Science.gov

Sample records for 60-day no2 fumigation

  1. Effects of 60-day NO2 fumigation on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidative response in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo-mei; Chen, Ying-xu; Du, Guo-jian; Wu, Xi-lin; Li, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the oxidative stress and antioxidative response of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumigation. Methods: Measurements were made up of the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation of one-year-old C. camphora seedlings exposed to NO2 (0.1, 0.5, and 4 μl/L) fumigation in open top chambers over a period of 60 d. Results: After the first 30 d, 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 showed insignificant effects on the growth of C. camphora seedlings. However, exposure to 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 for 15 d significantly reduced their chlorophyll content (P<0.05), enhanced their malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05), and also significantly reduced the maximal quantum yield of PSII in the dark [the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F v/F m)] (P<0.05). In the latter 30 d, 0.5 μl/L NO2 showed a positive effect on the vitality of the seedlings, which was reflected by a recovery in the ratio of F v/F m and chlorophyll content, and obviously enhanced growth, SOD activity, ascorbate (AsA) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P<0.05); 4.0 μl/L NO2 then showed a negative effect, indicated by significant reductions in chlorophyll content and the ratio of F v/F m, and inhibited growth (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest adaptation of C. camphora seedlings to 60-d exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 μl/L NO2, but not to 60-d exposure to 4.0 μl/L NO2. C. camphora seedlings may protect themselves from injury by strengthening their antioxidant system in response to NO2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20205305

  2. Inventory accuracy in 60 days!

    PubMed

    Miller, G J

    1997-08-01

    Despite great advances in manufacturing technology and management science, thousands of organizations still don't have a handle on basic inventory accuracy. Many companies don't even measure it properly, or at all, and lack corrective action programs to improve it. This article offers an approach that has proven successful a number of times, when companies were quite serious about making improvements. Not only can it be implemented, but also it can likely be implemented within 60 days per area, if properly managed. The hardest part is selling people on the need to improve and then keeping them motivated. The net cost of such a program? Probably less than nothing, since the benefits gained usually far exceed the costs. Improved inventory accuracy can aid in enhancing customer service, determining purchasing and manufacturing priorities, reducing operating costs, and increasing the accuracy of financial records. This article also addresses the gap in contemporary literature regarding accuracy program features for repetitive, JIT, cellular, and process- and project-oriented environments.

  3. 75 FR 70264 - 60-day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 60-day Notice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(2)(2)(A) of the... collections must be directed to the OS Paperwork Clearance Officer at the above e-mail address within...

  4. 75 FR 39693 - 60-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 60-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services... are intended to evolve the UDS into a system that improves OMH's ability to comply with Federal...

  5. 75 FR 39695 - 60-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: First Follow-Up Data... collection. OAH is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH is working collaboratively with the Office of the...

  6. 75 FR 35118 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ..., Request for Determination of Possible Loss of United States Citizenship, (No.1405-0178) ACTION: Notice of...: Request for Determination of Possible Loss of United States Citizenship. ] OMB Control Number: No. 1405... benefits. DATES: The Department will accept comments from the public up to 60 days from June 21,...

  7. Project Tektite 1: A multiagency 60-day saturated dive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauli, D. C. (Editor); Cole, H. A. (Editor)

    1970-01-01

    The history, organization, and accomplishments of Project Tektite are presented. The project demonstrated that it is possible for men to live and work successfully at underwater depths of 49 feet. The biomedical responses of the aquanauts to the 60 day dive are described. The behavioral and psychological responses to each other, the work, and the isolated environment are reported. The experiments conducted in the fields of marine science, psychological sciences, and biomedical sciences are discussed.

  8. Long Range (60 days) Stochastic Plume Simulations in Confined Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Emanuel; Peggion, Germana; Hogan, Patrick; Thoppil, Prasad; Rowley, Clark

    2014-05-01

    Major issues in characterizing and predicting the extent of the affected/sensitive regions in real-time during oil spills or other dispersive events in the ocean are a poor knowledge of the actual source functions and the fact that coastal dynamics may not be predictable in a deterministic sense. This work presents a methodology that allows assessing the ocean regions and times that can be likely affected by spill accidents or by water contamination over an extended outlook period, while taking into account the uncertainty in ocean model velocities. The approach uses an ensemble of extended range forecasts (60 days) of high resolution runs of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) configured over the regions of interest. The ensemble runs are assumed to represent the uncertainty in larger scale dispersion and each run is assumed as a reference state used to run a sub-ensemble of Lagrangian Gaussian stochastic models, that take into account the smaller scale dispersion. The ensemble information is integrated as stochastic plumes by defining probability distribution functions for tracer distributions relative to each point on the model grid. Results are displayed using a Risk Assessment Code (RAC) analysis by associating a number from 1 to 5 to each grid point, determined by the likelihood of having tracers within the vicinity of each grid node. The threshold ranges can characterize the expected total dispersion from the ensemble runs and be tuned to represent levels of concentration relative to the source. Results will discuss implementation of this approach in the Gulf of Mexico and central Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Immune response to 60-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinping; Guo, Aihua; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Wan, Yumin; Bai, Yanqiang; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    Introduction: Exposure of humans to spaceflight has resulted in disregulation of the immune system. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has been extensively used as an earth-bound analog to study physiologic effects mimicking those occurring in weightlessness during spaceflight. It is uncertain how a prolonged period of bed rest affect human immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day HDBR on immune function and EB virus reactivation in seven male volunteers. Methods: There were seven healthy male volunteers who were subjected to HDBR for 60d. Immunological parameters including leukocyte subset distribution, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, secreted cytokine profiles and EB virus reactivation were monitored. Results: Total WBC conunts increased significantly 10d post-HDBR as compared with pre-HDBR. At the same time, the relative percentage of neutrophils was also higher than pre-HDBR but not significant. MFI of CD11b in neutrophils was reduced obviously at thd end of HDBR. T Lymphocyte proliferations to PHA reduced at HDBR 30, HDBR 60 and 10d post-HDBR while IL-2 production decreased significantly at the same time. IFN-and IL-4 production trended to decrease at HDBR 30 and HDBR 60. The relative percentage of T lymphocyte subset, B lymphocyte and NK cells were not altered. EBV EA (early antigen) were negative and EBV VCA titers had no changes through HDBR. Conclusion: The results indicate that several immunological parameters (mainly cellular immunity) are altered significantly by prolonged HDBR, and these changes were similar to those happened in spaceflight.

  10. 78 FR 31568 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In... this publication. Proposed Collection: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Research Portfolio Analysis,...

  11. Regulatory Status of Fumigants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the EPA reregistration process for four soil fumigant pesticides in May 2009: chloropicrin, dazomet, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide. New safety measures were included in the reregistration eligibility decisions (REDs).

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. Presentations on Fumigant Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These provide training, outreach, and other resource materials for applicators and handlers, communities, state and local agencies, and others interested in understanding and implementing the current requirements for safe use of soil fumigant pesticides.

  14. Soil Fumigant Chemicals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main soil fumigant pesticide chemicals are chloropicrin, dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene (telone), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), metam sodium, metam potassium, and methyl bromide. Find label requirements, reregistration eligibility decisions (REDs), and more

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  16. 78 FR 3920 - Information Collection; Paperwork Reduction Act; 60-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... CONTROL POLICY Information Collection; Paperwork Reduction Act; 60-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection; Public Comment. Pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act and in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10, the Office of National Drug Control...

  17. 43 CFR 3736.1 - Placer locator to conduct no mining operations for 60 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operations for 60 days. 3736.1 Section 3736.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... operations for 60 days. (a) The Act in section 2(b) provides in part as follows: The locator of a placer claim under this Act, however, shall conduct no mining operations for a period of sixty days after...

  18. 43 CFR 3736.1 - Placer locator to conduct no mining operations for 60 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operations for 60 days. 3736.1 Section 3736.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... operations for 60 days. (a) The Act in section 2(b) provides in part as follows: The locator of a placer claim under this Act, however, shall conduct no mining operations for a period of sixty days after...

  19. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  20. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contract Labor Standards 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a wage... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  1. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  2. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  3. 76 FR 36131 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES ; 60-Day Notice] Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services... and Human Services Office of HIV/AIDS Policy (OHAP) implemented the Minority Serving...

  4. 76 FR 2121 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... within 60-days. Title: HHS Web Site Customer Satisfaction Survey--0990-0321--Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Abstract: The results of the HHS Web Site Customer Satisfaction Survey will be... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of...

  5. 43 CFR 3736.1 - Placer locator to conduct no mining operations for 60 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operations for 60 days. 3736.1 Section 3736.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... operations for 60 days. (a) The Act in section 2(b) provides in part as follows: The locator of a placer claim under this Act, however, shall conduct no mining operations for a period of sixty days after...

  6. 76 FR 51980 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of the Marriage and Family Strengthening Grants for... (ASPE) is conducting an evaluation of a demonstration program called Marriage and Family Strengthening... (ACF), supports marriage strengthening and responsible fatherhood activities among incarcerated...

  7. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality...

  8. 76 FR 59132 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Evaluation: Implementation Data... overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy... for Children and Families (ACF) on adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation activities. OAH in...

  9. 78 FR 40759 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling: Homeownership and Certificate of Housing Counseling: Home Retention AGENCY: Office of Housing Counseling, HUD...-8339. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Betsy Cromwell, Office of Housing Counseling, Department...

  10. Linear and nonlinear aspects of the tropical 30-60 day oscillation: A modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Duane E.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific problem focused on study of the tropical 30-60 day oscillation and explanation for this phenomenon is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: the scientific problem (the importance of low frequency oscillations; suggested mechanisms for developing the tropical 30-60 day oscillation); proposed research and its objective; basic approach to research; and results (satellite data analysis and retrieval development; thermodynamic model of the oscillation; the 5-level GCM).

  11. 75 FR 16809 - Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... Global Health Affairs. Abstract: The Office of Global Health Affairs is requesting an extension on a...

  12. 78 FR 45947 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000; telephone 202-402-5564... other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through...

  13. 78 FR 13140 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Evacuee Manifest and Promissory Note

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB...@state.gov . Mail: (paper, disk, or CD-ROM submissions): U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/L, SA-29,...

  14. 76 FR 76165 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Public Service Announcement (PSA) campaign that aims to educate, engage and empower women and their... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  15. 78 FR 36197 - Request for Public Comment: 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Application for Participation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... to: solicit, process, and award IHS Pre-graduate, Preparatory, and/or Health Professions Scholarship... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 60-Day Proposed Information Collection...

  16. 77 FR 7581 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Survey of Primary Care Physicians on Oral Health for the Office on... OMB approval to conduct a new, one time survey of primary care physicians regarding oral health. This survey will provide the agency with information on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and...

  17. 76 FR 33398 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Collection: Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III. OMB Control Number: OMB No. 1405-0177. Type of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III, 1405-0177 ACTION...

  18. 75 FR 39693 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: An Assessment of the Sustainability and Impact of Community Coalitions... their sustainability and impact post-federal funding. ASPE will use the CAP/ HCAP experience to examine the long-term sustainability of coalitions that successfully completed for grant funding from...

  19. 78 FR 78375 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence... Collection Title of Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual... that may be used in response to an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence...

  20. 76 FR 14400 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... the above e-mail address within 60-days. Proposed Project: National Survey of Single Parent Caregivers--OMB No. 0990-NEW-OWH; HHS, Office on Women's Health. Abstract: The National Survey of Single Parent Caregivers will measure the size, characteristics, and unmet needs of single parents providing care for...

  1. 78 FR 78998 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online... Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). OMB Approval Number: 2506-New. Type of Request: New. Description...

  2. 75 FR 22806 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ..., utilization, and safety of all blood products--red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets, as well as... within 60 days. Proposed Project: National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey--Extension--OMB No. 0990-0313--The Office of the Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability. Abstract: The NBCUS...

  3. 75 FR 15433 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... organizations. The survey will collect a small amount of descriptive information regarding the research setting... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Office for Human Research Protections Outreach Pamphlet on Public Participation in Research-- Office for Human Research. Abstract: This evaluation project...

  4. 76 FR 6793 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... the above e-mail address within 60 days. Proposed Project: Research Evaluation and Impact Assessment of ARRA Comparative Effectiveness Research Portfolio (New)--OMB No. 0990-NEW- Assistant Secretary... investments and the impacts of those investments on the priority topics recommended by IOM and on the...

  5. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing...: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition. OMB Approval Number: N/A. Type of Request: New. Form Number: N/A. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Innovation...

  6. 78 FR 78376 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exigent Health and Safety Deficiency Correction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, HUD is requesting comment from all interested parties on the proposed collection of information. The purpose of this notice is to allow for 60 days of public...

  7. 77 FR 14016 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... the Reports Clearance Office at (202) 690-5683. Written comments and recommendations for the proposed... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Modeling Project--OMB No. 0990-New-Office...) approval of a new collection that will examine the service needs under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program...

  8. 76 FR 56214 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance for Information Collection: Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Office of the Secretary 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance for Information Collection... collection clearance. Description of Need: The Office of Youth in the Great Outdoors needs information on... for both the pre- and post-program surveys. Description of respondents: For any youth program...

  9. 77 FR 43086 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Title: HHS 42 CFR subpart B; Sterilization of Persons in Federally... (``Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects''). The consent form solicits information to assure voluntary and informed consent to persons undergoing sterilization in programs of health...

  10. 77 FR 65244 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request...: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) OMB Control Number: 1405-0152 Type of Request:...

  11. 76 FR 35444 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... through sex/gender-specific approaches. To that end, OWH has established public/private partnerships to... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... publishing the following summary of a proposed information collection request for public comment....

  12. 76 FR 17130 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... interviews at each of 4 employer sites that will inform in-depth case studies of those employers. The focus... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Wellness Program Study: Assessing the Impact of Workplace Health and... particular focus on the use of incentives. As part of the study, a one- time, self-administered survey...

  13. 78 FR 73233 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa AGENCY: Department of...: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa OMB Control Number: 1405-0182 Type of Request: Extension of a...

  14. 78 FR 49280 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... environmental laws, executive orders, and authorities, and Part 58 procedure. When the environmental review... certify their compliance with all applicable environmental laws and authorities. HUD (or the State for... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures...

  15. 78 FR 59049 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and...: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0062. Type of Request... for the information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy...

  16. 75 FR 13289 - Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... cost-effectiveness analysis of the program. Performing an assessment of the resources expended on each... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Communities Putting Prevention to Work Cost Study Instrument--OMB No... Act. The purpose of the proposed data collection is to collect quarterly cost information from all...

  17. 76 FR 35442 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is publishing the following summary of a proposed information collection request for public comment....

  18. 76 FR 20987 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Information Technology's (ONC) Office of Economic Analysis, Evaluation, and Modeling is soliciting comments on... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... publishing the following summary of a proposed information collection request for public comment....

  19. 76 FR 33760 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) Teen Pregnancy Prevention... funding a total of 107 grantees to conduct teen pregnancy prevention programs. Grantees are funded to either replicate evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs (75 OAH grantees) or to implement...

  20. 75 FR 39694 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: Implementation Study... OMB on a new collection. OAH is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH is working collaboratively with the...

  1. 77 FR 15370 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Evaluation Study: Follow-up Data... overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy... for Children and Families (ACF) on adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation activities. OAH will...

  2. 76 FR 14399 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches and the Impact Evaluation of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Grantees: Baseline Data Collection--OMB No. OS-0990--NEW... Services (HHS), is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part...

  3. 76 FR 14396 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches (PPA) and the Impact Evaluation of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Grantees: First Follow-up Data Collection--OMB No. OS-0990--NEW--Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs. Abstract: The Office of Adolescent Health...

  4. 76 FR 14397 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Outcome Evaluation of Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Integrating... Adolescent Pregnancy Programs. The Office of Adolescent Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are working collaboratively to address the high pregnancy rate of women between the ages of...

  5. 76 FR 76164 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: First Follow-Up Data... adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH... Families (ACF) on adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation activities. OAH is overseeing the Pregnancy...

  6. 78 FR 76638 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Capital Fund Community and Education Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... for the development of facilities to provide early childhood education, adult education, and/or job... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Capital Fund Community and Education... Collection Title of Information Collection: Capital Fund Education and Training Community Facilities. OMB...

  7. 78 FR 75364 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for FHA Insured Mortgages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for FHA Insured... Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Kevin Stevens at...

  8. 78 FR 66041 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Requirements for Designating Housing Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Requirements for Designating Housing..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000..., PIH, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., (L'Enfant Plaza, Room...

  9. 78 FR 52963 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements... Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW... Support, Office of Multifamily Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street,...

  10. 78 FR 66041 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Project Monthly Accounting Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Project Monthly... Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC... Participation Standards Division, Department of Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th...

  11. 78 FR 75368 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment...; telephone 202-402-3400 (this is not a toll-free number) or email at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of... access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. ]...

  12. Spot fumigation: fumigant gas dispersion and emission characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Browne, G; Gao, S; Hanson, B; Gerik, J; Qin, R; Tharayil, N

    2009-08-01

    Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fumigant pesticides is mandatory in California, especially in "nonattainment areas" like the San Joaquin Valley that do not meet federal air quality standards. A two-year field study was conducted to examine the feasibility of site-specific fumigant application only at future tree sites with dramatically reduced amounts of fumigant chemicals on an orchard basis. Soil gas distribution and atmospheric emission of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin were measured after applying InLine using subsurface drip irrigation. It was predicted that except in the surface 20 cm of soil, satisfactory pest control could be achieved within a 15 cm radius from the injection point. Also, at radial distances of 15-51 cm from the point of fumigant injection, effective nematode control may be achieved. Cumulative atmospheric emission of the fumigants was estimated to be 18-23% of the applied active ingredients in plots that had been cover cropped with Sudan grass and 2-6% in plots that had remained bare for several months before treatment. Considering the significantly small amount of fumigant used on an orchard basis, the spot drip fumigation may achieve a 10-fold reduction in atmospheric VOCs load from fumigant pesticides.

  13. The 60-Day Temperature-Dependent Degradation of Midazolam and Lorazepam in the Prehospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Pinnawin, Ashley; Jones, Elizabeth; Denninghoff, Kurt; Siewart, Nicholas; Spaite, Daniel W.; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background The choice of the optimal benzodiazepine to treat prehospital status epilepticus is unclear. Lorazepam is preferred in the emergency department, but concerns about nonrefrigerated storage limits emergency medical services (EMS) use. Midazolam is increasingly popular, but its heat stability is undocumented. Objective This study evaluated temperature-dependent degradation of lorazepam and midazolam after 60 days in the EMS environment. Methods Lorazepam or midazolam samples were collected prior to (n = 139) or after (n = 229) 60 days of EMS deployment during spring–summer months in 14 metropolitan areas across the United States. Medications were stored in study boxes that logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Mean kinetic temperature (MKT) exposure was derived for each sample. Drug concentrations were determined in a central laboratory by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration as a function of MKT was analyzed by linear regression. Results Prior to deployment, measured concentrations of both benzodiazepines were 1.0 relative to labeled concentration. After 60 days, midazolam showed no degradation (mean relative concentration 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.00) and was stable across temperature exposures (adjusted R2 –0.008). Lorazepam experienced little degradation (mean relative concentration 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99), but degradation was correlated to increasing MKT (adjusted R2 0.278). The difference between the temperature dependence of degradation of midazolam and lorazepam was statistically significant (T = −5.172, p < 0.001). Conclusions Lorazepam experiences small but statistically significant temperature-dependent degradation after 60 days in the EMS environment. Additional study is needed to evaluate whether clinically significant deterioration occurs after 60 days. Midazolam shows no degradation over this duration, even in high-heat conditions. PMID:23148574

  14. Model assessment of fumigant emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simulation models are useful for estimating the environmental fate and transport of pesticides. Soil fumigants such as methyl bromide are a special group of pesticides with high vapor pressure values. A main concern with fumigants is the large potential for atmospheric emissions. Because of the l...

  15. Middle and high latitude Southern Hemispheric oscillations on the 35-60 day time scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Charles E.; Stanford, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The low-frequency geopotential height fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere were examined on the basis of one-point correlation maps. Results indicate that the 35-60 day fluctuations in the Southern-Hemisphere geopotential heights exhibit wavetrainlike characteristics. Correlations between a midlatitude reference point and tropical microwave temperature data were found to be weak, suggesting that the midlatitude wavetrain is not strongly coupled to the Madden and Julian (1971) 40-50 day oscillation.

  16. 40- to 60-day oscillation in the source region of the Somali Current during 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Mysak, L.A.; Mertz, G.J.

    1984-01-20

    Evidence is presented for a 40- and 60-day oscillation in the longshore current and temperature fluctuations that were measured during 1976 in the Somali Current regime off Kenya by Dueing and Schott (1978). It is suggested that this equatorial oceanic oscillations is excited by long-period local wind fluctuations which are associated with the global tropical 40- to 50-day day oscillation first detected by Madden and Julian (1971,1972).

  17. Lactobacillus intake for 60 days favors antioxidant status of human breast milk: an RCT.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Leila; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Khamnian, Zhila

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lactobacillus supplementation on trends of breast milk antioxidant parameters. In an interventional study, 50 lactating women were randomly allocated to receive a daily supplement of lactobacillus (n=25) or a placebo (n=25) for 60 days. Daily dietary intake, anthropometric measures and breast milk antioxidant parameters were determined at the onset, and days 30 and 60 of the study. Repeated-measures ANOVA were performed to assess the change over time in the anthropometric and biochemical parameters between the two groups. The main effect of treatment was compared by using Bonferroni's procedure for CI adjustment. The significance level was set at p<0.05. There was a significant increase in breast milk total antioxidant capacity (TAC) between onset of study and day 30 (p=0.01) and day 60 (p=0.001) after lactobacillus supplementation; however, breast milk TAC level did not change significantly between days 30 and 60 (p=0.7). In the placebo group, breast milk TAC levels decreased significantly after 60 days (p=0.001). Breast milk malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased progressively during the study in the lactobacillus group (p=0.001); however, there was a significant increase in MDA with time in breast milk samples in the placebo group (p=0.015). Based on the findings, lactobacillus supplementation for 60 days could significantly increase breast milk TAC and decrease breast milk MDA levels, compared with baseline; however, further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  18. Comparison of 60-day mortality in hospitalized heart failure patients with versus without hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Payvar, Saeed; Orlandi, Cesare; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Elkayam, Uri; Ouyang, John; Casscells, S Ward; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2006-12-01

    The use of aggressive treatments and the modification of current treatment in patients with heart failure (HF) relies heavily on the assessment of disease severity using prognostic markers. However, many such markers are unavailable in routine clinical practice, and others have little prognostic value. This study tested the hypothesis that low body temperature could predict short-term survival after discharge in patients hospitalized for HF. Data from the Acute and Chronic Therapeutic Impact of a Vasopressin Antagonist in Congestive Heart Failure (ACTIV in CHF) trial, which randomized 319 patients hospitalized for HF to receive placebo or tolvaptan, were retrospectively analyzed. Hypothermia was defined a priori as an oral body temperature <35.8 degrees C at randomization. Cox regression was used to analyze survival within a 60-day follow-up period. Hypothermia was observed in 32 patients (10%). Mortality rates at 60 days after discharge were 6.3% (20 of 319) overall, 9.4% (3 of 32) in hypothermic patients, and 5.9% (17 of 287) in nonhypothermic patients. Hypothermia was a strong multivariate predictor of mortality; hypothermic patients were 3.9 times more likely to die within 60 days than nonhypothermic patients (95% confidence interval 1.002 to 15.16, p = 0.0497) after adjustment for treatment group, age, and other confounders. Hypothermia was associated with such indicators of low cardiac output as an elevated blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, narrow pulse pressure, and a reduced ejection fraction. In conclusion, hypothermia appears to be a strong predictor of mortality in patients with HF.

  19. 46 CFR 147A.41 - Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A... equipment, including sprinklers and fire pumps, is in operating condition; and (3) Before and...

  20. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  1. Soil Fumigant Fact Sheet Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These cover information about buffer zones and the sign posting requirements, fumigant management plans, certified pesticide applicators and handlers, and resources for tribal and state lead agencies (SLAs) and residents of agricultural communities.

  2. Dazomet Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dazomet is the active ingredient in Basamid G soil fumigant pesticide. Wear personal protective equipment such as respirators when handling Basamid granules or making an application, mitigate exposures, and recognize signs of vapor inhalation.

  3. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on vascular functions during 60-day head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Alameddine, Asmaa; Coupé, Mickael; Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Li, Yongzhi; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Bai, Yanqiang; Jiang, Shizhong; Wan, Yumin; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2015-09-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is a promising countermeasure against cardiovascular dysfunction associated with a sedentary lifestyle. We examined the impact of the Chinese herb, Taikong Yangxin, on the micro- and macrovascular dysfunction associated with a 60-day bed rest. Fourteen healthy men were randomly divided into two groups: those given herbal supplement, and the control group; the two groups underwent a 60-day bed rest. The macrovasculature was assessed by sonography. Skin microvascular functions were assessed with laser Doppler. The plasma level of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), markers of endothelial injury, was determined. Bed rest induced a 33 % decrease in the femoral artery diameter and compliance whereas carotid wall thickness, diameter, and compliance remained unchanged. The early phase of endothelium-dependent vasodilation to ACh was unmodified by bed rest, while the late phase was reduced by 30 % along with a twofold increase in EMPs. In those given Taikong Yangxin, the early phase was amplified by 2.5-fold, and the effects of bed rest on the late phase were prevented. These findings indicate that Taikong Yangxin ameliorates endothelium-dependent vasodilation, likely by improving the NO pathway. The study suggests Taikong Yangxin as a new countermeasure to prevent the changes in microvascular function induced by physical inactivity.

  4. Experimental investigation on the performance, gaseous and particulate emissions of a methanol fumigated diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Lee, S C; Yao, C D

    2008-01-15

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with fumigation methanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder. The fumigation methanol was injected to top up 10%, 20% and 30% of the power output under different engine operating conditions. The effects of fumigation methanol on engine performance, gaseous emissions and particulate emission were investigated. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in the brake thermal efficiency when fumigation methanol is applied, except at the highest load of 0.67 MPa. At low loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions. The concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is significantly reduced except at close to full load condition. There is also a reduction in the smoke opacity and the particulate matter (PM) mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases at low and medium loads but increases at high loads. In all cases, there is a shift of the particles towards smaller geometrical mean diameter, especially at high loads. The increase in nano-sized particles and the increase in NO(2) emission could have serious impact on human health.

  5. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  6. Meaningful Gait Speed Improvement During the First 60 Days Poststroke: Minimal Clinically Important Difference

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Katherine J.; Cen, Steven Y.; Rose, Dorian K.; Koradia, Cherisha H.; Azen, Stanley P.; Duncan, Pamela W.

