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Sample records for 6-year-old spayed female

  1. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  2. The effect of spaying on the racing performance of female greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    The effect of spaying (ovariohysterectomy) on racing greyhound performance was analysed. Using data from a longitudinal observational study design, random effects models were used to compare the racing performance before and after spaying. Greyhounds were matched by distance and date of racing, and then both spayed and entire bitches were compared for each stadium which had spayed greyhounds on the racing strength. The racing performance of entire females was selected from the anoestral period (from 90 days post-oestrus to the next oestrus). Spaying had no real effect on performance, with a mean difference of +0.066 seconds (90% CI: -0.004, +0.135 s) over 480 metres. The effect of time since spaying had no effect (90% CI: -0.0002 to +0.0001 s/day). Spaying of racing greyhound bitches produced no overall change in performance, and had no apparent long term effect on performance. These results are discussed within the context of the current information on the advantages and disadvantages of spaying at a young age. PMID:24076124

  3. Multiple Radiolucencies of the Jaws in a 6 Year Old.

    PubMed

    Hansford, John T; Kelsch, Robert D; Wiltz, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    Radiolucencies of the jaws are a common finding. Mostly, they are isolated findings associated with inflammatory processes and consistent with inflammatory periapical disease, such as periapical cysts and periapical granulomas. If associated with the crowns of unerupted teeth, they may represent dentigerous cysts. However, occasionally, larger lytic/radiolucent lesions are identified; even more infrequently, these radiographic findings may be multiple and concurrent. The purpose of this report is to present the case of a 6-year-old female patient with no known concomitant syndrome who presented with multiple intraoral swellings and to discuss the treatment of multiple, bilateral mandibular and maxillary radiolucencies. PMID:26749783

  4. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on quality characteristics and fatty acid profile in dry-cured shoulders and loins.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; García, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on meat quality characteristics and fatty acid profile of dry-cured shoulders and loins by comparing Iberian×Duroc surgically spayed females, immune-spayed females and entire females. There were no significant differences on the physicochemical composition of dry-cured shoulders; however the intramuscular fat content of dry-cured loins was higher in immune-spayed females than entire ones, but not significantly different from spayed females. Immune-spayed females showed the highest values, which could improve the sensory quality of Iberian dry-cured loins, since it is considered an index of high quality. On the other hand, the PUFA content of both dry-cured shoulders and loins proved to be lower in immune-spayed than spayed females, which could prevent excessive fat oxidation responsible for rancidity. Therefore, immune-spaying could be a viable alternative to surgical spaying from the meat quality point of view. PMID:25697853

  5. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  6. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian × Duroc females: Effect on the VOC profile of dry-cured shoulders and dry-cured loins as detected by PTR-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Cappellin, Luca; García, Carmen; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Immunocastration in pigs has been proposed as a cruelty-free alternative to surgical castration. In this work the effect of immune-spaying of female pigs on the volatile compound profile of Iberian dry-cured products was evaluated. The head-space volatile compound of dry-cured shoulders and loins from surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire Iberian × Duroc females was characterized by proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. It was not possible to identify a significant effect of the castration modality on dry-cured shoulders, probably because of the heterogeneity of samples. Contrarily, Principal Component Analysis of dry-cured loins indicates a better homogeneity of samples and the separation of loins from surgically spayed and immune-spayed females. Some mass peaks tentatively identified as important flavor compounds in dry-cured products, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 3-methylbutanoic acid, were significantly higher in the immune-spayed females. Therefore, immune-spaying seems to have a negligible effect on the volatile compound profile of dry-cured shoulders, whereas it could affect the VOC profile in the case of dry-cured loins. PMID:26233671

  7. Probing the perils of dichotomous binning: how categorizing female dogs as spayed or intact can misinform our assumptions about the lifelong health consequences of ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Waters, D J; Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Chiang, E C

    2011-11-01

    In 2009, we reported findings from the first study evaluating the relationship between canine longevity and number of years of lifetime ovary exposure. All previous studies examining gonadal influences on canine longevity relied upon categorizing females as "intact" or "spayed" based on gonadal status at the time of death. Our study of Rottweilers generated a novel result: Keeping ovaries longer was associated with living longer. This result challenged previous assumptions that spayed females live longer. In the present investigation, we explored a methodological explanation for the apparent contradiction between our results and those of others, so we might better understand the impact that timing of spaying has on longevity. We hypothesized that naming female dogs as "spayed" or "intact" based upon gonadal status at time of death - a method we refer to as dichotomous binning - inadequately represents important biological differences in lifetime ovary exposure among bitches spayed at different ages. This hypothesis predicts that a strong relationship between years of lifetime ovary exposure and longevity in a population could be obscured by categorizing females as spayed or intact. Herein, we provide support for this hypothesis by reanalyzing longevity data from 183 female Rottweilers. In this study population, there was a three-fold increased likelihood of exceptional longevity (living ≥ 13 yr) associated with the longest duration of ovary exposure. However, categorizing females in this population as spayed or intact yielded the spurious, contradictory assertion that spayed females (presumed to have the least ovary exposure) are more likely to reach exceptional longevity than those that are intact. Thus, by ignoring the timing of spaying in each bitch, the inference from these data was distorted. It follows from this new understanding that dichotomous binning-naming females as spayed or intact-is inadequate for representing lifetime ovary exposure, introducing

  8. Spaying-induced coat changes: the role of gonadotropins, GnRH and GnRH treatment on the hair cycle of female dogs.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Welle, Monika; Eckrich, Christine; Sattler, Ursula; Barth, Andrea; Hubler, Madeleine; Nett-Mettler, Claudia S; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Arnold, Susi

    2008-04-01

    Although spaying can result in qualitative hair coat changes in dogs, the influence of spaying on the hair growth cycle has never been described. The study aims were to examine the effect of spaying and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on canine hair coat, cycle stages of hair follicles, plasma gonadotropin concentrations and mRNA transcription of luteinizing hormone (LH) and GnRH receptors in hair follicles. Fifteen female dogs were examined before and 1 year after spaying and 24 spayed dogs before and after GnRH treatment. Spaying resulted in increased plasma gonadotropin concentrations and increased anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles, but only 20% of the dogs developed coat changes. No differences were found in mRNA transcription of LH and GnRH receptors. GnRH treatment resulted in reduced plasma gonadotropin concentrations and improvement of coat changes in 79% of patients. This was associated with an increase in catagen hair follicles without changes in the anagen : telogen ratio. The present study demonstrated that spaying had an effect on the anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles. Spaying-induced coat changes did not correlate with the anagen : telogen ratio. GnRH treatment reduced gonadotropin concentrations and reversed coat changes in some dogs, but had no effect on the hair growth cycle other than increasing the number of catagen hair follicles. A weak positive correlation between the plasma LH concentration and the anagen : telogen ratio was noted; however, our data did not suggest a direct receptor-mediated hormonal effect on the hair follicle. The present study did not identify the pathomechanism of spaying-induced coat changes. PMID:18336424

  9. Pyramid Educational Method for 3 to 6-Year-Old Children: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuyk, Jef J.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Pyramid method, an educational method for 3- to 6-year-olds. The Pyramid method seeks to improve young children's chances for a successful primary school career, particularly among ethnic minorities (of Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdian, and Surinam origins) and Dutch children of poorly educated parents.…

  10. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  11. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  12. Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological…

  13. The Microgenetic Emergence of Cooperative Play in 6-Year-Olds Developmentally At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; van der Leeden, Rien

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative play was investigated by a controlled pre/post-test intervention design with 28 dyads of 6-year-old students developmentally at-risk. Selection was based upon cut-off scores on a language development test and a nonverbal IQ test, and same-sex pairs were matched within classrooms. Co-variables were: socio economic status, free play time…

  14. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  15. Multiple Intelligences of 6-Year-Old Children Attending Preschool in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Ebru; Akyol, Aysel Koksal

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine 6-year-old pupils attending different preschool institutions in Turkey in view of the multiple-intelligences theory. This research aims at determining whether the gender of pupils attending different preschool institutions leads to differences in their verbal-linguistics, mathematical-logical, visual-spatial,…

  16. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  17. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  18. A Case of Infantile Kyrle-Flegel Disease in a 6-Year-Old Yemeni Girl.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel

    2016-01-01

    Kyrle disease (KD) and Flegel disease (FD) are rare variants of primary perforating dermatoses, characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal endogenous materials. We describe a 6-year-old Yemeni girl with a 2-year history of generalized asymptomatic, small, reddish-brown keratotic papules with a lenticular central keratotic plug. Although these features are synonymous with FD, the histology of a punch biopsy was consistent with KD. The patient was otherwise healthy, and no family members had a history of similar diseases. The patient was diagnosed with KD-FD, owing to the manifestation of features associated with both diseases. PMID:26933407

  19. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. PMID:24315421

  20. Reliability and Validity of "Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ozgul; Dagal, Asude B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents' evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children's responsible behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors.…

  1. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  2. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:24909484

  3. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  4. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  5. Changes in caries experience among 6-year-olds in Blekinge, Sweden between 1994 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Holst, Annalena; Braune, Karin; Kjellberg, Maria

    2004-01-01

    For 6-year-old children in the County of Blekinge, the goal was that > 65 percent should have dmft = 0 in the year 2000. To formulate this goal a study on prevalence and distribution of caries in 6-year-old children was performed in 1994. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the dental health goal for the year 2000 was achieved and compare clinical data regarding oral status in children in 1994 and in 2000. The material comprised a random sample of 225 children. The studyfrom year 1994, which included 213 children, was repeated. A clinical investigation was performed and completed with bite-wing radiographs on individual indication, whenever the proximal surfaces could not be inspected clinically due to close and broad contact. In addition, the parents were asked questions about toothbrushing and use of fluoride tablets. 53 percent of the children showed healthy teeth with no initial caries lesions or restorations compared to 35 percent in 1994. The pattern of dental health was still very skewed among the children. The children with nine or more decayed surfaces increased from 2 percent in 1994 to almost 4 percent in 2000. The number of fissure sealings performed had increased between 1994 and 2000 by almost 50 percent in both primary molars and first permanent molars. However,the use of fluoride tablets had decreased from 20 percent in 1994 to 7 percent of the children in 2000. The data showed a decline in prevalence of dmf teeth and an increase in the percent of caries-free children but the difference was not significant on the 5% level. However, as 47% of the children were in need of restorative treatment, our dental health goal was not achieved. We also recommend that our preventive program with focus on primary prevention and individual risk assessment should also be targeted at the whole population of pre-school children and their parents. PMID:15506690

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection with a duodenal ulcer in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hajikano, Miharu; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Takita, Yuko; Okada, Takuya; Asai, Makiko; Fujimatsu, Mariko; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kamisago, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Takehisa; Shioya, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Akira

    2006-10-01

    A 6-year-old boy was hospitalized because of dark feces and facial pallor of 1 weeks duration. Other gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, were absent, but he felt dizziness when standing and fatigue on effort. Hematologic studies revealed iron-deficiency anemia, and endoscopy showed gastric erosions and a duodenal ulcer. All test results for Helicobacter pylori infection, including H. pylori antigen in stool, anti-H. pylori IgG immunoassay in serum, and the (13)C-urea breath test, were positive. Because an H. pylori-associated gastric ulcer had been diagnosed with endoscopy in the patients father 3 years earlier, father-son transmission was suspected. The patient was treated with triple-agent eradication therapy (proton pump inhibitor [lansoprazol], amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) for 2 weeks. One month after therapy was completed, eradication of H. pylori was confirmed by negative results on the stool antigen test. Peptic ulcer disease can occur in young children, as in this case. The stool antigen test kit is a useful and reliable method that can be used even in preschool children to diagnose H. pylori infection. PMID:17106182

  7. [Caries prevention strategies for 6-year-olds. A randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Loveren, C

    2015-04-01

    A randomized controlled study of caries prevention strategies was conducted on patients with a mixed socioeconomic status in a large general dental practice in the Netherlands. A group of children following a non-operative caries treatment programme (NOCTP) was compared to a control group and a group that also received 2 topical fluoride applications (IPFA) as a supplement to the control programme (receiving a dental check-up twice a year with topical fluoride applications and routinely sealing of the first permanent molars). A total of 230 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of these groups. After 3 years, 179 children were studied again (54 NOCTP, 62 IPFA and 63 controls). Caries-increment was lowest in the NOCTP group (0.15 DMFS). In the IPFA group and the control group DMFS-increments were 0.34 and 0.47 respectively. Although the results of this study are very promising, a follow-up study on a larger scale is required to make clear whether the application of NOCTP is more effective than standard prevention in general practice. PMID:26210120

  8. Inflamed molluscum contagiosum in a 6-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Radu; Oprea, Bogdan; Vasilescu, Maria Mirela; Niculescu, Elena Carmen; Ciobanu, Mircea Ovidiu; Diaconu, Carmen; Gheonea, Cristian; Stănescu, Georgeta Ligia

    2015-01-01

    The precise prevalence of molluscum contagiosum (MC) is still unknown. The pediatric studies showed a cumulative incidence of 17% in children less than 15 years, but there are no studies available for Romania. The papular skin lesions are generally less than 5 mm, but the immunocompromised patients may develop large uncommon lesions. The pediatric cases are located mostly on the limbs, trunk or the face. The lab investigations are not usually required because the clinical features are typical. A biopsy followed by a light microscopy may help in some cases. We are presenting the case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from MC since almost a year. When examined in our clinic, the child developed 2 to 4 mm dome-shaped flesh-colored papules with central umbilication on his trunk diagnosed as MC. The microscopic examination revealed bud-like proliferation of the epidermis, molluscum bodies and moderate chronic inflammation of the dermis. In about one month of treatment, all the lesions disappeared without other local or general complications. PMID:26429183

  9. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  10. Development and validation of a frontal impact 6-year-old occupant and wheelchair computer model.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina; Jategaonkar, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Many children with disabilities use their wheelchair as a vehicle seat when traveling. To date, few studies have focused on pediatric wheelchair users in transit. A computer model representing a manual pediatric wheelchair seated with a Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device subjected to a 20-g/48-kph (30-mph) frontal crash was developed in MADYMO. The wheelchair was secured using a 4-point tiedown system, and the occupant was restrained using a 3-point belt system. The time history profiles of the computer model were tuned to those of the sled tests. The peak value for key variables was compared between the sled tests and the model. To evaluate model variable time histories, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the sled test and the model outcome measures were determined. The correlation coefficients ranged from .86 to .95, with an average r of .91. This indicates that there are "high" correlations between the model and sled tests across all variables. The pediatric wheelchair model developed and validated in this study will provide a foundation for studying the response of a manual pediatric wheelchair in frontal impacts and associated injury risks for pediatric wheelchair users. PMID:18335711

  11. Grammatical outcomes of 3- & 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing

    PubMed Central

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Owen Van Horne, Amanda J; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared to those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method Language skills were measured via MLU in words and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational samples gathered from 185 children (145 HH; 40 NH). Aided speech intelligibility index (aided SII), better ear pure tone average (BE-PTA), maternal education, and age of amplification were used to predict outcomes within the HH group. Results On average, the HH group had MLUws that were .25-.5 words shorter than the NH group at both ages and they produced fewer obligatory verb morphemes. After age, aided SII and age of amplification predicted MLUw. Aided SII and PTA were not interchangeable in this analysis. Age followed by either PTA or aided SII best predicted verb morphology use. Conclusions Children who are HH lag behind their NH peers in grammatical aspects of language. Although some children appear to catch up, more than half the children who were HH fell below the 25th percentile. Continued monitoring of language outcomes is warranted since children who are HH are at increased risk for language learning difficulties. PMID:23882004

  12. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-01-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83–43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16–27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002–1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  13. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  14. Network-Level Connectivity Dynamics of Movie Watching in 6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert W.; Short, Sarah J.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32) = 5.02, p = 0.0001). More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention). For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32) = −2.46, p = 0.02; Seed-based: t(32) = −1.62, p =0.12) and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32) = 2.84, p = 0.008; Seed-based: t(32) = 2.28, p =0.03), which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to

  15. Systemic Hypertension and Transient Ischemic Attack in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Fibromuscular Dysplasia Treated with Percutaneous Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-15

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  16. Temporal Learning in 4 1/2- and 6-Year-Old Children: Role of Instructions and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit, Sylvie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)

  17. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  18. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  19. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  20. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  1. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  2. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  3. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  4. Detection of CMV DNA in the perilymph of a 6-year-old boy with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Ina; Soetens, Oriane; Vleurinck, Leen; Gordts, Frans; Leus, Astrid; Naessens, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who received a cochlear implant for profound sensorineural hearing loss after being born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Even after 6 years, CMV DNA was still found in the perilymph of the cochlea. Our case shows that CMV DNA can be present in the cochlea years after congenital CMV infection, and it can explain why progressive and/or late-onset hearing loss occurs in these children. PMID:27304443

  5. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Unnikrishnan Krishnan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6–8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43%) children and in the awake record only of 6 (16%) children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4%) had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2) and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR) for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children's maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ)] or the children's characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures. PMID:27570381

  6. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  7. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  8. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  9. A rapid screening tool for psychological distress in children 3–6years old: results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mental health needs of young children in humanitarian contexts often remain unaddressed. The lack of a validated, rapid and simple tool for screening combined with few mental health professionals able to accurately diagnose and provide appropriate care mean that young children remain without care. Here, we present the results of the principle cross-cultural validation of the “Psychological Screening for Young Children aged 3 to 6” (PSYCAa3-6). The PSYCa 3–6 is a simple scale for children 3 to 6 years old administered by non-specialists, to screen young children in crises and thereby refer them to care if needed. Methods This study was conducted in Maradi, Niger. The scale was translated into Hausa, using corroboration of independent translations. A cross-cultural validation was implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample of 580 mothers or caregivers of children 3 to 6 years old were included. The tool was psychometrically examined and diagnostic properties were assessed comparing the PSYCa 3–6 against a clinical interview as the gold standard. Results The PSYCa 3–6 Hausa version demonstrated good concurrent validity, as scores correlated with the gold standard and the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) [rho = 0.41, p-value = 0.00]. A reduction procedure was used to reduce the scale from 40 to 22 items. The test-retest reliability of the PSYCa 3–6 was found to be high (ICC 0.81, CI95% [0.68; 0.89]). In our sample, although not the purpose of this study, approximately 54 of 580 children required subsequent follow-up with a psychologist. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first validation of a screening scale for children 3 to 6 years old with a cross-cultural validation component, for use in humanitarian contexts. The Hausa version of the PSYCa 3–6 is a reliable and a valuable screening tool for psychological distress. Further studies to replicate our findings and additional

