight. Many subjects appeared to have considered these matters as early as elementary school. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. (RJM)

  6. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  7. Recreation and the Returning Female Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.

    This study evaluated the leisure attitudes and recreation participation patterns of a sample of returning female college students. Interviews were conducted with 36 full-time women students who had returned to graduate school after a five-year lapse in their formal training. The women placed a high value on the cognitive and affective aspects of…

  8. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  9. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  10. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  11. Nontraditional, Female, Commuter Students: Coping with College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The unique needs of nontraditional, female, commuter students at Northern Kentucky University were examined as a result of active recruitment of nontraditional students in the dwindling market for traditional college students. Women over the age of 25 are entering Northern Kentucky University, bringing unique personal and career problems. Problem…

  12. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  13. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  14. A Study of Female Life in Mauritania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeille, Barbara

    A 3-month pilot study conducted from April-June 1979 with 16 major informants provides information for constructing a preliminary model of female life in Mauritania. An introduction gives definitions for terms used differently in Mauritania (tribe, ethnic group, and class) and discusses examples of each. The study (based mainly on repeated…

  15. Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change.

  16. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana de Oliveira; Panício, Maurício Isaac; Dantas, Marcos Paulo Suehiro; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring. PMID:25628190

  17. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  18. Middle-Class Females' Media Usage Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Donna K.; Darden, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a study which attempted to delineate cultural differences between middle-class White and Black females by determining if they have different reference groups as reflected in media usage habits. Findings showed that magazine, radio, and television use differed between groups. Differences were not considered indicative of true cultural…

  19. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  20. Hearing Female Voices in Life Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Julie

    1990-01-01

    The author makes a case for keeping sensitivity and intuitive approaches in the science classroom. The importance of emotional connections with other organisms, considered a critical part of enriched, effective scientific thinking, is emphasized. Female and male learning styles are described. (KR)

  1. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  2. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  3. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  4. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  5. Female Friendship in Literature: Bonding and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby

    This document presents the findings of research concerning female friendship as literature portrays it. Literal sisterhood is not the focus of the report, nor is cross gender friendship. The examination rejects the suggestion that homosexuality is at the root of same sex friendship. The document touches on the enmities that may arise between…

  6. The Female Experience of Sibling Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…

  7. European Female Expatriate Careers: Critical Success Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers revealed that many were disadvantaged in their careers by lack of access to organizational supports such as mentors, interpersonal networks, assistance for spouses' careers, the glass ceiling, and other barriers. Women will remain a minority in management until organizations address these barriers in…

  8. A Study of the Female Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugaya, Yoshiko

    1985-01-01

    A study examined the historical changes that have occurred in the female life course pattern in rural communities in Japan. The family and career patterns of two generations of women were studied from a generation-lineage and age cohort perspective. The older-generation sample consisted of women between the ages of 50 and 79, and the…

  9. Why Were So Few Mathematicians Female?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Loretta

    1996-01-01

    Six female mathematicians and their accomplishments spanning 1500 years are highlighted. The six women chosen were Hypatia, Emilie du Chatelet, Sophie Germain, Sonya Kovalevsky, Emmy Noether, and Julia Robinson. The women were selected for inclusion based on the myriad aspects of their contributions. (AIM)

  10. Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change. PMID:10963253

  11. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  12. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  13. Rosalie: the Brazilian female monkey of Charcot.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Arruda, Walter O; Werneck, Lineu C

    2005-09-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.

  14. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  15. New plan to prevent female infanticide mooted.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    The Campaign Against Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu (CAFIT), sponsored by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has brought to light a quadrangular model for the prevention of the social evil of female infanticide. The existence of female infanticide, according to the CAFIT, exposed the deplorable condition of women in society and reflected the perpetuation of customary and traditional practices in the sociocultural life of the people. The practice was associated with militant communities and other weaker segments living in less developed regions and with backward pockets marked by illiteracy, superstition, poverty, indebtedness, fear of liability, and emotional attachments to the soil and to cults. This paper also indicates the following preventive measures against female infanticide that are aimed at empowering women: establishing self-help groups and the sanction of micro credit for women in order to facilitate economic development, establishing rural and agriculture-based small-scale industries in order to generate local self-employment, and synchronization of crop insurance and marketing facilities in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate compensation in the event of crop failure caused by natural disasters. PMID:12179545

  16. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  17. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  18. Career Maturity in High School Age Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan Daniels

    1982-01-01

    Examined career maturity in high school females by using a set of general career-maturity and gender-specific, career-related measures, and an alternate career-maturity criterion measure, career-planning involvement. Results indicated significant relationships between achievement orientation and occupational information and knowledge of women's…

  19. Gender and Perceptions: Females as Secondary Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…

  20. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  1. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  2. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  3. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  4. The Female Single Parent in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, J. O.; March, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    Problems faced by the female single parent in her private life and in her life as a university student are explored. Practical solutions to some of these problems are discussed, and suggestions made as to how the university may be more supportive to these students. (Author)