    2010-01-01

    Background When people with stroke recover gait speed, they report improved function and reduced disability. However, the minimal amount of change in gait speed that is clinically meaningful and associated with an important difference in function for people poststroke has not been determined. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for comfortable gait speed (CGS) associated with an improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score for people between 20 to 60 days poststroke. Design This was a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. Methods The participants in this study were 283 people with first-time stroke prospectively enrolled in the ongoing Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke (LEAPS) multi-site randomized clinical trial. Comfortable gait speed was measured and mRS scores were obtained at 20 and 60 days poststroke. Improvement of ≥1 on the mRS was used to detect meaningful change in disability level. Results Mean (SD) CGS was 0.18 (0.16) m/s at 20 days and 0.39 (0.22) m/s at 60 days poststroke. Among all participants, 47.3% experienced an improvement in disability level ≥1. The MCID was estimated as an improvement in CGS of 0.16 m/s anchored to the mRS. Limitations Because the mRS is not a gait-specific measure of disability, the estimated MCID for CGS was only 73.9% sensitive and 57.0% specific for detecting improvement in mRS scores. Conclusions We estimate that the MCID for gait speed among patients with subacute stroke and severe gait speed impairments is 0.16 m/s. Patients with subacute stroke who increase gait speed ≥0.16 m/s are more likely to experience a meaningful improvement in disability level than those who do not. Clinicians can use this reference value to develop goals and interpret progress in patients with subacute stroke. PMID:20022995

  7. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M; Crain, Ellen F; Cruz, Andrea T; Dayan, Peter S; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D; Jaffe, David M; Levine, Deborah A; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E; Powell, Elizabeth C; Rogers, Alexander J; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns ("RNA biosignatures") in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7% boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections-including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections-and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87% (95% CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95% CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections in the test set with 94% (95% CI, 70

  8. 42 CFR 484.225 - Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual update of the unadjusted national... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.225 Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate. (a) CMS updates the unadjusted national 60-day...

  9. Happy experience of a medical doctor curing from pancreatic cancer: a 60-day diary.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Yousuke

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer was found by an abdominal CT scan in a medical doctor, the author of this article, before the appearance of any symptoms. After considering all the imaging findings including the CT, MRI, and PET, a diagnosis was made. He was admitted in the University of Tokyo Hospital on the 14th day after the CT finding. On the 18th day, the operation was successfully performed, and no tumor invading to adjacent tissue was seen. On the 29th day, 11th day after the operation, he left the hospital with a drain still in place to excrete abdominal exudation. The remaining drain was finally removed on the 60th day, and the treatment by the surgeon was completed. The chronological events that occurred during these 60 days are described in diary form. There is nothing superior to early detection and early treatment in the fight against cancer. He recommends everybody to receive periodical medical examinations before praying for good luck.

  10. Effects of radiobiological uncertainty on shield design for a 60-day lunar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Schimmerling, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Some consequences of uncertainties in radiobiological risk due to galactic cosmic ray exposure are analyzed to determine their effect on engineering designs for a first lunar outpost - a 60-day mission. Quantitative estimates of shield mass requirements as a function of a radiobiological uncertainty factor are given for a simplified vehicle structure. The additional shield mass required for compensation is calculated as a function of the uncertainty in galactic cosmic ray exposure, and this mass is found to be as large as a factor of 3 for a lunar transfer vehicle. The additional cost resulting from this mass is also calculated. These cost estimates are then used to exemplify the cost-effectiveness of research.

  11. Left ventricular remodeling during and after 60 days of sedentary head-down bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Westby, Christian M.; Martin, David S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Short periods of weightlessness are associated with reduced stroke volume and left ventricular (LV) mass that appear rapidly and are thought to be largely dependent on plasma volume. The magnitude of these cardiac adaptations are even greater after prolonged periods of simulated weightlessness, but the time course during and the recovery from bed rest has not been previously described. We collected serial measures of plasma volume (PV, carbon monoxide rebreathing) and LV structure and function [tissue Doppler imaging, three-dimensional (3-D) and 2-D echocardiography] before, during, and up to 2 wk after 60 days of 6° head down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) in seven healthy subjects (four men, three women). By 60 days of HDTBR, PV was markedly reduced (2.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 liters, P < 0.001). Resting measures of LV volume and mass were ∼15% (P < 0.001) and ∼14% lower (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with pre-HDTBR values. After 3 days of reambulation, both PV and LV volumes were not different than pre-HDTBR values. However, LV mass did not recover with normalization of PV and remained 12 ± 4% lower than pre-bed rest values (P < 0.001). As previously reported, decreased PV and LV volume precede and likely contribute to cardiac atrophy during prolonged LV unloading. Although PV and LV volume recover rapidly after HDTBR, there is no concomitant normalization of LV mass. These results demonstrate that reduced LV mass in response to prolonged simulated weightlessness is not a simple effect of tissue dehydration, but rather true LV muscle atrophy that persists well into recovery. PMID:26494448

  12. Left ventricular remodeling during and after 60 days of sedentary head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Westby, Christian M; Martin, David S; Lee, Stuart M C; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2016-04-15

    Short periods of weightlessness are associated with reduced stroke volume and left ventricular (LV) mass that appear rapidly and are thought to be largely dependent on plasma volume. The magnitude of these cardiac adaptations are even greater after prolonged periods of simulated weightlessness, but the time course during and the recovery from bed rest has not been previously described. We collected serial measures of plasma volume (PV, carbon monoxide rebreathing) and LV structure and function [tissue Doppler imaging, three-dimensional (3-D) and 2-D echocardiography] before, during, and up to 2 wk after 60 days of 6° head down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) in seven healthy subjects (four men, three women). By 60 days of HDTBR, PV was markedly reduced (2.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 liters,P< 0.001). Resting measures of LV volume and mass were ∼15% (P< 0.001) and ∼14% lower (P< 0.001), respectively, compared with pre-HDTBR values. After 3 days of reambulation, both PV and LV volumes were not different than pre-HDTBR values. However, LV mass did not recover with normalization of PV and remained 12 ± 4% lower than pre-bed rest values (P< 0.001). As previously reported, decreased PV and LV volume precede and likely contribute to cardiac atrophy during prolonged LV unloading. Although PV and LV volume recover rapidly after HDTBR, there is no concomitant normalization of LV mass. These results demonstrate that reduced LV mass in response to prolonged simulated weightlessness is not a simple effect of tissue dehydration, but rather true LV muscle atrophy that persists well into recovery.

  13. Aluminum exposure for 60days at an equivalent human dietary level promotes peripheral dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Vera, Gema; Ocio, José Antonio Uranga; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-08-25

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic associated with a number of chronic human diseases. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at doses similar to human dietary levels and at a high level exposure to Al on the peripheral nervous system. Wistar male rats were divided into two major groups and received orally: 1) First group - Low level - rats were subdivided and treated for 60days: a) Control - received ultrapure water; b) AlCl3 - received Al at 8.3mg/kg body weight (bw) for 60days; and 2) Second group - High level - rats were subdivided and treated for 42days: C) Control - received ultrapure water through oral gavage; d) AlCl3 - received Al at 100mg/kg bw for 42days. Von Frey hair test, plantar test, the presence of catalepsy and the spontaneous motor activity were investigated. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity, immunohistochemistry to investigate the nerve inflammation and, the specific presence of Al in the sciatic nerve fibers were investigated. Al exposure at a representative human dietary level promotes the development of mechanical allodynia, catalepsy, increased inflammation in the sciatic nerve, systemic oxidative stress and, is able to be retained in the sciatic nerve. The effects of low-dose Al were similar to those found in rats exposed to Al at a dose much higher (100mg/kg). Our findings suggest that Al may be considered toxic for the peripheral nervous system, thus inducing peripheral dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture Toughness of Nanohybrid and Hybrid Composites Stored Wet and Dry up to 60 Days.

    PubMed

    Sookhakiyan, M; Tavana, S; Azarnia, Y; Bagheri, R

    2017-03-01

    Patients' demand for tooth-colored restoratives in the posterior region is increasing. Clinicians use universal nanohybrid resin composites for both anterior and posterior regions. There are few published reports comparing fracture toughness of nonohybrids and that of hybrid composite stored wet and dry. To investigate the fracture toughness of three nanohybrids compared to that of a hybrid resin composite stored dry or wet up to 60 days, using four-point bending test. Four resin composites were used: three nanohybrids; Filtek Supreme (3M), Ice (SDI), TPH3 (Dentsply) and one hybrid Filtek P60 (3M). For each material, 40 rectangular notched beam specimens were prepared with dimensions of 30 mm × 5mm × 2mm. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10) and stored at 37ºC either in distilled water or dry for 1 and 60 days. The specimens were placed on the four-point test jig and subjected to force (N) using universal testing machine loaded at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and maximum load at specimen failure was recorded and KIC was calculated. Three-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between all the factors (all p < .0001). Except for TPH3, all tested materials showed significantly higher KIC when stored dry than stored wet (p < 0.05). After 1 day of dry storage, Ice showed the highest KIC (2.04± 0.32) followed by Filtek P60 and the lowest was for Filtek Supreme (1.39± 0.13) The effect of time on fracture toughness was material dependent. Wet storage adversely affected the fracture toughness of almost all materials. Keeping the restoration dry in the mouth may increase their fracture toughness. Therefore, using a coating agent on the surface of restoration may protect them from early water uptake and increase their strength during a time period.

  15. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the vessel of: (1) The space that is to be fumigated; (2) The name, address, and emergency telephone number of the fumigation company; (3) The dates and times of fumigation; (4) The characteristics of the fumigant; (5) The spaces that are determined to be safe for occupancy paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section...

  16. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the vessel of: (1) The space that is to be fumigated; (2) The name, address, and emergency telephone number of the fumigation company; (3) The dates and times of fumigation; (4) The characteristics of the fumigant; (5) The spaces that are determined to be safe for occupancy paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section...

  17. Introduction to Soil Fumigant Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Soil fumigant pesticide labels require users to prepare a site-specific fumigation management plan (FMP) before the application begins. EPA has developed templates that outline the elements required by the labels.

  18. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  19. Aluminum exposure for 60days at human dietary levels impairs spermatogenesis and sperm quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Escobar, Alyne Gourlart; Uranga-Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Exley, Christopher; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-08-18

    Concerns about environmental aluminum (Al) and reproductive health have been raised. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at a human relevant dietary level and a high level exposure to Al. Experiment 1 (Lower level) rats were treated orally for 60 days: a) controls - ultrapure water; b) aluminum at 1.5mg/kg bw/day and c) aluminum at 8.3mg/kg bw/day. Experiment 2 (High level) rats were treated for 42 days: a) controls - ultrapure water; b) aluminum at 100mg/kg bw/day. Al decreased sperm count, daily sperm production, sperm motility, normal morphological sperm, impaired testis histology; increased oxidative stress in reproductive organs and inflammation in testis. Our study shows the specific presence of Al in the germinative cells and, that low concentrations of Al in testes (3.35μg/g) are sufficient to impair spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Our findings provide a better understanding of the reproductive health risk of Al. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 484.215 - Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH... national 60-day episode rate. (e) Standardization of the data for variation in area wage levels and case...

  1. 42 CFR 484.215 - Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH... national 60-day episode rate. (e) Standardization of the data for variation in area wage levels and case...

  2. Spot Fumigation: Fumigant Gas Dispersion and Emission Characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fumigant pesticides is mandatory in California, especially in “nonattainment areas” that do not meet federal air quality standards such as in the San Joaquin Valley. A two-year field study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a s...

  3. Heterogeneous atrophy occurs within individual lower limb muscles during 60 days of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Miokovic, Tanja; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Belavý, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    To better understand disuse muscle atrophy, via magnetic resonance imaging, we sequentially measured muscle cross-sectional area along the entire length of all individual muscles from the hip to ankle in nine male subjects participating in 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (2nd Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2). We hypothesized that individual muscles would not atrophy uniformly along their length such that different regions of an individual muscle would atrophy to different extents. This hypothesis was confirmed for the adductor magnus, vasti, lateral hamstrings, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, peroneals, and tibialis anterior muscles (P ≤ 0.004). In contrast, the hypothesis was not confirmed in the soleus, adductor brevis, gracilis, pectineus, and extensor digitorum longus muscles (P ≥ 0.20). The extent of atrophy only weakly correlated (r = -0.30, P < 0.001) with the location of greatest cross-sectional area. The rate of atrophy during bed rest also differed between muscles (P < 0.0001) and between some synergists. Most muscles recovered to their baseline size between 14 and 90 days after bed rest, but flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and lateral gastrocnemius required longer than 90 days before recovery occurred. On the basis of findings of differential atrophy between muscles and evidence in the literature, we interpret our findings of intramuscular atrophy to reflect differential disuse of functionally different muscle regions. The current work represents the first lower-limb wide survey of intramuscular differences in disuse atrophy. We conclude that intramuscular differential atrophy occurs in most, but not all, of the muscles of the lower limb during prolonged bed rest.

  4. WISE-2005: Integrative cardiovascular responses with LBNP during 60-day bed rest in women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, P.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.

    2005-08-01

    During 2005, 24 women will take part in the Women International Space-simulation for Exploration (WISE). In this paper we report on the first phase that studied 4 Exercise (EX+LBNP), 4 nutrition (NUT), and 4 no countermeasure control (CON) subjects. The EX+LBNP group completed regular exercise on a treadmill inside LBNP, flywheel resistive exercise and static periods of LBNP, and had recovery days. The NUT group received daily protein supplements. Integrative cardiovascular responses were obtained and here we report data for heart rate during LBNP, blood volume and angiotensin II. LBNP was applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg for 2-minutes for each stage. Blood was sampled pre- bed rest and on HDT-60. After 60-days head down bed rest, HR in the CON group increased by 6.1±2.8 bpm at rest and by 20.7±5.0 bpm at -30 mmHg LBNP. The EX+LBNP group had increases of 3.6±5.6 and 11.6±5.4 bpm, while the NUT group HR increased 2.6±3.1 and 9.4±3.6 bpm. The EX+LBNP group had almost no change in blood volume or plasma angiotensin II from pre-bed rest to HDT60, while both the CON and NUT groups had larger increases in plasma volume and almost double concentrations of angiotensin II. These data show a positive effect in the EX+LBNP group on the heart rate response as well as an unexpected possible benefit in the NUT group. Further studies are required to confirm possible cardiovascular benefits of the protein supplement.

  5. WISE-2005: Integrative Cardiovascular Responses with LBNP during 60-Day Bed Rest in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    During 2005, 24 women will take part in the Women International Space-simulation for Exploration (WISE). In this paper we report on the first phase that studied 4 Exercise (EX+LBNP), 4 nutrition (NUT), and 4 no countermeasure control (CON) subjects. The EX+LBNP group completed regular exercise on a treadmill inside LBNP, flywheel resistive exercise and static periods of LBNP, and had recovery days. The NUT group received daily protein supplements. Integrative cardiovascular responses were obtained and here we report data for heart rate during LBNP, blood volume and angiotensin 11. LBNP was applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg for 2-minutes for each stage. Blood was sampled prebed rest and on HDT-60. After 60-days head down bed rest, HR in the CON group increased by 6.1+/-2.8 bpm at rest and by 20.7+/-5.0 bpm at -30 mmHg LBNP. The EX+LBNP group had increases of 3.6+/-5.6 and 11.6+/-5.4 bpm, while the NUT group HR increased 2.6+/-3.1 and 9.4+/-3.6 bpm. The EX+LBNP group had almost no change in blood volume or plasma angiotensin II from pre-bed rest to HDT60, while both the CON and NUT groups had larger increases in plasma volume and almost double concentrations of angiotensin II. These data show a positive effect in the EX+LBNP group on the heart rate response as well as an unexpected possible benefit in the NUT group. Further studies are required to confirm possible cardiovascular benefits of the protein supplement.

  6. Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Dieter; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20–45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes, B cells, especially the IgD+ subpopulation of B cells and the concentrations of IP-10, RANTES and DHEA-S. We conclude that prolonged bed rest significantly impacts immune cell populations and cytokine concentrations. Exercise was able to specifically influence different immunological parameters. In summary, our data fit the hypothesis of immunoprotection by exercise and may point toward even superior effects by resistive vibration exercise. PMID:25382740

  7. Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Dieter; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20-45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes, B cells, especially the IgD(+) subpopulation of B cells and the concentrations of IP-10, RANTES and DHEA-S. We conclude that prolonged bed rest significantly impacts immune cell populations and cytokine concentrations. Exercise was able to specifically influence different immunological parameters. In summary, our data fit the hypothesis of immunoprotection by exercise and may point toward even superior effects by resistive vibration exercise.

  8. WISE-2005: Integrative Cardiovascular Responses with LBNP during 60-Day Bed Rest in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    During 2005, 24 women will take part in the Women International Space-simulation for Exploration (WISE). In this paper we report on the first phase that studied 4 Exercise (EX+LBNP), 4 nutrition (NUT), and 4 no countermeasure control (CON) subjects. The EX+LBNP group completed regular exercise on a treadmill inside LBNP, flywheel resistive exercise and static periods of LBNP, and had recovery days. The NUT group received daily protein supplements. Integrative cardiovascular responses were obtained and here we report data for heart rate during LBNP, blood volume and angiotensin 11. LBNP was applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg for 2-minutes for each stage. Blood was sampled prebed rest and on HDT-60. After 60-days head down bed rest, HR in the CON group increased by 6.1+/-2.8 bpm at rest and by 20.7+/-5.0 bpm at -30 mmHg LBNP. The EX+LBNP group had increases of 3.6+/-5.6 and 11.6+/-5.4 bpm, while the NUT group HR increased 2.6+/-3.1 and 9.4+/-3.6 bpm. The EX+LBNP group had almost no change in blood volume or plasma angiotensin II from pre-bed rest to HDT60, while both the CON and NUT groups had larger increases in plasma volume and almost double concentrations of angiotensin II. These data show a positive effect in the EX+LBNP group on the heart rate response as well as an unexpected possible benefit in the NUT group. Further studies are required to confirm possible cardiovascular benefits of the protein supplement.

  9. Seedling-Size Fumigation Chambers

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen; Frederick W. Bender

    1977-01-01

    The design of fumigation chambers is described. Each chamber has individual temperature, humidity, light, and pollutant control. Temperature is variable from 15 to 35ºC and controlled within ± 1ºC. Humidity is variable from 25 to 95 percent and controlled within ± 3 percent. Seedlings have been successfully grown in these chambers...

  10. Potential hazards of fumigant residues.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of fumigants (primarily ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene oxide, symdibromotetetrachloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorovos, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide) as well as their degradation products in foodstuffs and soil have been examined mainly in regard to the potential mutagenicity of their residues. PMID:789068

  11. 46 CFR 147A.21 - Person in charge of fumigation; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... routes of access to the atmosphere must be opened, and if necessary, mechanical ventilation must be used... fumigation; during fumigation. (a) Until ventilation begins, or until the vessel leaves port, the person in...) If ventilation is completed before the vessel leaves port, the person in charge of fumigation...

  12. Fumigation success for California facility.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  13. 78 FR 39003 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Application for Insurance of Advance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Application for Insurance of..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Theodore K....

  14. 78 FR 19723 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing World Program of the John E. Fogarty International Center...: Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing World Program of the John E. Fogarty International...

  15. 78 FR 52962 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing... Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk- Sharing Program. OMB Approval Number... housing finance agencies (HFAs). Under this program, HUD provides full mortgage insurance on multifamily...

  16. 77 FR 67860 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S. Passport Book and/or... INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S. Passport Book...

  17. 75 FR 27574 - United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: United States Park Police, National Park... Police (USPP) invites public comments on an extension of a currently approved collection of...

  18. 75 FR 41879 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... of information. Description of Need: In 1976, the NPS initiated a backcountry registration system in... potential hazards, search and rescue efforts, and resource protection. Description of Respondents...

  19. 78 FR 14821 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... the Information Be Collected Electronically? Yes. Description of Respondents: Private individuals... Cost'': None Description of Need: The purpose of this information collection is to provide sufficient...

  20. 75 FR 14181 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... (LWCF) Description and Notification Form. Form: NPS 10-903. Type of Request: Extension of currently approved information collection. Expiration date: August 31, 2010. Abstract: The Description and...

  1. 75 FR 20374 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment Agency: National Park Service, Interior. Action: Notice and request for...

  2. 75 FR 40849 - 60-Day Notice of Intention to Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention to Request Clearance of Collection of Information...: November 30, 2010. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved information collection. Description... located within area of the national park system. Description of Respondents: Persons or entities seeking a...

  3. 75 FR 42116 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... Peacock, NPS Social Science Division,1201 Oakridge Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525; or via phone at 970-267... an existing information collection approval. Description of Need: The National Park Service Act of...

  4. 76 FR 20007 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... businesses that successfully offered the service for the year). Type of Request: New. Description of...

  5. 77 FR 50159 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information.... Will the Information Be Collected Electronically? Yes. Description of Respondents: Federal agency land... Cost'': None. Description of Need: The purpose of this information collection is to provide sufficient...

  6. 75 FR 19419 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  7. Disposition at Discharge and 60-Day Mortality among Elderly People Following Shorter Hospital Stays: A Population-Based Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibson, Cynthia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examination of hospitalizations for 5,854 elderly adults for 1980, 1985, and 1987 revealed significant increases in 60-day mortality and nursing home transfers after Medicare's Prospective Payment System began and hospital stays were shortened. Increases were largely explained by differences in risk factors other than length of stay (age, gender,…

  8. 75 FR 19419 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... public comments on an extension of a currently approved collection of information Office of Management... estimate; (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4...

  9. 75 FR 13138 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... Management and Budget (OMB) 1024-0089. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize the...

  10. 75 FR 12253 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... Management and Budget (OMB) 1024-0034. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to... gathered; (2) the accuracy of the burden hour estimate; (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and...

  11. 76 FR 6818 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information..._Peacock@nps.gov . Also, you may send comments to Robert Gordon, NPS Information Collection Clearance... research methodologies, the NPS proposed and received clearance from OMB for a generic...

  12. 75 FR 7151 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number 1405-0153 Correction In notice document 2010-1863 appearing on page 4901 in the issue of...

  13. 77 FR 51102 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction ACTION: Notice of request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State is... interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public...

  14. 78 FR 48709 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA PowerSaver Pilot Program-Title I Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA PowerSaver Pilot Program--Title I Property Improvement and Title II--203(k) Rehabilitation Mortgage Insurance AGENCY: Office of the... for the information collection described in Section A. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of...

  15. 78 FR 70066 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the New FHA Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the New.... Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the...

  16. 76 FR 4408 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1998E, Foreign Service Officer Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1998E, Foreign Service Officer Test Registration Form... Office: Human Resources, HR/REE/BEX. Form Number: DS-1998E. Respondents: Registrants for the Foreign...

  17. 78 FR 39823 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Determination of Possible Loss of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... Citizens Services (CA/OCS/L), U.S. Department of State, SA-29, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037-3202, who... Citizens Services (CA/OCS) Form Number: DS-4079 Respondents: United States Citizens Estimated Number of...

  18. 78 FR 23623 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Fiancé(e) Visa Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day....gov . You can search for the document by entering ``Public Notice 8285'' in the Search bar. If... Fiance(e) Visa Application OMB Control Number: 1405-0096 Type of Request: Extension of a...

  19. 76 FR 65317 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4184, Risk Management and Analysis (RAM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day...: Risk Analysis and Management. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New. Originating Office... or e-mail: Vazquezeh@State.gov . If you have access to the internet you may submit comments online...

  20. 42 CFR 484.215 - Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment. 484.215 Section 484.215 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME...

  1. 42 CFR 484.215 - Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial establishment of the calculation of the national 60-day episode payment. 484.215 Section 484.215 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME...

  2. 78 FR 55084 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request; Data Collection To Understand How NIH Programs Apply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ..., in order to discern: (1) Factors that enhance (or inhibit) organizational effectiveness in research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request; Data... performance of the function of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; (2...

  3. 77 FR 21618 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

  4. Emission reduction from diesel engine using fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2009-07-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the combined application of fumigation methanol and a diesel oxidation catalyst for reducing emissions of an in-use diesel engine. Experiments were performed on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operating at a constant speed of 1800 rev/min for five engine loads. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it slightly increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions, but decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), smoke opacity and the particulate mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases. In all cases, there is little change in geometrical mean diameter of the particles. After catalytic conversion, the HC, CO, NO(2), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations were significantly reduced at medium to high engine loads; while the geometrical mean diameter of the particles becomes larger. Thus, the combined use of fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst leads to a reduction of HC, CO, NO(x), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations at medium to high engine loads.

  5. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  6. Plastic tarping increased efficacy of MITC fumigants

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis

    2006-01-01

    Soil fumigants is one of those topics that just won't seem to go away. When I first left college and started working in a nursery, I was idealistic and strongly anti=pesticide. However, it only took me one growing season of fighting weeds and diseases to call the fumigator.

  7. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soils

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  8. Reducing injury of lettuce from phosphine fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low temperature fumigation with pure phosphine free of ammonia has been used in recent years for postharvest pest control on some fresh fruits and vegetables. However, long fumigation treatments cause injuries to lettuce. It is unknown what factors contributed to the injuries. It is important to min...

  9. Incidence and Patterns of Adverse Event Onset During the First 60 Days After Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Elizabeth A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Simon, Marc A.; Kay, Joy; Siegenthaler, Michael P.; Bhama, Jay K.; Bermudez, Christian A.; Lockard, Kathleen L; Winowich, Steve; Kormos, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although ventricular assist devices (VADs) provide effective treatment for end-stage heart failure, VAD support remains associated with significant risk for adverse events (AEs). To date there has been no detailed assessment of the incidence of a full range of AEs using standardized event definitions. We sought to characterize the frequency and timing of AE onset during the first 60 days of VAD support, a period during which clinical observation suggests the risk of incident AEs is high. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed utilizing prospectively collected data from a single-site clinical database including 195 patients aged ≥18 receiving VADs between 1996 and 2006. AEs were coded using standardized criteria. Cumulative incidence rates were determined, controlling for competing risks (death, transplantation, recovery/wean). Results During the first 60 days after implantation, the most common AEs were bleeding, infection, and arrhythmias (cumulative incidence rates, 36%–48%), followed by tamponade, respiratory events, reoperations, and neurologic events (24%–31%). Other events (e.g., hemolysis, renal, hepatic events) were less common (rates <15%). Some events (e.g., bleeding, arrhythmias) showed steep onset rates early after implantation. Others (e.g., infections, neurologic events) had gradual onsets during the 60-day period. Incidence of most events did not vary by implant era (1996–2000 vs. 2001–2006) or by left ventricular vs. biventricular support. Conclusions Understanding differential temporal patterns of AE onset will allow preventive strategies to be targeted to the time periods when specific AE risks are greatest. The AE incidence rates provide benchmarks against which future studies of VAD-related risks may be compared. PMID:19766801

  10. Midas® Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Handlers or applicators should wear personal protective equipment including respirator and chemical-resistant gloves when working with this soil fumigant, be trained according to the Worker Protection Standard (WPS), and know signs of pesticide exposure.

  11. Implementation Schedule for Soil Fumigant Safety Measures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet summarizes the soil fumigant pesticide product label changes that are going into effect during each of two phases. New requirements cover worker protection, training, good agricultural practices, buffer zones, sign posting, and more.

  12. Fumigant Management Plan - Phase 1 Templates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FMPs are required by pesticide labels, so EPA provides chemical-specific soil fumigant templates and samples in PDF and Word formats. Choose the appropriate template for products containing chloropicrin, dazomet, metam sodium/potassium, or methyl bromide.

  13. Presentations on Soil Fumigation Requirements - PDF Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These provide training, outreach, and other resource materials for applicators and handlers, communities, state and local agencies, and others interested in understanding and implementing the current requirements for safe use of soil fumigant pesticides.

