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Sample records for 600h hybrid synergy

  1. Evaluation of the 2008 Lexus LS 600H Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Wereszczak, A.A.; Cunningham, J.P.; Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Lin, H.T.

    2009-01-15

    Subsystems of the 2008 Lexus 600h hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies program not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  2. Engineering Synergy: Energy and Mass Transport in Hybrid Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seon; Coates, Nelson E; Forster, Jason D; Ruminski, Anne M; Russ, Boris; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Su, Norman C; Yang, Fan; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-14

    An emerging class of materials that are hybrid in nature is propelling a technological revolution in energy, touching many fundamental aspects of energy-generation, storage, and conservation. Hybrid materials combine classical inorganic and organic components to yield materials that manifest new functionalities unattainable in traditional composites or other related multicomponent materials, which have additive function only. This Research News article highlights the exciting materials design innovations that hybrid materials enable, with an eye toward energy-relevant applications involving charge, heat, and mass transport.

  3. A Muscle Synergy-Inspired Adaptive Control Scheme for a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Alibeji, Naji A; Kirsch, Nicholas Andrew; Sharma, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid neuroprosthesis that uses an electric motor-based wearable exoskeleton and functional electrical stimulation (FES) has a promising potential to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. A hybrid actuation structure introduces effector redundancy, making its automatic control a challenging task because multiple muscles and additional electric motor need to be coordinated. Inspired by the muscle synergy principle, we designed a low dimensional controller to control multiple effectors: FES of multiple muscles and electric motors. The resulting control system may be less complex and easier to control. To obtain the muscle synergy-inspired low dimensional control, a subject-specific gait model was optimized to compute optimal control signals for the multiple effectors. The optimal control signals were then dimensionally reduced by using principal component analysis to extract synergies. Then, an adaptive feedforward controller with an update law for the synergy activation was designed. In addition, feedback control was used to provide stability and robustness to the control design. The adaptive-feedforward and feedback control structure makes the low dimensional controller more robust to disturbances and variations in the model parameters and may help to compensate for other time-varying phenomena (e.g., muscle fatigue). This is proven by using a Lyapunov stability analysis, which yielded semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. Computer simulations were performed to test the new controller on a 4-degree of freedom gait model.

  4. A Muscle Synergy-Inspired Adaptive Control Scheme for a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Alibeji, Naji A.; Kirsch, Nicholas Andrew; Sharma, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid neuroprosthesis that uses an electric motor-based wearable exoskeleton and functional electrical stimulation (FES) has a promising potential to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. A hybrid actuation structure introduces effector redundancy, making its automatic control a challenging task because multiple muscles and additional electric motor need to be coordinated. Inspired by the muscle synergy principle, we designed a low dimensional controller to control multiple effectors: FES of multiple muscles and electric motors. The resulting control system may be less complex and easier to control. To obtain the muscle synergy-inspired low dimensional control, a subject-specific gait model was optimized to compute optimal control signals for the multiple effectors. The optimal control signals were then dimensionally reduced by using principal component analysis to extract synergies. Then, an adaptive feedforward controller with an update law for the synergy activation was designed. In addition, feedback control was used to provide stability and robustness to the control design. The adaptive-feedforward and feedback control structure makes the low dimensional controller more robust to disturbances and variations in the model parameters and may help to compensate for other time-varying phenomena (e.g., muscle fatigue). This is proven by using a Lyapunov stability analysis, which yielded semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. Computer simulations were performed to test the new controller on a 4-degree of freedom gait model. PMID:26734606

  5. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  6. Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, Timothy A; Campbell, Steven L; Coomer, Chester; Ayers, Curtis William; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Cunningham, Joseph Philip; Marlino, Laura D; Seiber, Larry Eugene; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-03-01

    Subsystems of the 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  7. Synergy effects during current drive by two lower-hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Youlei; Xiang, Nong; Hu, Ye Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent lower-hybrid current drive experiments on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak, two lower-hybrid waves are launched simultaneously from different locations with different phase velocities to drive the plasma current. To understand the synergy effects of the two LH waves, the analytical expression for the electron velocity distribution is obtained based on Fuchs' model [Fuchs et al., Phys. Fluids 28(12), 3619-3628 (1985)], which is in good agreement with that obtained by solving the quasi-linear equation numerically via the CQL3D code [R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, in Proceedings of IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992)]. The synergy factor is also obtained analytically. It is found that the existence of two resonant regions may bring more resonant electrons interacting with each wave and the perpendicular dynamics can further enhance the synergy effect by increasing the effective electron temperature, which in turn increases the number of electrons in the resonance with each wave.