  10. How Universal Are Free Will Beliefs? Cultural Differences in Chinese and U.S. 4- and 6-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Wente, Adrienne O; Bridgers, Sophie; Zhao, Xin; Seiver, Elizabeth; Zhu, Liqi; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the development of free will beliefs across cultures. Sixty-seven Chinese 4- and 6-year-olds were asked questions to gauge whether they believed that people could freely choose to inhibit or act against their desires. Responses were compared to those given by the U.S. children in Kushnir, Gopnik, Chernyak, Seiver, and Wellman (). Results indicate that children from both cultures increased the amount of choice they ascribed with age. For inhibition questions, Chinese children ascribed less choice than the U.S. children. Qualitative explanations revealed that the U.S. children were also more likely to endorse notions of autonomous choice. These findings suggest both cultural differences and similarities in free will beliefs. PMID:27189395

  11. [A 6-year-old girl who exhibited residual reading disorder during the course of acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Sachiko; Inaba, Yuji; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Misawa, Yuka; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Harada, Machiko

    2012-11-01

    We assessed a 6-year-old girl who developed status epilepticus and exhibited transient aphasia during the course of acute encephalopathy with late reduced diffusion, and who had a residual reading disorder in the recovery period. The aphasia appeared to be fluent aphasia and anomia, suggesting that the reading disorder during the recovery process was due to impairment of the phonological process. There were no biphasic seizures during the course of the patient's illness, but this case was acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE) from the standpoint of the characteristic imaging findings. Lesions in the left parietal and temporal lobes were detected on MRI diffusion-weighted images and by SPECT and MRS, and they appeared to be the lesions responsible for the aphasia and residual reading disorder. This case appears to be important from the standpoint of assessing the pathophysiology and the treatment of coexisting illness observed in acute encephalopathy. PMID:23240531

  12. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  13. The relation between measures of cognitive and motor functioning in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2016-07-01

    Specific relations between executive functions (working memory capacity, planning and problem-solving, inhibitory control) and motor skill performance (anticipatory motor planning, manual dexterity) were examined in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 40). Results showed that the two motor skill components were not correlated. Additionally, it was found that response planning performance was a significant predictor of anticipatory motor planning performance, whereas inhibitory control and working memory capacity measures were significant predictors of manual dexterity scores. Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive and motor skills are linked, but that manual dexterity and anticipatory motor planning involve different specialized skills. The current study provides support for specific relations between cognitive and motor performance, which has implications for early childhood cognitive-motor training and intervention programs. PMID:25820330

  14. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  15. The effect of age, sex and obesity on fundamental motor skills among 4 to 6 years-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Shams, Amir; Shamsipour Dehkordi, Parvane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of age, sex and obesity on Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) in 4 to 6 years-old children. Methodology: A total of 400 preschool children (200 boys and 200 girls) between the ages of 4 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Fundamental motor skills (FMS) were assessed with using the OSU-SIGMA scale. Body mass index (BMI) was directly measured from height(m)2/weight(kg) for each child and based on CDC growth charts, normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined. Results: The results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on walking and running skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Also, these variables had a significant effect on jumping, skipping, hopping and ladder climbing. In both ages, boys in jumping and ladder climbing skills were better than girls, but the girls were better in skipping and hopping skills (P<0.05). Moreover, the results showed that age and BMI variables have a significant effect on stair climbing skill, but sex was not significant (P>0.05). For object control skills, the results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on catching and throwing skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Finally, the age, sex and BMI variables were a significant effect on kicking and sticking skills. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that boys performed better than girls, and both overweight and obese children have lower performance than normal children. PMID:24353582

  16. Pre- and Postnatal Determinants of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation in 6-Year-Old Children. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Elfrink, Marlies E. C.; Moll, Henriette A.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Veerkamp, Jaap S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. Objective This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. Study Design This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls). Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight) and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. Results A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. Conclusion This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH. PMID:24988443

  17. Improvements in Lung Function and Height among Cohorts of 6-Year-Olds with Cystic Fibrosis from 1994 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, Donald R.; Pasta, David J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize spirometry and height changes in cohorts of 6-year-olds with cystic fibrosis (CF). Study design Global Lung Initiative (GLI) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC and CDC height-for-age (HFA) Z-scores were generated for 6-year-olds in the from the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) each year from 1994 and 2012. Z-score mean differences were analyzed by t-test and time trends of means by least squares regression for all children and for subgroups (sex, F580del mutation genotype, Medicaid insurance, and prenatal/newborn screening identification). Z-score distributions were compared by two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Results 11,670 children with CF were studied, of whom 50.5% were males, 50.2% had the F508del/F508del genotype, and 46.6% were insured by Medicaid. Mean HFA, FEV1 and FVC Z-scores increased significantly over the period in the entire population and all subgroups (P<0.001), but FEV1/FVC Z-scores were below normal and did not change significantly. In 2012, children identified by screening had significantly higher mean HFA (P=0.002), FEV1 (P<0.001) and FVC (P<0.001) Z-scores than those not screened, with 90% of FVC and 71.4% of FEV1 Z-scores greater than predicted by the Normal distribution; FEV1/FVC Z-scores were not different between screening groups. Conclusions Consistent, significant increases in HFA, FEV1, and FVC occurred from 1994–2012, but FEV1/FVC, a measure of airway obstruction, did not appreciably change. FVC and FEV1 Z-score distributions suggest that normative equation reference populations under-predict lung volumes of children with CF, but the reason(s) for this remain unclear. PMID:25134852

  18. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  19. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  20. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Nicolas; Leroux, Elise; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Simon, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees), whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest). Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1) decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2) increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness) and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness) cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world. PMID:25110675

  1. Coexistence of celiac disease and systemic lupus erythematosus in a 6-year-old girl-case report.

    PubMed

    Crişcov, Geanina Irina; Stana, A B; Ioniue, Ileana Katerina; Alexoae, Mihaela Monica; Moraru, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious and potentially fatal syndrome characterized by an autoimmune assault on various organs and systems that may include the skin, joints, central nervous system, heart and kidneys. Recent research shows that gluten sensitivity causes more than just celiac disease and gluten has been linked to numerous autoimmune conditions. We report here a 6-year-old girl presenting with malaise, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, abdominal distension. After three weeks she developed other symptoms such as arthralgias, malar rash, being finally diagnosed with SLE and possible autoimmune hepatitis. The suspicion of celiac disease was based on a combination of symptoms (poor growth, iron deficiency anemia, chronic abdominal pain, abdominal distension, constipation, "sad child"), IgA deficiency, in the presence of SLE diagnosis. Positive diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed by the presence of an anti IgG anti-transglutaminase antibodies titer of 120 EU/ml (normally less than 20 EU/ml). Small bowel biopsy showed a IIIB1 stage according to the Marsh classification. Three methylprednisolone pulses were promptly administered, followed by oral prednisone (2 mg/kg bw/day) with a good outcome. PMID:25970948

  2. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    PubMed

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described. PMID:24733506

  3. Effects of delays on 6-year-old children’s self-generation and retention of knowledge through integration

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (stem facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In Experiment 1, children integrated the stem facts at Session 1 and retained the self-generated memory traces over 1 week. In Experiment 2, 1-week delays were imposed either between the to-be-integrated facts (between-stem delay) or after the stem facts but before the test (before-test delay). Integration performance was diminished in both conditions. Moreover, memory for individual stem facts was lower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that self-generation through integration promoted memory for explicitly taught information. The results indicate the importance of tests for promoting self-generation through integration as well as for retaining newly self-generated and explicitly taught information. PMID:23563162

  4. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Drewing, Knut

    2014-01-01

    When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year-old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children's judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by ~40%. Neither the adults' nor the children's discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children's visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children's and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant. PMID:24523712

  5. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p < 0.01. Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p < 0.01). Other gross motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  6. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  7. Analysing Mothers' Self-Efficacy Perception towards Parenting in Relation to Peer Relationships of 5-6 Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secer, Zarife; Gulay Ogelman, Hulya; Onder, Alev; Berengi, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-efficacy perception of mothers' towards parenting on the peer relations of children aged between 5 and 6. The sample group of this study comprised of 200, 5-6 year old children (girls = 96, boys = 104), and their mothers. The Ladd and Profilet Child Behaviour Scale, the Peer…

  8. [The effect of lessons with a computer on the function of the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal systems in 6-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Gubareva, L I; Kupriĭ, G A; Mishina, N F; Mishina, E A

    1996-04-01

    Computer classes were shown to affect the sympathetic-adrenal and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical systems in 6-year-old children. The data obtained suggests the necessity of a medical-pedagogical control of the selection of children for computer groups. PMID:8963344

  9. Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, K U; Shofer, F S; Goldschmidt, M H

    2000-01-01

    The risk of developing mammary gland tumors in dogs is significantly decreased by ovariohysterectomy at an early age. However, previous studies have not found a benefit to ovariohysterectomy concurrent with tumor removal in dogs with established mammary gland tumors, suggesting that the progression of these tumors is independent of continued estrogen stimulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spaying and of the timing of spaying on survival in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma. Signalment, spay status and spay age, tumor characteristics, treatment. survival, and cause of death of 137 dogs with mammary gland carcinoma were analyzed. The dogs were classified into 3 groups according to spay status and spay time: intact dogs, dogs spayed less than 2 years before tumor surgery (SPAY 1), and dogs spayed more than 2 years before their tumor surgery (SPAY 2). Dogs in the SPAY 1 group lived significantly longer than dogs in SPAY 2 and intact dogs (median survival of 755 days, versus 301 and 286 days, respectively, P = .02 and .03). After adjusting for differences between the spay groups with regard to age, histologic differentiation, and vascular invasion, SPAY 1 dogs survived 45% longer compared to dogs that were either intact or in the SPAY 2 group (RR = .55; 95% CI .32-.93; P = .03). This study reveals ovariohysterectomy to be an effective adjunct to tumor removal in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma and that the timing of ovariohysterectomy is important in influencing survival. PMID:10830539

  10. 3-D printout of a DICOM file to aid surgical planning in a 6 year old patient with a large scapular osteochondroma complicating congenital diaphyseal aclasia.

    PubMed

    Tam, Matthew D; Laycock, Stephen D; Bell, Duncan; Chojnowski, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    A 6 year old girl presented with a large osteochondroma arising from the scapula. Radiographs, CT and MRI were performed to assess the lesion and to determine whether the lesion could be safely resected. A model of the scapula was created by post-processing the DICOM file and using a 3-D printer. The CT images were segmented and the images were then manually edited using a graphics tablet, and then an STL-file was generated and a 3-D plaster model printed. The model allowed better anatomical understanding of the lesion and helped plan surgical management. PMID:22690278

  11. Study of occlusal characteristics of primary dentition and the prevalence of maloclusion in 4 to 6 years old children in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhayya, Deepak P; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Dixit, Uma B; Shivaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and to determine the different occlusal characteristics in primary dentition of 4 to 6 years old children in India. Materials and Methods: The target population comprised 4 to 6 years old children attending different nursery, kindergarten and primary schools of Bagalkot city. Stratified cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample. Each subject was assessed for various occlusal characteristics. Results: Occlusal characteristic found were flush terminal plane (52.5%), class I canine relationship (84%), maxillary developmental spaces (35.4%), primate spaces in maxilla (47.6%), mandibular crowding (4.6%), mandibular midline shift (5.6%), anterior multiple tooth crossbite (1.3%), scissors bite (0.6%), anterior open bite (1%), over bite of 0-2 mm (81.6%) and overjet of 0-2 mm (84.5%). The age wise difference for the occlusal characteristics was statistically significant. Conclusions: The data revealed that most of the children had malocclusion. This highlights the importance of identifying children who are in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health or aesthetic reasons. PMID:23559929

  12. A 6-year-old boy with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Coats disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Andrew W; Sparagna, Cristina; Borri, Melissa; Rizzo, Stanislao; Hadjistilianou, Theodora

    2015-10-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) can result in multiple congenital abnormalities and numerous ocular findings. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with history of CdLS who presented with Coats disease. The findings in this case are compared to those found in the two previously reported cases of concomitant CdLS and Coats disease. The low incidence of these two disorders makes it highly unlikely that the connection is random in these 3 cases. The number of patients with both Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Coats disease is likely underestimated due to the difficulty in examining the peripheral retina in this patient population. PMID:26486036

  13. Functional MRI in a 6-year-old boy with unilateral cortical malformation: concordant representation of both hands in the unaffected hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Staudt, M; Pieper, T; Grodd, W; Winkler, P; Holthausen, H; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in a 6-year-old boy with a complex malformation of the right hemisphere who suffered from pharmaco-refractory epilepsy. Clinical examination revealed left-sided hemiparesis and marked mirror movements of the opposite hand both during paretic and non-paretic hand movements. Functional MRI of repetitive unimanual grasping demonstrated that the two hands share a common cortical representation located in the central motor region of the unaffected left hemisphere. The affected right hemisphere did not show any activation during either task. This case study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of motor fMRI in young children before they undergo epilepsy surgery. PMID:11521214

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  15. Developmental change in the acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is imprecise and hence differs from exact counting. Evidence suggests that the resolution of the ANS, as specified by a Weber fraction, increases with age such that adults can discriminate numerosities that infants cannot. However, the Weber fraction has yet to be determined for participants of any age between 9 months and adulthood, leaving its developmental trajectory unclear. Here we identify the Weber fraction of the ANS in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children and in adults. We show that the resolution of this system continues to increase throughout childhood, with adultlike levels of acuity attained surprisingly late in development. PMID:18793076

  16. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  17. Effectiveness of deslorelin acetate subcutaneous implantation in a domestic queen with after-spaying urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-04-01

    A 2-year-old female ovariectomised Norwegian Forest cat with a history of post-spaying urinary incontinence was diagnosed with acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although there is no literature regarding the treatment of post-spaying USMI in cats, deslorelin acetate is successful in the treatment of post-spaying USMI in dogs. Deslorelin acetate implants have been shown previously to be effective for contraception and oestrus suppression in queens, and suppression of reproductive function in tomcats. Therefore, deslorelin acetate implant treatment was chosen for treatment of post-spaying USMI in this queen. Follow-up examinations were performed on days 8, 15 and 30 after deslorelin implant insertion. Urinary continence was restored about 25 days after implantation and maintained for at least 15 months, without treatment-related negative effects. In the present case report, the post-spaying urinary incontinence related to the acquired USMI was successfully treated with a deslorelin acetate implant. In addition, safe implantation was easy in cats and the single injection resulted in long-lasting efficacy. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of deslorelin acetate treatment for post-spaying USMI in queens and to better delineate the duration of efficacy. PMID:23873046

  18. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P < 0.01), respectively, during the first 11 weeks after surgery, although food consumption was constant both pre- and post-surgery. The mean MER after obtaining a BCS of 5 was 313.6 (SEM 23.6) kJ/BW(0.67), which is 25 % lower than the current National Research Council recommendation and lower than the cat's requirement before surgery (P < 0.05). In conclusion, spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  19. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  20. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Kaczorowski, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Markiewicz, Bartosz D.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). Case Report We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Conclusions Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment. PMID:25866593

  1. A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: the case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Chatham, Christopher H; Wiseheart, Melody; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Good executive function has been linked to many positive outcomes in academic performance, health, and social competence. However, some aspects of executive function may interfere with other cognitive processes. Childhood provides a unique test case for investigating such cognitive trade-offs, given the dramatic failures and developments observed during this period. For example, most children categorically switch or perseverate when asked to switch between rules on a card-sorting task. To test potential trade-offs with the development of task switching abilities, we compared 6-year-olds who switched versus perseverated in a card-sorting task on two aspects of inhibitory control: response inhibition (via a stop signal task) and interference control (via a Simon task). Across two studies, switchers showed worse response inhibition than perseverators, consistent with the idea of cognitive trade-offs; however, switchers showed better interference control than perseverators, consistent with prior work documenting benefits associated with the development of executive function. This pattern of positive and negative associations may reflect aspects of working memory (active maintenance of current goals, and clearing of prior goals) that help children focus on a single task goal but hurt in situations with conflicting goals. Implications for understanding components of executive function and their relationships across development are discussed. PMID:24791710

  2. Injury risk of a 6-year-old wheelchair-seated occupant in a frontal motor vehicle impact--'ANSI/RESNA WC-19' sled testing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-09-01

    Children with disabilities are transported on a daily basis to schools and developmental facilities. When they travel, they often remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles. To study injury risk of pediatric wheelchair users in motor vehicle crashes, three of the same pediatric manual wheelchairs were sled impact tested with a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD using a 20 g/48 km/h frontal crash pulse. The sled test results were compared to kinematic limitations and injury criteria specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19, FMVSS 213 and FMVSS 208. All sled test results were below the limits specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19 standard and FMVSS 213. All tests exceeded the N(ij) limit of 1 specified in FMVSS 208, and one test exceeded the limit of peak neck tension force. Chest deflection resulting from one of three tests was at the limit specified in FMVSS 208. Our results suggest that children with disabilities who remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles may be at risk of neck injury in a frontal impact motor vehicle crash. However, limitations in the biofidelity of the Hybrid III ATD neck raise concern as to the translatability of these findings to the real world. Additional studies are needed to investigate the influence of neck properties and ATD neck biofidelity on injury risk of children who travel seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:17251048

  3. Anterior Reconstruction of C2-C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1-C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1-C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies. PMID:26835212

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma causing multiple spinal cord compression and carcinomatous meningitis in a 6-year-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed A; Sobani, Zain A; Enam, Syed Ather; Enam, Kishwar; Ashraf, M Shamvil

    2011-05-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the brain, spinal cord, and leptomeninges. Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) and spinal cord compression in PCNSL are very rare and usually present in advanced stages of the disease. The average survival time of a CM patient is about 4 to 6 weeks, which may be extended to about 4 to 6 months with treatment. Here we present a case of CM and spinal cord compression by multiple PCNSL in a 6-year-old girl, who has survived 2 years and 9 months posttreatment with no recurrence. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first case reporting survival after CM. The patient presented with weakness of her right arm, right leg, and left side of the face. Examination revealed mild facial asymmetry with left facial lower motor neuron palsy and lateral gaze restriction of left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of her spinal cord showed postcontrast enhancement of the intradural structures on the spinal canal at levels C3-C6 and L1-L5 and along with the intracranial leptomeninges. Histopathological examination of the neoplastic tissue from cauda equina revealed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After chemotherapy her disease regressed and magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of recurrence or residual disease. In our experience the response to chemotherapy was remarkable and recommend that aggressive tumor resection strategies should be reserved for cases with severe signs of spinal compression. PMID:21464767

  5. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  6. Developmental changes in the influence of conventional and instrumental cues on over-imitation in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Cristina-Andreea; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that children in the preschool period are fastidious imitators who copy models with such high levels of fidelity that task efficiency may be compromised. This over-imitative tendency, and the pervasive nature of it, has led to many explorations and theoretical interpretations of this behavior, including social, causal, and conventional explanations. In support of the conventional account, recent research has shown that children are more likely to over-imitate when the task is framed using conventional verbal cues than when it is framed using instrumental verbal cues. The aim of the current study was to determine whether 3- to 6-year-old children (N=185, mean age=60 months) would over-imitate when presented with instrumental and conventional verbal cues, which varied only minimally and were more directly comparable between instrumental and conventional contexts than those used in previous studies. In addition to varying the overall context, we also varied the instrumental prompt used such that the cues provided ranged in the extent to which they provided explicit instruction to omit the irrelevant actions. Counter to our predictions, and the high levels of over-imitation witnessed in previous studies, the older children frequently over-imitated irrespective of the context provided, whereas the youngest children over-imitated selectively, including the irrelevant actions only when the task was presented in a conventional frame. We propose that the age differences found following an instrumental presentation are a result of the youngest children being more open to the motivation of learning the causality of the task, whereas the older children were more strongly motivated to adopt a social convention. PMID:26774258

  7. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  8. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without further restriction under this subpart....