  14. Soil Fumigant Training for Certified Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page includes the soil fumigant training programs developed by pesticide registrants and approved by EPA, as well as EPA-approved alternatives to the registrant training programs that are available for specific states.

  15. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  16. Community Outreach and Education on Soil Fumigants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on how outreach programs can help address the risk of bystander exposure by educating community members about fumigants, buffer zones, how to recognize warning signs, and how to respond appropriately in case of an incident.

  17. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225, 225A...

  18. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225, 225A...

  19. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Many orchards in California, USA, apply fumigants to soil before replanting to reduce the impact of pest pressure or replanting disease on new tree establishment. Emission control of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide is mandatory in air quality (ozone) non-attainment areas. This s...

  20. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  1. Gender-related Changes in Dorsal Hand and Foot Vein Function Following 60 Days of Head Down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Phillips, Tiffany; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that female astronauts are more likely to experience post-flight orthostatic hypotension and presyncope compared to male astronauts. It has been suggested that the disproportionally higher incidence of presyncope (83% of female vs. 20% male crewmembers) may be due to sex-related differences in vascular function between the upper and lower limbs. However, much of this evidence is specific to changes in resistance vessels. Given that more than 70% of the circulating blood volume resides in compliance vessels, it is conceivable that even small changes in venous function may contribute to post-flight orthostatic hypotension. In spite of this, little is currently known regarding the influence of microgravity exposure on venous function between males and females. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of 60 days of HDBR on dorsal foot and hand vein function between healthy males (M) and females (F). METHODS: Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand and foot vein diameter responses to intravenous infusions phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and nitroglycerine (NTG) were determined in 26 adults; 10 females (age:37 +/- 2 yr ) and 16 males (age:34 +/- 2 yr ). Changes in venous function were calculated as the difference between diameter at baseline and following each venoactive drug. Differences in venous function between limb and sexes across HDBR were determined using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: In response to 60 days of HDBR, the change in venousconstrictor response to PE in the dorsal hand veins was not significantly different between M and F. Interestingly, the change in constrictor response in the dorsal foot veins (compared to pre HDBR) was approximately 30% greater in the F, whereas the constrictor response was approximately 45% less in the M (p=0.026). HDBR had no influence on the change in dilator response to ACh, or NTG between M and F and between vascular beds. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that 60 days of HDBR contributes to sex

  2. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the State's...

  3. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the State's...

  4. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the State's...

  5. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the State's...

  6. Cardiac and Arterial Adaptation to a 60 Day Bedrest with and without Counter-Measures (ES-I IBREP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Philippe; Yuan, Ming; Bai, Yanqiang; Jiang, Shizhong; Wan, Yuming; Li, Yinghui

    2008-06-01

    Objective was to quantified the impact of a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) with countermeasures "CM" on the Cardiac arterial and venous hemodynamics at rest. Method: Twenty-one men (25-40y) divided into 3 groups [Control (Con), daily 30 min Foot vibration (Vib) and Chinese Herb (Herb)] were studied pre and at HDBR day 58. The subjects were allowed to have a daily 10 min squat/stand period for toilets. Post HDBR 10 min Tilt identified Finishers (F) and Non Finishers (NF). Result: (a) Most of the cardiac and arterial parameters reduced after 58d in HDBR as observed in other long term HDBR (b) the Vibration CM induced a reduction in lower limb vascular resistance (c) the short 10 min squat/stand period should have contributed to lower the proportion of NF at the post HDBR tilt.

  7. Evolution of tropical circulation anomalies associated with 30-60 day oscillation of globally averaged angular momentum during northern summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, In-Sik; Lau, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Lag correlation statistics was used to study intraseasonal variations of upper and lower-level zonal winds, outgoing longwave radiation, and globally averaged angular momentum (GAM) for northern summers of 1977-1984. The temporal and spatial distribution of surface wind stress in the tropics and its relationship with zonal wind anomalies were studied to assess the impact of surface frictional drag on the atmospheric angular momentum. The 30-60 day GAM fluctuation is shown to be accompanied by zonal propagation of convection and 850 mb zonal wind anomalies in the tropical belt. The climatological zonal wind in the tropics affects the magnitude of wind stress anomalies. It is suggested that momentum exchange between the lower and upper troposphere may occur in regions of active convection via vertical momentum transport. The tropical central Pacific is considered to play a key role in linking the atmosphere and the earth through angular momentum exchange on intraseasonal time scales.

  8. Evolution of tropical circulation anomalies associated with 30-60 day oscillation of globally averaged angular momentum during northern summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, In-Sik; Lau, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Lag correlation statistics was used to study intraseasonal variations of upper and lower-level zonal winds, outgoing longwave radiation, and globally averaged angular momentum (GAM) for northern summers of 1977-1984. The temporal and spatial distribution of surface wind stress in the tropics and its relationship with zonal wind anomalies were studied to assess the impact of surface frictional drag on the atmospheric angular momentum. The 30-60 day GAM fluctuation is shown to be accompanied by zonal propagation of convection and 850 mb zonal wind anomalies in the tropical belt. The climatological zonal wind in the tropics affects the magnitude of wind stress anomalies. It is suggested that momentum exchange between the lower and upper troposphere may occur in regions of active convection via vertical momentum transport. The tropical central Pacific is considered to play a key role in linking the atmosphere and the earth through angular momentum exchange on intraseasonal time scales.

  9. Transformation of plastids in soil-shaded lowermost hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) during a 60-day cultivation period.

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2017-04-01

    The maintenance but substantial transformation of plastids was found in lowermost hypocotyl segments of soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Magnum) during a 60-day cultivation period. Although the plants were grown under natural light-dark cycles, this hypocotyl segment was under full coverage of the soil in 5-7 cm depth, thus it was never exposed to light. The 4-day-old plants were fully etiolated: amyloplasts, occasionally prolamellar bodies, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and protochlorophyll (Pchl) were found in the hypocotyls of these young seedlings. The 633 and 654 nm bands in the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra indicated the presence of Pchlide and Pchl pigments. During aging, both the Pchlide and Pchl contents increased, however, the Pchl to Pchlide ratio gradually increased. In parallel, the contribution of the 654 nm form decreased and in the spectra of the 60-day-old samples, the main band shifted to 631 nm, and a new form appeared with an emission maximum at 641 nm. The photoactivity had been lost; bleaching took place at continuous illumination. The inner membranes of the plastids disappeared, the amount of starch storing amyloplasts decreased. These data may indicate the general importance of plastids for plant cell metabolism, which can be the reason for their maintenance. Also the general heterogeneity of plastid forms can be concluded: in tissues not exposed to light, Pchl accumulating plastids develop and are maintained even for a long period. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Aluminum Exposure at Human Dietary Levels for 60 Days Reaches a Threshold Sufficient to Promote Memory Impairment in Rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline S; Alterman, Caroline D C; Peçanha, Franck M; Vassallo, Dalton V; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a significant environmental contaminant. While a good deal of research has been conducted on the acute neurotoxic effects of Al, little is known about the effects of longer-term exposure at human dietary Al levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day Al exposure at low doses for comparison with a model of exposure known to produce neurotoxicity in rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two major groups: (1) low aluminum levels, and (2) a high aluminum level. Group 1 rats were treated orally by drinking water for 60 days as follows: (a) control-received ultrapure drinking water; (b) aluminum at 1.5 mg/kg b.w., and (c) aluminum at 8.3 mg/kg b.w. Group 2 rats were treated through oral gavages for 42 days as follows: (a) control-received ultrapure water; (b) aluminum at 100 mg/kg b.w. We analyzed cognitive parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Al treatment even at low doses promoted recognition memory impairment seen in object recognition memory testing. Moreover, Al increased hippocampal reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant capacity, and decreased AChE activity. Our data demonstrate that 60-day subchronic exposure to low doses of Al from feed and added to the water, which reflect human dietary Al intake, reaches a threshold sufficient to promote memory impairment and neurotoxicity. The elevation of oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction highlight pathways of toxic actions for this metal.

  11. WISE 2005: Aerobic and resistive countermeasures prevent paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60-day bed rest in women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jacquelyn A; Macias, Brandon R; Schneider, Suzanne M; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Chang, Douglas G; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-05-15

    Microgravity-induced lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning may contribute to back pain commonly experienced by astronauts and may increase the risk of postflight injury. We hypothesized that a combined resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure protocol that included spinal loading would mitigate lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60 days of bed rest in women. Sixteen women underwent 60-day, 6° head-down-tilt bed rest (BR) and were randomized into control and exercise groups. During bed rest the control group performed no exercise. The exercise group performed supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 3-4 days/wk and flywheel resistive exercise for 2-3 days/wk. Paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using a lumbar spine MRI sequence before and after BR. In addition, isokinetic spinal flexion and extension strengths were measured before and after BR. Data are presented as means ± SD. Total lumbar paraspinal muscle CSA decreased significantly more in controls (10.9 ± 3.4%) than in exercisers (4.3 ± 3.4%; P < 0.05). The erector spinae was the primary contributor (76%) to total lumbar paraspinal muscle loss. Moreover, exercise attenuated isokinetic spinal extension loss (-4.3 ± 4.5%), compared with controls (-16.6 ± 11.2%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, LBNP treadmill and flywheel resistive exercises during simulated microgravity mitigate decrements in lumbar paraspinal muscle structure and spine function. Therefore spaceflight exercise countermeasures that attempt to reproduce spinal loads experienced on Earth may mitigate spinal deconditioning during long-duration space travel.

  12. Complying with Required State and Tribal Notification before Soil Fumigations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fumigant pesticide applicators must check here to determine whether they must provide advance notice, including application block locations and EPA registration number of fumigant product, to state or tribal agencies governing the planned treatment area.

  13. Paladin® (Dimethyl Disulfide, DMDS) Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This liquid pre-plant soil fumigant pesticide poses potential exposure risk concerns, so the product label and Fumigant Management Plan (FMP) address personal protective equipment, air monitoring, and respiratory protection.

  14. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Sosnoskie, Lynn M; Cabrera, Jose Alfonso; Qin, Ruijun; Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Wang, Dong; Browne, Greg T; Thomas, John E

    2016-02-01

    Many orchards use fumigation to control soilborne pests prior to replanting. Controlling emissions is mandatory to reduce air pollution in California. This research evaluated the effects of plastic film type [polyethylene (PE) or totally impermeable film (TIF)], application rate of Telone C35 [full (610 kg ha(-1) ), 2/3 or 1/3 rates] and carbonation at 207 kPa on fumigant transport (emission and in soil) and efficacy. While increasing fumigant concentrations under the tarp, TIF reduced emissions >95% (∼2% and <1% of total applied 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin respectively) relative to bare soil, compared with ∼30% reduction by PE. All fumigation treatments, regardless of film type, provided good nematode control above 100 cm soil depth; however, nematode survival was high at deeper depths. Weed emergence was mostly affected by tarping and fumigant rate, with no effects from the carbonation. TIF can effectively reduce fumigant emissions. Carbonation under the studied conditions did not improve fumigant dispersion and pest control. The 2/3 rate with TIF controlled nematodes as effectively as the full rate in bare soil or under the PE film to 100 cm soil depth. However, control of nematodes in deeper soil remains a challenge for perennial crops. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Soil fumigants-risk mitigation measures for reregistration

    Treesearch

    Eric Olson

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is requiring important new safety measures for soil fumigant pesticides to increase protections for agricultural workers and bystanders, that is, people who live, work, or otherwise spend time near fields that are fumigated. These measures are included in Amended Reregistration Eligibility Decisions for the soil fumigants...

  16. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  17. Accuracy of Complete Blood Cell Counts to Identify Febrile Infants 60 Days or Younger With Invasive Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea T; Mahajan, Prashant; Bonsu, Bema K; Bennett, Jonathan E; Levine, Deborah A; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Nigrovic, Lise E; Atabaki, Shireen M; Cohen, Daniel M; VanBuren, John M; Ramilo, Octavio; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2017-09-11

    Clinicians often risk stratify young febrile infants for invasive bacterial infections (IBIs), defined as bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis, using complete blood cell count parameters. To estimate the accuracy of individual complete blood cell count parameters to identify febrile infants with IBIs. Planned secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study comprising 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network from 2008 to 2013. We included febrile (≥38°C), previously healthy, full-term infants younger than 60 days for whom blood cultures were obtained. All infants had either cerebrospinal fluid cultures or 7-day follow-up. We tested the accuracy of the white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and platelet count at commonly used thresholds for IBIs. We determined optimal thresholds using receiver operating characteristic curves. Of 4313 enrolled infants, 1340 (31%; 95% CI, 30% to 32%) were aged 0 to 28 days, 2412 were boys (56%), and 2471 were white (57%). Ninety-seven (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.8% to 2.7%) had IBIs. Sensitivities were low for common complete blood cell count parameter thresholds: white blood cell count less than 5000/µL, 10% (95% CI, 4% to 16%) (to convert to  × 109 per liter, multiply by 0.001); white blood cell count ≥15 000/µL, 27% (95% CI, 18% to 36%); absolute neutrophil count ≥10 000/µL, 18% (95% CI, 10% to 25%) (to convert to  × 109 per liter, multiply by 0.001); and platelets <100 x103 /µL, 7% (95% CI: 2% to 12%) (to convert to × 109 per liter, multiply by 1). Optimal thresholds for white blood cell count (11 600/µL), absolute neutrophil count (4100/µL), and platelet count (362 × 103/µL) were identified in models that had areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.50-0.63), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.64-0.76), and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.55-0.67), respectively. No complete blood cell count parameter at commonly used or optimal

  18. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, André E.

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  19. A metabonomic investigation of the effects of 60 days exposure of rats to two types of pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hui-Ping; Long, Ding-Xin; Li, Wei; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2013-11-25

    Type I and II pyrethroid insecticides display different neurotoxicity. To investigate the long-term (60 days exposure) metabolic effect of the two types of pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin and permethrin, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabonomics was used to analyze the biochemical composition of urine and serum samples from rats administrated daily with deltamethrin or permethrin for 60 consecutive days, and principal component analysis used to visualize similarities and differences in the resultant biochemical profiles. Rats treated with either deltamethrin or permethrin displayed increased levels of urinary acetate, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, trimethylamine and serum free amino acids, and decreased urinary 2-oxoglutarate, all of which are indicative of kidney lesions and nephrotoxicity. The reduced excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, together with increased 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, acetate, and lactate in treated rats could suggest disturbance of the energy metabolism, including an increased rate of anaerobic glycolysis, enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation and ketogenesis. These results show that these two types of insecticides have similarities in the urine and serum spectra, indicating that similar metabolic pathways are perturbed by the insecticides, which induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. This approach may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers of pyrethroids toxicity and thereby provide new insights into the toxicological mechanisms of pesticides pyrethroids.

  20. Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of Subway Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This bench scale study observed that a six (6) log reduction in viable spores of a suitable B. anthracis surrogate can be obtained for subway infrastructure materials by ClO2 fumigation if the temperature is at or above 24 °C combined with RH greater than 75%. No six log reduction in viable spores was observed at realistic (winter) temperatures in a subway environment (11-13 °C and 70-80% RH) for periods of fumigation that are otherwise efficacious at 24 °C/ 75% RH.

  1. Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of Subway Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This bench scale study observed that a six (6) log reduction in viable spores of a suitable B. anthracis surrogate can be obtained for subway infrastructure materials by ClO2 fumigation if the temperature is at or above 24 °C combined with RH greater than 75%. No six log reduction in viable spores was observed at realistic (winter) temperatures in a subway environment (11-13 °C and 70-80% RH) for periods of fumigation that are otherwise efficacious at 24 °C/ 75% RH.

  2. Irradiated versus fumigated spices in sausage.

    PubMed

    Bolander, C R; Toma, R B; Davis, R M; Medora, N P

    1995-11-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation and ethylene oxide fumigation as decontaminating treatments for spices used in sausages was compared. Microbial loads of sausages containing irradiated, fumigated or non-treated spices were examined over three intervals of time. No significant differences between microbial loads of Mexican sausages containing irradiated spices (10 kGy) verses ethylene oxide-treated spices were found. Mexican sausages containing treated spices had significantly lower yeast, mould and spore counts than control sausages. After 8 weeks of storage, only the microbial loads of control sausages suggested spoilage. No discernable differences in treatment efficacy were noted with respect to yeast, mould and spore counts in Italian sausages.

  3. WISE 2005-2006: 60-days of Head-Down Bed Rest Increases the Incidence of Menstrual Cycle Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Charles

    Objective: It has been suggested that acute bed rest of short duration (11 days) disrupts the menstrual cycle of healthy subjects. Furthermore, use of countermeasures such as heavy exercise or dietary manipulations may adversely effect the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that bed rest of 60 days and the use of countermeasures would increase the incidence of disruption of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects with a mean age of 32±0.8 yr, body mass of 59±0.8 kg and MC lengths of 25-32 days were enrolled. Three months prior to the study subjects did not use hormonal birth control methods. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups (n=8 per group): control, exercise countermeasures, and dietary countermeasures. MC lengthening was defined as an increase in duration of 10 or more days. Analysis was performed accounting for the effects of bedrest as well as treatment group. Results: Effects of countermeasures were not significant in the present analysis. After the conclusion of the study, subjects were classified as either normal (N; n=16) or oligomenorrhea (O; n=8) as determined by MC length during the pre-bed rest (PB) and bed rest (BR) periods. During the control period prior to bed rest one subject (4%) had an increase MC length. During the control period the average MC length was 31±0.8 days with a leutinizing hormone (LH) surge 12±0.8 days prior to menses. The duration of menses was 4±0.4 days. During BR there was an increase to 33% (p¡0.05) in the number of subjects having MC lengthening. In these subjects the mean length was increased from 31±0.9 to 62±8.2 days (p¡0.05). There was no change in the period from the LH surge prior to the next menses, 11±0.8 days, or duration of menses, 4±0.2 days. Plasma LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolacin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), aldosterone (Aldo), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured during PB, BR, early

  4. Peripheral Arterial and Venous Response to Tilt Test after a 60-Day Bedrest with and without Countermeasures (ES-IBREP)

    PubMed Central

    Coupé, Mickael; Bai, Yanqiang; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Jiang, Shizhong; Aubry, Patrick; Wan, Yumin; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Li, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the impact of 60-day head-down bed rest (HDBR) with countermeasures on arterial and venous response to tilt. Methods: Twenty-one males: 7 control (Con), 7 resistive vibration exercise (RVE) and 7 Chinese herb (Herb) were assessed. Subjects were identified as finisher (F) or non-finishers (NF) at the post-HDBR 20-min tilt test. The cerebral (MCA), femoral (FEM) arterial flow velocity and leg vascular resistance (FRI), the portal vein section (PV), the flow redistribution ratios (MCA/FEM; MCA/PV), the tibial (Tib), gastrocnemius (Gast), and saphenous (Saph) vein sections were measured by echography and Doppler ultrasonography. Arterial and venous parameters were measured at 3-min pre-tilt in the supine position, and at 1 min before the end of the tilt. Results: At post-HDBR tilt, MCA decreased more compared with pre-HDBR tilt in the Con, RVE, and Herb groups, the MCA/FEM tended to decrease in the Con and Herb groups (not significant) but remained stable in the RVE gr. FRI dropped in the Con gr, but remained stable in the Herb gr and increased in the RVE gr. PV decreased less in the Con and Herb groups but remained unchanged in the RVE gr. MCA/PV decreased in the Con and Herb groups, but increased to a similar extent in the RVE gr. Gast section significantly increased more in the Con gr only, whereas Tib section increased more in the Con and Herb groups but not in the RVE gr. The percent change in Saph section was similar at pre- and post-HDBR tilt. Conclusion: In the Con gr, vasoconstriction was reduced in leg and splanchnic areas. RVE and Herb contributed to prevent the loss of vasoconstriction in both areas, but the effect of RVE was higher. RVE and Herb contributed to limit Gast distension whereas only RVE had a protective effect on the Tib. PMID:22412933

  5. WISE-2005: effect of aerobic and resistive exercises on orthostatic tolerance during 60 days bed rest in women

    PubMed Central

    Guinet, Patrick; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Macias, Brandon R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hughson, Richard L.; Le Traon, Anne Pavy; Bansard, Jean-Yves; Hargens, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning after long duration spaceflight is especially challenging in women who have a lower orthostatic tolerance (OT) compared with men. We hypothesized that an exercise prescription, combining supine aerobic treadmill exercise in a Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) chamber followed by 10 min of resting LBNP, 3 to 4 times a week, and flywheel resistive training every third day would maintain orthostatic tolerance (OT) in women during a 60-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR). Sixteen women were assigned to two groups (exercise, control). Pre and post HDBR OT was assessed with a tilt/LBNP test until presyncope. OT time (mean ± SE) decreased from 17.5±1.0 min to 9.1±1.5 min (−50±6%) in control group (p<0.001) and from 19.3 ±1.3 min to 13.0 ± 1.9 min (−35±7%) in exercise group (p<0.001), with no significant difference in OT time between the two groups after HDBR (p=0.13). Nevertheless compared with controls post HDBR, exercisers had a lower heart rate (mean±SE) during supine rest (71±3 versus 85±4, p<0.01), a slower increase in heart rate and a slower decrease in stroke volume over the course of tilt/LBNP test (p<0.05). Blood volume (mean±SE) decreased in controls (−9±2%, p<0.01) but was maintained in exercisers (−4±3%, p=0.17). Our results suggest that the combined exercise countermeasure fails to protect OT but improves cardiovascular response to subtolerance levels of orthostatic stress. PMID:19247686

  6. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  7. Methyl bromide fate in fumigated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.A.; Rice, P.J.; Cink, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    Although widespread use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a sail and structure fumigant has previously been recognized as a potential significant source of atmospheric MeBr, losses have not been well quantified. Our research indicates that, in laboratory studies, MeBr is volatilized rapidly from fumigated soils and that volatility increases with temperature (35{degrees}C > 25{degrees}C and 15{degrees}C) and moisture (0.03 bar and 0.3 bar > 1 bar > 3 bar). Degradation of MeBr in soil, as indicated by production of bromide ion, was also directly related to temperature and moisture. Most of the soil degradation of MeBr in these studies appears to be abiotic based on the observation of toxicity (reduced microbial respiration) in fumigated soils. We also determined the transformation and movement of MeBr in undisturbed soil columns. These studies also indicated that MeBT volatilizes rapidly (> 50% in 48 h) from soil. In addition, MeBr was not detected in the leachate from the soil columns, however, bromide ion was detected at levels above background 48 h after fumigation and peaked at 5 weeks.

  8. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fumigation with Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist uses of fumigant pesticides prepared for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. An introduction with the explanation of fumigation is presented. The nine sections included describe: (1) Nature and effects of fumigants; (2) Modern fumigants; (3) Precautions to follow when using fumigants;…

  10. Filmless in 60 days: the impact of picture archiving and communications systems within a large urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Alexander, S; Drakakis, J; Berdebes, N

    2001-06-01

    Many large urban hospitals converting to filmless radiography use a phased approach for digital imaging implementation. In fact, this strategy often is recommended by picture archival communication systems (PACS) experts and vendors alike for large, busy hospitals installing PACS in existing physical facilities. The concern is that comprehensive conversion from film-based to digital imaging may be too overwhelming an adjustment in operations for a medical staff to effectively handle without serious disruption of workflow for patient treatment and care. Elmhurst Hospital Center is a 543-bed hospital located in the Borough of Queens in New York City. Owned by the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, this municipal teaching hospital provides services to a patient mix that is 38% indigent with no insurance, 50% covered by Medicaid or Medicare, and 12% affiliated with HMOs. Most inpatients are admitted through the emergency department. Forty-five percent of all radiology procedures conducted are for emergency patients. Historically, up to 25% of all diagnostic imaging examinations were never reported formally by radiologists. Report turnaround time for the remaining 75% was unacceptable, with only 3% of all imaging examinations reported within a 12-hour period in 1996. Both situations existed in great part because physicians and residents who felt they needed access to films simply took them. Many were never located or returned days after they were taken. In 1998, Elmhurst Hospital Center replaced its RIS and added voice recognition dictation capabilities in January 1999. A hospitalwide PACS was deployed 10 months later. With the exception of mammography, the hospital converted to filmless radiography within 60 days. The critical objectives to maintain control of films and radically improve the reporting process were achieved immediately. Over 99% of all examinations now are formally reviewed and reported. Only 7% of all reports take 1 or more days to

  11. The fate of alternative soil fumigants to methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, R.; Gao, S.

    2011-12-01

    Soil fumigation is an important agricultural practice for the control of soil-borne pests. Since the phase-out of methyl bromide, due to its role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone, several alternatives such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin (CP), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) are being increasingly used. The major processes and factors affecting the fate of these chemicals are evaluated. The high volatility of fumigants leads to high emission loss when no proper containment is used. Recent tarping technology using low permeability films can significantly reduce emissions. Fumigant degradation rate becomes critical to the determination of fumigation rate that affects efficacy and residence time in soil. A series of laboratory incubation experiments were carried out to determine degradation rate of 1,3-D isomers, CP and DMDS in five different soils collected from California and Florida. Fumigant degradation rates depend highly on the amounts of fumigants in soil, chemical characteristics, and soil conditions. Fumigant degradation rate were found to increase for all fumigants as the fumigant amounts in soil decreased. The changes were smaller for 1,3-D isomers compared to CP and DMDS. In soils with the lowest application rate, the degradation rate of fumigants is in the order of CP > DMDS > cis-1,3-D > trans-1,3-D. Soil and environmental factors also affect fumigant degradation rate. These findings suggest that a proper application rate should be determined for specific fumigants in a soil when using low permeability tarp in order to achieve sufficient fumigation efficacy during a certain period of time while minimizing potential surge of emissions after tarp removal and/or long residence time in soil that may cause phytotoxicity or leaching.

  12. Basic Information about NO2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and other nitrogen oxides (NOx) damage the human respiratory system and contribute to acid rain. These air pollutants are regulated as part of EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

  13. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  14. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  15. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  16. Sulfur content of hybrid poplar cuttings fumigated with sulfur dioxide

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with sulfur dioxide ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 5 ppm for periods of 5 to 80 hours. At the end of the fumigation periods, the cuttings were harvested and the sulfur and chlorophyll contents of the leaves were measured. At 0.1 ppm and 0.25 ppm the sulfur content initially increased, but decreased as fumigation continued. At...

  17. Minimizing methyl bromide emissions from soil fumigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, S. R.; Wang, D.; Gan, J.; Ernst, F. F.; Jury, W. A.

    There is great controversy concerning the need to phase out methyl bromide (MeBr) to protect stratospheric ozone. Unlike chlorinated hydrocarbons, MeBr occurs naturally in the atmosphere making it difficult to differentiate the threat to stratospheric ozone depletion from anthropogenic use of MeBr compared to natural sources. New technology has been developed which could nearly eliminate MeBr emissions from soil fumigation, bringing into question the need for a phase out. A field experiment demonstrated that virtually impermeable films (VIF) reduced MeBr emissions to near-zero levels. When compared to soil fumigation using conventional high-density polyethylene film (HDPE), the total global MeBr emission could be reduced from 32 Gg/yr to less than 1 Gg/yr, if VIF were required. In addition, reduced application rates are possible since using VIF reduces wasteful leakage and increases pest-control efficiency. With such low emission rates, and considering the large uncertainty in global estimates of MeBr, it seems that the phase-out of MeBr as a soil fumigant is unjustified.