  8. Optimized calculation of the synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Bo-Jiang, Ding; Y, Peysson; J, Decker; Miao-Hui, Li; Xin-Jun, Zhang; Xiao-Jie, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The optimized synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) with normal parameters of the EAST tokamak are studied by using the C3PO/LUKE code based on the understanding of the synergy mechanisms so as to obtain a higher synergistic current and provide theoretical reference for the synergistic effect in the EAST experiment. The dependences of the synergistic effect on the parameters of two waves (lower hybrid wave (LHW) and electron cyclotron wave (ECW)), including the radial position of the power deposition, the power value of the LH and EC waves, and the parallel refractive indices of the LHW (N∥) are presented and discussed. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011GB102000, 2012GB103000, and 2013GB106001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175206 and 11305211), the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (Grant No. 11261140328), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. JZ2015HGBZ0472).

  9. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  10. Hybrid Transvaginal NOTES and Mini-Laparoscopic Colectomy: Benefit Through Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Philip S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hybrid-natural orifice surgery combines the advantages of traditional transabdominal laparoscopic surgery, while limiting surgical trauma to the abdominal wall. Among various routes of intra-abdominal access, the transvaginal method is most appealing because of its utility and proven safety. We describe a series of 4 colonic resections performed with this approach, combined with minilaparoscopy and needlescopic approaches, and discuss the technical aspects, efficacy, and applicability of this technique. Methods: Three patients were selected to undergo hybrid transvaginal natural-orifice right hemicolectomy. A fourth patient, who underwent a segmental resection of a splenic flexure carcinoma, was included. Transvaginal port access was obtained via posterior colpotomy, and was used for dissection, vascular ligation, bowel division, and anastomosis. We used a combination of standard laparoscopic, minilaparoscopic, and needlescopic instruments transabdominally, focusing on reduced size and number of access points. Results: Duration of laparoscopy, oncologic outcomes and rate of operative morbidity were comparable to the published literature. Early return of gastrointestinal function and low analgesic requirements was observed in all patients. No morbidity related to transvaginal access was observed and the procedure was performed without difficulty in all cases. Conclusion: Colonic resection performed by hybrid natural-orifice technique offers several advantages over purely transabdominal laparoscopic procedures. Transvaginal access is easy to perform and offers excellent safety, efficacy, and versatility, especially for right hemicolectomy. Techniques to reduce abdominal wall surgical trauma, such as minilaparoscopy and needlescopic graspers, can be combined effectively in colonic resections, and may act synergistically to reduce postoperative pain and improve outcomes. PMID:27904307

  11. A Nanostructured Bifunctional platform for Sensing of Glucose Biomarker in Artificial Saliva: Synergy in hybrid Pt/Au surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Shimizu, Flávio M; Coelho, Dyovani; Piazzeta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Machado, Sergio A S; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-12-15

    We report on a bimetallic, bifunctional electrode where a platinum (Pt) surface was patterned with nanostructured gold (Au) fingers with different film thicknesses, which was functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx) to yield a highly sensitive glucose biosensor. This was achieved by using selective adsorption of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) onto Au fingers, which allowed GOx immobilization only onto the Au-SAM surface. This modified electrode was termed bifunctional because it allowed to simultaneously immobilize the biomolecule (GOx) on gold to catalyze glucose, and detect hydrogen peroxide on Pt sites. Optimized electrocatalytic activity was reached for the architecture Pt/Au-SAM/GOx with 50nm thickness of Au, where synergy between Pt and Au allowed for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a low applied potential (0V vs. Ag/AgCl). Detection was performed for H2O2 in the range between 4.7 and 102.7 nmol L(-1), with detection limit of 3.4×10(-9) mol L(-1) (3.4 nmol L(-1)) and an apparent Michaelis-Menten rate constant of 3.2×10(-6)molL(-1), which is considerably smaller than similar devices with monometallic electrodes. The methodology was validated by measuring glucose in artificial saliva, including in the presence of interferents. The synergy between Pt and Au was confirmed in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements with an increased electron transfer, compared to bare Pt and Au electrodes. The approach for fabricating the reproducible bimetallic Pt/Au electrodes is entirely generic and may be explored for other types of biosensors and biodevices where advantage can be taken of the combination of the two metals.