  9. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  10. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate in accordance with 9 CFR part 86 and without further... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers....

  11. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  12. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  13. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed...

  14. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  15. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed...

  16. The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches.

    PubMed

    Stöcklin-Gautschi, N M; Hässig, M; Reichler, I M; Hubler, M; Arnold, S

    2001-01-01

    It is still controversial whether a bitch should be spayed before or after the first oestrus. It would be desirable to spay bitches at an age that would minimize the side effects of neutering. With regard to the risk of mammary tumours, early spaying must be recommended because the incidence of tumours is reduced considerably. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early spaying also reduces the risk of urinary incontinence. The owners of 206 bitches that had been spayed before their first oestrus and for at least 3 years were questioned on the occurrence of urinary incontinence as a result of spaying. At the time of the enquiry the average age of the bitches was 6.5 years, and the average age at the time of surgery was 7.1 months. Urinary incontinence after spaying occurred in 9.7% of bitches. This incidence is approximately half that of spaying after the first oestrus. Urinary incontinence affected 12.5% of bitches that were of a large body weight (> 20 kg body weight) and 5.1% of bitches that were of a small body weight (< 20 kg body weight). The surgical procedure (ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy) had no influence on the incidence, or on the period between spaying and the occurrence of urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence occurred on average at 2 years and 10 months after surgery and occurred each day, while the animals were awake or during sleep. However, compared with late spaying the clinical signs of urinary incontinence were more distinct after early spaying. PMID:11787155

  17. Outcome of one-stage surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children from 1.5 to 6 years old. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Deng, Yu; Fang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of one-stage treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in patients after walking age. A Total of 58 children (67 hips) were retrospectively investigated to assess the efficacy and safety of one-stage treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children from 1.5 to 6 years of age with a mean follow-up of 4.00±0.43 (range 3-6.8) years. Eleven (19%) were male, forty-seven (81%) were female. Our method consisted of open reduction, Salter innominate osteotomy, femoral shortening and derotation. The patients were distributed into three groups according to the age at which they were operated: 12 (20.7%) patients with 12 hips (17.9%) were operated between 1.5 and 2 years of age (Group I), 35 (60.3%) patients with 44 hips (65.7%) were operated between 2 and 4 years (Group II), 11 (19%) patients with 11 hips (16.4%) were operated between 4 and 6 years (Group III). Clinical and radiological assessment at final follow-up showed that the outcome was not significantly different between group I and group II. But clinically, there was significant difference between group I and group III, and also between group II and group III. Although in the outcome of radiological assessment there was no significant difference between group I and group II compared with group III. The rate of avascular nerosis in group I was lower than in group II or in group III. Children with DDH between 1.5 and 6 years of age were treated successfully with one-stage treatment, but in our hands the best age at surgery is before 4 years of age. PMID:26435230

  18. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  19. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  20. Concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone in the domestic cat. Relation with spay or neuter status and serum estradiol.

    PubMed

    Axnér, E; Ström Holst, B

    2015-03-15

    Female cats with unknown history can be diagnosed as spayed or intact with a GnRH-stimulation test or an LH test independent of the stage in the estrous cycle. However, although most females are correctly diagnosed with the LH test, the sensitivity and specificity are not 100%. The GnRH-stimulation test, although reliable, requires an injection of buserelin 2 hours before the blood sample is collected. Granulosa cells are the only cell type that produces anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in females, whereas Sertoli cells produce AMH in males. Anti-Müllerian hormone has been linked to spay status in dogs and cats and to ovarian and testicular pathology and fertility in different species. Our aim was to evaluate serum AMH concentrations in spayed female cats and in intact female cats of known age and reproductive stage (inactive ovaries or luteal phase). In addition, our aim was to compare serum AMH concentrations in intact and neutered male cats. We analyzed serum AMH concentrations in 15 spayed and 16 intact females and in 15 intact and 12 neutered male cats. Serum AMH was below the lowest standard point (<0.14 ng/mL) in all spayed females and neutered males, ranged between 1.3 and 19.0 ng/mL in the intact females and between 4.8 and 81.3 ng/mL in intact males. Thus, the AMH test had 100% sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the presence or absence of ovaries and testes in this study. In addition, in contrast to serum estradiol, serum AMH was not affected by buserelin stimulation (P = 0.459). Serum AMH was not correlated with serum estradiol before (rs = -0.188, P = 0.519) or after (rs = 0.335, P = 0.242) buserelin stimulation in the intact females. Four 6-month-old intact cats (two females and two males) had the highest AMH concentrations which in the females might represent a prepubertal peak previously described in other species and in males is likely due to high concentrations before puberty. In conclusion, we found that the AMH Gen II ELISA is

  1. A free vascularized tibia-fibular composite graft for the traumatic femoral bony defect of a 6-year-old boy with 10-year follow up: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Free vascularized fibular grafts have been widely used for the reconstruction of long bone defects. However, the use of a vascularized tibial graft is precluded by its weight-bearing function and unacceptable donor site morbidity. Case presentation We present a rare case of using a vascularized tibia-fibular composite graft taken from a 6-year-old Chinese boy’s ipsilateral lower leg to reconstruct a large bony defect of his traumatic femur. Hypertrophy of the tibial graft, good remodeling of the femoral shaft, and atrophy of the unloaded fibular graft were noted at the 10-year follow up. He was able to participate in outdoor activities such as basketball while wearing his prosthesis. Conclusions The 10-year follow up demonstrates the feasibility of this salvage procedure for a floating knee injury with neurovascular compromise. PMID:23714102

  2. Advantages of the use of deciduous teeth, hair, and blood analysis for lead and cadmium bio-monitoring in children. A study of 6-year-old children from Krakow (Poland).

    PubMed

    Barton, Henryk J

    2011-11-01

    The population of about 300 6-year-old preschool children was studied for lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in deciduous teeth, scalp hair, and capillary blood. Zinc (Zn) content in hair was also measured due to its possible interferences with the elements studied. The Pb and Cd contents were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction, and Zn, by flame method. Metal levels found were comparable to those in European countries. Positive correlations between Pb and Cd in the same and different tissues were widespread (r=0.23-0.68). A positive correlation was found between Pb in teeth and blood (r=0.65, p<0.001). Pb blood threshold 100 μg L(-1) referred to 2.6 μg g(-1) Pb in teeth. Predictability of this Pb teeth limit was 14% vs. 5% for Pb blood. Strong negative correlation was found between hair Pb and Zn (r=-0.68, p<0.001). Enhanced Cd and Zn levels in hair were associated with the household drinking water hardness. The associations with some other environmental and behavioral factors were also presented and discussed. The results proved the advantage of analysis of primary teeth for Pb exposure screening of preschool children. PMID:21086189

  3. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  4. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S.; Hahn, Samantha L.; Harris, William S.; Kinabo, Joyce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described. Objective The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1) whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2) the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2–6 years of age. Methods A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression. Results Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ) was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T) ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured. Conclusions The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2–6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population. PMID:27137223

  5. A fresh look at spay/neuter legislation: the journey to a middle ground.

    PubMed

    Zanowski, Gemma N

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid body of regulations is recommended containing both mandatory spay/neuter and low-cost spay/neuter provisions that will reduce accidental litters, impulse buying, and other irresponsible pet practices. The majority of pet owners are well-meaning but often lack the financial, intellectual, or other resources to properly control the breeding behaviors of their animals. Full compliance with spay/neuter regulations is the most desirable solution to the pet overpopulation problem. A comprehensive rule structure will facilitate spaying and neutering in some circumstances and require it on others. PMID:22473127

  6. Training Veterinary Students to Perform Ovariectomy Using theMOOSE Spay Model with Traditional Method versus the Dowling Spay Retractor.

    PubMed

    Fahie, Maria; Cloke, Amanda; Lagman, Minette; Levi, Ohad; Schmidt, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Educators understand the importance of developing safe and effective methods to teach veterinary students basic surgical skills. Ovariectomy (OVE) is a procedure that employs many of the skills agreed to be vital for a newly graduated veterinarian. This study endeavored to compare two methods of teaching OVE on a model based on assessment of procedure time and skill performance scores. Students' opinions regarding their experience are also reported. Students performed the Dowling Spay Retractor (DSR) method more quickly (p<.001) but with performance scores similar to the traditional (T) method depicted in textbooks. Students responded positively when surveyed regarding their experience with the training and the DSR method. PMID:27075279

  7. [Urinary incontinence and puppy coat due to spaying in the bitch. An overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Reichler, I M

    2010-06-01

    Urinary incontinence as a consequence of an insufficient urethral closure mechanism (urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence, USMI) or an impaired storing capacity of the urinary bladder is a considerable side effect of castration in the female dog. Different factors such as breed, body weight and time of spaying have an impact on the risk of urinary incontinence. Loss of urine while the patient is recumbent is the most typical symptom which is first observed at a mean time of 2.8 years after castration. Diagnosis is obtained by excluding other causes, whereas a precise patient history is particularly helpful. Therapy is aimed at increasing the closing pressure of the urethra and/or the compliance of the urinary bladder. Usually success can be achieved by medical therapy, thus surgical intervention is normally not required. In addition to urinary incontinence, coat changes can be observed as an undesirable effect of castration in certain dog breeds. To date, the pathophysiology of decreased urethral closing pressure, altered storing function of the urinary bladder and coat changes induced by castration are still not fully understood. Apart from the well-known hypothesis of estrogen deficiency, altered secretion of the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones GnRH, FSH and LH due to castration may have an influence. In addition to a-adrenergic medication, Flavoxate and Estriol, depot formulations of GnRH analogues have been successfully used to treat urinary incontinence. These depot formulations have also been described for the treatment of coat changes due to spaying. PMID:22290549

  8. Candida quercitrusa Candidemia in a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Christina A.; Hilinski, Joseph A.; Stanley, Theresa; Jerris, Robert C.; Wilkey, Kathy; Pincus, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of candidemia due to Candida quercitrusa in a pediatric patient. The identification of the isolate was protracted and ultimately dependent upon sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. To further define the antifungal susceptibility characteristics of this species, we performed antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical and type strains. In light of the antifungal susceptibility testing results, we caution against the use of fluconazole for treating C. quercitrusa infections. PMID:26063864

  9. Body Size and Intelligence in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Methods Two prospective study cohorts were assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980’s and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990’s. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Results Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Conclusions Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children. PMID:18683038

  10. Alkaptonuria in a 6 Year Old Patient: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Nerli, Rajendra B.; Magdum, Prasad V.; Mudegoudra, Abhijith; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare disorder of tyrosine catabolism. A 6 year old male child presented with history of darkish staining of the toilet commode following voiding. The urine when kept in a sterile container for a few hours turned black. Urine examination showed massive amounts of homogentisic acid. Patient was diagnosed as alkaptonuria. PMID:26793547

  11. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination. PMID:25922172

  12. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians' 2016 Veterinary Medical Care Guidelines for Spay-Neuter Programs.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Brenda; Bushby, Philip A; McCobb, Emily; White, Sara C; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Appel, Leslie D; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Wilford, Christine L; Bohling, Mark W; Eddlestone, Susan M; Farrell, Kelly A; Ferguson, Nancy; Harrison, Kelly; Howe, Lisa M; Isaza, Natalie M; Levy, Julie K; Looney, Andrea; Moyer, Michael R; Robertson, Sheilah Ann; Tyson, Kathy

    2016-07-15

    As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs. PMID:27379593

  13. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs.

    PubMed

    Looney, Andrea L; Bohling, Mark W; Bushby, Philip A; Howe, Lisa M; Griffin, Brenda; Levy, Julie K; Eddlestone, Susan M; Weedon, James R; Appel, Leslie D; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Ferguson, Nancy J; Sweeney, David J; Tyson, Kathy A; Voors, Adriana H; White, Sara C; Wilford, Christine L; Farrell, Kelly A; Jefferson, Ellen P; Moyer, Michael R; Newbury, Sandra P; Saxton, Melissa A; Scarlett, Janet M

    2008-07-01

    As efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned dogs and cats have increased, greater attention has been focused on spay-neuter programs throughout the United States. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of programs have been developed to increase delivery of spay-neuter services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, feral cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to ensure a consistent level of care, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. The guidelines consist of recommendations for preoperative care (eg, patient transport and housing, patient selection, client communication, record keeping, and medical considerations), anesthetic management (eg, equipment, monitoring, perioperative considerations, anesthetic protocols, and emergency preparedness), surgical care (eg, operating-area environment; surgical-pack preparation; patient preparation; surgeon preparation; surgical procedures for pediatric, juvenile, and adult patients; and identification of neutered animals), and postoperative care (eg, analgesia, recovery, and release). These guidelines are based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, microbiology, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs. PMID:18593314

  14. Copper-associated hepatitis in a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Jean; Miller, Matthew D

    2014-06-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Pembroke Welsh corgi dog was diagnosed with copper-associated hepatitis; an uncommon disease to which a variety of breeds are predisposed. This case report describes copper-associated hepatitis in a breed in which the disease has not previously been reported. PMID:24891642

  15. Copper-associated hepatitis in a Pembroke Welsh corgi

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, Jean; Miller, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Pembroke Welsh corgi dog was diagnosed with copper-associated hepatitis; an uncommon disease to which a variety of breeds are predisposed. This case report describes copper-associated hepatitis in a breed in which the disease has not previously been reported. PMID:24891642

  16. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  17. Early effects of spaying on plasma and liver phospholipid concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagh, L R; Ambadkar, P M

    1996-03-01

    Effect of spaying on liver and plasma phospholipid components was studied in 4-day cyclic rats (Haffkin Institute Strain). Rats were ovariectomized during diestrous stage of estrous cycle. Ovariectomy (OVX) was shown to increase the total phospholipid content in both the liver lobes after 24 hr interval, it remained higher in spigelian lobe up to 72 hr but it was lowered in the right lobe at 48 hr interval. Concentration of sphingomyelin (SHP) in total phospholipids, as assessed by TLC, was slightly increased in both lobes after 48 hr of spaying. It declined significantly by 72 hr only in the spigelian lobe. Phosphotidylcholin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine concentrations showed fluctuating pattern up to 48 hr of spaying, but most of these changes were seen to be restored to the normal level by 72 hr interval. Results indicate that the relative lack of ovarian hormones due to ovariectomy have obvious influence on hepatic lipid metabolism particularly that of phospholipid components. There appears to be an inverse relationship between hepatic lipid components and blood plasma. Spigelian lobe exhibits distinctly different responses to ovariectomy as compared to those of the right lobe. Maximal alterations are observable by 48 hr post-OVX interval. PMID:8781029

  18. Spaying-related urinary incontinence and oestrogen therapy in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Rota, Alessandro; Battocchio, Massimiliano; Faustini, Massimo; Mollo, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Some aspects of spaying-related urinary incontinence in the bitch still remain incompletely clarified. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of the disease among spayed dogs, to detect differences in risk related to the type of surgery, to describe the characteristics of incontinent bitches, to assess the influence of age at surgery on the onset of incontinence occurrence, and to assess the effectiveness and long-term side effects of oestrogen therapy in affected bitches. Among 750 bitches submitted to ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy, those showing spaying-related urinary incontinence were evaluated. Oestrogen replacement therapy consisted of administering an effective dose followed by an individual maintenance dose. The results showed that the disease occurred in 5% of neutered bitches, the type of surgery did not affect the disease occurrence, affected bitches frequently represented large or giant breeds or large-size mongrels, the body weight of the affected bitches at surgery was often > 20 kg, the disease seems to be associated with tail docking, the age at surgery influences the onset ofincontinence, with earlier occurrence in older bitches, and that a strong co-operation between owners and veterinarians is necessary to achieve successful response to oestrogen replacement therapy. Long-term administration seems to be unrelated to oestrogenic side effects. PMID:19457785

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Spay and Neuter Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    White, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This study examined musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in spay and neuter veterinarians using an internet-based questionnaire. Hand pain was most common in the right thumb and wrist, and body pain was most common in the lower back, shoulders, and neck. Several work-related risk factors for discomfort were discovered, including long career in spay and neuter, increasing weekly hours in surgery, and decreasing job satisfaction. Although most respondents felt posture during surgery was important, few spay and neuter veterinarians have received any instruction in posture or ergonomics in surgery. Abstract A cross-sectional study to investigate musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) surveyed 219 veterinarians who currently or previously perform spays and neuters at least 4 hours per week. Participants were asked about the presence and severity of hand and body MSD during the previous month, whether MSD interfered with work or daily activities, whether they attributed their MSD to their spay/neuter work, and whether MSD had ever necessitated absence from work. The period prevalence of MSD was 99.1%, with 76.7% experiencing hand or wrist pain and 98.2% experiencing body pain. Hand discomfort was most commonly reported in the right thumb and/or thumb base (49.8%) and the right wrist (37.9%). Body discomfort was most commonly reported in the lower back (76.7%), shoulders (72.6%), and neck (71.7%). Increasing career length, increasing weekly hours in surgery and decreasing job satisfaction were the work-related factors with the greatest relative contribution accounting for variation in hand pain severity and total pain. Although 94.4% of respondents felt that posture during surgery is important, only 30.6% had received any instruction in posture and positioning for surgery. Future interventions should aim to optimize surgical efficiency, surgeon work schedules, and working environment. Analysis and intervention studies are required to determine further causes of

  20. The association between acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence in bitches and early spaying: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Bleser, B; Brodbelt, D C; Gregory, N G; Martinez, T A

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted between December 2005 and August 2006 in London (1) to estimate the strength of association between early ovariohysterectomy (spaying) and urinary incontinence (sphincter mechanism incompetence), (2) to identify other risk factors for incontinence, and (3) to assess any implications of incontinence on the owner-pet relationship. Cases were defined as bitches that developed incontinence after spaying and were treated, and the controls comprised continent spayed bitches. Questionnaires from 202 cases were compared to 168 controls, and analysed using multivariable logistic regression. No significant association between early spaying and incontinence was detected although there was a tendency that early spayed bitches were less likely to be incontinent. Docked bitches were 3.8 times more likely to be incontinent than undocked bitches; bitches weighing over 10 kg were 3.7 times more likely to be incontinent than smaller dogs; and older bitches were more likely to be incontinent (OR=3.1-23.8) than younger animals. Some owners were found to have a negative attitude towards incontinence. PMID:20004121

  1. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... published October 21, 2009, 74 FR 53987, Docket No. NHTSA-09-0166. First, to improve the durability of the....e., metal-to-metal contact) hip lock from occurring (61 FR 67953, Dec. 26, 1996). In that adult... procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979). This rule will only affect the HIII-6C and HIII-6CW test...