  18. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  19. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  20. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  1. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  2. Field tests on biochar to reduce emissions from soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigation continues to be one of the most important strategies for pest management in orchards. Although low permeability tarp such as totally impermeable film (TIF) has shown to be the most effective in reducing fumigant emissions, costs are high and tarp disposal is needed after use. The obj...

  3. Water and methyl isothiocyanate distribution in soil after drip fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators, such as metam sodium (Met-Na), are used for soil fumigation of agricultural land. The ban on the fumigant methyl bromide (MBr) has resulted in greater use of MITC generators. In order to understand the efficacy of MITC, it is necessary to assess its generat...

  4. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  5. Management strategies to reduce environmental impact from soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigation is an important agronomic practice for controlling soil-borne plant pests. However, all fumigant chemicals have relatively high vapor pressure values and are prone to emission losses to the ambient atmosphere. This poses significant safety and human health concerns for farmers and ...

  6. Harmful Effects of Mustard Bio-fumigants on Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Green manures, particularly mustards tilled into the soil preceding potato crops act as bio-fumigants that are toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, providing an alternative to synthetic soil fumigants. It is not known if mustard green manures also kill beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) tha...

  7. Evaluation of Totally Impermeable Film for Fumigant Emissions Reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emissions from soil fumigation are stringently regulated for environmental safety concerns. Low permeability films can be used to reduce fumigant and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and to allow for smaller buffer zones. A large-scale field trial was conducted in Ventura, CA, to determine ...

  8. Simulation of fumigant transport and volatilization from tarped broadcast applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the ability of the HYDRUS 2D/3D model to simulate chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene fate, transport and volatilization. Three fields with similar soil conditions were broadcast fumigated under a totally impermeable film (TIF). One field was used to calibrate HYDRUS by adjusting fumig...

  9. Totally impermeable film (TIF) reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orchard/vineyard replanting for fruit trees, nut trees, and grapevines in many situations still depends on soil fumigation for control of soil-borne pests and replanting diseases in California. Perennial tree and grapevine nurseries also rely heavily on soil fumigation to meet the state’s requiremen...

  10. Post fumigation recovery of soil microbial community structure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil-borne pathogens and weeds for the past few decades. It is known that the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms, but the recovery of soil microbial communities are unknown until rece...

  11. Evaluation of fumigation and surface seal methods on fumigant emissions in an orchard replant field.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J; Schneider, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests and enabling successful replanting of orchards. Reducing emissions is required to minimize the possible worker and bystander risk and the contribution of fumigants to the atmosphere as volatile organic compounds that lead to the formation of ground-level ozone. A field trial was conducted in a peach orchard replant field to investigate the effects of fumigation method (shank-injection vs. subsurface drip-application treatments) and surface treatments (water applications and plastic tarps) on emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) from shank-injection of Telone C-35 and drip application of InLine. Treatments included control (no water or soil surface treatment); standard high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, and pre-irrigation, all over shank injection; and HDPE tarp over and irrigation with micro-sprinklers before and after the drip application. The highest 1,3-D and CP emission losses over a 2-wk monitoring period were from the control (36% 1,3-D and 30% CP) and HDPE tarp (43% 1,3-D and 17% CP) over shank injection. The pre-irrigation 4 d before fumigation and VIF tarp over shank injection had similar total emission losses (19% 1,3-D and 8-9% CP). The HDPE tarp and irrigations over subsurface drip-application treatments resulted in similar and the lowest emission losses (12-13% 1,3-D, and 2-3% CP). Lower fumigant concentrations in the soil-gas phase were observed with drip-application than in the shank-injection treatments; however, all treatments provided 100% kill to citrus nematodes in bags buried from 30 to 90 cm depth. Pre-irrigation and drip application seem to be effective to minimize emissions of 1,3-D and CP.

  12. Effect of organic amendments on Douglas-fir transplants grown in fumigated versus non-fumigated soil

    Treesearch

    Nabil Khudduri

    2010-01-01

    We transplanted one-year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings into compost-amended soil that had either been spring-fumigated with a methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination or left unfumigated. Seedling nutrient, pathology, morphology, and packout measurements were significantly better for those transplanted into fumigated rather than non-...

  13. [Oral toxicity at 60-days of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), and determination of lethal dose 50 in rodents].

    PubMed

    Gorriti, Arilmi; Arroyo, Jorge; Quispe, Fredy; Cisneros, Braulio; Condorhuamán, Martín; Almora, Yuan; Chumpitaz, Víctor

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the oral toxicity at 60 days and to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50) of raw sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and linseed (Linum ussitatisimum) oils in Holtzman rats and mice of the strain Balb C57 respectively. For the evaluation of the oral toxicity of repeated doses for 60 days, 24 male Holtzman rats were used, divided in three groups of 8 each, the groups were: physiologic saline solution 4 mL/kg (FSS), sacha inchi oil 0.5 mL/kg (SI05) and linseed oil 0.5 mL/kg (L05), during the experiment the body weight was controlled weekly, and signs of toxicity in the research groups, as well as total cholesterol, HDL, glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase at days 30 and 60 after initiating the experiment. For the evaluation of the LD50 male mice of the Balb C57 strain were used in groups of 10 animals, and they were administered increasing oral doses of raw oils until reaching 1 mL/kg (37 g/kg). The serum parameters in the rats indicated there is no toxicity at 60 days and that the administration of the oils lowered the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL in comparison with the control group. The LD50 shows that the raw sacha inchi and linseed oils have doses above 37 g/kg of body weight. Sacha inchi and linseed oils are harmless at 60 days and present a LD50 above the 37 g/kg of animal.

  14. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  15. Minimize emissions and improve efficacy with low permeability tarp and deep injection in soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigation targets high pest control efficiency and low environmental impact. Earlier field data show that most fumigated treatments provided 100% kill for plant parasitic nematodes in the soil above 3 ft depth, but not below due to insufficient fumigant delivery. A fumigation trial was conduct...

  16. A micro spot injection system for studing the effects of carbonation on fumigant dispersion in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigant transport to deep soils is needed to control plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne pathogens for perennial crops. Using carbonated fumigants and carbon dioxide (CO2)-pressurized fumigant injection systems may achieve this target when compared to conventional fumigation systems pressurize...

  17. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. While the space that is fumigated is being sealed or during fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of ignition... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43...

  18. Bacterial colonization of a fumigated alkaline saline soil.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan M; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina A; de León-Lorenzana, Arit S; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Luna-Guido, Marco; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-07-01

    After chloroform fumigating an arable soil, the relative abundance of phylotypes belonging to only two phyla (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) and two orders [Actinomycetales and Bacillales (mostly Bacillus)] increased in a subsequent aerobic incubation, while it decreased for a wide range of bacterial groups. It remained to be seen if similar bacterial groups were affected when an extreme alkaline saline soil was fumigated. Soil with electrolytic conductivity between 139 and 157 dS m(-1), and pH 10.0 and 10.3 was fumigated and the bacterial community structure determined after 0, 1, 5 and 10 days by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while an unfumigated soil served as control. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes increased in the fumigated soil (52.8%) compared to the unfumigated soil (34.2%), while that of the Bacteroidetes decreased from 16.2% in the unfumigated soil to 8.8% in the fumigated soil. Fumigation increased the relative abundance of the genus Bacillus from 14.7% in the unfumigated soil to 25.7%. It was found that phylotypes belonging to the Firmicutes, mostly of the genus Bacillus, were dominant in colonizing the fumigated alkaline saline as found in the arable soil, while the relative abundance of a wide range of bacterial groups decreased.

  19. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation of methyl bromide during agricultural soil fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bill, M.; Miller, L.G.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic composition of methyl bromide (CH3Br) has been suggested to be a potentially useful tracer for constraining the global CH3Br budget. In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of CH3Br emitted from the most significant anthropogenic application (pre-plant fumigation) we directly measured the ??13C of CH3Br released during commercial fumigation. We also measured the isotopic fractionation associated with degradation in agricultural soil under typical field fumigation conditions. The isotopic composition of CH3Br collected in soil several hours after injection of the fumigant was -44.5??? and this value increased to -20.7??? over the following three days. The mean kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil (12???) was smaller than the reported value for methylotrophic bacterial strain IMB-1, isolated from previously fumigated agricultural soil, but was similar to methylotrophic bacterial strain CC495, isolated from a pristine forest litter zone. Using this fractionation associated with the degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil and the mean ??13C of the industrially manufactured CH3Br (-54.4???), we calculate that the agricultural soil fumigation source has a carbon isotope signature that ranges from -52.8??? to -42.0???. Roughly 65% of industrially manufactured CH3Br is used for field fumigations. The remaining 35% is used for structural and post-harvest fumigations with a minor amount used during industrial chemical manufacturing. Assuming that the structural and post-harvest fumigation sources of CH3Br are emitted without substantial fractionation, we calculate that the ??13C of anthropogenically emitted CH3Br ranges from -53.2??? to -47.5???.

  2. Contrast of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal SST propagation during summer and winter over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2017-02-01

    This study documents the structure and propagation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations and relative contribution of surface latent heat flux and shortwave radiation to the SST propagation in the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) regions. The emphasis is on the contrast of intraseasonal SST propagation between summer and winter and between 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The dominant SST pattern during summer displays a tilted southwest-northeast band from the SCS to the subtropical WNP on both time scales, but with a larger value in the subtropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale and in the SCS on the 30-60-day time scale. The dominant SST pattern during winter resembles that during summer, but with a larger value in the SCS. In summer, the SST anomalies show obvious northwestward and northward propagations in the SCS-WNP region on the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales, respectively. The cloud-radiation effect is a dominant factor for the SST propagation on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region, with a supplementary effect from the wind-evaporation effect on the 10-20-day time scale. In winter, the SST anomalies show southward propagation on both time scales in the SCS, while the southward propagation in the WNP is weak and confined to the subtropics on the 10-20-day time scale. The wind-evaporation effect makes a larger contribution to the SST propagation than the cloud-radiation effect on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region.

  3. Resources for States and Tribes about Soil Fumigant Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and tribal agencies may seek EPA approval to provide pesticide applicators with an alternative to registrant-sponsored training. Find guidance on seeking approval, check lists for training options, and the NASDARF soil fumigation manual.

  4. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  5. Soil fumigation? In my area? What should I know?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When soil fumigants are applied, pesticides are released in the form of a gas and so must be carefully contained. There should be signs posted around the treated area indicating a buffer zone, in order to limit your exposure risk.

  6. PRN 84-5: Label Improvement Program for Fumigants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice required registrants of fumigant products to revise the labeling of products registered under FIFRA section 3 or 24(c) to include additional precautionary statements and other statements described in the notice.

  7. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area quarantined for sapote fruit fly that are to be moved outside the quarantined area may be treated with...

  8. Metam Sodium and Metam Potassium Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Safety training is required for certified pesticide applicators and handlers to handle soil fumigants. Measures to mitigate exposure include personal protective equipment, air monitoring, respiratory protection, and emergency preparedness.

  9. Fumigant Management Plan Templates - Phase 2 Files Listed by Chemical

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FMP templates are in PDF and Word formats for each type of soil fumigant pesticide, with samples of filled out plans. Types are by active ingredient chemical: Chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  10. Safety Information for Handlers of Pesticide Soil Fumigants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified applicators are required to provide this training to handlers in an application block or buffer zone. Information must include signs and symptoms of exposure, and where to find the Fumigant Management Plan and Worker Protection Standard.

  11. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise as a countermeasure against cardiovascular deconditioning after 60 days of head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Mickael; Yuan, Ming; Demiot, Claire; Bai, Yanqiang Q; Jiang, Shizhong Z; Li, Yongzhi Z; Arbeille, Philippe; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Levrard, Thibaud; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Li, Yinghui H

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration with resistive exercise is a promising countermeasure against some weightlessness-induced dysfunctions. Our objective was to study whether the combination of low-magnitude whole body vibration with a resistive exercise can prevent the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by a nonstrict 60-day head-down bed rest (Earth Star International Bed Rest Experiment Project). Fourteen healthy men participated in this study. We recorded electrocardiograms and blood pressure waves by means of a noninvasive beat-by-beat measurement system (Cardiospace, integrated by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Astronaut Center of China) during an orthostatic test (20 min of 75-degree head-up tilt test) before and immediately after bed rest. We estimated heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, baroreflex sensitivity, and heart rate variability. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise prevented an increase of the sympathetic index (reflecting the sympathovagal balance of cardiac autonomic control) and limited the decrease of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity induced by 60 days of head-down bed rest. However, this countermeasure had very little effect on cardiac hemodynamics and did not improve the orthostatic tolerance. This combined countermeasure did not efficiently prevent orthostatic intolerance but prevents changes in the autonomic nervous system associated with cardiovascular deconditioning. The underlying mechanisms remain hypothetical but might involve cutaneous and muscular mechanoreceptors.

  12. 60-Day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality: hormonal imbalance and oxidative stress as potential routes for reproductive dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline S; Torres, João Guilherme D; Peçanha, Franck M; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Vassallo, Dalton V; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control) and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day). We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury.

  13. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  14. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  15. Application of alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems.

    PubMed

    Ajwa, H A; Trout, T; Mueller, J; Wilhelm, S; Nelson, S D; Soppe, R; Shatley, D

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Strawberry fields in California (9,500 ha annually) are pre-plant fumigated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin to prevent serious soil pest and disease problems. Although soil fumigation with methyl bromide has ensured stability of strawberry production, its use is being discontinued because of its effect on stratospheric ozone. The likely short-term alternatives such as 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and metham sodium, although not ozone depleters, are potentially hazardous to the environment and humans if applied improperly. Water-soluble formulations of alternative fumigants can be applied through drip irrigation systems established to irrigate crops. In comparison to conventional shank methods of injection, application of soluble formulations through drip irrigation systems would be economical and environmentally friendly, reduce worker exposure, and allow for simultaneous or sequential application of a combination of fumigants. This paper discusses techniques developed to apply alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems, and reviews ongoing studies to determine optimum application rates, soil conditions, plastic mulches, and amount of irrigation water used to apply these alternative fumigants.

  16. 60 Days of Head-down Bedrest Differentially Alters Venous Function in Lower and Upper Body Between Healthy Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of orthostatic intolerance after space flight is disproportionally higher in female compared to male crewmembers (83% vs. 20%). Experimental and human data suggest that the loss of orthostatic tolerance is due, at least in part, to microgravity-induced changes in venous compliance and that these changes are specific to the lower body. It is unknown however, whether the changes in venous compliance are different between males and females after space flight, and whether this is related to the disparity in orthostatic intolerance between the sexes. Using 6deg head-down bed rest (BR) as a model of space flight, we tested the following hypotheses; 1) females, compared to males, would experience a greater increase in venous compliance in dorsal foot veins as an effect of BR and 2) no differences in venous compliance would be found in dorsal hand veins between sexes and across BR days. Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand (DHV) and foot vein (DFV) responses (diameter; expressed as sq mm) to 40 mmHg of congestion pressure (compliance) and to intravenous infusion of phenylephrine (PE; 3160ng/min) were determined in 10 females and 16 males before and after 60 days of BR. The relation between changes in vein diameter (in response to pressure and PE), sex, limb, and BR days were determined using a mixed-effect linear regression. It was found that after 60 days of BR, DFV dilator response to pressure was significantly greater in females and significantly less in males compared to pre-BR. As expected, there were no differences in DHV dilator response between sexes nor was there a significant difference between pre and post measures within groups. Notably, the venoconstrictor response to infusions of PE in the DHV and DFV where similar between sexes and across BR days. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that after 60 days of BR, dorsal foot veins are more compliant in women and less compliant in men. Moreover, the changes in lower body vein compliance in females do

  17. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  18. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  19. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  20. Fact Sheet on Measures Required to Protect Workers from Fumigant Exposures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These safety measures increase protections for fumigant handlers and other agricultural workers and bystanders from exposure to the soil fumigant pesticides chloropicrin, dazomet, metam sodium, metam potassium, and methyl bromide.

  1. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) The fumigants consist of methyl bromide. (2) To assure safe use of the fumigant, its label and...) Residues of inorganic bromides (calculated as Br) in milled fractions derived from cereal grain from all...

  2. Effects of phosphine fumigation on survivorship of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to regular and oxygenated phosphine fumigations at different temperatures to compare their susceptibilities to the two different fumigation methods and determine effective treatments in laboratory tests. LBAM eggs wer...

  3. Mitigating iodomethane emissions and iodide residues in fumigated soils.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Richeng; Ashworth, Daniel J; Wu, Laosheng; Yates, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries for preplant pest control. However, MeI is highly volatile and potentially carcinogenic to humans if inhaled. In addition, iodide anions, a breakdown product of MeI, can build up in fumigated soils and potentially cause plant toxicity and contaminate groundwater via leaching. In order to overcome the above two obstacles in MeI application, a method is proposed to place reactive bags containing ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH) on the soil surface underneath an impermeable plastic film covering the fumigated area. Our research showed that using this approach, over 99% of the applied MeI was quantitatively transferred to iodide. Of all the resulting iodide, only 2.7% remained in the fumigated soil, and 97.3% was contained in the reactive bag that can be easily removed after fumigation.

  4. Changes in microorganisms populations in the soil after fumigation.

    PubMed

    Meszka, B; Chałańska, A; Sobiczewski, P; Bryk, H; Malusa, E; Slusarski, C

    2011-01-01

    Soil fumigation with dazomet, metam sodium, chloropicrin and chloropicrin + 1.3 D resulted in significant decrease of fungi and increase of bacteria populations in trials carried out in four farms located in different areas. Depending on the farm and the active substance applied, the fungi population was decreased by 1.4- to 3500-fold in comparison to control. Metam sodium and chloropicrin showed the best efficacy, both of them almost totally eliminated the fungi from the soil environment.The total number of bacteria was increased by the chemical fumigation with all tested products. While the population of fluorescent Pseudomonads in all treated plots increased from 2- to 100-fold, depending on the farm, the number of Bacillus spp. was not changed or decreased compared with non fumigated soil.The nematology analysis of the soil indicated that any chemical fumigant significantly limited the population of plant parasitic nematodes, which number was, anyway, below the damage threshold. However, in most cases dazomet and metam sodium reduced the total number of all nematodes present in the soil.The fumigation with chloropicrin and 1,3 D at dose of 30 g/m2 resulted in an increase of the total number of all nematodes in soil.

  5. 46 CFR 147A.23 - Person in charge of vessel; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... persons on board the vessel who are not participating in the fumigation restrict their movement during fumigation to the spaces that are determined to be safe for occupancy under § 147A.11(b)(1)(i). (b) The... the exposure period, the person in charge of the vessel shall ensure that the space that is fumigated...

  6. 46 CFR 147A.23 - Person in charge of vessel; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... persons on board the vessel who are not participating in the fumigation restrict their movement during fumigation to the spaces that are determined to be safe for occupancy under § 147A.11(b)(1)(i). (b) The... the exposure period, the person in charge of the vessel shall ensure that the space that is fumigated...

  7. 46 CFR 147A.23 - Person in charge of vessel; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... persons on board the vessel who are not participating in the fumigation restrict their movement during fumigation to the spaces that are determined to be safe for occupancy under § 147A.11(b)(1)(i). (b) The... the exposure period, the person in charge of the vessel shall ensure that the space that is fumigated...

  8. Evaluation of TIF to reduce fumigant emissions and the potential to use reduced rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry growers in California rely heavily on soil fumigation to assure profitable berries and high yields. However, the adverse impact on air quality from fumigant emissions threatens the availability of fumigants for agricultural use. The objective of this research was to determine the performa...

  9. Effect of application rate on fumigant degradation in five agricultural soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigants continue to be used in soil disinfestation for many high value crops. There is a significant knowledge gap on how fumigant concentration in soil impacts fumigant dissipation and determination of the most efficient rate. The aim of this study was to determine the degradation characteristics...

  10. Biochar amendment to the soil surface reduces fumigant emissions and enhances soil microorganism recovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During soil fumigation, it is ideal to mitigate soil fumigant emissions, ensure pest control efficacy, and speed up the recovery of the soil microorganism population established post-application. However, there is currently no fumigant emission reduction strategy that can meet all the above requirem...

  11. Emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin after soil fumigation under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigation is an important agronomic practice in the production of many high-value vegetable and fruit crops. The use of soil fumigant chemicals can lead to excessive atmospheric emissions and information is needed to develop best management practices so that use of soil fumigants does not har...

  12. Different application rate on the degradation of several important soil fumigants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low permeability tarp can effectively retain soil fumigant and increase concentration time exposure indices in soil. As a result, there is a potential to use reduced fumigant application rate that are efficacious to control soil pests. However, information on the effect of varying fumigant amount on...

  13. A 60-day probiotic protocol with Dietzia subsp. C79793-74 prevents development of Johne's disease parameters after in utero and/or neonatal MAP infection.

    PubMed

    Click, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The research reported herein was designed to assess whether the bacterium, Dietzia subspecies C79793-74, used as a probiotic, could prevent development of parameters indicative of bovine paratuberculosis after potential in utero, birthing and neonatal (colostrum) exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Such exposure avenues are especially relevant for dairy farms practicing good management procedures since calves on these farms could be infected via dams that have yet to be identified as MAP-positive. Indeed, of 18 calves in the present study that became paratuberculosis parameter-positive, five had dams that were negative for all parameters pre-calving. Parameters used herein to define paratuberculosis status were serum ELISA, serum agar gel immunodiffusion, cultureable fecal MAP, histopathology at necropsy and clinical disease. Thirty-four newborn calves, whose dams were paratuberculosis-positive, were assigned to four different treatment groups. Ten were treated daily for 60 days with viable Dietzia added to their antibiotic-free milk feedings; none became positive for any parameter with age. In contrast, seven of eight calves that were not treated became positive for one or more paratuberculosis-associated parameter. Sixteen calves were treated with viable Dietzia for the first two days of life; eight were then not treated further, whereas the other eight were treated an additional 58 days with Dietzia added to tetracycline-fortified milk (Dietzia is sensitive to tetracycline). In these two groups, positivity developed in five of eight and six of eight, respectively. These results indicated that (a) a daily, 60-day treatment with viable Dietzia effectively prevented development of parameters indicative of paratuberculosis and (b) this treatment, in combination with good management practices, has the potential to eradicate MAP from animals/herds, which should curtail the spread of MAP. Such results should significantly reduce human

  14. A 60-day probiotic protocol with Dietzia subsp. C79793-74 prevents development of Johne's disease parameters after in utero and/or neonatal MAP infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The research reported herein was designed to assess whether the bacterium, Dietzia subspecies C79793-74, used as a probiotic, could prevent development of parameters indicative of bovine paratuberculosis after potential in utero, birthing and neonatal (colostrum) exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Such exposure avenues are especially relevant for dairy farms practicing good management procedures since calves on these farms could be infected via dams that have yet to be identified as MAP-positive. Indeed, of 18 calves in the present study that became paratuberculosis parameter-positive, five had dams that were negative for all parameters pre-calving. Parameters used herein to define paratuberculosis status were serum ELISA, serum agar gel immunodiffusion, cultureable fecal MAP, histopathology at necropsy and clinical disease. Thirty-four newborn calves whose dams were paratuberculosis-positive were assigned to four different treatment groups. Ten were treated daily for 60 days with viable Dietzia added to their antibiotic-free milk feedings; none became positive for any parameter with age. In contrast, seven of eight calves that were not treated became positive for one or more paratuberculosis-associated parameter. Sixteen calves were treated with viable Dietzia for the first two days of life; eight were then not treated further, whereas the other eight were treated an additional 58 days with Dietzia added to tetracycline-fortified milk (Dietzia is sensitive to tetracycline). In these two groups, positivity developed in five of eight and six of eight, respectively. These results indicated that (a) a daily, 60-day treatment with viable Dietzia effectively prevented development of parameters indicative of paratuberculosis and (b) this treatment, in combination with good management practices, has the potential to eradicate MAP from animals/herds, which should curtail the spread of MAP. Such results should significantly reduce human

  15. Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): Illumina-based de novo sequencing and differential transcript expression upon elevated NO2/O3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Strom, Tim-Matthias; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2017-05-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic annual ruderal plant and native to Northern America, but now also spreading across Europe. Air pollution and climate change will not only affect plant growth, pollen production and duration of the whole pollen season, but also the amount of allergenic encoding transcripts and proteins of the pollen. The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon NO2 and O3 fumigation. This will also contribute to a systems biology approach to understand the reaction of the allergenic pollen to air pollution and climate change. Ragweed plants were grown in climate chambers under controlled conditions and fumigated with enhanced levels of NO2 and O3. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly revealed significant differentially expressed transcripts, belonging to different gene ontology (GO) terms that were grouped into biological process and molecular function. Transcript levels of the known Amb a ragweed encoding allergens were clearly up-regulated under elevated NO2, whereas the amount of allergen encoding transcripts was more variable under elevated O3 conditions. Moreover transcripts encoding allergen known from other plants could be identified. The transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon elevated NO2 fumigation indicates that air pollution will alter the transcriptome of the pollen. The changed levels of allergenic encoding transcripts may have an influence on the total allergenic potential of ragweed pollen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Celebral, Splanchnic and Lower Limb Hemodynamic Response to LBNP after a 60 Day Bedrest With and Without Counter-Measures (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, P.; Kerbeci, P.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hughson, R.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: quantified the impact of a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) with countermeasures on the arterial response to LBNP. Method: 24 women (25-40y) divided into 3 groups [Control (Con), Exercise+LBNP (Ex-Lb) and Nutrition (Nut)] were studied during LBNP (0 to -45mmHg) pre and at HDBR day 55. A 10-min post- HDBR tilt test identified the finishers (F) or non-finishers (NF). Result: Left ventricle volume & myocardium, Portal flow were decreased from pre HDBR (p<0.05) in Con and Nut only. At post-HDBR LBNP: (1) HR increased more while Vao decreased more in all groups (2) Leg resistance increased less while the increase in MSNA was not different from pre HDBR in Con, Nut and NF (p<0.05) (3) both Femoral and Portal flow reduced less (less vasoconstriction) in 11 of 13 NF while in 10 of 11 F one of them at least reduced as pre HDBR (4) the [cerebral flow/(Fem + Portal flow)] ratio was higher or slightly reduced (<15%) in 10 of 11 F, but decreased >15% in 12 of 13 NF. Abnormal flow redistribution and orthostatic intolerance was partially prevented by Ex-LB.

  17. Body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    PubMed

    Ferolla da Camara Boueri, B; Ribeiro Pessanha, C; Rodrigues da Costa, L; Ferreira, M R; Saldanha Melo, H; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, M; Rozeno Pessoa, L; Alves da Silva, P C; Pereira, A D; Cavalcante Ribeiro, D; de Meneses, J A; Soares da Costa, C A; Teles Boaventura, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) mass, length and body composition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) body mass and length, body and trunk lean mass, bone mineral density and content and bone area. Flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to recovery of body composition after early weaning.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Odacı, E; Hancı, H; Yuluğ, E; Türedi, S; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Y; Kaya, H; Çolakoğlu, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure in utero to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymis. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 - 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared. We found a higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls. Immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure also were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of NEMFG testis. Nuclear changes that indicated apoptosis were identified in TUNEL stained sections and large numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in most of the seminiferous tubule epithelium in the NEMFG. Sixty-day-old rat testes exposed to 900 MHz EMF exhibited altered sperm quality and biochemical characteristics.