  5. The Stereotype and Recognition of Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Cyd; And Others

    The stereotype of women athletes in college is predominantly positive rather than negative. In one study, female athletes were seen to be strong, strong-willed, leaders, brave and healthy. In the second study, women were judged to be significantly more attractive when the interviewer was male, and males gave significantly higher ratings than…

  6. Female Juvenile Offending: A Review of Characteristics and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Huber, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed current literature on female juvenile offending including the scope and nature of offending by female adolescents and the risk and protective factors across ecological contexts. We suggested that female juvenile offending is best viewed within a multidimensional framework in which female adolescent developmental characteristics as well…

  7. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  8. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  9. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  10. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  11. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  12. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  13. Social structures in Pan paniscus: testing the female bonding hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeroen M G; Vervaecke, Hilde; De Vries, Han; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-07-01

    Based on previous research in captivity, bonobos, Pan paniscus, have been called a female-bonded species. However, genetic and behavioural data indicate that wild females migrate. Bonding between these unrelated females would then be in contradiction with socio-ecological models. It has been argued that female bonding has been overemphasized in captive bonobos. We examine patterns of proximity, grooming and support behaviour in six well established captive groups of bonobos. We find that female bonding was not a typical characteristic of all captive bonobo groups. In only two groups there was a trend for females to prefer proximity with other females over association with males. We found no evidence that following or grooming between females was more frequent than between males and unrelated females or between males. Only in coalitions, females supported each other more than male-female or male-male dyads. We also investigated five mother-son pairs. Grooming was more frequent among mothers and sons than in any other dyad, but sons did not groom their mothers more than males groomed unrelated females. Mothers groomed their sons, or provided more support to them than females groomed or supported unrelated males. Thus, while bonds between females were clearly present, intersexual relations between males and either unrelated females or their mothers are of more, or equal importance.

  14. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  15. Rare male aggression directed toward females in a female-dominated society: Baiting behavior in the spotted hyena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szykman, Micaela; Engh, Anne L.; Van Horn, Russell C.; Boydston, Erin E.; Scribner, Kim T.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are gregarious carnivores. The females are socially dominant to males, and adult males rarely direct aggression toward adult females. This study analyzed all cases in which adult immigrant males behaved aggressively toward adult females in a large population of free-living hyenas in Kenya, observed for 11 years. Our goals were to describe the conditions under which male attacks on females occur, and address possible adaptive functions. Most aggression directed by adult immigrant males against females occurred when coalitions of two or more males attacked a single adult female, who typically responded by defending herself and fighting back. Male aggression against females frequently occurred at sites of ungulate kills, but males never behaved aggressively toward females over food, and all male attacks on females were unprovoked. Although no mounting or other copulatory behaviors ever occurred during or immediately after an attack, the number of male attacks on females peaked around the time of conception. Daily rates at which males attacked females did not vary with female social rank. However, daily attack rates did vary significantly with female reproductive state, and the highest rates of male attack on females were observed during the two stages of the reproductive cycle during which females were most likely to conceive litters. The adaptive significance of male aggression against females in this species remains unknown, but a tight association between male attacks on females and a female's time of conception provides strong evidence of some role for male aggression in hyena sexual behavior. In particular, our data are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that male aggression toward females in this species either serves to inform females about male fitness or represents sexual harassment.

  16. Spirituality group with female prisoners: impacting hope.

    PubMed

    Nedderman, A Barbara; Underwood, Lee A; Hardy, Veronica L

    2010-04-01

    Female offenders are showing a dramatic increase and presenting with several challenges to emotional stability. Current research literature notes the disadvantaged state of these women and psychological profiles reflecting depression, anxiety, trauma, shame, low self-worth, and substance abuse. The instillation of hope has been identified as a therapeutic factor and motivating energy that promotes goal development, reduction of negative emotions, and coping ability. This investigation assessed the impact of hope on female prisoners through the use of a psychoeducational group based on Christian spirituality. Data from the Herth Hope Index were analyzed using a series of t tests to measure group differences. Analysis of the data indicated positive change in the therapy group but did not support statistical significance for every factor analyzed, yet it does provide several implications for practice and future research.

  17. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  18. Ripcord release capability of female parachutists.

    PubMed

    Bullock, M I

    1978-10-01

    With the growth in popularity of skydiving as a sport has come an associated increase in parachuting accidents, some of them due to failure to deploy the main or reserve parachutes. The absence of appropriate strength data has prompted a study of the pull force capabilities of female parachutists on a ripcord release in varying positions. Pull forces exerted for periods of 0.25, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 s during a 5-s pull are presented in percentile form. A substantial percentage of female parachutists could not exert the maximum ripcord release pull force permitted by the relevant parachute specification. The relatively low level of strength exhibited by the weakest groups of the population emphasizes the need for such basic information in equipment design.

  19. Female Project Managers' Workplace Problems: a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin

    This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.

  20. Central circadian control of female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brooke H; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise. Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.