  12. Prehension Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The precision grip requires the control of the normal and tangential forces exerted by the fingers as well as the control of the rotational equilibrium of the grasped object. Prehension synergies involve the conjoint changes in finger forces and moments during multifinger gripping tasks. Some of these adjustments are dictated by mechanics, whereas others are the result of a choice by the performer. PMID:15064652

  13. Desperately seeking synergy.

    PubMed

    Goold, M; Campbell, A

    1998-01-01

    Corporate executives have strong biases in favor of synergy, and those biases can lead them into ill-advised attempts to force business units to cooperate--even when the ultimate benefits are unclear. But executives can separate the real opportunities from the mirages, say Michael Goold and Andrew Campbell. They simply need to take a more disciplined approach to synergy. These biases take four forms. First comes the synergy bias, which leads executives to overestimate the benefits and underestimate the costs of synergy. Then comes the parenting bias, a belief that synergy will be captured only by cajoling or compelling business units to cooperate. The parenting bias is usually accompanied by the skills bias--the assumption that whatever know-how is required to achieve synergy will be available within the organization. Finally, executives fall victim to the upside bias, which causes them to concentrate so hard on the potential benefits of synergy that they overlook the possible downside risks. In combination, these four biases make synergy seem more attractive and more easily achievable than it truly is. As a result, corporate executives often launch initiatives that ultimately waste time and money and sometimes even severely damage their businesses. To avoid such failures, executives need to subject all synergy opportunities to a clear-eyed analysis that clarifies the benefits to be gained, examines the potential for corporate involvement, and takes into account the possible downsides. Such a disciplined approach will inevitably mean that fewer initiatives will be launched. But those that are pursued will be far more likely to deliver substantial gains.

  14. The synergy between Ti species and g-C3N4 by doping and hybridization for the enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Tian, Xiao; Li, Fa-Tang; Zhao, Jun; Li, Yu-Pei; Liu, Rui-Hong; Hao, Ying-Juan

    2015-10-28

    A Ti species modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst was synthesized via an in situ hydrothermal route and the subsequent low-temperature calcination. The hydrothermal process results in not only the fabrication of TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunctions, but also the coordination between Ti species and g-C3N4, which are verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical resistance test confirms that the coordination can improve the electrical conductivity of composites and can make the charge transfer easier. The photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements exhibit that the hybridization enhances the separation efficiency of photo-induced electrons and holes. As a result, the Ti species modified g-C3N4 photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic H2 evolution than the simple heterojunction of TiO2/g-C3N4 obtained via a microwave method and the mechanical mixture of TiO2 and g-C3N4 under visible-light irradiation. The coordination mechanism and synthesis route of TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunctions are proposed.

  15. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  16. Neural bases of hand synergies

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is “synergy control” which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of “fixed” vs. “flexible” synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control. PMID:23579545

  17. Neural bases of hand synergies.

    PubMed

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of "fixed" vs. "flexible" synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control.

  18. From silos to synergy.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Janet; Levermann, Laurie; Soffar, Gail; Giardino, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    Texas Children's Health Plan (TCHP) redesigned its approach to care management in an effort to provide support for member-centric care and the medical home. The changes in process and structure focused on connecting information and programs to promote care for members in a collaborative manner and taking advantage of the synergy between staff, programming, and the physician practices serving health plan membership. The results brought about an improvement in job satisfaction, positive change in the medical-loss ratio, and new innovations to support preventive and chronic care service delivery needs of the TCHP membership.

  19. Synergies with the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D.

    2016-06-01

    In this solicited talk I will review the synergy between XMM-Newton (and Chandra) and infrared facilities. I will focus on two key advantages from the combination of X-ray and infrared observations. First, infrared observations allow for the identification of the most heavily obscured AGNs that are weak or undetected at X-ray observations, providing a more complete census of AGN activity than from X-ray observations alone. Second, infrared observations provide constraints on the star-formation properties of the AGNs, allowing for insight into the connection between AGN activity and star formation. I will use these key advantages to discuss our progress in identifying a complete census of AGN activity and our understanding of the AGN-star formation connection. I will also review how yet greater gains can be made with future planned and proposed facilities.