  19. Effectiveness analysis of fumigation strategy in dengue disease prevention program (Case study: Jakarta province, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustine, D.; Mahatma, Y.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model of dengue disease with fumigation intervention for mosquito population will discussed in this article. Interaction between human and mosquitoes population will based on SIR-SI host-vector model. Side effect of fumigation where mosquito capable to developed a resistance to fumigation will be accommodated in to the model. Equilibrium points and basic reproductive ratio as the endemic criteria will be shown analytically. Some numerical results are shown to give a back up reasoning for analytical result. We conclude that resistance of mosquitoes to fumigation intervention play an important role in fumigation strategy.

  20. Kinetics of soot oxidation by NO2.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Manish; Nguyen, Anh; Zheng, Zhongqing; Wu, Hao-Wei; Jung, Heejung S

    2010-06-15

    Modern technologies use NO(2) to promote low-temperature soot oxidation for diesel particulate filter regeneration. In this study, the online aerosol technique of high-temperature oxidation tandem differential mobility analysis is used to study kinetics of soot oxidation by NO(2). Soot particles are exposed to varying temperature and NO(2) mixing ratio inside the furnace resulting from thermal decomposition of NO(2) to NO. This causes soot oxidation rates to vary throughout the furnace. Variations in temperatures and NO(2) mixing ratio are thoroughly accounted for the first time. Soot oxidation rates are calculated as a function of frequency factor A(soot), activation energy E(soot), and concentration of NO(2) within the furnace at temperatures ranging from 500 to 950 degrees C. Results suggest A(soot) and E(soot) values for soot oxidation of 2.4 x 10(-14) (nm K(-0.5) s(-1) cm(3) molecule(-1)) and 47.1 kJ mol(-1), respectively, when reaction order to NO(2) is assumed as unity. The activation energy for soot oxidation with NO(2) is significantly lower than oxidation with air. However, parts per million levels of NO(2) cause soot oxidation at low temperatures suggesting NO(2) is a stronger oxidant than O(2).

  1. Kinetics of soot oxidation by NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Nguyen, Anh; Zheng, Zhongqing; Wu, Hao-Wei; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2010-06-15

    Modern technologies use NO2 to promote low temperature soot oxidation for diesel particulate filter regeneration. Most previous methods studied soot oxidation with NO2 using offline methods such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). In this study, the online aerosol-technique of high-temperature oxidation tandem differential mobility analysis (HTO-TDMA) is used to study kinetics of soot oxidation with NO2 under N2 environment. This method has significant advantages over previous offline methods in reducing heat and mass transfer diffusion limitations to the soot surface. Soot particles are exposed to varying temperature and NO2 concentration inside the furnace resulting from thermal decomposition of NO2 to NO. This causes soot oxidation rates to vary throughout the furnace. In this study, variations in temperatures, NO2 concentrations and particle residence times are thoroughly accounted for the first time, and soot oxidation rates are derived. Soot oxidation rate is calculated as a function of Arrhenius rate constant Asoot, activation energy Esoot, and partial pressure of NO2 PNO2 within the furnace at temperatures ranging 500- 950 C. Results suggest Asoot and Esoot values for soot oxidation with NO2 of 1.68 nm K-0.5 s-1 (Nm-2)-n and 46.5 kJ mol-1 respectively. The activation energy for soot oxidation with NO2 is significantly lower than oxidation with air. However, ppm levels of NO2 cause soot oxidation at low temperatures suggesting NO2 is a stronger oxidant than O2. This study also shows that a semi-empirical approach with just a few kinetic parameters could represent varying soot oxidation rates in a diesel engine cylinder or on a diesel particulate filter. Further studies should be directed towards understanding synergistic effects of other oxidants as O2 and H2O in addition to NO2 using the HTO-TDMA method.

  2. Experimental Infection of Sheep at 45 and 60 Days of Gestation with Schmallenberg Virus Readily Led to Placental Colonization without Causing Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Main impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on livestock consists in reproductive disorders, with teratogenic effects, abortions and stillbirths. SBV pathogenesis and viral placental crossing remain currently poorly understood. Therefore, we implemented an experimental infection of ewes, inoculated with SBV at 45 or 60 days of gestation (dg). Methodology “Mourerous” breed ewes were randomly separated in three groups: eight and nine ewes were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum at 45 and 60 dg, respectively (G45 and G60). Six other ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with sterile phosphate buffer saline as control group. All SBV inoculated ewes showed RNAemia consistent with previously published studies, they seroconverted and no clinical sign was reported. Lambs were born at term via caesarian-section, and right after birth they were blood sampled and clinically examined. Then both lambs and ewes were euthanatized and necropsied. Principal Findings/Significance No lambs showed any malformation suggestive of SBV infection and none of them had RNAemia or anti-SBV antibodies prior to colostrum uptake. Positive SBV RNA detection in organs was rare in both G45 and G60 lambs (2/11 and 1/10, respectively). Nevertheless most of the lambs in G45 (9/11) and G60 (9/10) had at least one extraembryonic structure SBV positive by RTqPCR. The number of positive extraembryonic structures was significantly higher in G60 lambs. Time of inoculation (45 or 60 dg) had no impact on the placental colonization success rate but affected the frequency of detecting the virus in the offspring extraembryonic structures by the time of lambing. SBV readily colonized the placenta when ewes were infected at 45 or 60 dg but infection of the fetuses was limited and did not lead to congenital malformations. PMID:26418420

  3. Temporal Artery Flow Response during the Last Minute of a Head Up Tilt Test, in Relation with Orthostatic Intolerance after a 60 Day Head-Down Bedrest

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yanqiang; Jiang, Shizhong; Gauquelin, Gullemette; Aubry, Patrick; Wan, Yuming; Custaud, Marc Antoine; Li, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective Check if the Temporal flow response to Tilt could provide early hemodynamic pattern in the minutes preceding a syncope during the Tilt test performed after a 60-d head down bedrest (HDBR). Method Twenty-one men divided into 3 groups [Control (Con), Resistive Vibration (RVE) and Chinese Herb (Herb)] underwent a 60 day HDBR. Pre and Post HDBR a 20 min Tilt identified Finishers (F) and Non Finishers (NF). Cerebral (MCA), Temporal (TEMP), Femoral (FEM) flow velocity, were measured by Doppler during the Tilt. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by arm cuff and cardiopress. Results and Discussion Four of the 21 subjects were NF at the post HDBR Tilt test (Con gr:2, RVE gr: 1, Herb gr: 1). At 1 min and 10 s before end of Tilt in NF gr, FEM flow decreased less and MCA decreased more at post HDBR Tilt compared to pre (p<0.05), while in the F gr they changed similarly as pre. In NF gr: TEMP flow decreased more at post HDBR Tilt compared to pre, but only at 10 s before the end of Tilt (P<0.05). During the last 10 s a negative TEMP diastolic component appeared which induced a drop in mean velocity until Tilt arrest. Conclusion The sudden drop in TEMP flow with onset of a negative diastolic flow preceding the decrease in MCA flow confirm that the TEMP vascular resistance respond more directly than the cerebral one to the cardiac output redistribution and that this response occur several seconds before syncope. PMID:22073117

  4. Pathology smorgasboard: Biocontrol, pathogen movement, and recent fumigation results.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on soilborne pathogens, disease control, and new forest diseases of interest were presented at the Western Forest and Conservation Nursery Association meeting in 2016. Research topics included reduced-rate soil fumigation, Pythium diversity and biocontrol, pathogen movement among nurseries,...

  5. Mitigating iodomethane emissions and iodide residues in fumigated soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries ...

  6. Reactive films for mitigating methyl bromide emissions from fumigated soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emissions of methyl bromide (MeBr) from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and so its use is being phased out. However, as MeBr is still widely used under Critical Use Exemptions, strategies are still required to control such emissions. In this work, nove...

  7. Dose Response of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens to Soil Fumigants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cut flower growers in California have routinely used methyl bromide with and without chloropicrin for pre-plant soil fumigation for the control of soilborne pathogens and weeds. Recent research to identify alternatives to methyl bromide for flower growers has involved combinations of 1,3-dichlorop...

  8. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  9. Synthesis of Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizae on Pecan Seedlings in Fumigated Soil

    Treesearch

    Donald H. Marx

    1979-01-01

    Curtis variety of pecan (Carya illinoensis) seedlings were grown for 8 months in fumigated soil infested at sowing with mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius. Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae were formed on all inoculated seedlings and significantly improved their growth over control seedlings. Inoculated and control seedlings also formed ectomycorrhizae with naturally...

  10. Performance of two solid fumigants in covered bridges

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Konkler; Mark A. Newbill; Stan Lebow; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    2017-01-01

    The potential for two solid wood fumigants, dazomet and methylisothiocyanate (MITC), to move through wood at levels sufficient to arrest decay in covered bridges was assessed. Dazomet alone failed to decompose to MITC and move into the wood at effective levels, probably because too little moisture was available for breakdown. Adding a copper accelerant improved dazomet...

  11. Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects

    Treesearch

    S. Lee; Chris J. Peterson; J.R. Coats

    2003-01-01

    Twenty naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated in a preliminary fumigation screening test on some important stored-product pest insects, including the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the sawtoothed grain beetle, 0ryzaephilus surinamensis, the house fly,

  12. Responses of the lichen Ramalina menziesii Tayl. to ozone fumigations

    Treesearch

    J. Riddell; T.H. Nash; P. Padgett

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a strong oxidant, and is known to have serious negative effects on forest health. Lichens have bccn used as biomonitors of the effects of air pollution on forest health for sulfur and nitrogen pollutants. However, effects of O3 on lichens are not well understood, as past fumigation studies and...

  13. PESTICIDE MODELS FOR SIMULATING ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigants are a special group of pesticides that possess relatively high vapor pressure. Thus a large fraction is in the vapor phase after application in the substrate soil environment. Because of the high vapor pressure, they are also volatile organic compounds with strong potential for air p...

  14. Improved soil fumigation by Telone C35 using carbonation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field trial was conducted to investigate whether carbonating Telone C35 (1,3-dichloropropene with 35% chloropicrin) would improve the delivery of the fumigant to such an extent that the application rate could be decreased without sacrificing efficacy. The plastic films used were black virtually impe...

  15. Methods evaluated to minimize emissions from preplant soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing emissions from soil fumigation is required to comply with environmental regulations. Low emissions can be achieved through management of application methods such as deep injection and subsurface drip, physical barrier with plastic films, irrigation to form water seals or achieve relatively ...

  16. Alternatives to preplant soil fumigation for Western forest nurseries.

    Treesearch

    Diane M. Hildebrand; Jeffrey K. Stone; Robert L. James; Susan J. Frankel

    2004-01-01

    Field trials at six bare-root forest tree nurseries in the Western United States compared cultural treatments including timing and depth of sowing; bare fallow (with and without periodic tilling); organic amendments including sawdust, composts, and cover crops; mulches including pine needles, sawdust, and rice straw; and fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin or...

  17. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Barger; Richard W. Hall; Alden M. Townsend; Alden M. Townsend

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhallta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity...

  18. Plastic Films for Soil Fumigation: Permeability and Emissions Reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil fumigation is being increasingly regulated to protect human and environmental health. Current California regulations are based on field data and, in effect, assume that use of a standard polyethylene tarp does not reliably reduce emissions. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during so...

  19. Response of soil organisms to dimethyl disulfide fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After the commonly used soil fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in the United States, alternatives to MeBr such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) which is known to have broad pest control spectrum, is increasingly used. However, effectiveness of DMDS has been mainly investigated to study targe...

  20. Improved soil fumigation by Telone C35 using carbonation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2011-01-01

    Soil fumigation to control pests and pathogens is an important part of current agricultural practice. A reduction in fumigant emissions is required to ensure worker safety and environment health. A field trial in Florida was conducted to investigate whether carbonating Telone C35™ ((Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene with 35 % chloropicrin) would improve the delivery of the fumigant to such an extent that the application rate could be decreased without sacrificing efficacy. All treatments were carried out in three replications in a complete block design. The use of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) to carbonate and pressurize Telone C35 provided quicker and deeper distribution initially compared to application by nitrogen gas (N(2)) pressurization. The deeper distribution of Telone C35 components found with CO(2) application may have lowered the initial concentration of Telone C35, but it did not appreciably alter the disappearance rate of the three chemicals, chloropicrin, (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene. The faster vertical distribution within the bedded soil of the Telone C35 by CO(2) did enhance volatilization of the active ingredients into the atmosphere compared to volatilization of similar reduced rate applied by N(2) pressurization. However, the cumulative amount volatilized from the carbonated fumigant beds at 75 % application rate was lower than the cumulative amount emitted by full rate of Telone C35 using N(2). The efficacy of the carbonated Telone C35 at a lower application rate was statistically equivalent to that of non-carbonated fumigant using N(2) pressurized injection at a higher application rate, based on weed enumeration and the root-knot nematode galling index.

  1. Evaluation of the permeability of agricultural films to various fumigants.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yaorong; Kamel, Alaa; Stafford, Charles; Nguyen, Thuy; Chism, William J; Dawson, Jeffrey; Smith, Charles W

    2011-11-15

    A variety of agricultural films are commercially available for managing emissions and enhancing pest control during soil fumigation. These films are manufactured using different materials and processes which can ultimately result in different permeability to fumigants. A systematic laboratory study of the permeability of the agricultural films to nine fumigants was conducted to evaluate the performance of commonly used film products, including polyethylene, metalized, and high-barrier films. The permeability, as expressed by mass transfer coefficient (cm/h), of 27 different films from 13 manufacturers ranged from below 1 × 10(-4) cm/h to above 10 cm/h at 25 °C under ambient relative humidity test conditions. The wide range in permeability of commercially available films demonstrates the need to use films which are appropriate for the fumigation application. The effects of environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity, on the film permeability were also investigated. It was found that high relative humidity could drastically increase the permeability of the high-barrier films. The permeability of some high-barrier films was increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude when the films were tested at high relative humidity. Increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 °C increased the permeability for some high-barrier films up to 10 times more than the permeability at 25 °C, although the effect was minimal for several of these films. Analysis of the distribution of the permeability of the films under ambient humidity conditions to nine fumigants indicated that the 27 films largely followed the material type, although the permeability varied considerably among the films of similar material.

  2. Revisiting satellite derived tropospheric NO2 trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide levels can be used as tracer of anthropogenic pollution as NOx, the sum of NO and NO2, is released during fossil fuel combustion. With its short atmospheric lifetime, atmospheric NO2 can be easily linked to its sources. Using its structured absorption cross section in the blue spectral region, NO2 amounts can be derived from measurements of backscattered solar radiation with the help of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 became possible with the launch of the GOME instrument in 1995, and since then a series of instruments including SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI provide spectral data which can be used to quantify NO2 columns in the troposphere. Using these observations, spatial distributions of NO2, its sources and transport pathways as well as temporal changes have been investigated over the last years. In particular the latter have shown remarkable atmospheric developments with large reductions of NO2 levels in many industrialised countries and dramatic increases in regions with growing economies, most notably in China but also in many other countries. In this study, recent trends of satellite derived NO2 columns are evaluated using data from all available instruments with a focus on the last years. Combination of data taken from the two GOME-2 instruments and OMI improves coverage and sensitivity, and also provides important constraints on the reliability of the satellite data set. As in previous studies, large changes in NO2 columns are found in many regions, in particular over China where after two years of stagnating NO2 levels an unexpected substantial reduction is observed for 2014.

  3. Treatment of unobserved oestrus in a dairy cattle herd with low oestrous detection rate up to 60 days post-partum.

    PubMed

    Mateus, L; da Costa, L Lopes; Cardos, J J Alfaro; Silva, J Robalo

    2002-02-01

    The efficiency of treatments for unobserved oestrus and their effect on the reproductive performance of a dairy cattle herd with low oestrous detection rate till 60 days post-partum (dpp), attributed to the declivous and slippery concrete floor were investigated. The herdsman requested advice in order to improve the mean days open of the herd, but no investments were allowed because a new unit was about to be built. Due to the low oestrus detection rate of the herd, the breeding policy was to inseminate at the first detected post-partum oestrus. Cows were examined at 20-30 dpp to assess uterine involution, ovarian activity and prevalence of reproductive disorders and, at 60 dpp if no previous oestrus was detected. Each examination included palpation per rectum, ultrasound scanning and collection of a blood sample for plasma progesterone (P4) measurement. Cows with unobserved oestrus till 60 dpp were allocated either to a treatment group (n=139) or to a control group (n=139). Three treatments were used: (a) injection of PGF(2 alpha) (PG) upon detection of a corpus luteum (CL; n = 30), cows not observed in oestrus being re-injected 11-12 days later. AI was at oestrus; (b) PRID (n=35) or Crestar (n=74) devices kept in situ for 12 and 9 days, respectively, were associated to an injection of PG and of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at device removal. Cows were double-fixed time-inseminated at 48 and 72 h after device removal. All treated cows were examined at 48-72 h after treatment to confirm oestrus. The percentage of cows detected in oestrus up to 60 dpp remained unchanged through the trial (35 and 47% for years before intervention: 1994-95; 51 and 48% for years of intervention: 1996-97). In contrast, the oestrous detection rate was high both in treated (93%) and control (100%) cows. This possibly resulted from an improvement in the oestrous detection efficiency of the herd's personnel and from examination of cows at 48-72 h after treatment. Treated and control

  4. Periconceptional undernutrition increases quantity and quality of oocyte population, but not cognitive or emotional response of 60-day-old lambs.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Lobón, S; Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Forcada, F; Meikle, A; Sosa, C; Marín, R H; Silva, M A; Maria, G A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition on behavioural and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Fifty ewes were synchronized in oestrus (day 0) and allocated to two groups (n = 25) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance until day 15. Ewes were mated and fed the control diet from day 16 until lambing. Two months after lambing, 26 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive/emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization procedures performed. The experimental diets produced no changes of mean live weight (LW) of C ewes, L ewes presenting a reduction in their initial LW with significant differences at day 15, in comparison with C ewes (p < 0.05). L ewes experienced a significant reduction in their body condition (BC) in comparison with C ewes (p < 0.05). Fourteen days after the onset of the experimental diets, mean LW and BC of L ewes was significantly lower than those of C ewes (p < 0.05). Undernourished ewes presented a trend to a reduction of prolificacy and fecundity (p < 0.10) in comparison with C ewes. Emotional and cognitive test revealed a similar response between groups. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a population of oocytes 1.7 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (66.0 ± 0.73 vs. 113.7 ± 15.6 oocytes; p < 0.05) and had more oocytes in the 'good' (p < 0.05) and 'healthy' (p < 0.05) categories. In conclusion, a low plane of nutrition around conception significantly increases quantity and quality of the oocyte population of 60-day-old female descendants. Modifications of the cognitive and emotional responses of the progeny have not been evidenced. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The AOTF-based NO2 camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Vanhamel, Jurgen; Van Opstal, Bert; Fussen, Didier

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of NO2 in the boundary layer relates to air quality and pollution source monitoring. Observing the spatiotemporal distribution of NO2 above well-delimited (flue gas stacks, volcanoes, ships) or more extended sources (cities) allows for applications such as monitoring emission fluxes or studying the plume dynamic chemistry and its transport. So far, most attempts to map the NO2 field from the ground have been made with visible-light scanning grating spectrometers. Benefiting from a high retrieval accuracy, they only achieve a relatively low spatiotemporal resolution that hampers the detection of dynamic features. We present a new type of passive remote sensing instrument aiming at the measurement of the 2-D distributions of NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) with a high spatiotemporal resolution. The measurement principle has strong similarities with the popular filter-based SO2 camera as it relies on spectral images taken at wavelengths where the molecule absorption cross section is different. Contrary to the SO2 camera, the spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) capable of resolving the target molecule's spectral features. The NO2 camera capabilities are demonstrated by imaging the NO2 abundance in the plume of a coal-fired power plant. During this experiment, the 2-D distribution of the NO2 SCD was retrieved with a temporal resolution of 3 min and a spatial sampling of 50 cm (over a 250 × 250 m2 area). The detection limit was close to 5 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with a maximum detected SCD of 4 × 1017 molecules cm-2. Illustrating the added value of the NO2 camera measurements, the data reveal the dynamics of the NO to NO2 conversion in the early plume with an unprecedent resolution: from its release in the air, and for 100 m upwards, the observed NO2 plume concentration increased at a rate of 0.75-1.25 g s-1. In joint campaigns with SO2 cameras, the NO2 camera could also help in removing the bias introduced by the

  6. Impact of NO2 Profile Shape in OMI Tropospheric NO2 Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamsal, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, K.; Schwartz, W. H.; Celarier, E. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Philip, S.; Nowlan, C.; Martin, R. V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Tropospheric NO2 columns from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors have been widely used to understand sources and chemistry of NOx. We have implemented several improvements to the operational algorithm developed at NASA GSFC and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. We present tropospheric NO2 validation studies of the new OMI Standard Product version 2.1 using ground-based and in-situ aircraft measurements. We show how vertical profile of scattering weight and a-priori NO2 profile shapes, which are taken from chemistry-transport models, affect air mass factor (AMF) and therefore tropospheric NO2 retrievals. Users can take advantage of scattering weights information that is made available in the operational NO2 product. Improved tropospheric NO2 data retrieved using thoroughly evaluated high spatial resolution NO2 profiles are helpful to test models.

  7. Ruby laser induced emission from NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakala, D. F.; Reeves, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two different types of emission from excited NO2 were observed using pulsed ruby laser light at 6943 A. The first type of fluorescence was seen in the near IR and results from the single photon excitation of NO2 from the ground 2-A1 state. By observing the emission as a function of time an unexpected behavior was observed in the near IR and could be explained by a consecutive deactivation mechanism, wherein a secondary species is preferentially detected. A second type of emission recently observed in the blue spectral region is weaker and is due to a multiphoton process. The intensity of the blue emission is a function of the cube of the laser intensity at low pressures and approaches the square at high pressures. This variation is attributed to simultaneous deactivation of the excited NO2 intermediate by collision (square) and by anti-Stokes Raman scattering off of the excited NO2 (cube).

  8. Ruby laser induced emission from NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakala, D. F.; Reeves, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two different types of emission from excited NO2 were observed using pulsed ruby laser light at 6943 A. The first type of fluorescence was seen in the near IR and results from the single photon excitation of NO2 from the ground 2-A1 state. By observing the emission as a function of time an unexpected behavior was observed in the near IR and could be explained by a consecutive deactivation mechanism, wherein a secondary species is preferentially detected. A second type of emission recently observed in the blue spectral region is weaker and is due to a multiphoton process. The intensity of the blue emission is a function of the cube of the laser intensity at low pressures and approaches the square at high pressures. This variation is attributed to simultaneous deactivation of the excited NO2 intermediate by collision (square) and by anti-Stokes Raman scattering off of the excited NO2 (cube).

  9. Effects of phosphine fumigation on survivorship of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Liu, Samuel S; Simmons, Gregory; Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W

    2013-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to phosphine fumigations under normal atmospheric and elevated oxygen levels in laboratory-scale chamber experiments to compare their susceptibilities to the two different fumigation methods. In fumigations conducted under atmospheric oxygen at 5 and 10 degrees C, egg survivorship decreased with increase in phosphine concentration but then increased at a concentration of 3,000 ppm; this increase was significant at 10 degrees C. Based on egg survivorship data, phosphine fumigations conducted in a 60% oxygen atmosphere were significantly more effective than those conducted under atmospheric oxygen conditions. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations at 5 and 10 degrees C killed all 1,998 and 2,213 E. postvittana eggs treated, respectively, after 72 h of exposure. These results indicate the great potential of oxygenated phosphine fumigation for the control of E. postvittana eggs.

  10. Interaction between nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide production in fumigated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Ma, Taotao; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-02-01

    Soil fumigation can increase mineral nitrogen due to the mineralization of soil microbial biomass killed during the fumigation, and as a result nitrous oxide (N2O) emission would increase. In addition, a fumigant's impact on soil nitrification and denitrification would also alter the dynamics of N2O production in fumigated soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to quantify the dynamic changes in N2O production following various fumigant treatments, and to determine the interaction between nitrification, denitrification and N2O production in fumigated soils. Results showed a substantial increase in NH4+-N and dissolved amino acids (DAA) during 7 days fumigation at 1WAF (week after fumigation). The application of fumigants caused significant inhibition of nitrification. However the results relating to potential denitrification were quite different. The rates of potential denitrification in chloropicrin (Pic) and dazomet (DZ) treatments at 1WAF were 3.5 and 5.6 times higher than the untreated control. Potential denitrification was greatly stimulated after Pic and DZ fumigation. The N2O production rates in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were significantly higher than the untreated control at 1WAF in the tested soil type. The cumulative N2O emissions in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were also significantly higher than the untreated control, but there were no significant differences among 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and untreated control. A positive relationship between N2O production and potential denitrification (PDN) was observed (r = 0.951, P < 0.01). Pic and DZ are both nitrogenous compounds. The breakdown products of Pic and DZ would be available for microbial-aided denitrification reactions as nitrogen sources leading to N2O production, indicating that Pic and DZ degradation stimulated denitrification activity responsible for soil N2O production.

  11. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  12. [Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

    2010-03-01

    The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  13. Emission and soil distribution of fumigants in forest tree nurseries

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Jennifer Juzwik; Stephen Fraedrich

    2005-01-01

    Production of tree seedlings in the majority of forest nurseries in the USA has relied on soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to control soil-borne plant pathogens, weeds, parasitic nematodes and insects. Since the announcement of the scheduled MeBr phase-out, a number of nurseries throughout the United States have participated in research programs on MeBr...