  2. Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gregory, S P; Holt, P E; Parkinson, T J; Wathes, C M

    1999-04-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the vagina might be a suitable site for the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry in the bitch. The position of the cranial vagina and vaginal length were measured radiographically and the effects of spaying and urinary incontinence on these variables were evaluated in 30 continent and 30 incontinent bitches. The study used retrograde vaginourethrograms which had been obtained from animals used in a previous study. The cranial vagina was intra-abdominal on 36 of the vaginourethrograms, being least commonly intra-abdominal in incontinent bitches (11/30). Vaginal position was related linearly to vaginal length and continence status (P < 0.01), while its length was related to bodyweight (P < 0.01). Allowing for bodyweight, neutered animals had significantly shorter vaginas than entire bitches (P < 0.01). Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure is essential if accurate assessment of detrusor pressure is to be determined during cystometry. The vagina is unlikely to be a useful location from which to measure intra-abdominal pressure since any pressure-measuring catheter inserted into it may fall outside the abdominal pressure zone. This is particularly true of neutered and/or incontinent bitches, the groups in which urodynamic investigations of urinary incontinence are most frequently indicated. PMID:10340249

  3. Characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had cats sterilized through this program.

    PubMed

    Benka, Valerie A; McCobb, Emily

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had their cats sterilized through this program. DESIGN Cross-sectional anonymous survey and telephone interviews. SAMPLE 1,188 (anonymous surveys) and 99 (telephone interviews) cat owners. PROCEDURES Owners who had a cat sterilized at clinics held between January 2006 and December 2008 were invited to complete anonymous surveys. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with owners who had a cat sterilized during clinics held in 2009. RESULTS Most cats had never been seen by a veterinarian previously; "too expensive" was the most common reason for this. Total annual household income was significantly associated with the number of times the cat had been examined by a veterinarian and reason why the cat had not been spayed or neutered previously. Most cats were acquired through informal means and without actively being sought, and there was often a time lag between acquisition and sterilization. Undesirable behavior and avoiding pregnancy were primary motivations for neutering and spaying, respectively. Nearly half of owners who indicated they would have had their cat sterilized through a private veterinarian if the clinic had not been available stated that the surgery would have been delayed because of cost. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that spay-neuter decisions were related to owner income and procedure cost, that elimination of the reduced-cost spay-neuter program would likely have exacerbated the spay-delay problem, and that gradations of financial need should be considered when evaluating relationships between income and spay-neuter decisions. PMID:27556262

  4. Attachment Representations in 6-Year-Old Children from One and Two Parent Families in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Konig, Lilith

    2007-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of attachment theory, coping with the separation and divorce of parents requires that children reorganize their mental model of attachment. Secure attachment models may be disrupted, while insecure attachment models may be strengthened. According to findings from research on divorce, this process of family…

  5. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  6. Can 5-6 Year Old Children Orientate Themselves in a Cave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovignot, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Spatial capacities of 36 children ages 5-6 were tested in 3 experiments involving an electronic maze, map training and testing, and finding the way out of a cave using a map. All subjects could use simple maps; this ability improved with age. However, no subject navigated the cave without help, perhaps because of stress or task complexity. (SV)

  7. Inattention and Hyperactivity Predict Alterations in Specific Neural Circuits among 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Tuan, Ta Anh; Zhong, Jidan; Meaney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers is highly dependent upon parental reports. Such reports are compromised by parental attitudes and mental health. Our study aimed to examine associations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity from maternal reports on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) with brain…

  8. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  9. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire in a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Kamath, Vikram; Chauhan, Bhumir; de Souza, Romnesh; Nair, Rithesh; Sapare, Anil; Kekatpure, Minal

    2015-05-01

    A six-year-old boy was diagnosed as recurrent posterior circulation stroke secondary to basilar artery occlusion with rapid progression of symptoms. Etiology of stroke was a dissection of V3 segment of left vertebral artery, which was treated using endovascular technique 26 hours after worsening of symptoms. Since the guidelines for acute revascularization in pediatric stroke are not well established, there is limited experience in the use of mechanical devices for acute ischemic stroke revascularization in children. To our knowledge, this is one of the youngest reported cases of acute ischemic stroke from Asia managed with newer mechanical clot removal devices. PMID:26060522

  10. Early Numerical Competencies in 5- and 6-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titeca, Daisy; Roeyers, Herbert; Ceulemans, Annelies; Desoete, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: To date, studies comparing the mathematical abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children are scarce, and results remain inconclusive. In general, studies on this topic focus on mathematical abilities learned from elementary school onward, with little attention for possible…

  11. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or body composition measures. Differences in these novel components by sex, birth weight, SEP and skin colour may indicate their potential relevance to disease risks. PMID:26880232

  12. Refinement of Speech Breathing in Healthy 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek, Carol A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Watson, Peter J.; Jones, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to offer a better understanding of the development of neuromotor control for speech breathing and provide a normative data set that can serve as a useful standard for clinical evaluation and management of young children with speech disorders involving the breathing subsystem. Method: Speech breathing was…

  13. Assessment of Language Comprehension of 6-Year-Old Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Donna S.; Freeman, Lisa Rothman

    1980-01-01

    Results show that comprehension of word types (nouns, verbs, etc.) and linguistic structure can be orderly, producing a hierarchy of complexity similar to that found in normally hearing children. However, performance was about three years behind that of normally hearing peers. Journal availability: Elsevier North Holland, Inc., 52 Vanderbilt…

  14. Case of hypercalcemia secondary to hypervitaminosis a in a 6-year-old boy with autism.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Arpita Kalla; White, Neil H

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A intoxication secondary to over-the-counter nutritional supplements and from its use in acne treatment has been described. However, there have been very few case reports of chronic hypervitaminosis A leading to hypercalcemia in the pediatric population. This paper describes a boy with hypercalcemia secondary to chronic vitamin A intoxication in the context of vitamin A usage for therapy of autism. In addition to discontinuation of vitamin A, hyperhydration, and furosemide, the hypercalcemia in this patient required the use of prednisone and pamidronate to normalize the calcium. PMID:22937283

  15. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... head toward breast or bottle n Communicates through body language, fussing or crying n Starts to smile n Raises head when on tummy n Calms down when rocked, cradled or sung to n Begins to smile at ... to one body part n May walk up steps and run ...

  16. Taxometric Analyses of Specific Language Impairment in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether language scores at age 6 years suggest that specific language impairments (SLIs) distribute in a categorical or in a dimensional fashion. Method: A taxometric analysis of language scores from 601 six-year-old children who were free of neonatal risk factors was performed. From among 4 candidate indicators of SLI, 2…

  17. Estimation of food portion sizes frequently consumed by children 3-6 years old in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Adachi, Miyuki; Sakai, Haruko; Takahashi, Chieko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    No study has documented Japanese children's food portion sizes. Since this information is essential to establish valid measurement tools and effective education methods for dietary intake, we measured them using one-day, semi-weighed diet records (DRs) for 489 Japanese children aged 3-6 y. Each food's frequency of appearance on the DRs was counted. If a child consumed a certain food more than once per day, an average weight for that food was calculated and used in the portion size calculation as that child's representative value. In total, 67 food items were consumed by twenty or more children. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum portion size values for these food items. In addition to these 67 items, Chinese noodles and water were included in the analysis. The most frequently consumed food was well-milled rice (mean portion size for rice=79 g), which was consumed by 350 children, followed by soy sauce (4 g), eggs (26 g), and carrots (9 g). Among the five most frequently consumed foods, portion sizes of rice and pork but not milk, eggs, or carrots significantly increased with age, height, and weight. In multivariate linear regression analysis, however, the significant relationships between rice portion size and age were not observed. Regarding pork, only the relationship with height was significant. A sex difference was detected in the rice and milk portion sizes. Most of portion sizes observed here were apparently smaller than those reported among United Kingdom children. This study provides important basic information for the implementation of quantitative nutritional research and educational efforts for Japanese preschool children. PMID:25866301

  18. Referential set presentation effects on complementation by 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Desprels-Fraysse, A; Pelissier, A

    1993-09-01

    What difficulties do children encounter when responding to complementation instructions? The responses of 50 children to six complementation requests were examined. For half of the children, the objects in the referential set were pooled, and for the other half, they were physically separated by category (pencils were presented in a pencil box, buttons in a sewing kit, and balls of yarn in a knitting basket). Reinforcing the identifying status of the semantic property by separating the objects into categories led to an increase in the number of responses bearing on the subset designated in the instructions (e.g., in response to "Give me everything that is not a black button," the children handed over only the nonblack buttons). In contrast, older children gave responses based on the entire set. The meaning attributed by children to object properties and the effects of that attribution on processing mode merit further study. PMID:8245907

  19. Goal Neglect and Working Memory Capacity in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitch, Stuart; Boseovski, Janet J.; Knapp, Robin J.; Kane, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Goal neglect is the phenomenon of failing to execute the momentary demands of a task despite understanding and being able to recall the task instructions. Successful goal maintenance is more likely to occur in adults with high working memory capacity (WMC) who can keep rules mentally accessible while performing the task. The current study…

  20. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  1. Primary corneal melanocytoma in a Collie.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Bianca; Leis, Marina L; Sayi, Soraya

    2015-09-01

    A 6-year-old female, spayed Collie was referred to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for a 12-month history of a progressive right corneal mass. A superficial keratectomy was performed and histopathology revealed a corneal melanocytoma with complete excision. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (12 months). This is the first known report of an isolated corneal melanocytoma in a canine. PMID:25296627

  2. Serum tryptophan and its metabolites in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy as treatment of pyometra or as elective spay surgery.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Pastor, Josep; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2015-05-01

    This study compares serum concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in healthy bitches and bitches with bacterial uterine infection (pyometra). The effects of surgery were also assessed by measuring these variables in both groups of dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Presurgery, mean (±standard deviation) TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations and IDO activity were 68.44 ± 21.77, 2.00 ± 0.33, 112.11 ± 111.91 μmol/L, and 29.22 ± 10.10, respectively, in the healthy dogs; and 40.16 ± 12.11, 8.27 ± 3.94, 411.11 ± 199.60 μmol/L, and 205.92 ± 154.20, respectively, in the dogs with pyometra. Tryptophan and KYN levels had normalized on suture removal (10 days after surgery) though IDO activity and KYNA concentrations remained elevated during the postoperative period compared with presurgery values in both study groups. Our results suggest that KYNA concentrations and IDO activity could be useful indicators of the inflammation induced by pyometra and could be also used to monitor recovery following ovariohysterectomy in both healthy dogs and dogs with pyometra. PMID:25670154

  3. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangjfer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (less than or equal to 0.3/km(2)) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females greater than or equal to 14 years old. Females greater than or equal to 2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (greater than or equal to 14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P less than or equal to 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at die time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the precious year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate

  4. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P<0.05) than PR and MAI. Similarly, FL and DOT heifers had greater (P<0.05) concentrations than PR and MAI, with EIM intermediate. Creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in FL and EIM heifers compared with the other treatments, with a similar pattern seen in the cows. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL heifers compared with other treatments in the 8- to 24-h and 24- to 96-h periods postprocedures, and in cows were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL and DOT compared with PR in the 24- to 96-h period. Behavioral responses complemented the physiological responses; standing head down was shown by more (P<0.05) FL cows and heifers to 3 d postprocedures compared with other treatments, although there was no difference between FL and DOT heifers at the end of the day of procedures. At this same time, fewer (P<0.05) FL and DOT heifers and cows were observed feeding compared with other treatments, although in cows there was no difference between FL, DOT, and EIM. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude

  5. Urodynamic parameters and plasma LH/FSH in spayed Beagle bitches before and 8 weeks after GnRH depot analogue treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Barth, Andrea; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2006-12-01

    The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence due to spaying remains unknown. Incontinent bitches can be treated successfully with depot preparations of GnRH-analogues and there are differences in plasma gonadotropin levels between continent and incontinent spayed bitches. It is therefore assumed that the supraordinated hormones, GnRH, FSH, and/or LH, have an effect on the urodynamic parameters. In this study, the potential influence of these hormones on the lower urinary tract was investigated by measuring urethral pressure profiles and cystometry. Simultaneously, plasma concentrations in 10 spayed Beagle bitches were determined 5 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after treatment with the GnRH analogue leuprolide. Within 1 week of GnRH analogue administration, plasma FSH and LH levels decreased from 72.5 and 7.7 to 7.75 and 0.72ng/mL, respectively. These plasma gonadotropin levels correspond with those of intact bitches during anoestrus. Urethral pressure profiles indicated that the treatment had no significant effect on maximum urethral closure pressure, functional and total length of the urethra, or area of the closure pressure curve. The data obtained by cystometry regarding mean bladder threshold volume showed a significant increase from 109 to 172mL. The improvement in bladder function after the application of GnRH-application is presumably a direct effect of the GnRH as a relationship between the plasma gonadotropin levels and the urodynamic parameters could not demonstrated. PMID:16876857

  6. Comparison of the GnRH-stimulation test and a semiquantitative quick test for LH to diagnose presence of ovaries in the female domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Rohlertz, M; Ström Holst, B; Axnér, E

    2012-12-01

    It is generally recommended that female cats not intended for planned breeding are spayed to reduce the population of feral cats and also because spaying is beneficial for the long-term health of the individual. For female cats of unknown origin or with estrous symptoms after spaying there is a need for a reliable method to diagnose or rule out the presence of ovaries to avoid unnecessary surgery. Methods previously recommended include vaginal cytology, evaluation of serum estradiol concentration during suspected estrus, induction of ovulation and subsequent evaluation of progesterone, or explorative laparotomy. These methods have the disadvantages that an accurate diagnosis only can be made during estrus or that an invasive procedure is required. Previously, the use of a GnRH challenge test and a semiquantitative LH test have been reported. Our aim was to compare these two methods. We therefore divided 31 female cats in two groups: (1) intact nonestrous females (N = 16), and (2) previously ovariohysterectomized females (N = 15). A blood sample was collected (Time 0) and 0.4 μg/kg buserelin (Receptal; Intervet, Danderyd, Sweden) was injected im. A new blood sample was collected 120 min after the injection. A drop of serum from the sample collected at Time 0 was placed on the LH test (Witness LH; Synbiotics, Corp., San Diego, CA, USA) and the result was evaluated as negative or positive. The remaining serum was frozen and analyzed for estradiol in one batch. Serum estradiol before buserelin stimulation ranged between 5 and 45 pmol/L (N = 14) in intact nonestrous queens and between 2 and 6 pmol/L (N = 15) in ovariohysterectomized females. Estradiol in samples collected after 120 min ranged between 12 and 51 pmol/L (N = 16) in intact queens and between 1 and 7 pmol/L (N = 15) in spayed cats giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for the buserelin stimulation test at a cutoff value of 11 pmol/L. All intact queens were negative in the semiquantitative LH test

  7. Humpty Dumpty and Rosa Parks: Making Space for Critical Dialogue with 5- and 6-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Using a critical inquiry curriculum is about teaching children to read the word and the world. Early childhood teachers apply this theory by helping children question events and texts they interact with in their communities. For example, teachers can help children understand why certain events happened, including whose voices may have been…

  8. Problem Solving by 5-6 Years Old Kindergarten Children in a Computer Programming Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, G.; Gouli, E.; Mavroudi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Computer programming is considered an important competence for the development of higher-order thinking in addition to algorithmic problem solving skills. Its horizontal integration throughout all educational levels is considered worthwhile and attracts the attention of researchers. Towards this direction, an exploratory case study is presented…

  9. The development of joke and irony understanding: a study with 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Romina; Airenti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that comprehending ironic utterances is a relatively late-developing skill, emerging around 5-6 years of age. This study investigated whether younger children might show an earlier understanding when ironic utterances are performed in familiar communicative situations, and investigated the relationships among irony comprehension, language, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities. A group of 100 children aged 3.0-6.5 years was presented with 4 types of puppet scenarios depicting different communicative interactions: control, joke, contingent irony and background irony stories. Results suggested that (a) even younger children easily understand jokes, and may sometimes understand ironies; (b) children's comprehension of irony continues to develop across early childhood; and (c) receptive vocabulary scores had simultaneous effects on irony comprehension and ToM performance. PMID:24364812

  10. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  11. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  12. Predictors of adolescent outcomes among 4-6-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Lee, Steve S; Sibley, Margaret H; Applegate, Brooks; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-02-01

    Children who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with functional impairment in at least one setting at 4-6 years of age were followed prospectively through age 18 years. On average, the 125 children (107 boys) with ADHD at baseline improved over time, but still continued to exhibit more symptoms, functional impairment, and risky behavior through adolescence than demographically matched healthy comparison children. These findings support the predictive validity of the diagnosis of ADHD at younger ages by demonstrating that the symptoms and impairment are enduring. Nonetheless, there were marked variations in developmental outcomes. Among children with ADHD, higher numbers of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and higher number of concurrent symptoms (oppositional, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression) measured at baseline each predicted higher future levels of the same dimension of symptoms. In addition, higher baseline levels of inattention, oppositional, conduct disorder, and anxiety symptoms predicted greater future functional impairment. Among children with ADHD, girls and children from families with lower family incomes had relatively poorer outcomes. Although outcomes varied along a continuum, approximately 10% of the children with ADHD at 4-6 years could be classified as functioning in the normative range on multiple measures during 15-18 years. Although this finding awaits replication, lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms at 4-6 years predicted more normative functioning during adolescence. These findings suggest that ADHD identified in early childhood predicts an increased likelihood of functional impairment through adolescence for most, but not all, children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854503

  13. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  14. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  15. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3-6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Ansari, Ghassem; Soleymani, Ali Asghar; Shayeghi, Shahnaz; Fotuhi Ardakani, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods.A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3-6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale), who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were randomly given ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures compared to oral sedation (P<0.05). Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05). The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physiological limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001) with a more sleepy face (P=0.004). Conclusion.. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children. PMID:26236429

  16. [Activities of medical practitioners in nursery schools for children under 6 years-old: the expectations of the facilities' directors].