  14. NO2 Detection Using Microcantilever Based Potentiometry

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Muhammad; Koley, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and novel sensor platform for gases and volatile chemicals using microcantilever based potentiometry is reported. A resonant cantilever is used to detect the changes in surface work functions of functionalized substrates caused by adsorption of target gas molecules. Surface work function (SWF) changes were measured for different functionalization layers made of transition metal oxide thin films with the flow of NO2. The rate of change in SWF for In2O3 and SnO2 were found to be ∼80 and ∼100 μV/sec, respectively, for 70 ppm NO2. A sensitivity of 64 μV/sec for SWF change was also found for 70 ppm NO2 concentration for isolated clusters of ZnO nanowires, indicating that this technique is applicable even for nano-clusters of sensing materials where amperometric detection is impossible due to material discontinuity. NO2 detection as low as 400 ppb was possible using highly insulating In2O3 and SnO2 thin films (resistivity > 1 TΩ/□. Two different forms of nano scale graphite were compared with the transition oxide based functionalization layer for sensing sub-ppm NO2 sensing. It was observed that nanostructured graphite (NG) shows much higher sensitivity and lower response time than transition metal oxides. PMID:27873919

  15. Actual hazard of methyl bromide fumigation in soil disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Oever, R U; Roosels, D; Lahaye, D

    1982-01-01

    Methyl bromide, a highly toxic and ready penetrating fumigant, is widely used against rodents, insects, mites, and a range of pathogenic organisms in soil, compost, and timber. To disinfect soil in greenhouses, methyl bromide is brought under pressure from outside by a vaporiser and blown on to ground under a polyethylene cover. The gas being three times heavier than air easily penetrates the ground. Depending on the local ventilation, a considerable amount of gas evaporates into the surrounding atmosphere, this emission being especially serious during the fumigation procedure and at the removal of the plastic cover. Previously, mechanical injection of methyl bromide on to the ground within closed areas was prohibited, since this technique exposed at least four disinfection workers at a time, who were provided with only a canister respirator, to gas concentrations of over 1000 ppm CH3Br. The present study established that fumigation with methyl bromide also carries risks for the well-protected worker inside, as well as for the one controlling the vaporiser. The concentration during application varies from 30 to 3000 ppm. Concentration in the air declines with time to 4 ppm CH3Br five days after application. Discarding the plastic sheet involves exposure to peak values as high as 200 ppm for a few seconds. On the ninth day after application, milling the soil can expose workers to up to 15 ppm; on the eleventh day no CH3Br concentration in the air could be found. PMID:7066229

  16. Toxicity of phosphine fumigation against Bactrocera tau at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Tao; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Dong, Shujun; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-04-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker) is one of the most harmful pests to fruits and vegetables. To counteract this pest, the development of phytosanitary treatment is required to comply with the pest regulation requirements of certain countries. This study investigated the toxicity of phosphine fumigation against B. tau under low temperature conditions. Different growth stages (eggs and instars) of B. tau were exposed to 1.07 mg/liter phosphine for 1-10 d at 5 degrees C, and compared with unfumigated flies at 5 degrees C. The results showed that tolerance to cold treatment alone or phosphine fumigation at low temperatures generally increased with the stage of insect development. However, eggs incubated for 12 h at 25 degrees C represented the most tolerant growth stage to phosphine fumigation at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, 8.56- to 2.18-d exposure periods were required to achieve 99% mortality with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 3.81 mg/liter. C0.62 t = k expression was obtained from the LT99 values, indicating that the exposure time was more important than the phosphine concentration.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Dazomet Soil Fumigation and Clonostachys rosea Against Cucumber Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Soil fumigation and biological control are two control measures frequently used against soilborne diseases. In this study, the chemical fumigant dazomet was applied in combination with the biocontrol agent (BCA) Clonostachys rosea 67-1 to combat cucumber wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum KW2-1. When the mycoparasite C. rosea 67-1 was applied after dazomet fumigation, disease control reached 100%, compared with 88.1 and 69.8% for dazomet and 67-1 agent, respectively, applied alone, indicating a synergistic effect of dazomet and C. rosea in combating cucumber Fusarium wilt based on analysis of Bliss Independence. To understand the synergistic mechanism, the effects of chemical fumigation on the colonization potential and activity of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and the interaction between the BCA and the pathogen were investigated. The results showed that growth of the pathogen decreased with increasing dazomet concentration subsequent to fumigation. When exposed to dazomet at 100 ppm, the fungal sporulation rate decreased by 94.4%. Severe damage was observed in fumigated isolates using scanning electron microscopy. In the greenhouse, disease incidence of cucumber caused by fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly decreased. Whereas germination of C. rosea 67-1 spores increased by >sixfold in fumigated soil, and its ability to parasitize fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly increased (P = 0.014).

  18. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  19. Effect of application variables on emissions and distribution of fumigants applied via subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Dungan, Robert S; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin; Lesch, Scott M; Yates, Scott R

    2004-11-01

    Soil fumigation is useful for controlling soil-borne pests and diseases in high-cash-value crops. Fumigants are highly volatile, and approaches to reduce atmospheric emissions are required to protect human and environmental health. Application of fumigants through drip irrigation has been proposed as a means to decrease fumigant emissions, improve fumigant distribution in soil, and minimize worker exposure. These experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the configuration of the drip system on the volatilization and distribution of the fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), propargyl bromide (PrBr), and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in bedded systems. Results indicated that changing the drip emitter spacing and using multiple drip lines in each bed had little effect on the emissions and distribution of any fumigant. Increasing the depth of application from 15 to 30 cm reduced volatilization of MITC by approximately 20 to >90%; emissions were reduced due to a decrease in the flux from the bed top, and deeper injection did not change the amount of fumigant volatilized from the bed side slope and furrow. Increasing the application depth resulted in a slight decrease in the rate of fumigant dissipation in soil, indicating the potential for some improvement in pest-control efficacy with deeper application.

  20. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-12-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  2. The sulfur-fumigation reduces chemical composition and biological properties of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Su, Zi-Ren; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-09-25

    Angelica Sinensis Radix (roots of Angelica sinensis; ASR) is a popular herbal supplement in China for promoting blood circulation. Today, sulfur-fumigation is commonly used to treat ASR as a means of pest control; however, the studies of sulfur-fumigation on the safety and efficacy of ASR are very limited. Here, we elucidated the destructive roles of sulfur-fumigation on ASR by chemical and biological assessments. After sulfur-fumigation, the chemicals in ASR were significantly lost. The biological activities of anti-platelet aggregation, induction of NO production and estrogenic properties were compared between the water extracts of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated ASR. In all cases, the sulfur-fumigation significantly reduced the biological properties of ASR. In addition, application of water extract deriving from sulfur-fumigated ASR showed toxicity to cultured MCF-7 cells. In order to ensure the safety and to achieve the best therapeutic effect, it is recommended that sulfur-fumigation is an unacceptable approach for processing herbal materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Rare craniofacial anomaly: Tessier no. 2 cleft.

    PubMed

    Ozek, C; Gundogan, H; Bilkay, U; Cankayali, R; Guner, U; Gurler, T; Songur, E

    2001-07-01

    Four cases of facial cleft that fit the anatomic description of the rare Tessier no. 2 cleft, with two patients having the no. 12 cleft extending to the cranium as no. 2 clefts, are presented. In all patients, clinical expressions of the anomaly were different. Thus, diverse surgical procedures were used in all cases. These cases and review of the literature help to define the soft-tissue and bony course of these clefts, and also emphasize the role of three-dimensional computed tomography scan imaging to show the bony cleft route. The diagnosis and treatment plan of the no. 2 cleft as well as its cranial counterpart are discussed in this report.

  4. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  5. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  6. Rapid determination of fumigant and industrial chemical residues in food.

    PubMed

    Daft, J L

    1988-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method is described for the determination of 22 fumigant and industrial chemical residues in a variety of foods. The fumigants and industrial chemicals determined are methyl bromide, methylene chloride, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethane, ethylene dichloride, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methylene bromide, propylene dichloride, 2,3-dichloropropene, trichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, chloropicrin, ethylene dibromide, tetrachloroethylene, propylene dibromide, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Except for the latter three, the fumigants are determined at 90 degrees C on 3.6 m 20% loaded OV-101 columns with electron-capture and Hall-electroconductivity detectors. The other 3 compounds (o-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), which elute beyond 30 min on the above columns, are determined at 90 degrees C on 1.8 m 5% loaded OV-101 columns with the same detectors. The ng/g-level fortifications have an overall mean analyte recovery of 70% and a coefficient of variation of 40%. The variety of foods examined includes both fatty and nonfatty food types (e.g., off-the-shelf cooked and uncooked grain-based items, dairy products, fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, and meats). Samples are extracted and cleaned up according to fat content and food type. Samples containing less than 71% fat are extracted by using an aqueous: nonaqueous shakeout (20% acetone solution under isooctane). Most extracts (isooctanes) are analyzed directly. Extracts from samples containing from 21 to 70% fat (e.g., ground beef, pecans, and corn chips) are cleaned up further on micro-Florisil columns to remove excess fat. A few other samples containing more than 71% fat or oil (e.g., butter, salad dressing, and vegetable oil) are diluted directly in isooctane and, depending on the degree of dilution, can be cleaned up further on

  7. Fumigation toxicity of volatile natural and synthetic cyanohydrins to stored-product pests and activity as soil fumigants.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Sik; Peterson, Chris; Zhao, Shaohan; Coats, Joel R

    2004-08-01

    Insecticidal fumigation toxicity of natural and synthetic cyanohydrins was evaluated with four stored-product pests: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L, the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) and the house fly, Musca domestica L. The fumigation LC50 values were calculated by probit analysis. For house flies, all but one of the cyanohydrins tested were more potent than 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone). Three were as efficacious as chloropicrin. For the lesser grain borer, all cyanohydrins tested were more insecticidal than dichloropropene, and all but one were more potent than chloropicrin. Four were as insecticidal as dichlorvos. The acetate of 1-cyano-1-hydroxy-2-propene (CHP-ace) was also tested in soil for antifungal and antibacterial activity, and inhibition of weed seed germination. CHP-ace reduced the total soil bacterial and fungal counts significantly, and was effective in inhibiting the germination of weed seeds in soil, indicating a broad spectrum of activity as a soil fumigant.

  8. Investigation of NO2 vertical distribution from satellite data by using two NO2 DOAS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Lisa K.; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    NO2 is an important indicator for air pollution from anthropogenic as well as natural sources. NOx emission sources and their horizontal distribution are well known from satellite measurements. In contrast, knowledge of the vertical NO2 distribution is only limited. To address this issue we developed a new NO2 differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval in the UV spectral range for satellite observations from the GOME-2 instrument on board EUMETSAT's MetOp-A satellite. This new UV NO2 retrieval is compared to a common NO2 retrieval in the visible spectral range. Here we show that by using retrievals in the UV and visible, sensitivity to the vertical distribution of NO2 can be achieved in satellite measurements. Box air mass factor calculations show that sensitivity below 9km is clearly higher in the visible spectral range whereas above 9km, the sensitivity is somewhat higher in the UV range. Due to the higher sensitivity of the visible spectral range closer to the ground, the NO2 slant columns derived from the visible spectral range are mostly higher than in the UV spectral range. Nevertheless, our new NO2 retrieval and the common NO2 retrieval from the visible spectral range show a similar horizontal distribution. In both spectral ranges, well known NO2 signals over highly polluted areas, e.g., China or biomass burning areas like Africa south of the equator can be observed. However in some areas, NO2 signals clearly visible in the visible spectral range cannot be detected in the UV spectral range, such as in Africa north of the equator over the biomass burning regions. From the differences in NO2 slant columns, we can gain insight into the vertical distribution of NO2. By using air mass factors, slant columns can be converted into vertical columns. For air mass factor calculations, an a priori NO2 profile is needed from model simulations, here the MACC2 interim reanalysis fields. If the model simulates the NO2 profile with correct height

  9. Surprises perilous: toxic health hazards for employees unloading fumigated shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Budnik, Lygia T; Hampel, Eva; Baur, Xaver

    2011-08-01

    The fumigation of freight containers to protect transported goods from fungal and pest infestation has increased worldwide in the last five years due to international regulations requiring fumigation or heat treatment of wooden packaging material and dunnage. We have found in 2008 that every sixth container and its contents do retain harmful concentrations of various fumigants and chemicals, representing a significant health risk for port and transport workers, customs officials, warehousemen, store employees and consumers. The shipping documents of these containers did not provide any information about the fumigation procedure or the used fumigant. We report here the cases of 26 patients introduced to our outpatient clinic with presumed intoxication to fumigants, or with symptoms due to inhaling the air out of fumigated containers. All patients were examined from 2007 to 2010 according to a standardized comprehensive diagnostic program. We were able to confirm the diagnosis based on typical symptoms and extensive clinical examination; by laboratory analysis we identified ethylene dichloride, methyl bromide, phosphine and methylene chloride. The predominant symptoms were headaches, concentration and memory problems, dizziness and nausea, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes and a reduced ability to do exercise. In addition to the neurological and neuropsychological impairments our analyses verified the development of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) in 14 of 26 patients with long lasting symptoms due to their contact with fumigants. Intoxications with fumigants are serious and could be avoided. These systematical explored cases show the sustainable impact for health and socio-economic wellbeing. These findings also emphasize the necessity for international standards on permitted fumigants, appropriate labeling in the shipping documents and handling of fumigated containers.

  10. The reaction of OH with NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    NO2 was photolyzed with 2288A radiation at 300 and 423 K in the presence of H2O, CO, and in some cases excess He. The photolysis produces O(1D) atoms which react with H2O to give HO radicals or are deactivated by CO to O(3P) atoms. The ratio k sub 5/k sub 3 is temperature dependent, being 0.33 at 300 K and 0.60 at 423 K. From these two points the Arrhenius expression is estimated to be k sub 5/k sub 3 = 2.6 exp(-1200/RT) where R is in calories/mole - K. The OH radical is either removed by NO2 or reacts with CO.

  11. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  12. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: Effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the p...

  13. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp... No. APHIS- 2012-0040), announcing our determination that a new methyl bromide fumigation treatment...

  14. Off-tarp emissions, distribution, and efficacy of carbonated fumigants in a low permeability film tarped field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbonated fumigants have been shown to distribute quickly and uniformly in sandy soils and improve pest control efficacy for annual crops. Low permeability films, such as VaporSafe® (TIF), could further improve fumigant dispersion by effectively retaining the fumigant in soil; however, there is a c...

  15. A standardized approach for estimating the permeability of plastic films to soil fumigants under various field and environmental conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Minimizing atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants is critical for protecting human and environmental health. Covering the soil surface with a plastic tarp is a common approach to restrict fumigant emissions. The mass transfer of the fumigant vapors through the tarp is often the rate-limiting factor...

  16. Residual analysis of nitric oxide fumigation on fresh fruit and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant which is effective against a wide range of postharvest pests. To register NO with US EPA for commercial use as a pesticide and to ensure its safety to consumers, it is necessary to analyze residues of NO fumigated products. In this study, we analyzed ...

  17. 77 FR 31564 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... add to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual a treatment schedule for methyl bromide... EPA or by any other Federal entity. We have determined a new methyl bromide fumigation treatment...

  18. Evaluation of fumigants, EPTC herbicide, and Paenibacillus macerans in the production of loblolly pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Cram; Scott A. Enebak; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Lew D. Dwinell; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2007-01-01

    Chloropicrin fumigation, Eptam 7-E (EPTC) herbicide, and Paenibacillus macerans seed treatments were evaluated as alternatives to fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling production at three nurseries in the southern United States. A treatment of metam sodium/chloropicrin was also...

  19. Non-fumigant approaches for controlling Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot of strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  20. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of blueberries for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit...-i-1-1) requires blueberries to be treated with methyl bromide at 70 F or above using 2 lbs...

  1. Emission and distribution of fumigants as affected by soil moistures in three different textured soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stringent environmental regulations are being developed to control the emission of soil fumigants to reduce air pollution. Water application is a low-cost strategy for fumigant emission control and applicable for a wide range of commodity groups, especially those with low profit margins. Although it...

  2. Efficacy and residue analysis of nitric oxide fumigation of strawberries for control of Drosophila suzukii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an effective fumigant against various insect pests on postharvest products under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions. NO showed efficacy against all life stages of insect pests with varied fumigation time and temperature, and had feasible cost-effectiveness to...

  3. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...: (1) The fumigants consist of methyl bromide. (2) To assure safe use of the fumigant, its label and labeling shall conform to the label and labeling registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency....

  4. Water and Methyl-Isothiocyanate Distribution in Soil Following Drip Fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators, such as metam sodium (Met-Na), are used for soil fumigation of agricultural land. The ban on the fumigant methyl bromide (MBr) has resulted in greater use of MITC generators. In order to understand the efficacy of MITC, it is necessary to assess its generat...

  5. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials...

  6. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials...

  7. Emission, pest control, and crop response in almond orchard soil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many growers use soil fumigation to control plant-parasitic nematodes or diseases for successful orchard replanting. However, both high emission and poor efficacy with alternative fumigants to methyl bromide need to be addressed simultaneously. The objective of this research was to test if a commerc...

  8. Biochar Amendment to the Soil Surface Reduces Fumigant Emissions and Enhances Soil Microorganism Recovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoqing; Ashworth, Daniel J; Gan, Jay; Yates, Scott R

    2016-02-02

    During soil fumigation, it is ideal to mitigate soil fumigant emissions, ensure pest control efficacy, and speed up the recovery of the soil microorganism population established postapplication. However, no current fumigant emission reduction strategy can meet all these requirements. In the present study, replicated soil columns were used to study the effect of biochar derived from rice husk (BR) and green waste (BG) applied to the soil surface on 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) emissions and soil gas distribution, and on microorganism population re-establishment. Relative to fumigated bare soil (no emission reduction strategy), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) treatments, BR gave dramatic emission reductions for both fumigants with no obvious emission peak, whereas BG was very effective only for 1,3-D. With BR application, the concentration of fumigant in the soil gas was higher than in the bare soil and ATS treatment. After the soil column experiment, mixing the BR with the fumigated soil resulted in higher soil respiration rates than were observed for HDPE and ATS treatments. Therefore, biochar amendment to the soil surface may be an effective strategy for fumigant emission reduction and the recovery of soil microorganism populations established postapplication.

  9. Use of soil fumigants and air quality issues in California, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many high value cash crops use soil fumigants for profitable production.The primary fumigants used in California are 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone®), chloropicrin, metam salts (sodium or potassium), and methyl bromide. Most of these toxic chemicals and their formulations are volatile compounds (VOCs),...

  10. Methods to facilitate the adoption of alternatives to methyl bromide soil fumigation by California strawberry growers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the adoption of strawberry production systems that do not use methyl bromide (MB). The five year project initially focused on fumigant alternatives to MB. The project has resulted in increased use of barrier films that reduce fumigant emission. The focus s...

  11. Distribution, efficacy, and off-tarp emissions of carbonated fumigants in low permeability film tarped field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research in Florida indicated that carbonated fumigants can distribute more quickly and uniformly through soil which suggests that soil-borne disease control could be improved compared to conventional nitrogen pressurized fumigants. Tarping fields with totally impermeable film (TIF) may fur...

  12. Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds before planting. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environ...

  13. Active solarization as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for controlling pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest control methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via solarization...

  14. An improved method for determination of fumigant degradation half-life in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using the current approach, measurement of fumigant degradation half-lives under realistic soil conditions is problematic due to the large headspace that is necessary above the soil during incubation. This results in a poor degree of contact between the fumigant and the soil’s degrading surfaces; di...

  15. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  16. Procedures and equipment for fumigating European pine shoot moth on ornamental pines.

    Treesearch

    W.H. Klein; R.M. Thompson

    1962-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three reports on experimental fumigation for complete kill of the European pine shoot moth on pines in residential areas and nurseries. It describes the procedures and equipment that were developed and used for the actual fumigation tests described in the other two reports. Tests were made concerning the physical control of gas...

  17. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  18. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W

    2015-09-01

    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > 0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01 ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-fumigant strategies for soilborne disease control in California strawberry production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. A number of...

  20. OPTIMIZING ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION FOR NON-FUMIGATED STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable financial resources are being invested in the search for chemical fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide (MeBr). However, current re-registration and regulation processes may severely limit the sustainability of fumigant-dependent production systems. Soilborne disease management withou...

  1. Efficacy and safety of nitric oxide fumigation for controlling codling moth in apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were...

  2. Soil biotic and abiotic responses to dimethyl disulfide spot drip fumigation in established grape vines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a soil fumigant used in agricultural systems as an alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for the control of soilborne pests and pathogens. However, fumigants including DMDS that have broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target organisms in soil. Many bio...

  3. 7 CFR 905.18 - Improved No. 2 grade and Improved No. 2 Bright grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling... No. 2 Bright grade means grapefruit meeting all of the respective requirements of the U.S. No. 2... Grapefruit (§§ 51.750-51.783 of this title) or as such standards may hereafter be amended. Administrative...

  4. Histological comparisons of white pine needles fumigated with ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Needles of Pinus strobus were fumigated with low concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in mixtures for time periods of less than one hour. The needles were killed and fixed immediately after fumigation, cross section 15 microns thick were cut and then stained in a Safranin O-Fast Green stain series. The data revealed that ozone appeared to have a greater initial effect than sulfur dioxide on the tissues of the needles. The sections cut from needles fumigated with sulfur dioxide were similar in appearance to the tissues from nonfumigated control needles. The injury observed in sections of needles fumigated with a mixture of ozone and sulfur dioxide was characteristic of injury caused by ozone rather than sulfur dioxide. Data indicated that fumigations by low concentrations of ozone for a time period of less than one hour could cause changes in the tissues that would be injurious to the normal activities of the needles.

  5. Environmental impacts from pesticide use: a case study of soil fumigation in Florida tomato production.

    PubMed

    Sande, Doris; Mullen, Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael; Houston, Jack

    2011-12-01

    The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.

  6. Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Pratylenchus brachyurus in Peanut Shells

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N. A.; Gillenwater, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    Five dosages of methyl bromide were used to fumigate peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shells and whole pods of peanuts in 1-liter flasks for 24 hr at 25 C. Methyl bromide dosages as low as 24.5 mg/liter killed all Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey) Filip. &Sch. Stech. in peanut shells. Dosages of 44.6 and 50.9 mg/liter killed all but one or two nematodes in shells of whole pods. A 15% reduction in seed germination occurred at the 50.9-mg/liter dosage. PMID:19319321

  7. Bacterial Oxidation of Methyl Bromide in Fumigated Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. G.; Connell, T. L.; Guidetti, J. R.; Oremland, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [(sup14)C]methyl bromide ([(sup14)C]MeBr) to (sup14)CO(inf2) was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCl(inf3)NO(inf2)). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [(sup14)C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to (sup14)CO(inf2) and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:16535728

  8. Change in model for end-stage liver disease score at two weeks, as an indicator of mortality or liver transplantation at 60 days in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Krishnamoorthy, Thinesh Lee; Tan, Hiang Keat; Lui, Hock Foong; Chow, Wan Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterised by a sudden deterioration of underlying chronic liver disease, resulting in increased rates of mortality and liver transplantation. Early prognostication can benefit optimal allocation of resources. ACLF was defined as per the disease criteria of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. Inpatient discharge summaries from between January 2001 and April 2013 were reviewed. The primary outcome was mortality or liver transplantation within 60 days from onset of ACLF. Absolute 'model for end-stage liver disease' (MELD) score and change in MELD at Weeks 1, 2 and 4 were reviewed in order to identify the earliest point for prediction of mortality or liver transplantation. Clinical data were collected on 53 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. At 60 days from presentation, 20 patients (37.7%) died and 4 (7.5%) underwent liver transplantation. Increased MELD of ≥2 after 2 weeks was 75.0% sensitive and 75.9% specific for predicting mortality or liver transplantation. If the MELD score did not increase at 2 weeks, predictive chance of survival was 93.8% over the next 60 days. MELD change at 1 week showed poor sensitivity and specificity. Change at 4 weeks was too late for intervention. Change in MELD score at 2 weeks provides an early opportunity for prognostication in ACLF. A MELD score that does not deteriorate by Week 2 would predict 93.8% chance of survival for the next 60 days. This finding warrants further validation in larger cohort studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  9. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  10. [Effect of Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation on immune function in mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-song; Wang, Yu-ping; Shi, Yan-bin; Ma, Xing-ming; Li, Hui-li; Zhang, Xiao-yun; Li, Shou-tang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the immune function of mice being given the extract of Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation. Mice were divided into five groups. Except the normal control group, the mice were fed with the extract of Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation at the high,medium and low doses, as well as medium dose of Codonopsis Radix maintained with low-temperature vacuum method, respectively. Mice were treated once a day for 10 continuous days. Weight change,organ indexes, blood cell indices, macrophage phagocytic function, and IL-2 and IFN-γ levels were measured. Compared with normal control group, Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation at medium and high doses inhibited body weight increase of mice; white blood cell count of high dose group was significantly increased; significant increase of macrophage phagocytosis were observed for all groups except the normal control group; and spleen index and IFN-γ level of Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation medium dose group were increased significantly. Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation can promote mouse immune function to a certain degree. There was no difference in immune effect between Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation and low-temperature vacuum method during experimental period. However,taking the extract of Codonopsis Radix maintained with sulfur fumigation can exert negative effect on appetite and body weight in mice.

  11. Concentration-time exposure index for modeling soil fumigation under various management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; He, J M; Knuteson, J A

    2004-01-01

    Best management decisions in soil fumigation require informed management selections of soil type, field geometry, application dosage, and depth to maximize fumigant distribution for efficacy and minimize off-site transport for environmental safety. An efficacy- or exposure-based concentration-time exposure index (CTEI) was used to serve as a continuous quantitative efficacy assessment for soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation using numerical model simulations. The CTEI was defined as the ratio between the soil volume where concentration-time (CT) exceeded a threshold value for a particular pest-fumigant combination and the total soil volume required for fumigation treatment. Applications of CTEI as a simple efficacy index were demonstrated by simulating combinations of three soil types (loam, sandy loam, sand); three field configurations consisting of 102- and 203-cm-wide bed systems and a flat surface system; three application depths (15, 30, 45 cm); and two application rates (82 and 327 kg ha(-1)) for 1,3-dichloropropene against citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) using a threshold air-phase CT value of 12 microg h cm(-3) obtained from a separate field study. For soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation, the order of importance in optimizing CTEI was soil type, depth of application and depth of treatment, dosage, and field configuration. Model simulation using CTEI as a numeric efficacy index can be an effective alternative to assist in the planning of field trials for making final management decisions concerning soil fumigation or other pesticide applications.

  12. Effect of Soil Fumigation on Degradation of Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Laboratory and Ginger Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Li, Jun; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Guo, Meixia; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Cao, Aocheng

    2016-11-23

    Herbicides are usually applied to agricultural fields following soil fumigation to provide effective weed control in high-value cash crops. However, phytotoxicity has been observed in ginger seedlings following the application of herbicides in fumigated fields. This study tested a mixture of herbicides (pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen) and several fumigant treatments in laboratory and field studies to determine their effect on the growth of ginger. The results showed that soil fumigation significantly (P < 0.05) extended the degradation period of these herbicides in the field and in laboratory studies. The half-life of pendimethalin was extended by an average of approximately 1.29 times in the field and 1.74 times in the laboratory. The half-life of oxyfluorfen was extended by an average of about 1.19 times in the field and 1.32 times in the laboratory. Moreover, the extended period of herbicide degradation in the fumigant and nonfumigant treatments significantly reduced ginger plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and the chlorophyll content. The study concluded that applying a dose below the recommended rate of these herbicides in chloropicrin (CP) or CP + 1,3-dichloropropene fumigated ginger fields is appropriate, as application of the recommended herbicide dose in fumigated soil may be phytotoxic to ginger.

  13. Analysis of the inhibitory effects of chloropicrin fumigation on nitrification in various soil types.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloropicrin retards the conversion of ammonia to nitrite during the nitrification process in soil. In our study, the dynamic effect of chloropicrin fumigation on soil nitrification was evaluated in five different soil types to identify relationships between soil properties and the effect of fumigation on nitrification. Chloropicrin significantly inhibited nitrification in all soils; however, the recovery of nitrification varied greatly between the soils. Following chloropicrin fumigation, nitrification recovered to the control level in all soils, except in the acidic Guangxi soil. Nitrification recovered faster in fumigated sandy loam Beijing soil than in the other four fumigated soils. Soil texture and pH were two important factors that influenced chloropicrin's inhibitory effect on nitrification. An S-shaped function was fitted to soil NO3(-)-N content to assess the nitrification recovery tendency in different soils. The time taken to reach maximum nitrification (tmax) ranged from 2.4 to 3.0 weeks in all unfumigated soils. Results demonstrated that tmax was greater in all fumigated soils than in untreated soils. Correlation calculations showed that tmax was strongly correlated to soil texture. The correlation analysis results indicated that the recovery rate of nitrification after chloropicrin fumigation is much faster in sandy loam soil than silty loam soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Improving Seedling Growth in Longleaf Pine Plantations with Nematicidal Soil Fumigants

    PubMed Central

    Ruehle, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    In-row, preplanting fumigation with DD and DBCP in a longleaf pine plantation was evaluated for nematode control, improved seedling survival, and early and uniform release of seedlings from the grass stage. Only DD significantly lowered the nematode population during the first growing season. DBCP not only failed to control nematodes, but was phytotoxic. Fumigation had little effect on seedling survival. Seedlings in rows fumigated with DD started height growth earlier and produced taller trees after 5 years than those in nonfumigated rows. PMID:19325685

  15. Improving seedling growth in longleaf pine plantations with nematicidal soil fumigants.

    PubMed

    Ruehle, J L

    1969-07-01

    In-row, preplanting fumigation with DD and DBCP in a longleaf pine plantation was evaluated for nematode control, improved seedling survival, and early and uniform release of seedlings from the grass stage. Only DD significantly lowered the nematode population during the first growing season. DBCP not only failed to control nematodes, but was phytotoxic. Fumigation had little effect on seedling survival. Seedlings in rows fumigated with DD started height growth earlier and produced taller trees after 5 years than those in nonfumigated rows.

  16. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  17. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Jakob; Mulder, Edwin; Gollhofer, Albert; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Gruber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. Methods 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12) or the control group (CTRL, n = 11). A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5–6 sessions per week. Results Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN) as well as jump height (35±4 cm) and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW) for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03). Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect p<0.001). Conclusion Participants tolerated the near-daily high-intensity jump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day. PMID:28081223

  18. A standardized approach for estimating the permeability of plastic films to soil fumigants under various field and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R; Chellemi, Daniel O

    2011-01-01

    Minimizing atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants is critical for protecting human and environmental health. Covering the soil surface with a plastic tarp is a common approach to restrict fumigant emissions. The mass transfer of the fumigant vapors through the tarp is often the rate-limiting factor in fumigant emissions. An approach for standardizing measurements of film permeability is proposed that is based on determining the resistance (R) of films to diffusion of fumigants. Using this approach, values were determined for more than 200 film-chemical combinations under a range of temperature, relative humidity, and film handling conditions. Resistance to diffusion was specific for each fumigant/film combination, with the largest range of values observed for the fumigant chloropicrin. For each fumigant, decreased with increasing temperature. Changes in film permeability due to increases in temperature or field installation were generally less than a factor of five. For one film, values determined under conditions of very high relative humidity (approximately 100%) were at least 100 times lower than when humidity was very low (approximately 2%). This approach simplifies the selection of appropriate films for soil fumigation by providing rapid, reproducible, and precise measurements of their permeability to specific fumigants and application conditions. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Sorption of the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene on soil.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Ki; Kim, Jung-Ho; Dungan, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is considered a major replacement to methyl bromide, which is to be phased out of use in the United States by 2005. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate soil-water partitioning of 1,3-D in two California agricultural soils (Salinas clay loam and Arlington sandy loam). The partition coefficients (Kd and Kf) were determined by directly measuring the concentration of 1,3-D in the solid phase (Cs) and aqueous phase (Cw) after batch equilibration. In the Salinas clay loam, the Kf of cis-1,3-D in adsorption and desorption isotherms was 0.47 and 0.54, respectively, with respective values of 0.39 and 0.49 for trans-1,3-D. This slight hysteric effect suggests that a different range of forces are involved in the adsorption and desorption process. Since n was near unity in the Freundlich equation, the Freundlich isotherms can also be approximated using the liner isotherm. At 25 degrees C, the Kd of the 1,3-D isomers in both soils ranged from 0.46 to 0.56, and the Koc (organic matter partition coefficient) ranged from 58 to 70. The relatively low Kd values and a Koc that falls within the range of 50-150, suggests that 1,3-D is weakly sorbed and highly mobile in these soils. Understanding the sorption behavior of 1,3-D in soil is important when developing fumigation practices to reduce the movement of 1,3-D to the air and groundwater.

  20. Revised estimates for continuous shoreline fumigation: a PDF approach.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muddassir; Khan, Faisal I; Husain, Tahir

    2005-02-14

    A probability density function (PDF) fumigation model is presented here to study the dispersion of air pollutants emitted from a tall stack on the shoreline. This work considers dispersion of the pollutants in the stable layer and within the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) proceeds independently. The growth of TIBL is considered parabolic with distance inland. Turbulence is taken as homogeneous and stationary. Dispersion of particles (contaminant) in lateral and vertical directions is assumed independent of each other. This assumption allows us to consider the position of particles in both directions as independent random variables. The lateral dispersion distribution within the TIBL is considered as Gaussian and independent of height. A skewed bi-Gaussian vertical velocity PDF is used to account for the physics of dispersion due to different characteristics of updrafts and downdrafts within the TIBL. We have used Weil (J.C. Weil, A diagnosis of the asymmetry in top-down and bottom-up diffusion using a Lagrangian stochastic model, J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (1990) 501-515) solutions to find out the parameters of this PDF. Incorporating finite Lagrangian integral time scale for the vertical velocity component, it is observed that it reduces the vertical dispersion in the beginning and moves the point of maximum concentration further downwind. Due to little dispersion in the beginning, there is more plume to be dispersed causing higher concentrations at large distances. The model has considered Weil and Brower's (J.C. Weil, P.R. Brower, Estimating convective boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications, Maryland Power Plant Siting Program Rep. PPSP-MP-48, Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD, 1985, 37 pp.) convective limit to analyze dispersion characteristics within TIBL. The revised model discussed here is evaluated with the data available from the Nanticoke field experiment on fumigation conducted in summer of 1978 in Ontario, Canada. The results

  1. Resistance of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to Fumigation with Phosphine.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özgür; Edde, Peter A; Phillips, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Lasioderma serricorne (F.) is a serious pest of stored products that is known to be resistant to the fumigant pesticide gas phosphine. This study investigated resistance in populations from the southeastern United States, and determined if a recommended treatment schedule could kill resistant insects. A laboratory assay for adult insects was developed that used a discriminating concentration of 50 ppm phosphine applied to insects for 20 h at 25°C followed by 7 d of recovery in air. Survivors were classified as resistant. L. serricorne from six different field populations associated with stored tobacco were surveyed with the assay and all had resistant individuals. Four populations had greater than 90% of their insects resistant. Two industry-recommended treatment schedules were evaluated in laboratory fumigations against mixed life stage cultures of the four most resistant populations: the first at 200 ppm for 4 d at 25°C for controlling phosphine-susceptible L. serricorne and the second at 600 ppm for 6 d at 25°C intended to control phosphine-resistant beetles. The four populations with the highest frequency of resistant individuals from the field sampling study were not controlled by the "normal" treatment intended for susceptible insects. The higher concentration treatment greatly reduced beetle progeny from mixed-stage colony jars, but there were substantial numbers of surviving adults from all four highly resistant populations that represented unacceptable levels of control. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Granular Nematicides as Adjuncts to Fumigants for Control of Cotton Root-knot Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, E C

    1979-04-01

    Growth and yield of cotton were best with combinations of fumigants and organophosphate and carbamate nematicides. Organophosphates or carbamates used alone did not give season-long control of root-knot nematodes. Long-term control was poor because the temporary sublethal effects of these materials diminished soon enough lhat the nematodes could reproduce. The nematodes survived the treatments and a year of nonhost culture, and damaged a susceptible host crop 2 years after treatment. No such damage occurred in plots treated with fumigant, fumigant plus organophosphate, or fumigant plus carbamate. Treatment of seed and treatment of cotton, either in furrow at planting or sidedressing at midseason, with organophosphate and carbamate nematicides resulted in little or no yield increase, because nematode control was only minimal and temporary; or in a yield decrease, because the toxicity of the materials was manifested when nematode populations were low.

  3. Phase 2 Site-Specific Fumigant Management Plans and Post-Application Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New soil fumigant pesticide requirements protect handlers and other workers from exposure risks. FMP elements include application block information, tarp plan, buffer zone and sign posting requirements, air monitoring, and hazard communication.

  4. Field Experience with Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of a Hospital: Timeline and Lessons Learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (Cl02) fumigation technology was developed and successfully used to remediate four large buildings contaminated with anthrax spores from 2001 through 2004. As a first application of the technology, those remediations were complex, costly and time consuming. There...

  5. Chloropicrin and 1,3-D Fumigant Management Plan Phase 2 Templates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Plans for soil fumigant pesticide products that contain chloropicrin or 1,3-dichloropropene should include application block information, tarp plan, sign posting for treated area and buffer zone, and other requirements.

  6. Ethylene Oxide Commerical Sterilization and Fumigation Operations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to provide implementation materials to assist in conducting complete and efficient inspections at ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations to determine compliance with the NESHAP

  7. How to Seek EPA Approval for Pesticide Applicator Soil Fumigation Exams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Registrants of soil fumigant products offer EPA-approved training for certified pesticide applicators. Although not required, state lead agencies (SLAs) may seek EPA’s approval and provide applicators with an alternative to registrant-sponsored training.

  8. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Influence of sulfur fumigation on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Yan-Min; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Zhong

    2014-10-15

    Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  11. Fact Sheet in English and Spanish: What Residents in Agricultural Communities Should Know About Soil Fumigants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about fumigant gas from treated fields (often covered with plastic tarps), some chemical and trade names of these agricultural products, signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure, and how to avoid or report or treat pesticide illness.

  12. 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin Combination Products Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These soil fumigant pesticide products' labels require safety training according to the Worker Protection Standard WPS. Steps to mitigate exposure include air monitoring, respiratory protection, and proper tarp perforation and removal.

  13. Field Experience with Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of a Hospital: Timeline and Lessons Learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (Cl02) fumigation technology was developed and successfully used to remediate four large buildings contaminated with anthrax spores from 2001 through 2004. As a first application of the technology, those remediations were complex, costly and time consuming. There...

  14. Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content of selected lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Beekley, P.K.; Hoffman, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four lichens - Parmelia bolliana Mull. Arg., Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn., and Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt - listed in order of decreasing mesophytism, were fumigated for 4 hr at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide to determine the effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis decreased after fumigation at 1.0 and 2.5 ppm, but significant decreases occurred only after fumigation at 2.5 ppm. Expressed on the basis of per unit weight chlorophyll content, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by that of Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana. Expressed on the basis of per unit dry weight of lichen sample, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris, and Parmelia bolliana. In both cases, the more xerophytic species were more sensitive. Chlorophyll content in these species was not measurably altered by fumigation. Comparison of chlorophyll a and b absorption spectra peaks for fumigated and control samples indicated that no phaeophytinisation occurred. Insignificant and inconsistent differences in chlorophyll a/b ratios were observed. Respiration of Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana decreased significantly following fumigation with 2.5 ppm SO/sub 2/; both species were more sensitive than Xanthoria fallax. Physconia grisea was not tested for respiratory response. The effects of SO/sub 2/ fumigation on measured metabolic rates differed with the species. Photosynthetic rates of the xerophytic Xanthoria fallax and Physconia gresea were more sensitive than the more mesophytic Parmelia bolliana and Physcia stellaris. In contrast, respiratory sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ fumigation were greater for P. bolliana and P. stellaris.

  15. Effect of surface tarp on emissions and distribution of drip-applied fumigants.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R; Dungan, Robert S; Lesch, Scott M; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin

    2004-08-15

    Soil fumigants are used to control a wide variety of soil-borne pests in high-cash-value crops. Application of soil fumigants through drip irrigation systems is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve the uniformity of fumigant application. Little information is available on the emissions and soil distribution of fumigants following subsurface drip application, or the effect of plastic tarp on fumigant emissions in these systems. In these experiments, the fumigant compounds 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), Vapam (a methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) precursor), and propargyl bromide (PrBr) were applied to soil beds via drip irrigation at 15 cm depth. Beds were tarped with either standard 1-mil high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or a virtually impermeable film (VIF), leaving the furrows bare. Cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC, and PrBr in these tarped bedded systems was very low, amounting to <10% of the applied mass. These experiments were conducted in the winter months, with average air temperatures of 12-15 degrees C. Cumulative emissions of MITC and 1,3-D from a sandy loam field soil were decreased by > or =80% by tarping the bed with VIF rather than HDPE. A large fraction of the 1,3-D and PrBr flux was from the untarped furrows in VIF-tarped plots, indicating that inhibiting volatilization from the furrow will be important in further reducing emissions in these systems. Monitoring the fumigant distribution in soil indicated that tarping the bed with VIF resulted in a more effective containment of fumigant vapors compared to use of a HDPE tarp.

  16. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation.

  17. Whole-building decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores by methyl bromide fumigation.

    PubMed

    Serre, S; Mickelsen, L; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Gray, M S; Scheffrahn, R H; Perez, R; Kern, W H; Daniell, N

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the field inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores with methyl bromide (MB) using commercial fumigation techniques. Eighty-seven wood and 87 glass coupons each containing ca. 1 × 10(6) B. anthracis Sterne spores, were placed in 22 locations inside a 1444 m(3) conference building. Four additional 12-coupon sets (six wood, six glass) were removed from the building at 16, 24, 32 and 40 h during fumigation. The building was sealed under two tarpaulins and fumigated with MB at ≥225 g m(-3) mean concentration for 48 h at 28°C and 83% RH. All B. anthracis spores fumigated for more than 16 h were inactivated. A single wood coupon from the 16-h set yielded ca. 2 × 10(3)  CFU. No damage to the building or its contents was observed. MB fumigation is a rapid, economical and effective whole-structure decontamination method for B. anthracis spores. MB fumigation offers a method of whole-structure B. anthracis decontamination without removal of materials, damage to sensitive electronics, costly indoor retrofitting. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  19. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  20. Stimulation of nitrous oxide production resulted from soil fumigation with chloropicrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spokas, K.; Wang, D.

    Agricultural soils are a major source of the atmospheric greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2O). Agronomic practices such as tillage and fertilizer applications can significantly affect the production and consumption of N 2O because of alteration in soil physical, chemical, and biochemical activities. Soil fumigation is an agronomic practice used to control soil-borne disease pathogens, weeds, plant-parasitic nematodes, and fungi. The strong impact of fumigants on soil microorganisms can indirectly affect the production and/or consumption of N 2O and would potentially alter net emissions from agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation and field soil fumigation studies were conducted to determine the potential impact of soil fumigation on the dynamics of N 2O production. Laboratory soil incubations showed an eight-fold increase in the production rate of N 2O as a consequence of chloropicrin (CP) fumigation. This stimulation effect was confirmed by a seven-fold increase in N 2O emission rates in field plots following CP fumigation. The mechanism of N 2O production appeared to be microbial related; however, additional work is needed to fully elucidate the pathways.

  1. Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Roberts, Boyd A; Modini, Robin L; Situ, Rong; Brown, Richard J; Bottle, Steven E; Ristovski, Zoran D

    2010-01-01

    Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel.

  2. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Daniel J; Yates, Scott R; Luo, Lifang; Lee, Sang R; Xuan, Richeng

    2013-12-26

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the passive solarization + fumigation treatments, emissions from the nontarped furrow were very high (∼50%). Emissions from the bed top and sidewall of these treatments were relatively low but were increased in the latter due to the longer environmental exposure of the VIF covering with the coupled approach (increased tarp permeability). Overall, this approach offered no advantage over fumigation-only in terms of emission reduction. With active solarization + fumigation, the large application of hot water during solarization apparently led to severely limited diffusion causing very low total emissions (<1%). Although this suggests a benefit in terms of air quality, a lack of diffusion could limit the pesticidal efficacy of the treatment.

  3. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Pei, Ke; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Gang; Li, Songlin; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored. PMID:24914306

  4. Profiling and characterization of volatile components from non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with chemical group separation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Li, Li; Liu, Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Si-Cong; Lou, Ya-Jing; Qin, Kun-Ming; Li, Song-Lin; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-01-24

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is a popular herb used for many centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a treatment of fever and inflammation. Non-fumigated processing of FLJ has been the traditional approach used in post-harvest preparation of the commodity for commercial use. However, in recent years, natural drying processing of FLJ has been replaced by sulfur-fumigation for efficiency and pest control. Sulfur-fumigation can induce changes in the volatile compounds of the herb, altering its medicinal properties. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) method was established for the resolution and determination of volatile components in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated FLJ. In this paper, analysis of the volatile oils in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated (including lab-prepared sulfur-fumigated and industrial sulfur-fumigated) FLJ was performed using GC×GC-TOF/MS. Seventy-three representative volatile components were identified, including furans, alkalies, acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenes, esters, and others, as the main components of FLJ volatile oils. The proposed method was successfully applied for rapid and accurate quality evaluation of FLJ and its related medicinal materials and preparations.

  5. A comparison of height growth and leaf parameters of hybrid poplar cuttings grown in ozone-fumigated atmospheres

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with an ozone dosage of 15 ppm-hours. One treatment was a steady fumigation at 0.2 ppm while the second fumigation fluctuated between 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. No significant differences were found in cutting height, leaf area, leaf width, and leaf dry weight, but significant differences were found in chlorophyll content and carbohydrate...

  6. Effect of Fumigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis Population Density Through Subsurface Drip Irrigation Located Every Other Furrow.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T A; Porter, D O; Archer, D; Mullinix, B G

    2008-09-01

    Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and "dry" furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R(2) = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm(3) soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful.

  7. Effect of Fumigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis Population Density Through Subsurface Drip Irrigation Located Every Other Furrow

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D. O.; Archer, D.; Mullinix, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and “dry” furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm3 soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful. PMID:19440261

  8. Bone marrow fat accumulation after 60 days of bed rest persisted 1 year after activities were resumed along with hemopoietic stimulation: the Women International Space Simulation for Exploration study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Guy; Payne, Michael; Mädler, Burkhard; Ramachandran, Nanthan; Lecompte, Martin; Wade, Charles; Biolo, Gianni; Blanc, Stéphane; Hughson, Richard; Bear, Lisa; Uhthoff, Hans K

    2009-08-01

    Immobility in bed and decreased mobility cause adaptations to most human body systems. The effect of immobility on fat accumulation in hemopoietic bone marrow has never been measured prospectively. The reversibility of marrow fat accumulation and the effects on hemopoiesis are not known. In the present study, 24 healthy women (age: 25-40 yr) underwent -6 degrees head-down bed rest for 60 days. We used MRI to noninvasively measure the lumbar vertebral fat fraction at various time points. We also measured hemoglobin, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelet count, peripheral fat mass, leptin, cortisol, and C-reactive protein during bed rest and for 1 yr after bed rest ended. Compared with baseline, the mean (+/-SE) fat fraction was increased after 60 days of bed rest (+2.5+/-1.1%, P<0.05); the increase persisted 1 yr after the resumption of regular activities (+2.3+/-0.8%, P<0.05). Mean hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased 6 days after bed rest ended (-1.36+/-0.20 g/dl, P<0.05) but had recovered at 1 yr, with significantly lower mean circulating erythropoietin levels (-3.8+/-1.2 mU/ml, P<0.05). Mean numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes remained significantly elevated at 1 yr (+617+/-218 neutrophils/microl and +498+/-112 lymphocytes/microl, both P<0.05). These results constitute direct evidence that bed rest irreversibly accelerated fat accumulation in hemopoietic bone marrow. The 2.5% increase in fat fraction after 60 days of bed rest was 25-fold larger than expected from historical ambulatory controls. Sixty days of bed rest accelerated by 4 yr the normal bone marrow involution. Bed rest and marrow adiposity were associated with hemopoietic stimulation. One year after subjects returned to normal activities, hemoglobin levels were maintained, with 43% lower circulating erythropoietin levels, and leukocytes remained significantly elevated across lineages. Lack of mobility alters hemopoiesis, possibly through marrow fat accumulation, with

  9. Determination of tropospheric vertical columns of NO2 and aerosol optical properties in a rural setting using MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halla, J. D.; Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Brook, J. R.; Hayden, K. L.; O'Brien, J. M.; Ng, A.; Majonis, D.; Wenig, M. O.; McLaren, R.

    2011-04-01

    Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements were performed in a rural location of southwestern Ontario during the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study. Slant column densities (SCDs) of NO2 and O4 were determined using the standard DOAS technique. Using a radiative transfer model and the O4 SCDs, aerosol optical depths were determined for clear sky conditions and compared to OMI, MODIS, AERONET, and local PM2.5 measurements. This aerosol information was input to a radiative transfer model to calculate NO2 air mass factors, which were fit to the measured NO2 SCDs to determine tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2. The method of determining NO2 VCDs in this way was validated by comparison to composite VCDs derived from aircraft and ground-based measurements of NO2. The new VCDs were compared to VCDs of NO2 determined via the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY and OMI, for overlapping time periods. The satellite-derived VCDs were higher by 50%, with a mean positive error of 0.5-0.9 × 1015 molec cm-2. This last finding is different from previous studies whereby MAX-DOAS geometric VCDs were higher than satellite determinations, albeit for urban areas with higher VCDs. An effective boundary layer height, BLeff, is defined as the ratio of the tropospheric VCD and the ground level concentration of NO2. Variations of BLeff can be linked to time of day, source region, stability of the atmosphere, and the presence or absence of elevated NOx sources. In particular, a case study is shown where a high VCD and BLeff were observed when an elevated industrial plume of NOx and SO2 was fumigated to the surface as a lake breeze front impacted the measurement site. High BLeff values (~1.9 km) were observed during a regional smog event when high winds from the SW and high convection promoted mixing throughout the boundary layer. During this event, the regional line flux of NO2 through the region was estimated to be greater than 112 kg

  10. Determination of tropospheric vertical columns of NO2 and aerosol optical properties in a rural setting using MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halla, J. D.; Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Brook, J. R.; Hayden, K. L.; O'Brien, J. M.; Ng, A.; Majonis, D.; Wenig, M. O.; McLaren, R.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements were performed in a rural location of southwestern Ontario during the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study. Slant column densities (SCDs) of NO2 and O4 were determined using the standard DOAS technique. Using a radiative transfer model and the O4 SCDs, aerosol optical depths were determined for clear sky conditions and compared to OMI, MODIS, AERONET, and local PM2.5 measurements. This aerosol information was input to a radiative transfer model to calculate NO2 air mass factors, which were fit to the measured NO2 SCDs to determine tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2. The method of determining NO2 VCDs in this way was validated for the first time by comparison to composite VCDs derived from aircraft and ground-based measurements of NO2. The new VCDs were compared to VCDs of NO2 determined via retrievals from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY and OMI, for overlapping time periods. The satellite-derived VCDs were higher, with a mean bias of +0.5-0.9×1015 molec cm-2. This last finding is different from previous studies whereby MAX-DOAS geometric VCDs were higher than satellite determinations, albeit for urban areas with higher VCDs. An effective boundary layer height, BLHeff, is defined as the ratio of the tropospheric VCD and the ground level concentration of NO2. Variations of BLHeff can be linked to time of day, source region, stability of the atmosphere, and the presence or absence of elevated NOx sources. In particular, a case study is shown where a high VCD and BLHeff were observed when an elevated industrial plume of NOx and SO2 was fumigated to the surface as a lake breeze impacted the measurement site. High BLHeff values (~1.9 km) were observed during a regional smog event when high winds from the SW and high convection promoted mixing throughout the boundary layer. During this event, the regional line flux of NO2 through the region was estimated to be

  11. [Medical visits before return to work, after a long lasting absence, above 60 days, for injuries or common diseases in a public transport company. Analysis and discussions of utility and consequences in term of evaluation of fitness to specific job].

    PubMed

    Verga, A; Bordini, L; Ricci, M G; Di Lucca, P; Todaro, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opportunity to do medical visits before return to work, after a long continuous absence, above 60 days, for injuries (occupational and non-occupational) or common diseases. We have examined medical records of 403 workers, in 2010 and 2011, occupied in a public transport company, in order to control the following variables: job, age, clinical conditions related to the absences, classification of the absence as injuries or common disease and conclusions about medical fitness to specific job. Our findings have shown an equal percentage of causes of absences in term of injuries or common diseases. The main cause of absence and of non fit to specific job, after medical evaluation, is depending on orthopaedic post-traumatic diseases. This evidence support the importance to do medical visits after long-lasting absence from work, particularly in case of jobs (bus, tram, subway drivers) at risk for other people.

  12. Effect of application rate on fumigant degradation in five agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Hanson, Bradley D

    2016-01-15

    Soil fumigation is an important pest management tool for many high value crops. To address the knowledge gap of how fumigant concentration in soil impacts dissipation, and thereby efficacy, this research determined the degradation characteristics of four fumigants as affected by application rate. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to determine degradation rates of 1,3-dichloropropene (both cis- and trans isomers), chloropicrin (CP), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and methyl iodide (MeI) in five agricultural soils. Fitted to pseudo first-order kinetics, the degradation rate constant (k) of CP, DMDS, and MeI decreased significantly as application rate increased while the 1,3-D isomers were the least affected by rate. Half-lives increased 12, 17, and 6-fold for CP, DMDS, and MeI, respectively, from the lowest to the highest application rate. At low application rates, the degradation rate of all fumigants in the Hueneme sandy loam soil was reduced by 50-95% in sterilized soil compared to the biologically active controls. However, this difference became much smaller or disappeared at high application rates indicating that biodegradation dominates at low concentrations but chemical degradation is more important at high concentrations. When co-applied, CP degradation was enhanced with biodegradation remained above 50%, while 1,3-D degradation was either reduced or not changed. Among the fumigants tested, the relative importance of biodegradation was DMDS>CP>MeI>1,3-D. These results are useful for determining effective fumigation rates and for informing regulatory decisions on emission controls under different fumigation scenarios.

  13. Pernicious effects of long-term, continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence on hippocampus morphology, biochemistry and pyramidal neuron numbers in 60-day-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Kerimoğlu, Gökçen; Hancı, Hatice; Baş, Orhan; Aslan, Ali; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Turgut, Alpgiray; Kaya, Haydar; Çankaya, Soner; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Odacı, Ersan

    2016-11-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) begins developing in the intrauterine period, a process that continues until adulthood. Contact with chemical substances, drugs or environmental agents such as electromagnetic field (EMF) during adolescence therefore has the potential to disturb the development of the morphological architecture of components of the CNS (such as the hippocampus). The hippocampus is essential to such diverse functions as memory acquisition and integration and spatial maneuvering. EMF can result in severe damage to both the morphology of the hippocampus and its principal functions during adolescence. Although children and adolescents undergo greater exposure to EMF than adults, the information currently available regarding the effects of exposure to EMF during this period is as yet insufficient. This study investigated the 60-day-old male rat hippocampus following exposure to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF throughout the adolescent period using stereological, histopathological and biochemical analysis techniques. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats aged 21days were assigned into control, sham and EMF groups on a random basis. No procedure was performed on the control group rats. The EMF group (EMFGr) was exposed to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h daily from beginning to end of adolescence. The sham group rats were held in the EMF cage but were not exposed to EMF. All rats were sacrificed at 60days of age. Their brains were extracted and halved. The left hemispheres were set aside for biochemical analyses and the right hemispheres were subjected to stereological and histopathological evaluation. Histopathological examination revealed increased numbers of pyknotic neurons with black or dark blue cytoplasm on EMFGr slides stained with cresyl violet. Stereological analyses revealed fewer pyramidal neurons in EMFGr than in the other two groups. Biochemical analyses showed an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, but a decrease in catalase levels in EMFGr. Our

  14. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  15. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called fertilization'' effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  16. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called ``fertilization`` effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  17. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Yongjie; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    In soil microbiology, there is a “paradox” of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity, and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences), followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia, and uncultured Chytridiomycota) were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9 and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively), which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation. PMID

  18. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. 7 CFR 51.562 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.562 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are reasonably well...