    PubMed

    Fanello, Serge; Dagorne, Carole; Perrier, Christophe; Parot, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to describe the activities of nurseries' medical practitioners and the expectations of the nurseries' supervisors. It is based on the analysis of 139 questionnaires received from nursery schools' managers from the Pays de Loire region in 2005. Ninety percent of the nurseries that accommodate children less than six years-old, do employ a medical practitioner. She or he is often a salaried paediatrician with a full-time job or clinical practice, who consults twice a month for two hours and forty minutes in each nursery which employs him/her. Her/his main activity consists of conducting standard medical examinations when children are admitted into the nursery and on-going follow-up of their adaptation and healthy early childhood development. She or he also ensures that hygienic preventive measures are respected in case of an epidemic or other potentially hazardous health situations. Moreover, two-thirds of the establishments offer prevention follow-up for the children, whereas health promotion programmes and interventions are only carried out in just over half of them. Emergency medical procedures are conducted in a quarter of them only. Most of the nursery directors are satisfied with the medical services provided, despite some criticism. They mainly wish that practitioners were more available and more regularly present on-site in order to supply further preventive care, to develop training programmes for other staff members, and to participate in thematic meetings. Encouraging improved synergy between the professionals working in the nurseries, placing child psychologists to work in the facilities and fostering better relationships with the independent medical practitioners would all help the process of development and the evolution of the operational function of the medical practitioners in these structures. PMID:17561738

  17. A 6-year-old boy with Sulzberger and Garbe dermatosis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tabara, Katarzyna; Noweta, Marcin; Bienias, Wojciech; Kaszuba-Bartkowiak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sulzberger-Garbe disease was described in 1937. Not more than a hundred of cases of the disease have been reported in the literature. Despite a quite specific picture, there are no features that could undeniably be attributed to this particular disease entity. Discoid exudative and lichenoid lesions are main lesions in this dermatosis. The disease is associated with severe pruritus. The lesions are located on the trunk and extremities as well as the genitals. Eosinophilia is frequently found in the course of the disease. Sulzberger-Garbe dermatosis has been diagnosed mainly in middle-aged males of Jewish origin but it can occur in both sexes at any age. Good therapeutic response to systemic corticosteroids has been observed. It is still controversial whether the disease should be classified as an independent clinical entity. PMID:24494005

  18. Emergency Department Utilization and Determinants of Use by 0- to 6-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in Taipei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Ya-Wen; Chwo, Miao-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have explored emergency services for children, there are few published reports of the utilization of emergency services by children with disabilities. The present study attempts to provide data regarding the utilization of, and factors affecting, emergency department visits by disabled children in Taipei. A general census of…

  19. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  20. Effects of Custom-Made Rigid Foot Orthosis on Pes Planus in Children Over 6 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Lim, Jun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the effects of a custom-made rigid foot orthosis (RFO) in children over six years old with pes planus. Methods The medical records of 39 children (mean age, 10.3±4.09 years) diagnosed with pes planus, fitted with RFOs, and had who more than two consecutive radiological studies were reviewed. The resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP), anteroposterior talocalcaneal angle (APTCA), lateral talocalcaneal angle (LTTCA), the lateral talometatarsal angle (LTTMA), and calcaneal pitch (CP) of both feet were measured to evaluate foot alignment. After diagnosis, children were fitted with a pair of RFOs and recommended to walk with heel strike and reciprocal arm swing to normalize the gait pattern. A follow-up clinical evaluation with radiological measurements was performed after 12-18 months and after 24 months of RFO application. Post-hoc analysis was used to test for significant differences between the radiological indicators and RCSP. Results With RFOs, all radiological indicators changed in the corrective direction except LTTCA. RCSP and CP in the third measurement showed significant improvement in comparison with the second and baseline measurements. Additionally, APTCA and LTTMA revealed improvements at the third measurement versus the baseline measurements. Conclusion This study revealed that radiological indicators improved significantly after 24 months of RFO application. A prospective long-term controlled study with radiographical evaluation is necessary to confirm the therapeutic effects of RFOs and to determine the optimal duration of wear in children with pes planus. PMID:25024961

  1. Spaying and Neutering

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. This may not eliminate the dog or cat’s behaviors associated with the breeding instinct. • Vasectomy: only the ... hormones. This may not eliminate the dog or cat’s behaviors associated with the breeding instinct. Nonsurgical sterilization There ...

  2. Suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy in a female rottweiler dog

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, James Oliver; Leschnik, Michael; Nell, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old, 46-kg spayed female rottweiler dog was presented with sudden onset of disorientation, bilateral convergent strabismus, and enophthalmos. Diagnostic workup revealed hypothyroid-associated cranial neuropathy. Symptoms abated considerably upon treatment with levothyroxine-sodium (T4) at an initial dose of 800 μg/kg body weight (BW), PO, q12h, which was reduced 3 days later to 600 μg/kg BW, q12h due to severe agitation and panting. Two weeks later the dosage of the levothyroxine-sodium (T4) was reduced to 400 μg/kg BW in the morning and 600 μg/kg BW in the evening. Eight weeks after the initial presentation, the dog had recovered with only mild convergent strabismus in the right eye. This is the first case report of suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy resulting in these symptoms. PMID:24082164

  3. Family Network, Workplace Network, and Their Influence on Condom Use: A Qualitative Study Among Older Female Sex Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chun; Guida, Jennifer; Morisky, Donald E; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the components of social networks and their influence on condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. In-depth interviews with 63 older FSWs and 6 focus group interviews with pimps and owners of roadside salons and hotels were conducted in 3 Chinese cities. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years old (SD = 6.9 years) and the mean age of starting sex work was 38.6 years old (SD = 6.6 years). Two types of networks that influenced condom use were identified: family networks (relationship with children and husbands) and workplace networks (relationship with peers, clients, pimps, and owners). Relationships between older FSWs and their children negatively influenced condom use. Low levels of network support and norms regarding condom use were observed in the relationship between older FSWs and their clients, whereas positive social support and norms were prevalent among older FSWs who had frequent contact with peers. Norms for condom use existed among pimps and owners but were counterbalanced by monetary gains. Future human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions for older FSWs should take the different features of social network components into consideration. PMID:25411685

  4. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  5. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi; André, Marcos Rogério; Seki, Meire Christina; Pinto, Aramis Augusto; Machado, Saulo de Tarso Zacarias; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats. PMID:23070430

  6. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  7. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  8. True hermaphroditism in six female littermates after administration of synthetic androgens to a pregnant bitch.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, H; Vercauteren, G; Görtz, K; Saunders, J; Polis, I; Rijsselaere, T

    2006-02-01

    A pregnant bitch was treated with a synthetic testosterone mixture on approximately day 40. The female offspring (six pups) showed an increased anogenital distance, vaginal enlargement and a variable amount of vaginal discharge. The urinary orifice was found dorsally in the vestibulum, stooled on a protruding phallus-like structure. All six pups underwent a laparotomy and subsequent spaying and a modified ventral episioplasty technique to lift up the labia to a more vertical position in order to prevent urine accumulation. Histopathological examination of the genital tracts demonstrated the presence of bilateral ovotestis and remnants of the Wolffian duct system in all cases. The finding of true hermaphroditism of the offspring after exogenous androgen administration during gestation of the bitch has not yet been reported elsewhere. PMID:16420323

  9. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  10. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  11. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine in 15 month-6-year-old German children. Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Stehr, K; Heininger, U; Uhlenbusch, R; Angersbach, P; Hackell, J; Eckhardt, T

    1995-03-01

    Immunization against pertussis has been re-recommended for healthy children in Germany in 1991. In addition the former restriction of immunizing only in the first 2 years of life was abolished. In children born before 1991 immunization rates against pertussis were 15% or less. With the new recommendations physicians are now faced with an increasing demand of parents for catch-up vaccinations in these children. Since they were immunized against diphtheria and tetanus previously monovalent pertussis vaccines are needed for this indication. Therefore a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine was studied in 249 German children 15 months to 6 years of age. Three doses were administered at 6-10 week intervals. Reactogenicity and antibody responses against the vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), 69-kd antigen (pertactin) and fimbriae-2 (agglutinogen) were investigated. Local and systemic reactions were minimal in frequency and severity. Antibody responses against all vaccine antigens were pronounced with 93%-100% of vaccinees demonstrating at least four fold titre rises above pre-immunization after the third dose. These findings indicate that this monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine with excellent immunogenicity and low reactogenicity is an appropriate candidate for closing immunization gaps in older children in countries with previously low vaccination rates against pertussis. Based on the results of this study the monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine was licensed in Germany in January 1994. PMID:7758519

  13. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  14. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children’s oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents’ knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents’ knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents’ knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits. PMID:27092216

  15. Training 2;6-Year-Olds to Produce the Transitive Construction: The Role of Frequency, Semantic Similarity and Shared Syntactic Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Childers and Tomasello (2001) found that training 2 1/2-year-olds on the English transitive construction greatly improves their performance on a post-test in which they must use novel verbs in that construction. In the current study, we replicated Childers and Tomasello's finding, but using a much lower frequency of transitive verbs and models in…

  16. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5–6 Years-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  17. Temperament and Peer Relations: Investigating the Effect the Temperament of 5-6-Year-Olds Has on Their Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulay, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the predictor effect temperamental characteristics of Turkish children aged between 5 and 6 have on peer relationship variables (social impact, prosocial behaviour, aggression, asocial behaviour, exclusion, fear-anxiety, and victimisation). About 140 children, aged between 5 and 6, and their mothers,…

  18. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857

  19. Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Following a 1986 study reporting a predominance of ambivalent attachment among insecure Sapporo infants, the generalizability of attachment theory and methodologies to Japanese samples has been questioned. In this 2nd study of Sapporo mother-child dyads (N = 43), the authors examined attachment distributions for both (a) child, based on M. Main…

  20. The Relationship of Severe Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in a Group of 3- to 6-year-old Children in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Edalat, A.; Abbaszadeh, M.; Eesvandi, M.; Heidari, A.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index) and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. Materials and Method: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kindergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated employing WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html) to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (< -2) was considered as abnormal. The relationship between dmft index and BMI was then investigated. Results: The mean of dmft was 4.13. From children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. Conclusion: There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study. PMID:24883343

  1. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    David, Fabian J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Wiesen, Chris; Miao, Adrienne F.; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills. PMID:23293589

  2. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:27458687

  3. Early and Late Outcome of Premature Newborns with History of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Admission at 6 Years Old in Zanjan, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SADEGHZADEH, Mansour; KHOSHNEVISASL, Parisa; PARVANEH, Mehdi; MOUSAVINASAB, Noreddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Premature birth is an important factor for mortality and morbidity of neonates. This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of preterm neonates who needed neonatal intensive care (NICU) hospitalization after 6 yr at their entrance to the school. Materials & Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on premature neonates consecutively hospitalized in NICU of Valie Asr Hospital (the Academic Pediatric Hospital, Zanjan, Northwestern Iran) from September 2001 to September 2003. All children with a history of prematurity and NICU treatment were evaluated at their entrance to the school. Demographic findings, clinical examinations, IQ test, hearing and visual acuity exams were recorded. Results From 179 neonates, 78 (43.6%) survived and were discharged from hospital. Fifty-four of them were available and entered first grade in primary school. Only one case had severe mental retardation. One case had severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Hearing abnormality was not detected in any case. There was no significant relation between IQ score, visual as well as hearing findings and gestational age. Conclusion We did not find significant disability in the outcome of surviving infants. This could be explained by the high mortality rate of neonates during hospitalization. PMID:27247586

  4. Improving Executive Functions in 5- and 6-year-olds: Evaluation of a Small Group Intervention in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patriza; Michel, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a central role of executive functions for children's cognitive and social development during preschool years, especially in promoting school readiness. Interventions aiming to improve executive functions are therefore being called for. The present study examined the effect of a small group intervention implemented in…

  5. Increasing Teacher/Parent Awareness of Developmentally Appropriate Movies for 3-6 Year Olds through Use of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, Merilyn R.

    This practicum identified a lack of standards for movie viewing by children age 3 through 6 at a preschool child care center, and proposed a rating scale to determine the suitability of videotaped films. Staff and parents of students seemed unaware of potential long-term adverse affects of some movies, such as desensitizing children to violence,…

  6. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  7. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  8. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2–6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: “breathes with mouth ordinarily,” “mouth is open ordinarily,” and “mouth is open when chewing.” We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: “snoring,” “mouth is open during sleeping,” and “mouth is dry when your child gets up.” The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3–5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8–9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25915864

  9. Developmental Change in the Acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-Year-Olds and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is…

  10. Depression and Play in Early Childhood: Play Behavior of Depressed and Nondepressed 3- to 6-Year-Olds in Various Play Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lous, Annemieke Mol; de Wit, Cees A. M.; de Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Rost, Henk

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of seven children (ages 3-6) with depression and 7 typical children was compared in solitary free play, interactive free play, and play narratives. Children with depression played significantly less, particularly in the area of symbolic play, showed significantly more nonplay behaviors, and showed less coherence in their behavior.…

  11. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  12. Residential Risk Factors for Atopic Dermatitis in 3- to 6-Year Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Yan, Shuxian; Zheng, Qile; Li, Fei; Chai, Weihan; Wu, Minmin; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan; Xu, Jinhua; Zhao, Zhuohui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common among pre-school children in Shanghai. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for childhood AD from the perspectives of home environment, demographics and parents-grandparents’ atopic disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai in April–June, 2010. Preschool children’s parents or guardians were invited to participate a questionnaire survey in six districts (two urban and four suburban/rural) and 6624 children were finally recruited (51.3% boys). AD diagnosis was based on the U.K. Working Party’s (UKWP) criteria. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 8.5% of children ever had AD. Around 10.2% of the mothers had lived in newly renovated/decorated homes (NRDH) during the prenatal period (one year before or during pregnancy) and 9.5% got new home furniture (NHF) during the same period. AD was more common in children when mothers had lived in NRDH homes during the prenatal period (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.03–1.93), the current home had indoor mold (2.00, 1.48–2.70), parents-grandparents’ had atopic diseases (3.85, 3.05–4.87), the children had food allergy (3.40, 2.63–4.40) or children lived in urban area (1.52, 1.18–1.96). Associations between AD and NRDH, NHF and indoor molds were only significant in children without parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases. There was an interaction effect between parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases and NRDH (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Home renovation/ redecoration, new furniture and indoor mold, urban residency, heredity disposition and food allergy can be risk factors for childhood AD in Shanghai. PMID:27240388

  13. Intervention for Improving Comprehension in 4-6 Year Old Children with Specific Language Impairment: Practicing Inferencing Is a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Nadeau, Line; Trudeau, Natacha; Filiatrault-Veilleux, Pamela; Maxes-Fournier, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies report on therapy to improve language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). We address this gap by measuring the effect of a systematic intervention to improve inferential comprehension using dialogic reading tasks in conjunction with pre-determined questions and cues. Sixteen children with a diagnosis of…

  14. Phonetic Processing during the Acquisition of New Words in 3-to-6-Year-Old French-Speaking Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores phonetic processing in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) when they have to learn phonetically similar words. Forty-six 34-to-78-month-old French-speaking deaf children with CIs were tested on 16 different trials. In each trial, they were first trained with two word-object pairings, and then a third object was…

  15. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  16. Numerical Activities and Information Learned at Home Link to the Exact Numeracy Skills in 5-6 Years-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Butterworth, Brian; Burgio, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Lucangeli, Daniela; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    It is currently accepted that certain activities within the family environment contribute to develop early numerical skills before schooling. However, it is unknown whether this early experience influences both the exact and the approximate representation of numbers, and if so, which is more important for numerical tasks. In the present study the mathematical performance of 110 children (mean age 5 years 11 months) was evaluated using a battery that included tests of approximate and exact numerical abilities, as well as everyday numerical problems. Moreover, children were assessed on their knowledge of number information learned at home. The parents of the participants provided information regarding daily activities of the children and socio-demographic characteristics of the family. The results showed that the amount of numerical information learned at home was a significant predictor of participants' performance on everyday numerical problems and exact number representations, even after taking account of age, memory span and socio-economic and educational status of the family. We also found that particular activities, such as board games, correlate with the children's counting skills, which are foundational for arithmetic. Crucially, tests relying on approximate representations were not predicted by the numerical knowledge acquired at home. The present research supports claims about the importance and nature of home experiences in the child's acquisition of mathematics. PMID:26903902

  17. The Best Ways of Teaching English to Children: Using Children's Operas in Teaching to 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achkasova, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to consider how to strengthen links between English, music, arts, and acting, maximizing the potential for children to become successful language learners at a young age. It will show how children's opera can act as a catalyst for learning and using the language. The findings demonstrate that teaching English with a…

  18. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  19. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  20. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  1. A Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising in the Larynx of a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Yamate, Jyoji; Murai, Fumi; Izawa, Takeshi; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    A neoplastic nodular lesion, 2 × 3 cm in diameter, was found in the larynx of a 6-year-old spayed female dog. The tumor was ill-circumscribed, consisting histologically of large round cells with abundant cytoplasm interspersed with small round cells with less cytoplasm and occasional multinucleated cells (myotubes). Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for myoglobin, desmin and vimentin in varying degrees, but negative for S-100 protein, GFAP or cytokeratin. Cytoplasmic myofilaments/myofibrils with a dense Z-line-like structure were seen, the fine structures of which were complemented by PTAH stain. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma, a very rare tumor in the larynx of dogs. PMID:22272059

  2. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in a dog exposed to jerky treats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; BABA, Kenji; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. The dog was fed beef and chicken jerky treats daily in addition to a commercial diet. Laboratory tests revealed azotemia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis and glucosuria with normoglycemia. Urine amino acid analysis showed significant amino acid loss into the urine. Thus, Fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, and based on the case history and extensive diagnostic testing, excessive consumption of jerky treats was strongly suspected as the cause. Glucosuria resolved 7 days after the withdrawal of jerky treats and fluid therapy. Aminoaciduria was substantially, but not completely, improved 3 months after diagnosis. Mild azotemia remained, suggesting chronic renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fanconi syndrome following the consumption of jerky treats in Japan. PMID:26062568

  3. Immunohistochemical localization and quantitative assessment of GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptor mRNA Expression in canine skin: a powerful tool to study the pathogenesis of side effects after spaying.

    PubMed

    Welle, Monika M; Reichler, Iris M; Barth, Andrea; Forster, Ursula; Sattler, Ursula; Arnold, Susi

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) could be involved in the pathophysiology of the side effects after spaying in bitches, such as urinary incontinence and an increased production of a woolly undercoat. In order to provide tools to investigate the role of these hormones in dogs we developed immunohistochemical techniques and real-time RT-PCR to study whether GnRH-, LH-, and FSH-receptors exist in canine skin and urinary bladder. Tissue samples from the skin of the flank region and the ventral midline of the urinary bladder from euthanised dogs were examined. We were able to quantify mRNA expression of GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptors in canine skin and bladder biopsies with a high primer efficacy. Immunohistochemical studies showed that GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptors are expressed in vessel walls, the epidermis, the hair follicle and in sebaceous and sweat glands in canine skin and in transitional epithelium, and smooth muscle tissue in the urinary bladder. Our data provide the fundamentals to examine the distribution of FSH-, LH-, and GnRH-receptors in canine skin and urinary bladder and to assess gene activity at the transcriptional level by real-time RT-PCR. PMID:16715322

  4. Acute exercise performed close to the anaerobic threshold improves cognitive performance in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Córdova, C; Silva, V C; Moraes, C F; Simões, H G; Nóbrega, O T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of acute exercise performed at different intensities in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT) on abilities requiring control of executive functions or alertness in physically active elderly females. Forty-eight physically active elderly females (63.8 +/- 4.6 years old) were assigned to one of four groups by drawing lots: control group without exercise or trial groups with exercise performed at 60, 90, or 110% of AT (watts) and submitted to 5 cognitive tests before and after exercise. Following cognitive pretesting, an incremental cycle ergometer test was conducted to determine AT using a fixed blood lactate concentration of 3.5 mmol/L as cutoff. Acute exercise executed at 90% of AT resulted in significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA) improvement in the performance of executive functions when compared to control in 3 of 5 tests (verbal fluency, Tower of Hanoi test (number of movements), and Trail Making test B). Exercising at 60% of AT did not improve results of any tests for executive functions, whereas exercise executed at 110% of AT only improved the performance in one of these tests (verbal fluency) compared to control. Women from all trial groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in the Simple Response Time (alertness) test (P = 0.001). Thus, physical exercise performed close to AT is more effective to improve cognitive processing of older women even if conducted acutely, and using a customized exercise prescription based on the anaerobic threshold should optimize the beneficial effects. PMID:19377796

  5. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  6. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  7. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  8. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  9. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  10. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  11. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  12. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  13. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  14. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  15. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. PMID:27287052

  16. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  17. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  18. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  19. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  20. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Hair loss in female pattern baldness is permanent, if not treated. In most cases, hair loss ... expensive. However, the results are often excellent and permanent. OTHER SOLUTIONS Hair weaving, hairpieces, or a change ...

  1. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  2. Postadolescent acne in females.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  3. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  4. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  5. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  6. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  7. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  8. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  9. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein, L A; Thein, J M

    1996-02-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete. PMID:8808516

  10. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  11. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  12. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  13. The Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

  14. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  15. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  16. Female circumcision: obstetric issues.

    PubMed

    Baker, C A; Gilson, G J; Vill, M D; Curet, L B

    1993-12-01

    Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists. We present a case illustrative of the unique management problems posed by these patients during labor. A method of releasing the anterior vulvar scar tissue to allow vaginal delivery is described. Sensitivity and a nonjudgmental approach as to what is culturally appropriate care for these women are of paramount importance. PMID:8267074

  17. The Female Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudron, Shari

    1999-01-01

    Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)

  18. Expanding the phenotypic profile of Kleefstra syndrome: A female with low-average intelligence and childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Lawson, Patrick; Sprouse, Courtney; Stapleton, Emily; Sadeghin, Teresa; Gropman, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Kleefstra syndrome (KS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder most commonly caused by deletion in the 9q34.3 chromosomal region and is associated with intellectual disabilities, severe speech delay, and motor planning deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first patient (PQ, a 6-year-old female) with a 9q34.3 deletion who has near normal intelligence, and developmental dyspraxia with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). At 6, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence testing (WPPSI-III) revealed a Verbal IQ of 81 and Performance IQ of 79. The Beery Buktenica Test of Visual Motor Integration, 5th Edition (VMI) indicated severe visual motor deficits: VMI = 51; Visual Perception = 48; Motor Coordination < 45. On the Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test-R (ROWPVT-R), she had standard scores of 96 and 99 in contrast to an Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary-R (EOWPVT-R) standard scores of 73 and 82, revealing a discrepancy in vocabulary domains on both evaluations. Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4) on PQ's first evaluation reveals a significant difference between auditory comprehension and expressive communication with standard scores of 78 and 57, respectively, further supporting the presence of CAS. This patient's near normal intelligence expands the phenotypic profile as well as the prognosis associated with KS. The identification of CAS in this patient provides a novel explanation for the previously reported speech delay and expressive language disorder. Further research is warranted on the impact of CAS on intelligence and behavioral outcome in KS. Therapeutic and prognostic implications are discussed. PMID:26833960

  19. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  20. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. Conclusions It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls’ physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an important contribution to the further development of evidence-based parental support programmes to prevent overweight and obesity in children. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN32750699 PMID:25680096

  1. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  2. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  3. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  4. Moi bans female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Nakalema, R

    1990-06-01

    A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move. PMID:12293761

  5. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  6. Effect of Female Labor Force Participation on Female Suicide Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact of female participation in the labor force (FPLF) on female suicide attitudes using a national sample of 5,559 women. Significant bivariate relationship is indicated, though when controls are added for covariates, FPLF is not related to female suicide attitudes. Relates findings to the role conflict and role expansionist theory…

  7. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the ...

  8. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  9. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  10. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    PubMed

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy. PMID

  11. Kinetic and temporospatial parameters in male and female cats walking over a pressure sensing walkway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several factors may influence kinetic data measurements, including body conformation and body mass. In addition, gender differences in gait pattern have been observed in healthy humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the kinetic and temporospatial parameters in clinically healthy male and female cats using a pressure-sensitive walkway. Eighteen crossbreed adult cats were divided into two groups: G1 had ten male cats (nine neutered) aged from 1 to 4 years and body mass 3.1-6.8 kg; G2 had eight spayed female cats, aged from 1 to 6 years and body mass 3.3-4.75 kg. The data from the first five valid trials were collected for each cat. A trial was considered valid if the cat maintained a velocity between 0.54-0.74 m/s and acceleration from -0.20 to 0.20 m/s2. The peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), gait cycle time, stance time, swing time, stride length, and percentage body weight distribution among the four limbs were determined. In addition, the lengths of each forelimb and each hind limb were measured using a tape with the animal standing. Results No significant differences were observed in each group in either the forelimbs or the hind limbs or between the left and right sides for any of the variables. For both groups, the PVF (%BW), the VI, and the percentage body weight distribution were higher at the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The stride length was larger for males; however, the other kinetic and temporospatial variables did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups. The lengths of the forelimbs and hind limbs were larger in the male cats. There was a significant moderate positive correlation between the stride length and the length of the limbs. Conclusions In conclusion, the only difference observed between male and female cats was the stride length, and this was due to the greater body size of male cats. This difference did not affect other temporospatial or kinetics variables

  12. Professional Female Athletes. Financial Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie

    1987-01-01

    Female professional athletes are earning more than ever before and projections suggest opportunities will continue to increase. Salary differentials between male and female tennis and golf professionals are made. Product endorsement income is discussed. Steps coaches, parents, counselors, and colleges should take in guiding females toward…

  13. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  14. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  15. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  16. The Effect of Growth Hormone, Insulin and Alloxan-Induced Diabetes on Carcinogenesis in the Genital Tract of Intact and Castrate Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Cora P.; Glucksmann, A.

    1971-01-01

    Castrate female rats given weekly applications of DMBA to the genital tract and treated additionally with growth hormone, insulin or alloxan (to induce diabetes) are heavier and have more sarcomatous and epithelial cervico-vaginal neoplasms than intact animals under the same experimental conditions. Promotion of carcinogenesis and gain in body weight are independent phenomena caused by castration in the medicated rats. Growth hormone is most effective in enhancing body weight in all animals, but least as regards tumour formation. It reduces the incidence of sarcomas in intacts, but raises that of epithelial neoplasms, and promotes both types of neoplasms in castrates. The highest incidence of cervico-vaginal epithelial and sarcomatous tumours occurs in spayed diabetics. Squamous celled epitheliomas of the vulva are not affected by castration or additional medication, while basal celled neoplasms tend to be more frequent in intacts than in castrates and particularly numerous in intact failed diabetics. Vulval sarcomas are usually rare but are increased in numbers in diabetic and in insulin treated intacts. Granular myoblastomas of the cervico-vaginal tract occur in intacts only and particularly in diabetics and those medicated with growth hormone or insulin. PMID:4335634

  17. Female orgasmic disorder.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. PMID:22005203

  18. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  19. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  20. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  1. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  2. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  3. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  4. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  5. Sudanese female doctors in paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed B.; Abdullah, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Though the number of female medical graduates has increased throughout the world, their postgraduate professional achievements are said to be suboptimal. Our aim is to look into the achievements of Sudanese female pediatricians and compare them with their male counterparts. A cross sectional study was undertaken using a questionnaire involving pediatricians working in the universities and Ministry of Health, Sudan. Ninety five (65.1%) out of 146 pediatricians responded; 73 (76.8%) were females and 22 (23.2%) were males. Thirty (41%) Of the females were in the academic career. Only 2 (8.3%) out of 24 assistant professors were promoted to associate professors and non of the four associate professors managed to become a professor compared to 68% and 25% among males, respectively. Twenty three (76.6%) of females compared to 31% of males had no publications. Nineteen out of 21 females (90.4%) who have been offered training opportunities abroad declined the offer for family reasons. Fifty four (93%) female pediatricians declined to work outside the capital state. No nursery facilities were available at work place. The main reasons for inadequate achievements included family issues, cultural obstacles, lack of mentorships and unsatisfying work environment and facilities. Suggestions were put forward to improve on these problems. Though female doctors are the majority of undergraduate and graduate students in Sudan, their professional and academic achievements after specialization are not optimal mainly for socio-cultural reasons and these need to be addressed.

  6. Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

  7. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  8. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  9. Subordinates' Reactions to Female Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Forsyth, Nancy M.

    Although recent reviews of the effectiveness of male versus female leaders reveal little evidence of male superiority, evaluative and perceptual biases (beliefs about what constitutes good leadership, and stereotyped beliefs about men and women) among group members persist. To examine attributional biases against female leaders, 85 college…

  10. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  11. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-19

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  12. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce. PMID:23857065

  13. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  14. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  15. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  16. Female condom becomes available nationwide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1993 and August 1994, only family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics had the female condom available. The manufacturer is using a print and educational campaign to market the female condom. The print campaigns provide a toll-free number for consumers and health care providers. The educational component consists of community outreach programs for public health, family planning clinics, and university health centers. The single-use soft polyurethane sheath has a flexible ring at the closed end, which is used to insert the condom and holds it over the cervix. A flexible ring is at the outer end; it holds the condom over the labia. The female condom is prelubricated and comes with a bottle of lubricant. Adding extra lubricant on the penis or the inside of the condom can prevent invagination of the outer ring, the penis entering the vagina instead of the condom, or the condom riding the penis. The 1-year failure rate is 25% for average use and 5.1% for perfect use. Correct and consistent use determines the female condom's ability to protect against STDs and HIV. The female condom helps women protect themselves against pregnancy and STDs/HIV when their male partner refuses to use a latex condom. Since it is visible outside the vagina, some women might still find it difficult to negotiate its use. Drawbacks of the female condom are that it is cumbersome and challenges our traditional gender roles and ideas about sexuality. Education addressing how women feel about themselves, their sexuality, and their relationships is needed to increase female condom use and acceptance. Some couples prefer the female condom over the male condom because it is roomier and because the polyurethane creates a better sensation than latex. PMID:12288570

  17. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  18. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  19. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404

  20. [Subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices as a treatment option for bilateral ureteral obstruction in a cat with ureterolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Pashmakova, Medora; Lamb, Jodie H; Spaulding, Kathy A; Cook, Audrey K

    2016-06-16

    A 6-year-old female spayed Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with acute lethargy, dehydration, marked azotemia, metabolic acidosis, left-sided renomegaly, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Ureterolithiasis and ureteral obstruction were suspected based on further diagnostics including abdominal sonography. Medical treatment was not successful. Fluoroscopically guided antegrade pyelography confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral ureteral obstruction due to ureterolithiasis. Subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices were placed bilaterally, followed by close patient monitoring. Frequent reassessment of patient parameters and blood work served to adjust the fluid needs of the patient and to ensure proper hydration, correction of azotemia at an appropriate rate, and cardiovascular stability. After significant improvement of all patient parameters within 5 days, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Treatment included a dietary change to reduce the risk of stone formation as well as a phosphorus binder. Clinical and clinicopathologic parameters were unchanged at the 1- and 4- and 7-month rechecks (consistent with IRIS CKD stage II-NP-AP0), and both SUB devices continued to provide unobstructed urine flow. Bilateral placement of subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices may be a safe and potentially effective treatment option for acute bilateral ureteral obstruction in cats with ureterolithiasis. Strict patient monitoring and patient-centered postoperative treatment decisions are crucial to successful treatment outcomes. PMID:26898228

  1. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  3. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  4. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  5. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  6. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  7. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  8. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  9. Female Studies: The Elective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemer, Linda

    1975-01-01

    Ten elective courses are outlined with objectives, implementation suggestions, and evaluation devices to raise the consciousness of both males and females in secondary schools. Courses include sex education, women in American history, child studies, women in other societies, economics, law, marriage and alternative life styles, and child rearing.…

  10. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  11. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  12. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  13. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  14. Personality Variables in Female Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Lee

    Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…

  15. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  16. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  17. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  18. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  19. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  20. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health. PMID:19129342

  1. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  2. Recidivism among female child molesters.

    PubMed

    Bader, Shannon M; Welsh, Robert; Scalora, Mario J

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, research about female sexual offender recidivism rates using official criminal justice records has increased. Although informative, rearrest or conviction rates may be insufficient for this population. This study examines two potential outcome measures for accurately studying recidivism among 57 female sexual offenders; a criminal recidivism measure based on formal legal charges and a reported recidivism measure based on child welfare reports. Based on the criminal recidivism outcome measure, 10(17.5%) women were charged for a subsequent sexual crime. The broader reported recidivism measure identified six additional women with subsequent contact with police or child welfare agencies for sexually inappropriate behaviors. There were no significant differences found between the 41 nonrecidivists and the 16 recidivists. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20565006

  3. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  4. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  5. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  6. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

  7. Circular protecting female students, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988 the Ministry of Education of Benin issued a Circular designed to protect female students from sexual advances from male students and teachers. Teachers who are suspected of having sexual relations with a student are to receive a note in their file or can be suspended for a month. Teachers who have raped a student or are responsible for a student's pregnancy are to be suspended for three months if the student was not in their class, and six months if she was. Teachers who have incited their sexual partner to have an abortion are subject to demotion. Teachers who are repeat offenders or whose actions have led to an abortion resulting in death are to be fired. Students who have made a female student pregnant are to be suspended from school until delivery of the child and then are to be enrolled in a different school. The directors of schools are asked to put an end to the provocative clothes, make-up, and hairstyles of female students. PMID:12289212

  8. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  9. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  10. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  11. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  12. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  13. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  14. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  15. Recognition Memory for Male and Female Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmey, A. Daniel

    Sex differences in memory for human faces is reviewed. It is found that research evidence to date is not conclusive, but where differences exist they favor female superiority over males in facial memory. In particular, evidence is cited to suggest that females are reliably superior to males in their recognition memory for other females. This is…

  16. Perceived Parental Acceptance and Female Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    Studied adolescent females at a state training school and at a high school, measuring perceived parental acceptance. Demonstrated that incarcerated females viewed their mothers and fathers more negatively than did nonincarcerated females. Indicated more ambivalent results in the mother-daughter than the father-daughter relationship. Discusses…

  17. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  19. Seeking and Selecting Hispanic Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    Among the 1,000 females who lead school districts in the United States, some 25 to 30 are Hispanic. Ways in which Hispanic females are sought and selected for the superintendency of a district are explored in this paper. The report is based on an analysis of 12 Hispanic female superintendents and how they were hired. Two of the women in the sample…

  20. Easily forgotten: elderly female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Women form a growing minority within the worldwide prison population and have special needs and distinct characteristics. Within this group exists a smaller sub-group: elderly female prisoners (EFPs) who require tailored social and health interventions that address their unique needs. Data collected from two prisons in Switzerland housing women prisoners were studied. Overall 26 medical records were analyzed, 13 from EFPs (50+ years) and for comparison 13 from young female prisoners (YFPs, 49 years and younger). Additionally, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with EFPs. Using the layer model of vulnerability, three layers of vulnerability were identified: the "prisoner" layer; followed by the layer of "woman"; both of which are encompassed by the layer of "old age." The analysis of these layers resulted in three main areas where EFPs are particularly vulnerable: their status of "double-minority," health and health-care access, and their social relations. Prison administration and policy-makers need to be more sensitive to gender and age related issues in order to remedy these vulnerabilities. PMID:25661851

  1. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin. PMID:12233709

  2. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  3. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  4. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  5. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases. PMID:19496462

  6. [Psoriasis in a female chimpanzee].

    PubMed

    Biella, U; Haustein, U F; Seifert, S; Adler, J; Schüppel, K F; Eulenberger, K

    1991-05-01

    Psoriasis, a widespread genodermatosis in Homo sapiens, also appears in primates. We report on a female chimpanzee in Leipzig Zoo. After years of captivity the animal developed erythematosquamous, highly hyperkeratotic, lesions, some confluent, on the knees, elbows, back of the hands and feet and on the forearms and the seat, which showed histologically characteristic features of psoriasis. It may be that both previous infections and psychic stress resulting from social isolation had caused eruption of the disease. In the literature single cases of psoriasiform dermatoses have also been described in other species of monkeys and even in a springer spaniel. Nonetheless, the search for an animal model of psoriasis vulgaris is still going on. PMID:1874622

  7. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A.; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. Images p229-a p229-b p229-c PMID:6797496

  8. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  9. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  10. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  11. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  12. Determinants of female dispersal in Thomas langurs.