  1. 7 CFR 51.562 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.562 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are reasonably well...

  2. 8. ELEVATIONS AND SECTION, OPERATOR'S COTTAGE NO. 2 Blueprint drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ELEVATIONS AND SECTION, OPERATOR'S COTTAGE NO. 2 Blueprint drawing no D 3362 - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Cottage No. 2, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  3. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. View southsouthwest of drydock no. 2 caisson with receiving ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south-southwest of drydock no. 2 caisson with receiving ship and ship FS 2 in background. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility 233 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's edge to Facility 233 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located north of main house. The building at left is Slave Quarters No. 1 (HABS No. VA-1233 C) - Westend, Slave Quarters No. 2, Route 638 vicinity, Trevilians, Louisa County, VA

  8. 2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 1, South end of base, southwest of Generator Building No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. 1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 2, Northeast of Generator Building No. 1, southwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. 1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 1, South end of base, southwest of Generator Building No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH BASE OF STACK NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH BASE OF STACK NO. 2, STACK NO. 1 VISIBLE THROUGH EAST PORTAL - Greenwood Furnace, Stack No. 2, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

  13. 8. Elevator no. 2: Track shed, showing cable and pulleys ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Elevator no. 2: Track shed, showing cable and pulleys for moving train cars, facing east - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  14. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds... 20 percent shall be allowed for almonds with shells damaged by discoloration. ...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds... 20 percent shall be allowed for almonds with shells damaged by discoloration. ...

  16. VIEW OF MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 AND CHANOINE WICKETS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 AND CHANOINE WICKETS FROM DAM GATE STRUCTURE. MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Peoria Lock and Dam, 1071 Wesley Road, Creve Coeur, Tazewell County, IL

  17. 13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF RESERVOIR. POST OF ORIGINAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CHAIN-LINK FENCE IN FOREGROUND AND FOUNDATION STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE OF RESERVOIR BASIN - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor belt rollers and sampling apparatus, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  20. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  1. Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly from entrance road. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  2. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  3. GLOBE ELEVATOR, LOOKING AT NO. 2 HOUSE FROM THE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GLOBE ELEVATOR, LOOKING AT NO. 2 HOUSE FROM THE BIN FLOOR OF NO. 1 HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 2 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  4. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides.

  5. Study on effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Boju.

    PubMed

    Li, You-lian; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Wei-hao; Xiang, Shi-xie; Feng, Wei-hong; Chen, Liang-mian; Wang, Zhi-min; Lu, Tu-lin

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between sun-drying BJ (NBJ) and sulfur-fumigated BJ (SBJ) was conducted by HPLC analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI-MSn. A total of 32 chemical components were used for qualitative comparison. Meanwhile, a quantitative comparison of BJwere conducted by HPLC analysis and determining seven compounds from 3 NBJ and 3 SBJ samples dramatic chemical changes were found. After sulfur fumigation, the contents of flavonoids glycosides and phenolic acids were remarkably reduced, but the contents of flavonoids aglycones were significantly increased. Multivariate statistics, including principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) were used to investigate the potential damaging effect of sulfur-fumigating process. The PCA score plots showed six samples were clearly classified into the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigating groups. And according to VIP >1, the most important chemical markers were apigenin, luteolin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquninic acid which could be used to distinguish NBJ and SBJ samples. Combining the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis, it showed that the sulfur fumigation has a significant effect on BJ.

  6. Types of ectomycorrhiza of mature beech and spruce at ozone-fumigated and control forest plots.

    PubMed

    Grebenc, Tine; Kraigher, Hojka

    2007-05-01

    In the Kranzberg forest near Freising (Germany) a novel "Free-Air Canopy O3 Exposure" system has been employed for analysing O3-induced responses from sub-cellular to ecosystem levels that are relevant for carbon balance and CO2 demand of 60-year-old beech trees. The below-ground ectomycorrhizal community was studied in two-fold ambient O3 concentrations (five cores per sampling) and in a control plot with an ambient O3 concentration (four cores per sampling). Five samplings were taken throughout two vegetation seasons (2003 and 2004). Types of ectomycorrhiza were determined by their morphological, anatomical and molecular characteristics and quantified by counting. The total number of mycorrhizal fine roots was higher at the fumigated plot as compared with the control site. The numbers of ectomycorrhizal types at the fumigated and control plots were 28 and 26, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum was present in all soil cores at all sampling times with a significant increase in abundance under ozone-fumigated trees. Other mycorrhizal types present at higher abundance at the fumigated than at the control plot were identified as Russula densiflora, R. fellea, R. illota, Tuber puberulum, Lactarius sp. 2 and Russula sp. 2. Some mycorrhizal types were present exclusively at the fumigated plot (Fagirhiza fusca, F. setifera, Lactarius acris, Piceirhiza nigra and Russula sp. 1). A possible ecological role for the abundant types of ectomycorrhiza and their putative application in bio-indication is discussed.

  7. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  9. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1213 Section 51.1213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1304 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1304 Section 51.1304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Grades § 51.1304 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of pears of one...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1523 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1523 Section 51.1523 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Grades § 51.1523 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements: (a...

  14. 7 CFR 51.757 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.757 Section 51.757 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Grades § 51.757 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit...

  15. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic...

  16. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  17. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which...

  18. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements: (a...

  20. 7 CFR 51.757 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.757 Section 51.757 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Grades § 51.757 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit...

  1. 7 CFR 51.757 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.757 Section 51.757 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Grades § 51.757 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements...

  2. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which...

  3. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements: (a...

  4. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1817 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1817 Section 51.1817 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Grades § 51.1817 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of tangerines which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements...

  6. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic...

  7. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the...

  8. Evaluation of non-fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide for weed control and crop yield in California strawberries (Fragaria ananassa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In California, USA, agricultural fumigant use regulations hinder the complete transition from methyl bromide (MB) to alternative fumigants. Alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (Pic) are being used on approximately half of California conventional strawberry prod...

  9. Distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-chlorine dioxide gas during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-ClO2 gas subsequent to fumigation of tomatoes or cantaloupe was investigated as was major factors that affect the formation of chloroxyanion byproducts. Approximately 22% of the generated 36Cl-ClO2 was present on fumigated tomatoes after a 2-hour exposure t...

  10. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... may be safely used, in accordance with the following conditions. (1) Methyl bromide. Total residues of inorganic bromides (calculated as Br) from the use of this fumigant shall not exceed 125 parts per milion. (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented...

  11. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... fumigation of blueberries for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. In a previous notice, we... with the notice. We also determined that the ongoing trade of blueberries would be adversely...

  12. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by ammonia gas fumigation via reduction of Fusarium population in the field.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Mei, Zhong; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Chenzhi; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-02-23

    Cucumber plants subjected to consecutive monoculture for 9 years were found to suffer from severe Fusarium wilt disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen. In the present study, greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of ammonia gas fumigation on Fusarium wilt suppression, fungal abundance and fungal community composition. Results showed that ammonia gas fumigation remarkably reduced disease incidence from 80% to 27%, resulting in a four-fold increase in yield, compared to the control. Total fungal abundance declined dramatically after fumigation and reached the lowest level at day 32, at 243 times lower than the control. Moreover, fumigation significantly increased soil fungal diversity, though it also decreased considerably coinciding with cucumber growth. Fumigation also significantly altered soil fungal community composition, relative to the control. Fusarium was strongly inhibited by fumigation in both relative abundance (3.8 times lower) and targeted quantification (a decrease of 167 fold). Collectively, the application of ammonia gas fumigation to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulted in a re-assembly of the fungal community to resemble that of a non-disease conducive consortium. Additional strategies, such as bioorganic fertilizer application, may still be required to develop sustainable disease suppression following fumigation.

  13. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by ammonia gas fumigation via reduction of Fusarium population in the field

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Mei, Zhong; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Chenzhi; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber plants subjected to consecutive monoculture for 9 years were found to suffer from severe Fusarium wilt disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen. In the present study, greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of ammonia gas fumigation on Fusarium wilt suppression, fungal abundance and fungal community composition. Results showed that ammonia gas fumigation remarkably reduced disease incidence from 80% to 27%, resulting in a four-fold increase in yield, compared to the control. Total fungal abundance declined dramatically after fumigation and reached the lowest level at day 32, at 243 times lower than the control. Moreover, fumigation significantly increased soil fungal diversity, though it also decreased considerably coinciding with cucumber growth. Fumigation also significantly altered soil fungal community composition, relative to the control. Fusarium was strongly inhibited by fumigation in both relative abundance (3.8 times lower) and targeted quantification (a decrease of 167 fold). Collectively, the application of ammonia gas fumigation to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulted in a re-assembly of the fungal community to resemble that of a non-disease conducive consortium. Additional strategies, such as bioorganic fertilizer application, may still be required to develop sustainable disease suppression following fumigation. PMID:28230182

  14. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  15. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  16. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  17. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  18. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    D. Wang; J. Juzwik; S.W. Fraedrich; K. Spokas; Y. Zhang; W.C. Koskinen

    2005-01-01

    Methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) are alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. However, surface transport of MITC emission has been cited as the cause for seedling damage in adjacent fields at several bare-root forest-tree nurseries. Field experiments were conducted at nurseries to measure air emissions of MITC and CP after fumigation....

  19. Improving fumigation efficiency by increasing drip-tape number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drip fumigation is commonly used for controlling soilborne pests in raised-bed strawberry production systems in California. However, the high emission loss and poor pest control indicate that the current fumigation practice with two drip tapes and polyethylene film (PE) covering need to be improved....

  20. Deep drip application and low permeability tarp on fumigant behavior in raised-bed systems for strawberry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High fumigant emission loss and insufficient pest control are often found in the raised-bed covered by polyethylene (PE) with shallow drip fumigation depth, which brings great challenges to strawberry growers. These dilemmas may be solved by tarping the beds with low permeability tarp such as totall...

  1. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  2. Nitric oxide as a fumigant for postharvest pest control and its safety to postharvest quality of fresh products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide fumigation under ultralow oxygen atmospheres was discovered recently to be effective for pest control. It is effective against all life stages of insects and mites and against both external and internal feeders. Nitric oxide fumigation comes with additional but acceptable costs associ...

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  4. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  5. Primary NO 2 emissions and their role in the development of NO 2 concentrations in a traffic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V.

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the formation of NO 2 concentrations in heavily traffic-influenced environments in Helsinki, Finland was carried out. The proportion of primary NO 2 emissions from road traffic was estimated using a statistical model for the relationship between the mixing ratios of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO 2) and total oxidant (O 3 + NO 2) measured in 1994-2009. Based on this analysis, a quantitative estimate was derived for the relative importance of the primary NO 2 emissions, ambient NO-NO 2-O 3 equilibrium and background concentrations in the observed NO 2 concentrations. The proportion of primary NO 2 in the vehicular NO x emissions increased from below 10% in the 1990s to about 20% in 2009, with a more distinctive increase during the most recent years. This development was related to the changes in the proportion of diesel-powered passenger cars in Finland. Between 1994 and 2004, the photochemical NO-to-NO 2 conversion comprised on average 51% of the mean NO 2 concentration, while the primary NO 2 emissions contributed 31%. The role of the primary NO 2 emissions was limited by the steeply-decreasing total NO x emissions. More recent data (2005-2009) yielded higher primary NO 2 emission fractions (15 -21%), with a clearly increasing trend. As a result, the contribution of chemical conversion steadily decreased from 54% in 2005 to 43% in 2009, while that of the primary NO 2 emissions increased from 32 to 44%. In order not to exceed in future the annual limit of NO 2 concentration, set by the European Union, in the busiest street canyons in downtown Helsinki, the primary NO 2 emissions need to be addressed alongside the total NO x emissions.

  6. Reaction of HO2 with NO and NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1974-01-01

    A kinetic study is made of the reaction of HO2 with NO2, and relative rate coefficients are derived for this reaction and for the reaction of HO2 with NO. It is shown that irradiation of mixtures of N2O-O2-H2 in the presence of small amounts of NO2 at 2139 A and 25 C leads to the consumption of NO2. The results clearly indicate that NO2 is consumed during irradiation to form a product which thermally decomposes to regenerate NO2 thermally and that this product is undoubtedly HONO. In the case of mixtures of N2O-O2-H2 and N2O-O2-H2-CO in the presence of small amounts of both NO and NO2 the NO2 pressure increases initially, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at a constant rate.

  7. Effects of fumigant nematicides on yield and quality of paste tomatoes grown in southwestern ontario.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L B; Olthof, T H; Potter, J W

    1992-12-01

    Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year.

  8. Residue formations of phosphorus hydride polymers and phosphorus oxyacids during phosphine gas fumigations of stored products.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Byers, Loran E; Plunkett, Susan E; Faustini, Daryl L

    2006-01-11

    With the extent of international usage and the critical role phosphine gas (PH3) plays in commercial pest control, identification of the residual components deposited during fumigation is mandatory. It has been postulated that these infrequent residues are primarily composed of phosphoric acid or reduced forms of phosphoric acid [hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2) and phosphorous acid (H3PO3)], due to the oxidative degradation of phosphine. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, gas phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the structural elucidation and formation mechanism of the yellow amorphous polyhydric phosphorus polymers (P(x)H(y)) that occur in addition to the lower oxyacids of phosphorus in residues deposited during PH3 fumigations of select tobacco commodities are explored. This research determined that nitric oxide gas (or nitrogen dioxide) initiates residue formation of phosphorus hydride polymers and phosphorus oxyacids during PH3 fumigations of stored products.

  9. Ecology of SO2 resistance : IV. Predicting metabolic responses of fumigated shrubs and trees.

    PubMed

    Winner, W E; Koch, G W; Mooney, H A

    1982-01-01

    10 broadleafed trees and shrubs native to the mediterranean climactic zone in California were surveyed for their photosynthetic and stomatal responses to SO2. These species ranged from drought deciduous to evergreen and had diverse responses to SO2. These results suggest an approach for predicting SO2 resistances of plants.We found that conductance values of plants in SO2-free air can be used to estimate the quantity of SO2 which plants absorb. These estimates are based on conductance values for plants in non-limiting environmental conditions. SO2 absorption quantities are then used to predict relative photosynthesis following the fumigation. Thus, relative photosynthesis of plants following fumigation can be predicted on the basis of conductance in SO2-free air. This approach to predicting SO2 resistances of plants includes analysis of their stomatal responses to fumigation, their characteristics of SO2 adsorption and absorption, and their change in photosynthesis resulting from SO2 stress.

  10. Field Observations of Increased Isoprene Emissions Under Ozone Fumigation: Implications for Tropospheric Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, J. P.; Greenberg, J. P.; Harley, P. C.; Guenther, A. B.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic hydrocarbon released from vegetation and plays a key role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Isoprene is produced and emitted by many plant species, yet the reason plants produce this seemingly wasteful carbon compound is still in debate in the plant physiology community. It has been proposed that isoprene may protect plant leaves from thermal damage or damage from oxidant exposure by stabilizing cellular and chloroplast membranes or by direct reactions between exogenous isoprene and oxidative species. As part of the Chemical Emission, Loss, Transformation and Interactions within Canopies (CELTIC) study held at Duke Forest during the summer of 2003, we used dynamic cuvette systems to fumigate leaves of sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) with ozone at partial pressures ranging from 0 to 300 ppbv. During fumigations, the effluent air was monitored using infrared gas analysis, on-line proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography to quantify changes in partial pressure of CO2, water vapor, isoprene and other volatile organics. At fumigations above 100 ppbv ozone, leaf-isoprene emission increased 20-35% compared to pre-fumigation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of increased isoprene emission under ozone fumigation. Over the timescale of our measurements (several hours), isoprene emissions, once elevated, did not decrease even after fumigation levels were reduced. The increase in isoprene emission could potentially be due to upregulation of the isoprene synthase gene or simply an increase in the production (or reallocation) of subcellular isoprene precursor species. However, our measurements did not elucidate or eliminate a particular mechanism. If increases in isoprene emission in response to ozone are common among isoprene emitting species, the feedback implications for the atmosphere could be large. Both a mechanistic understanding of the upregulation process and

  11. Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Rong; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    Background Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. Results The fumigation 24-h LC50 against the house fly (Musca domestica L.) of allyl thiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl cyanide, and l-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene was 0.1, 0.13, 3.66, and 6.2 μg cm-3, respectively; they were 0.55, 1.57, 2.8, and > 19.60 μg cm-3, respectively, against the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius). The fumigation toxicity of some of the glucosinolate products was very close to or better than that of the commercial insect fumigants such as chloropicrin (LC50: 0.08 and 1.3 μg cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) and dichlorovos (LC50: < 0.02 and 0.29 μg cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) in our laboratory tests. Significantly increased CO2 expiration was found in insects exposed to the vapor of allyl isothiocyanate, allyl thiocyanate and allyl isocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate was also found to increase the CO2 expiration of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Conclusions Glucosinolate breakdown products have potential as biodegradable and safe insect fumigants. They may act on the insect respiratory system in their mode of action. PMID:11914158

  12. Performance of phosphine in fumigation of bagged paddy rice in indoor and outdoor stores.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Muralidharan, N

    2001-10-01

    Phosphine fumigation trials were carried out on bag-stacks of paddy rice to study the differences in gas loss rates and concentration-time (Ct) products achieved during the treatment of indoor and outdoor stacks. Stacks (89-132t) were fumigated singly under 250&mgr;m thick polyethylene sheeting, which was sealed with a double layer of sand-snakes to the concrete floor. Phosphine was applied as an aluminium phosphide formulation and the fumigations continued for 7 days. In the first experiment, stacks of paddy rice with moisture contents ranging from 12.2 to 13.7% were held in either indoor or in outdoor storage and subjected to fumigation at the rate of 2, 3 or 4g of phosphine/tonne. The outdoor stacks held relatively low levels of phosphine with Ct products for the indoor stacks of 135, 171 and 294gh/m(3), respectively, whilst the corresponding values for the outdoor stacks were 70, 85 and 166gh/m(3) only. The average gas loss rate was 14.5% per day for the indoor stacks and 29.5% for the outdoor stacks. In the second experiment, old stacks of paddy rice inside a godown, one each with grains at 8.8 and 9.8% moisture content, were fumigated at 3g phosphine/tonne. Release of phosphine was delayed and fumigant sorption was less and therefore higher Ct products of 204 and 216gh/m(3) were achieved. In the stacks built outdoors, the resident infestations of Rhyzopertha dominica, Cryptolestes sp. and Oryzaephilus surinamensis were completely controlled despite lower Ct products. On the other hand, in the stacks of old paddy, R. dominica survived the treatment. Subsequent testing showed that the population had a degree of resistance to phosphine.

  13. Predicting soil fumigant air concentrations under regional and diverse agronomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    SOFEA (SOil Fumigant Exposure Assessment system; Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) is a new stochastic numerical modeling tool for evaluating and managing human inhalation exposure potential associated with the use of soil fumigants. SOFEA calculates fumigant concentrations in air arising from volatility losses from treated fields for large agricultural regions using multiple transient source terms (treated fields), geographical information systems (GIS) information, agronomic specific variables, user-specified buffer zones, and field reentry intervals. A modified version of the USEPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term model (ISCST3) is used for air dispersion calculations. Weather information, field size, application date, application rate, application type, soil incorporation depth, pesticide degradation rates in air, tarp presence, field retreatment, and other sensitive parameters are varied stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques to mimic region and crop specific agronomic practices. Regional land cover, elevation, and population information can be used to refine source placement (treated fields), dispersion calculations, and risk assessments. This paper describes the technical algorithms of SOFEA and offers comparisons of simulation predictions for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) to actual regional air monitoring measurements from Kern, California. Comparison of simulation results to daily air monitoring observations is remarkable over the entire concentration distribution (average percent deviation of 44% and model efficiency of 0.98), especially considering numerous inputs such as meteorological conditions for SOFEA were unavailable and approximated by neighboring regions. Both current and anticipated and/or forecasted fumigant scenarios can be simulated using SOFEA to provide risk managers and product stewards the necessary information to make sound regulatory decisions regarding the use of soil fumigants in agriculture.

  14. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  15. Design of vaccination and fumigation on Host-Vector Model by input-output linearization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Edwin Setiawan; Naiborhu, Janson; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Here, we analyze the Host-Vector Model and proposed design of vaccination and fumigation to control infectious population by using feedback control especially input-output liniearization method. Host population is divided into three compartments: susceptible, infectious and recovery. Whereas the vector population is divided into two compartment such as susceptible and infectious. In this system, vaccination and fumigation treat as input factors and infectious population as output result. The objective of design is to stabilize of the output asymptotically tend to zero. We also present the examples to illustrate the design model.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler responds to COS fumigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Qu, Haixia; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant which has been a potential alternative to methyl bromide and phosphine in many applications. In this study, we investigated the fungitoxicity of COS towards the pathogen of pear black spot disease Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (A. alternata). Moreover, proteomic analysis and RT-PCR was performed and our results showed that during the fumigation, the regulation of 21 proteins in protein expression and mRNA accumulation levels is involved, which respond to growth inhibition caused by COS. These results provide new clues for the mechanism of the fungitoxicity of COS.

  17. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents.

  18. Preliminary Validations of the OMI NO2 Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Brinksma, E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, F. K.; Cede, A.; Ionov, D.; Goutail, F.; Bojkov, B.; Lambert, J.; Wenig, M. O.

    2006-12-01

    The OMI nitrogen dioxide (NO2) product is derived from the hyperspectral measurement of the Earth's spectral albedo in the range 415 - 465 nm. Processing data collected over a 24 hour period allows the construction of an"unpolluted" NO2 field, which approximates well the stratospheric and upper tropospheric components of NO2, which in turn allows both the identification of significant enhancements of tropospheric NO2 and a more accurate retrieval where they exist. The processed data are available from the NASA Goddard DAAC. A small number of field campaigns have been undertaken in which ground- and aircraft-based measurements of atmospheric NO2 have been made, coincident with OMI measurements. These include the INTEX-B campaign, the Dandelions campaigns, and some ongoing measurements made using a Brewer spectrophotometer, SAOZ, and a network of DOAS instruments deployed in various locations, from pole to pole, around the world. Some instruments are more sensitive to the tropospheric NO2, some to the stratospheric NO2, and some give accurate measurements of the total column NO2. This should allow the validation of the stratospheric/tropospheric separation process used in the retrieval algorithm. In addition, the retrieval algorithm rests on a set of climatological NO2 profiles. In-situ NOx measurements made during the INTEX-B campaign have been used to validate the assumed climatological profiles. In this poster we review the state of OMI NO2 validation efforts to date.

  19. Variation of stratospheric NO2 during the solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Elokhov, Alexander S.

    1994-01-01

    The numerical modeling of the changes of the concentration of trace gases in the atmosphere during the eclipse shows that the NO2 total content in the vertical column increases approximately by 80 percent. The first observations of the NO2 total content during the eclipse of 1981 have given 60 plus or minus 20 percent. In the observations of 1990 the more precise methods and instruments for stratospheric NO2 measurements were used. The surface ozone, NO, and NO2 concentrations were under control. The results of the observations give the increasing of the stratospheric NO2 during the eclipse by 55 plus or minus 6 percent. The maximum increasing of the NO2 content is observed at the moment of the maximum phase.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.2077 Section 51.2077 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds in the shell which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade, except that an additional tolerance...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1263 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1263 Section 51.1263 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Grades § 51.1263 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of pears of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1148 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1148 Section 51.1148 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Grades § 51.1148 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of... tolerances see § 51.1151. (e) Internal quality: Lots meeting the internal requirements for “U.S. Grade...

  3. 7 CFR 51.478 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.478 Section 51.478 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Grades § 51.478 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of cantaloups of one...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2835 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... areas; (8) Disease; (9) Freezing; (10) Insects; and, (11) Other means. (d) For tolerances see § 51.2837... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.2835 Section 51.2835 Agriculture... Creole Types) Grades § 51.2835 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of onions which meet the following...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3197 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.3197 Section 51.3197 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3197 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of...) Free from serious damage caused by: (1) Seedstems; (2) Dry sunken areas; (3) Sprouting; (4) Staining...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1523 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1523 Section 51.1523 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Grades § 51.1523 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of plums...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1213 Section 51.1213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one variety...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1213 Section 51.1213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one variety...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1263 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1263 Section 51.1263 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Grades § 51.1263 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of pears of one...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1148 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1148 Section 51.1148 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Grades § 51.1148 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of... tolerances see § 51.1151. (e) Internal quality: Lots meeting the internal requirements for “U.S. Grade AA...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1857 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1857 Section 51.1857 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Grades § 51.1857 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of tomatoes which meet the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1543 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1543 Section 51.1543 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Grades § 51.1543 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of potatoes which meet...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1304 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1304 Section 51.1304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Grades § 51.1304 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of pears of one variety...

  14. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in color is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the U.S. Department of...

  15. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  16. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in color is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the U.S. Department of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in color is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the U.S. Department of...

  18. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in color is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the U.S. Department of...

  19. Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east - northeast. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Aircraft Assembly Shop Plant, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Have vehicle emissions of primary NO2 peaked?

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Murrells, Tim P; Andersson, Jon; Keenan, Matthew

    2016-07-18

    Reducing ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains a key challenge across many European urban areas, particularly close to roads. This challenge mostly relates to the lack of reduction in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel road vehicles relative to the reductions expected through increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation. However, a key component of near-road concentrations of NO2 derives from directly emitted (primary) NO2 from diesel vehicles. It is well-established that the proportion of NO2 (i.e. the NO2/NOx ratio) in vehicle exhaust has increased over the past decade as a result of vehicle after-treatment technologies that oxidise carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and generate NO2 to aid the emissions control of diesel particulate. In this work we bring together an analysis of ambient NOx and NO2 measurements with comprehensive vehicle emission remote sensing data obtained in London to better understand recent trends in the NO2/NOx ratio from road vehicles. We show that there is evidence that NO2 concentrations have decreased since around 2010 despite less evidence of a reduction in total NOx. The decrease is shown to be driven by relatively large reductions in the amount of NO2 directly emitted by vehicles; from around 25 vol% in 2010 to 15 vol% in 2014 in inner London, for example. The analysis of NOx and NO2 vehicle emission remote sensing data shows that these reductions have been mostly driven by reduced NO2/NOx emission ratios from heavy duty vehicles and buses rather than light duty vehicles. However, there is also evidence from the analysis of Euro 4 and 5 diesel passenger cars that as vehicles age the NO2/NOx ratio decreases. For example the NO2/NOx ratio decreased from 29.5 ± 2.0% in Euro 5 diesel cars up to one year old to 22.7 ± 2.5% for four-year old vehicles. At some roadside locations the reductions in primary NO2 have had a large effect on reducing both the annual mean and number of hourly exceedances