    PubMed

    Sterck, E H

    1997-01-01

    Female dispersal occurs in a number of primate species. It may be related to: avoidance of inbreeding, reduction in food competition, reduction of predation risk, or avoidance of infanticide in combination with mate choice. Female dispersal was studied for a 5-year period in a wild population of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) that lived in one-male multi-female groups. Juvenile and adult individuals of both sexes were seen to disperse. Females appeared to transfer unhindered between groups, mostly from a larger group to a recently formed smaller one. They transferred without their infants and when not pregnant, and seemed to transfer preferentially during periods when extra-group males were harassing their group. During these inter-group encounters extra-group males seemed to try to commit infanticide. Thus, the timing of female transfer was probably closely linked to infanticide avoidance. Moreover, females seemed to transfer when the resident male of their group was no longer a good protector. The observations in the present study suggest that females transferred to reduce the risk of infanticide. Female dispersal may have another ultimate advantage as well, namely inbreeding avoidance. Due to the dispersal of both females and males the social organization of Thomas langurs was rather fluid. New groups were formed when females joined a male; male takeovers were not observed. Bisexual groups had only a limited life span, because all adult females of a bisexual group could emigrate. This pattern of unhindered female dispersal affects male reproductive strategies, and in particular it might lead to infanticidal behavior during inter-group encounters. PMID:9209584

  13. Belarusian female physicists: Statistics and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya

    2013-03-01

    The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.

  14. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females. PMID:17615431

  15. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  16. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

  17. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  18. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  19. Female mate choice in a neotropical frog.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M J

    1980-07-25

    Female Physalaemus pustulosus choose their mates and are more likely to choose larger males. There is a significant negative correlation between the size of the male and the fundamental frequency of one of the components of its advertisement call. Playback experiments demonstrate that females are capable of choosing larger males by distinguishing among differences in spectral components of the advertisement call. PMID:17831371

  20. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  1. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  2. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  3. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  4. Behind & Beyond the Walls: The Incarcerated Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, H. C.

    The purpose of this book is to provide the female inmate with a self-help guidebook that she can identify with and utilize in surviving the correctional experience. The publication contains 30 essays, poems, observations, diary excerpts, and drawings reflecting the life of female prison inmates at the Eddie Warrior Correctional Center in Oklahoma.…

  5. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  6. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  7. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  8. Troubling Success: Interviews with Black Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nivischi N.; Beverly, Monifa Green; Alexander-Snow, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the complexity of success for Black female faculty members based on six Black women at a public research oriented university in the Southeast. All women shared the challenges they experience as Black female faculty members. Findings indicate that while these women seemingly have attained professional success, they are leery of…

  9. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  10. The Benefits of Mentoring for Female Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 512 Canadian lawyers included 231 women (66% had mentors). Mentors influenced women's success in terms of earnings, promotions, procedural justice, social integration, and career satisfaction. Females with male mentors earned significantly more; females with male mentors had more satisfaction, less work-nonwork conflict, and more…

  11. Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

    1999-01-01

    Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Female Patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lucinda A; Umar, Sarah B; Baffy, Noemi; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is probably the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder and is characterized by abdominal pain along with altered bowel function. It is a disorder of female predominance. This article focuses on how being female influences the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of this common disorder and discusses the evidence and important controversies related to these areas. PMID:27261893

  13. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  14. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  15. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  16. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  17. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  18. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    PubMed

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition. PMID:26267502

  19. Female mate preference and sexual conflict: females prefer males that have had fewer consorts.

    PubMed

    Harris, W Edwin; Moore, Patricia J

    2005-05-01

    Different aspects of male quality as a mate can vary independently. When this is the case, females may need to use multiple cues to accurately assess overall mate quality. We examined the pattern of mating preference in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Sexual conflict occurs in this species because male manipulation of female mating receptivity can result in reduced female fitness. We predicted that since females cannot remate within a single reproductive bout because of male manipulation, females should assess male mating history to avoid mating with males with low fertility caused by sperm exhaustion. In a mate-preference experiment, we found that females discriminated against males who had mated multiple times. Females also discriminated against males who had consorted with several females but had been prevented from mating with those females. Thus, females appeared to be able to detect cues on males that were derived from previous mates and to use this information to avoid mating with sperm-exhausted males. We suggest that females may commonly use multiple cues to assess different aspects of mate quality, especially when male quality changes over time. This is an under-studied phenomenon that could help explain individual variation in female mating preferences. PMID:15795863

  20. Forced swim test: What about females?

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Katerina; Mikail, Hudu G; Kafetzopoulos, Vasilios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Dalla, Christina

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies screening for novel antidepressants, male and female animals should be used. However, in a widely used antidepressant test, the forced swim test (FST), sex differences between males and females are not consistent. These discrepancies may discourage the inclusion of females in FST studies. In order to overcome this problem and provide a detailed insight regarding the use of female animals in the FST, we designed the following experiment and we performed a thorough analysis of the relevant literature. Male and female Wistar adult rats were subjected to the FST and sertraline was used as an antidepressant in two doses (10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 3 injections in 24 h). Rodents were subjected in the two FST sessions during all possible combinations of the estrous cycle stages. We found that females exhibited higher levels of immobility than males and this sex difference was alleviated following antidepressant treatment. Sertraline at both doses enhanced swimming in both sexes, but females appeared more responsive to lower sertraline doses regarding immobility levels. Surprisingly, the high sertraline dose enhanced climbing particularly in proestrous and diestrous. Marked sex differences were also observed in the frequency of head swinging, with females exhibiting lower counts than males. Conclusively, when screening for new antidepressants, it is recommended to use standard FST procedures and if possible to include females in all phases of the cycle. Using only one dose of an investigational drug in females in certain phases of the cycle could result to false negative results. PMID:25839894

  1. Female teneral mating in a monandrous species

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

  2. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  3. First Class of Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to

  4. Sexual signalling by females: do unmated females increase their signalling effort?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-06-01

    Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. PMID:26109613

  5. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  6. Complex Chemosensory Control of Female Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Eleanor J.; Shah, Nirao M.

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  7. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  8. Female exhibitionism: identification, competition and camaraderie.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. PMID:22471632

  9. Women showing off: notes on female exhibitionism.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2008-03-01

    The limitations of the phallocentric cast of earlier psychoanalytic formulations of "female exhibitionism" linger into the present. In part this connects to certain historical expectations for women's social behavior, and to the vicissitudes of Freud's insufficient knowledge of women in his libidinal psychosexual phasing used as a basis for analytic understanding. The contemporary fade of libido theory contributes to the neglect of such topics as they relate to the biological body. Yet ease and conflict regarding conscious and unconscious female body image representations related to that stepchild of theory-pregnancy and childbirth in particular-play a major role in female body display. Recognition of such body fantasies and female body meanings from early childhood into maturity tends to be marginalized within all of the psychoanalytic theories current today. The focus here on female exhibitionism suggests a normative spectrum for pleasurably active sex seeking and pleasurable procreative desire and fantasy that is present in a female's use of her body and which (of course, but secondarily) can become caught up in conflict. Two cases accenting analyses of female "showing off" behavior are included. PMID:18430704

  10. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

  11. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  12. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  13. Why Are There So Few Female Physicists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Laura Ann

    2006-03-01

    It is 1962 and an adolescent female is trying to decide what classes to take; the principal asserts, "a girl has no need for physics."2 School counselors or administrators may no longer make statements like this; however, the perception that shaped the principal's comment may be part of hidden and subtle discriminatory attitudes still active in today's schools. The point of this paper is to reveal and assess current attitudes toward female participation in physics education and suggest practices to ensure a fair environment for both males and females.

  14. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  15. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. PMID:27156008

  16. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  17. Selected Resources for Encouraging Females in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2001-01-01

    Offers selected resources that educators can use to increase their knowledge of ways to help girls and young women succeed in mathematics, integrate information into classroom instruction, and bring self-help opportunities to their female students' awareness. (KHR)

  18. Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Acker, C

    1985-01-01

    Female alcoholics performed significantly less well on neuropsychological tests than matched non-alcoholic controls. The range of performance deficits was similar to that previously reported for male alcoholics despite significantly shorter drinking histories. PMID:4084369

  19. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  20. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  1. The real females of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-11-01

    When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species. PMID:23280923

  2. Females that experience threat are better teachers

    PubMed Central

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  3. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  4. Individualized Development Plan for Female Electronic Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Helena; D'Anna, Lee

    1991-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, 17 female electronic technicians participated in an individual development plan involving mentoring, basic education, and technical training. Four have been promoted, six are pursuing associate or bachelor's degrees, and two are pursuing certification. (SK)

  5. Females that experience threat are better teachers.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-05-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  6. Female and male genetic contributions to post-mating immune defence in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2010-12-01

    Post-mating reduction in immune defence is common in female insects, and a trade-off between mating and immunity could affect the evolution of immunity. In this work, we tested the capacity of virgin and mated female Drosophila melanogaster to defend against infection by four bacterial pathogens. We found that female D. melanogaster suffer post-mating immunosuppression in a pathogen-dependent manner. The effect of mating was seen after infection with two bacterial pathogens (Providencia rettgeri and Providencia alcalifaciens), though not after infection with two other bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). We then asked whether the evolution of post-mating immunosuppression is primarily a 'female' or 'male' trait by assaying for genetic variation among females for the degree of post-mating immune suppression they experience and among males for the level of post-mating immunosuppression they elicit in their mates. We also assayed for an interaction between male and female genotypes to test the specific hypothesis that the evolution of a trade-off between mating and immune defence in females might be being driven by sexual conflict. We found that females, but not males, harbour significant genetic variation for post-mating immunosuppression, and we did not detect an interaction between female and male genotypes. We thus conclude that post-mating immune depression is predominantly a 'female' trait, and find no evidence that it is evolving under sexual conflict. PMID:20573620

  7. Predictably Philandering Females Prompt Poor Paternal Provisioning.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julia; Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Winney, Isabel; Simons, Mirre; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    2016-08-01

    One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect). Our exceptionally extensive long-term data set of repeated observations of a wild passerine allows us to disentangle paternal care adjustment within males-within pairs and between males-while accounting for environmental variables. We found a within-male adjustment of paternal provisioning, but not incubation effort, relative to the cuckoldry in their nest. This effect was mainly driven by females differing consistently in their fidelity. There was no evidence that this within-male adjustment also took place across broods with the same female, and we found no between-male effect. Interestingly, males that gained more extrapair paternity provided less care. Data from a cross-foster experiment suggested that males did not use kin recognition to assess paternity. Our results provide insight into the role of individual variation in parental care and mating systems. PMID:27420786

  8. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  9. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  10. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  11. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    PubMed

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  12. Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

    2010-04-01

    The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

  13. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors and their transcribed genes (mRNA) are present in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Khalid, M

    2007-01-15

    In dogs, one of the side effects of neutering is the development of urinary incontinence. The relationship between neutering and urinary incontinence caused by acquired urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) has been reported. Recently, GnRH analogue treatment that suppresses elevated plasma gonadotrophin concentrations post-spaying has been successfully used in incontinent bitches. These data and the fact that non-gonadal tissues may contain receptors for LH (LHR) and FSH (FSHR) suggest that there might be a functional relationship between gonadotrophins and the lower urinary tract in dogs. This study aimed to investigate the presence of LHR and FSHR in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs. Four regions of the lower urinary tract, i.e. (i) body of the bladder, (ii) neck of the bladder, (iii) proximal urethra and (iv) distal urethra were collected from 10 healthy dogs (5 males and 5 anoestrous females). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterise the presence of receptor mRNA and receptor protein. Staining was rated semi-quantitatively, incorporating both the distribution and intensity of specific staining. The distribution of receptor expression in different tissue layers (epithelium, subepithelial stroma and muscle) in each region was statistically analyzed. Luteinizing hormone receptor and FSHR mRNA and protein were present in all four regions and in three tissue layers of males and females. Irrespective of region and layer, female dogs expressed significantly higher expression for LHR mRNA (P<0.001), LHR protein (P<0.05) and FSHR protein (P<0.001). The expression of LHR and FSHR mRNA and protein was not uniform and depended on region, tissue layer and gender. The expression of LHR mRNA was higher in the bladder, compared to the urethra (P<0.05). The FSHR mRNA significantly increased from the bladder to the urethra. Protein expression for LHR and FSHR was highest in the proximal urethra (P<0.05). The

  14. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    PubMed

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  15. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E. Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial—breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  16. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  17. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  18. Resistance Training for Pediatric Female Dancers.

    PubMed

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury. PMID:27245945

  19. Placentophagia in Weanling Female Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548

  20. Psychotherapeutic interventions for treating female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Leiblum, Sandra R; Wiegel, Markus

    2002-06-01

    A review of the current approach to the assessment and treatment of female sexual disorders from a sex therapy perspective is described. The importance of a comprehensive evaluation of both the woman and her partner, prior to formalizing a treatment plan, is stressed. Certain interventions are common in the treatment of all female sexual difficulties, for example, education and information about female sexuality generally, communication training, non-demand pleasuring, and permission to engage in self-pleasuring. Specific interventions are also described for such issues as past sexual or physical trauma. The overall goal of treatment is increased pleasure and satisfaction, rather than perfect genital response. Finally, the factors associated with treatment success are noted along with the observation that these factors are the same factors that contribute to a successful outcome in any psychotherapeutic endeavor. PMID:12107544

  1. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  2. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  3. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  4. Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported. Aim To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women. Methods We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”. Results Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported. Conclusion There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs. PMID:25089153

  5. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  6. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. PMID:27463236

  7. The influence of males and females on the psychophysical judgments of females.

    PubMed

    Saltzstein, H D; Ast, S

    1975-07-01

    A transfer paradigm was employed to test the hypothesis that females influenced by males on one task would show more carryover of the influence effect to other tasks than would females influenced by other females. Thirty female college students made judgments on three cross-modal matching tasks. Experimental subjects gave their judgments on one task along with two male or two female confederates, who appeared to give discrepant judgments. They then made another series of private judgments on the other two tasks. Comparison to a control group and to an original series of provate judgments revealed a significant direct influence effect, but minimal transfer to the other two tasks. There was a nonsignificant tendency for the subjects to be more directly influenced by other females than by males, but this influence by the other females was accompanied by a decline in task confidence. Influence by males on females did not result in lowered confidence. This finding may be restricted to quantitative tasks and to American college students. PMID:1195150

  8. Female behaviour and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

    PubMed

    Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. PMID:26809830

  9. Applied physiology of female soccer: an update.

    PubMed

    Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2014-09-01

    The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player. PMID:24803162

  10. Do females behave differently in COPD exacerbation?

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Hatice; Kokturk, Nurdan; Sari, Gulcin; Cakır, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about whether there is any sex effect on chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) exacerbations. This study is intended to describe the possible sex-associated differences in exacerbation profile in COPD patients. Methods A total of 384 COPD patients who were hospitalized due to exacerbation were evaluated retrospectively for their demographics and previous and current exacerbation characteristics. Results The study was conducted on 109 (28%) female patients and 275 (72%) male patients. The mean age was 68.30±10.46 years. Although females had better forced expiratory volume in 1 second and near-normal forced vital capacity, they had much impaired arterial blood gas levels (partial oxygen pressure [PO2] was 36.28 mmHg vs 57.93 mmHg; partial carbon dioxide pressure [PCO2] was 45.97 mmHg vs 42.49 mmHg; P=0.001), indicating severe exacerbation with respiratory failure. More females had two exacerbations and two hospitalizations, while more men had one exacerbation and one hospitalization. Low adherence to treatment and pulmonary embolism were more frequent in females. Females had longer time from the onset of symptoms till the admission and longer hospitalization duration than males. Comorbidities were less in number and different in women (P<0.05). Women were undertreated and using more oral corticosteroids. Conclusion Current data showed that female COPD patients might be more prone to have severe exacerbations, a higher number of hospitalizations, and prolonged length of stay for hospitalization. They have a different comorbidity profile and might be undertreated for COPD. PMID:25977604

  11. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  12. Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  13. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  14. Aesthetic Surgery of the Female Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Dobbeleir, Julie M.L.C.L.; Landuyt, Koenraad Van; Monstrey, Stan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic genital surgery seems to have become a fashionable issue nowadays. Many procedures and techniques have been described these last years, but very few long-term results or follow up studies are available. The novelty of this aspect of plastic surgery and the lack of evidence-based interventions, have led to a comparison with female genital mutilation. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the possible surgical procedures as well as the general principles of aesthetic surgery of the female genitalia. PMID:22547970

  15. Female Urethral Diverticulum Containing a Giant Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Zuo, LinJun; Hou, MingLi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urethral diverticula with calculi have a low incidence as reported in the literature. Diverticulum of female urethra is rare, often discovered due to associated complications. We report a case of diverticulum of the female urethra containing giant calculi in a 62-year-old multiparous woman. She consulted with our office due to dysuria and a hard, painful periurethral mass in the anterior vagina wall. The diverticulum was approached surgically by a vaginal route, and local extraction of the calculi and subsequent diverticulectomy successfully treated the condition. Diagnosis of a complicated diverticulum can be easily achieved if one possesses a high degree of clinical symptoms. PMID:25997056

  16. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women. PMID:26612064

  17. Ultrasonographic Doppler Use for Female Reproduction Management.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Heppelmann, Maike; Lüttgenau, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful technique to get new information about physiologic and pathophysiologic alterations of the uterus and ovaries in female cattle. During all reproductive stages characteristic changes in uterine blood flow are observed. Cows with puerperal disturbances show delayed decrease in uterine blood flow in the first few weeks postparturition compared with healthy cows. Measurement of follicular blood flow is used to identify normally developing follicles and predict superovulatory response. Determination of luteal blood is more reliable than B-mode sonography to distinguish between functional and nonfunctional corpora lutea. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a promising tool to improve reproductive management in female cattle. PMID:26922117

  18. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know. PMID:26611132

  19. Aesthetic surgery of the female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Dobbeleir, Julie M L C L; Landuyt, Koenraad Van; Monstrey, Stan J

    2011-05-01

    Aesthetic genital surgery seems to have become a fashionable issue nowadays. Many procedures and techniques have been described these last years, but very few long-term results or follow up studies are available. The novelty of this aspect of plastic surgery and the lack of evidence-based interventions, have led to a comparison with female genital mutilation. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the possible surgical procedures as well as the general principles of aesthetic surgery of the female genitalia. PMID:22547970

  20. [Female sexuality in middle and advanced adulthood].

    PubMed

    von Sydow, K

    1992-01-01

    A study of female sexuality based on 91 interviews with women aged 50 to 91 years (birth-cohorts: 1895 to 1936) is presented. 53% of the interview-partners in this study are sexually active (intercourse: 34%; masturbation: 30%; lesbian sexuality: 1%). 65% report sexual interest. During the past year 58% of the women experienced sexual dreams, 43% sexual fantasies. 26% of the interview-partners had never experienced orgasm. Several age- and cohort-differences are reported. Quotations illustrate the variability of female sexual experiences. PMID:1609538

  1. Female Juvenile Offending: A Review of Characteristics and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Huber, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed current literature on female juvenile offending including the scope and nature of offending by female adolescents and the risk and protective factors across ecological contexts. We suggested that female juvenile offending is best viewed within a multidimensional framework in which female adolescent developmental characteristics as well…

  2. School Behavior Problems of Mentally Retarded and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Douglas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Female elementary, middle, and high school students (N=146) identified as educable mentally retarded were rated on the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist by their teachers. Normal females were also rated for comparison. Analyses indicated that mentally retarded females exceeded normal females on the Conduct Disorder, Personality Problem, and…

  3. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  4. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  5. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  6. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  7. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others

    Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…

  8. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  9. Why Were So Few Mathematicians Female?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Loretta

    1996-01-01

    Six female mathematicians and their accomplishments spanning 1500 years are highlighted. The six women chosen were Hypatia, Emilie du Chatelet, Sophie Germain, Sonya Kovalevsky, Emmy Noether, and Julia Robinson. The women were selected for inclusion based on the myriad aspects of their contributions. (AIM)

  10. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  11. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  12. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters. PMID:20421257

  13. Problems of Female School Teachers in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of employed women will vary with the nature of job, sector in which she is working, and family setup. Fairly large proportion of teaching community is comprised of female teachers, which is one of the major service sectors chosen by women in the state. The study aimed to study the Personal, Familial and Professional problems faced by…

  14. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  15. Hearing Female Voices in Life Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Julie

    1990-01-01

    The author makes a case for keeping sensitivity and intuitive approaches in the science classroom. The importance of emotional connections with other organisms, considered a critical part of enriched, effective scientific thinking, is emphasized. Female and male learning styles are described. (KR)

  16. The Recovering Female Alcoholic: A Family Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Judith A.

    To ensure a positive prognosis, the recovering female alcoholic requires family therapy as an adjunct to her regular treatment program. Research indicates that the characteristics affecting a person's ability to secure and use treatment include (1) predisposing factors; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and health care; (3) personal enabling factors;…

  17. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  18. Female Friendship in Literature: Bonding and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby

    This document presents the findings of research concerning female friendship as literature portrays it. Literal sisterhood is not the focus of the report, nor is cross gender friendship. The examination rejects the suggestion that homosexuality is at the root of same sex friendship. The document touches on the enmities that may arise between…

  19. Menarche: Responses of Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrory, Arlene

    1990-01-01

    Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…

  20. Differences Abound between Male and Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Daphne J.; Foote, Tom H.

    1990-01-01

    According to recent research, women superintendents have less coaching experience than men, head wealthier districts, work longer hours, are more often single and childless, and obtain the position later in life. They also smoke and drink less. Males and females were equally satisfied with their school board relationships, community stature, and…

  1. The female psychoanalyst in the movies.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O; Gabbard, K

    1989-01-01

    The last five decades of the American cinema have produced a remarkably consistent stereotype of the female analyst. In films such as Spellbound (1945), Knock on Wood (1954), Sex and the Single Girl (1964), They Might be Giants (1971), and The Man Who Loved Women (1983), women analysts are swept away by countertransference love that leads them to become sexually or romantically involved with their male patients. In stark contrast to the data from studies of patient-therapist sexual involvement, there are more than twice as many films portraying unethical sexual behavior on the part of a female analyst as there are films depicting similar countertransference acting out by a male analyst. Moreover, a stable relationship with a man and a successful analytic practice never coexist for any woman analyst in the cinema. Neither does a female analyst ever successfully treat a male patient in the American cinema unless she falls in love with him. On the contrary, the male patient is more likely to cure his female analyst. Clinical reports from cross-gender analyses are useful in understanding these cinematic myths. PMID:2632622

  2. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  3. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  4. Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Variation at the level of gene expression is abundant in natural populations and is thought to contribute to the adaptive divergence of populations and species. Gene expression also differs considerably between males and females. Here we report a microarray analysis of gene expression variation among females of 16 Drosophila melanogaster strains derived from natural populations, including eight strains from the putative ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa and eight strains from Europe. Gene expression variation among males of the same strains was reported previously. Results We detected relatively low levels of expression polymorphism within populations, but much higher expression divergence between populations. A total of 569 genes showed a significant expression difference between the African and European populations at a false discovery rate of 5%. Genes with significant over-expression in Europe included the insecticide resistance gene Cyp6g1, as well as genes involved in proteolysis and olfaction. Genes with functions in carbohydrate metabolism and vision were significantly over-expressed in the African population. There was little overlap between genes expressed differently between populations in females and males. Conclusions Our results suggest that adaptive changes in gene expression have accompanied the out-of-Africa migration of D. melanogaster. Comparison of female and male expression data indicates that the vast majority of genes differing in expression between populations do so in only one sex and suggests that most regulatory adaptation has been sex-specific. PMID:21276238

  5. New plan to prevent female infanticide mooted.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    The Campaign Against Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu (CAFIT), sponsored by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has brought to light a quadrangular model for the prevention of the social evil of female infanticide. The existence of female infanticide, according to the CAFIT, exposed the deplorable condition of women in society and reflected the perpetuation of customary and traditional practices in the sociocultural life of the people. The practice was associated with militant communities and other weaker segments living in less developed regions and with backward pockets marked by illiteracy, superstition, poverty, indebtedness, fear of liability, and emotional attachments to the soil and to cults. This paper also indicates the following preventive measures against female infanticide that are aimed at empowering women: establishing self-help groups and the sanction of micro credit for women in order to facilitate economic development, establishing rural and agriculture-based small-scale industries in order to generate local self-employment, and synchronization of crop insurance and marketing facilities in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate compensation in the event of crop failure caused by natural disasters. PMID:12179545

  6. The Female Experience of Sibling Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…

  7. Altruistic colony defense by menopausal female insects.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Keigo; Kutsukake, Mayako; Fukatsu, Takema; Shimada, Masakazu; Shibao, Harunobu

    2010-07-13

    Recent studies have suggested that an extended postreproductive life span, such as life after menopause in human females, will evolve when the indirect (kin-selected) fitness benefits from altruistic behavior are greater than the direct fitness benefits from continuing reproduction. Under some conditions in which postreproductive altruism is more beneficial and/or continuing reproduction is more costly, the postreproductive life span can be shaped by natural selection. However, indirect fitness benefits during postreproductive survival have been documented mainly in intelligent mammals such as humans and cetaceans, in which elder females possess enhanced social knowledge through learning. Here we show that postreproductive females of the gall-forming aphid Quadrartus yoshinomiyai (Nipponaphidini) can gain indirect fitness benefits through their altruistic colony defense. These females cease reproduction around the time of gall opening and defend the colony by sticking themselves to intruding predators with a waxy secretion that is accumulated in their body with aging. Our results suggest that the presence of an age-related trait for altruistic behavior promotes the evolution of postreproductive altruism in this social insect via kin selection under natural selection imposed by predators. PMID:20619817

  8. European Female Expatriate Careers: Critical Success Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers revealed that many were disadvantaged in their careers by lack of access to organizational supports such as mentors, interpersonal networks, assistance for spouses' careers, the glass ceiling, and other barriers. Women will remain a minority in management until organizations address these barriers in…

  9. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  10. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana de Oliveira; Panício, Maurício Isaac; Dantas, Marcos Paulo Suehiro; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring. PMID:25628190

  11. Initiation of Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata T.; Heaton, Tim B.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, reveals that a stable, structured environment decreased the occurrence of first intercourse for females between the age of 12 and 19. Such an environment is characterized by family stability, Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church…

  12. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  13. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  14. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  15. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  16. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  17. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  18. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  19. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  20. The Legal Issues of Female Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Katherine; And Others

    This report summarizes the results of a 1-year exploratory research project addressing the central question of why women prisoners are less litigious than men. Chapters 1 and 2 present the major research questions, i.e., the legal concerns of women prisoners, resources available to female inmates, and factors related to the availability and use of…

  1. A Study of the Female Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugaya, Yoshiko

    1985-01-01

    A study examined the historical changes that have occurred in the female life course pattern in rural communities in Japan. The family and career patterns of two generations of women were studied from a generation-lineage and age cohort perspective. The older-generation sample consisted of women between the ages of 50 and 79, and the…

  2. Cystosarcoma phylloides in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Senocak, M E; Göğüş, S; Hiçsönmez, A; Büyükpamukçu, N

    1989-08-01

    Cystosarcoma phylloides is an exceedingly rare breast lesion in adolescent females. The tumour contains both stromal and epithelial elements. Benign, malignant and intermediate forms have been described. Complete simple excision is adequate for therapy in all variants. An additional case treated by wide local excision is presented and treatment is discussed. PMID:2552699

  3. Cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, B V; Golladay, E S

    1978-08-01

    Two cases of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female are presented and the literature reviewed. This lesion is usually benign. Even when malignant, simple excision has been curative in 2 or 3 cases. Therapy recommended is local excision with a small margin of normal tissue. PMID:210269

  4. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  5. A Study of Female Life in Mauritania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeille, Barbara

    A 3-month pilot study conducted from April-June 1979 with 16 major informants provides information for constructing a preliminary model of female life in Mauritania. An introduction gives definitions for terms used differently in Mauritania (tribe, ethnic group, and class) and discusses examples of each. The study (based mainly on repeated…

  6. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  7. Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bezzola, Pauli

    2002-02-01

    A 10-year old spayed, female Labrador retriever, with an 8-month history of weight loss, increased heart rate, and hyperactivity, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and a thyroid neoplasm. Thyrotoxic heart disease is documented in this case. PMID:11842596

  8. Gender-Linked Differences in the Incidental Memory of Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    1999-01-01

    Two studies tested the hunter-gatherer theory predicting that females should have better incidental memory for objects and locations than males. Subjects were 3- to 6-year olds and adults. Results indicated that females and males remembered more toys or objects congruent with their own sex but that there was no overall advantage for females.…

  9. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  10. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  11. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  12. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males' nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  13. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  14. Estrus induction in anestrous mixed-breed goats using the "female-to-female effect".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Ángel-García, Oscar; Guillén-Muñoz, Juan Manuel; Robles-Trillo, Pedro Antonio; De Santiago-Miramontes, Maria de Los Angeles; Meza-Herrera, Cesar Alberto; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    A trial was conducted during the anestrous period in female goats to determine: (a) whether estrus can be induced in anestrous goats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropic hormone (eCG) and PGF2α under pen conditions and (b) whether these sexually active female goats can elicit sexual arousal in sexually inactive bucks. One hundred and fifteen pluriparous, nonlactating mixed-breed female goats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) administration of a single dose of 240 IU of eCG, 50 μg PGF2α i.m., and 25 mg progesterone (P4) (eCG; n=30); (2) administration of P4 and exposure to female goats treated with eCG-PGF2α (P4; n=39); (3) administration of 0.5 ml saline and P4 (Sal; n=23); and (4) P4 plus exposure to female goats treated with saline (Con; n=23). After hormone administration, all goats were put together with adult sexually inactive bucks for 15 days. The percentage of goats in estrus during these 15 days was similar in eCG-treated animals and untreated animals exposed to the eCG animals (97 and 95%). Pregnancy rate was also similar (63 vs. 64%) between these two groups. eCG-treated goats exhibited estrus earlier (P<0.05) than the treated goats in contact with the eCG goats. Furthermore, eCG-treated goats had larger litters (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1, P<0.05) than the untreated goats in contact with the eCG goats. These results show that fertile estrus can be induced in anestrous female goats by exposing them to female goats induced to estrus with eCG. This female-female interaction triggers the stimulation cycle leading to the sexual arousal of bucks. PMID:23135982

  15. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  16. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  17. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-06-22

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  18. Female labor force participation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Psacharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1989-07-01

    This article gives an international perspective in regard to female participation in the labor force. In most countries women contribute less than men toward the value of recorded production. Social environment, statistical inconsistencies and methods of recording labor all contribute to this inequity. In Britain for instance, women caring for the household duties are in some studies considered to be part of the labor force and in other studies they are not. Further, internationally, women often find themselves in casual, temporary, or seasonal work that goes unrecorded. Defining what "labor force participation" constitutes is a key starting point to any survey. At what age is one considered employable? What constitutes a person "actively seeking" employment? Economists often try to explain labor force participation rate by age, sex, race and income groups and use this information to cite trends. The income-leisure model theorizes that choice of work or non-work by women is based primarily upon wages for work vs. wages for non-work. This theory sees non-labor income exerting a negative influence. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that women will choose work if wages are good regardless of any non-work benefits. Because most men are permanently in the labor force, estimates of labor reserves and projections of supply focus mostly on women. International generalizations are often misleading since trends vary widely among countries. During the last 20 years the global female participation rate has remained almost constant, but this is misleading. The percentage of working women in industrial countries increased 10%; developing countries showed a decrease of 7%. Female rates are often tied closely to shifts in the overall economy, (e.g., a transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy often sees a drop in female labor because subsistence jobs are lost). Of course the ability of women to bear children and the social expectations regarding child care often

  19. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    PubMed

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

  20. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  1. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  2. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  3. Sexual trauma and the female brain.

    PubMed

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M

    2016-04-01

    Sexual aggression and violence against women (VAM) are not only social problems; they are mental health problems. Women who experience sexual trauma often express disruptions in emotional and cognitive processes, some of which lead to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Animal models of neurogenesis and learning suggest that social yet aggressive interactions between a pubescent female and an adult male can disrupt processes of learning related to maternal care, which in turn reduce survival of new neurons in the female hippocampus. Mental and Physical (MAP) Training is a novel clinical intervention that was translated from neurogenesis research. The intervention, which combines meditation and aerobic exercise, is currently being used to help women learn to recover from traumatic life experiences, especially those related to sexual violence and abuse. PMID:27085856

  4. Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

  5. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  6. Sex parties: female teen sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a sex party as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved sex acts without vaginal intercourse. Data were collected through 22 semistructured interviews with female adolescents, ages 15-18. All the participants knew of sex parties, however, only a subgroup of these adolescents actually participated in activities loosely defined by teens as sex parties. Alcohol was common at these parties, but female teens asserted that they consumed alcohol willingly to relax, as opposed to being coerced to do so. Some teens expressed regret following participation in a sex party, although none reported sexual coercion or abuse. PMID:17172201

  7. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Angela K; Klock, Susan C; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N; Kazer, Ralph R

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues that arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: (1) preexisting psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, (2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, (3) decision making regarding use of third-party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), (4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, (5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and (6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  8. Hypergravity induced prolactin surge in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megory, E.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Acute initial exposure to hypergravity (HG) was previously found to induce prolonged diestrous in rats, which was followed by return to normal estrous cycling upon more prolonged exposure to continuous HG. Bromergocryptine was found to prevent this prolonged diestrous. In this study it is found that in female rats 20 h of 3.14 G exposure (D-1 1200 h until D-2 0800 h) can induce prolactin surge at D-2 1600 h. Shorter exposure time (8 h), or exposure during a different part of the estrous cycle (19 h: from D-1 0700 h until D-2 0200 h) could not elicit this prolactin surge. Similar exposure of male rats of HG did not alter significantly their prolactin levels. It is possible that the hypothalamus of male and female rats responds differently to stimulation by HG.

  9. Role of vitamin D in female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Kazerouni, Faranak

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that belongs to the family of steroid hormones. The biological actions of vitamin D are exerted through a soluble protein, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor located in the nuclei of target cells that mediates the genomic action of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). This transcription factor is distributed in various tissues, including the reproductive system. The presence of VDR in female reproductive tissue suggests that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction. The present article reviews the impact of vitamin D on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as an ovarian reserve marker, and ovarian steroidogenesis. This article also discusses the impact of vitamin D as a factor that influences infertility and the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26747961

  10. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls. PMID:26151997

  11. Female Project Managers' Workplace Problems: a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin

    This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.

  12. Female sexual function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sipski, Marca L; Arenas, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, studies of the impact of spinal cord injuries on female sexuality have expanded from questionnaire studies in small populations with unknown levels and degrees of injury to laboratory-based analyses of women with known injury patterns. These studies have provided detailed information on how specific injury patterns affect specific aspects of the female sexual response. Research findings have supported the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system is regulatory for psychogenic genital vasocongestion and that orgasm is a reflex response of the autonomic nervous system. Based on these results, a new system for the classification of sexual function in women with spinal cord injury (SCI) is proposed. Moreover, studies related to the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with cord injury are reviewed. PMID:16198719

  13. Depression and suicidal behavior among delinquent females.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J T

    1981-04-01

    Depressive symptomatology and suicidal behavior were evaluated in a multiethnic sample of 48 delinquent females through ratings on self-reports and probation officers' reports. Psychological functioning of the subjects was also evaluated through the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, the Rorschach, and the WAIS or WISC-R in order to identify delinquent personality patterns. Four personality patterns were identified: the borderline, the antisocial, the neurotic, and the socialized delinquent personalities. A chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that level of depression and frequency of suicidal behavior were both significantly related to personality patterns. Level of depression was also significantly related to ethnicity, but not to socioeconomic status. The results have implications for assessment and treatment of delinquent females and also raise issues concerning the interaction of personality, cultural factors, and delinquent behavior which should be addressed in future research with larger, socioculturally diverse samples. PMID:24310248

  14. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  15. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  16. Fertility following reversal of female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rachagan, S P; Jaafar, Y

    1993-06-01

    This retrospective study presents data from 26 women who underwent a reversal of female sterilization. The intrauterine pregnancy rate and ectopic pregnancy rate were 38.5% and 7.7% respectively. The most successful site of tubal anastomosis was isthmic-isthmic anastomosis. The importance of proper patient selection and factors that affect the success rate in attempted reversals are emphasised. The importance of microsurgical approach is highlighted. PMID:8350801

  17. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient.

    PubMed

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  18. Hepatitis B in the Female Population.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Erica; Tran, Tram T

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection in the female population has implications not just for the individual but for her children as well. This article discusses the natural history of hepatitis B and how it plays an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, the current strategies and new strategies to control HBV and reduce transmission, and the updated guidelines for the management of HBV. PMID:27261904

  19. Sexual reflexes in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, S K; McVary, K T; McKenna, K E

    1988-12-01

    A novel preparation for the study of male and female sexual function in anesthetized, acutely spinalized rats is reported. In both sexes, the coitus reflex (the neuromuscular concomitants of sexual climax) could be elicited by mechanical stimulation of the distal urethra. It is concluded that the spinal sexual circuitry is essentially similar in both sexes and that the coitus reflex is generated by a hormone-insensitive spinal pattern generator and is triggered by a simple peripheral stimulus. PMID:3205410

  20. Aerobic workout and bone mass in females.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Lorentzon, R

    1997-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity. PMID:9458499