  20. Entrepreneurial Creativity through Motivational Synergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines and describes entrepreneurial creativity, which is the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas to establish a new venture. Discusses the need for motivational synergy, which results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence. (Author/CR)

  1. Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Gregor; Lee, Anna Y; Epp, Elias; Fredette, Amélie; Surprenant, Jamie; Harcus, Doreen; Scott, Michelle; Tan, Elaine; Nishimura, Tamiko; Whiteway, Malcolm; Hallett, Michael; Thomas, David Y

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapies, HIV infections, and treatments to block organ transplant rejection are creating a population of immunocompromised individuals at serious risk of systemic fungal infections. Since single-agent therapies are susceptible to failure due to either inherent or acquired resistance, alternative therapeutic approaches such as multi-agent therapies are needed. We have developed a bioinformatics-driven approach that efficiently predicts compound synergy for such combinatorial therapies. The approach uses chemogenomic profiles in order to identify compound profiles that have a statistically significant degree of similarity to a fluconazole profile. The compounds identified were then experimentally verified to be synergistic with fluconazole and with each other, in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Our method is therefore capable of accurately predicting compound synergy to aid the development of combinatorial antifungal therapies. PMID:20029371

  2. Effective force control by muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Berger, Denise J; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS) to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control forces and movements effectively with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we show that muscle synergies can be used to generate target forces in multiple directions with the same accuracy achieved using individual muscles. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from 13 arm muscles and isometric hand forces during a force reaching task in a virtual environment. From these data we estimated the force associated to each muscle by linear regression and we identified muscle synergies by non-negative matrix factorization. We compared trajectories of a virtual mass displaced by the force estimated using the entire set of recorded EMGs to trajectories obtained using 4-5 muscle synergies. While trajectories were similar, when feedback was provided according to force estimated from recorded EMGs (EMG-control) on average trajectories generated with the synergies were less accurate. However, when feedback was provided according to recorded force (force-control) we did not find significant differences in initial angle error and endpoint error. We then tested whether synergies could be used as effectively as individual muscles to control cursor movement in the force reaching task by providing feedback according to force estimated from the projection of the recorded EMGs into synergy space (synergy-control). Human subjects were able to perform the task immediately after switching from force-control to EMG-control and synergy-control and we found no differences between initial movement direction errors and endpoint errors in all control modes. These results indicate that muscle synergies provide an effective strategy for motor coordination.

  3. Synergy, redundancy and unnormalized Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Stramaglia, S; Angelini, L; Cortes, J M; Marinazzo, D

    2015-08-01

    We analyze by means of Granger causality the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. Whilst fully conditioned Granger causality is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to put in evidence synergetic effects. We show that maximization of the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables, puts in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target, provided that an unnormalized definition of Granger causality is adopted. Along the same lines we also introduce a pairwise index of synergy (w.r.t. to information flow to a third variable) which is zero when two independent sources additively influence a common target; thus, this definition differs from previous definitions of synergy.

  4. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  5. Examining the Synergy of Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are charged with conducting a home visit to every postnatal mother within 48 hours of hospital discharge. This represents the beginning of a long-term relationship, not only with the mother and newborn child but also with the family. This article fundamentally demonstrates the essential work of the public health nurse in promoting the health of the baby within a family. In this article, the expertise the public health nurse uses in the first visit is examined in the context of 3 competencies: communication, partnerships with the family, and partnerships with individual family members. This expertise provides the foundation for a long-term therapeutic relationship with the family to the essential benefit of the baby’s early childhood growth and developmental milestones. Consequently, the first postnatal visit by public health nursing in Ireland represents a synergy of practice, which provides the foundation for enduring family relationships focused on potentializing both individual family members’ health and the family as a dynamic unit. PMID:27335911

  6. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  7. Modelling natural and artificial hands with synergies

    PubMed Central

    Bicchi, Antonio; Gabiccini, Marco; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to the pre-grasping phase occurring when shaping the hand before actual contact with the grasped object. To extend applicability of the synergy model to study force distribution in the actual grasp, we introduce a modified model including the mechanical compliance of the hand's musculotendinous system. Numerical results obtained by this model indicate that the same principal synergies observed from pre-grasp postural data are also fundamental in achieving proper grasp force distribution. To illustrate the concept of synergies in the dual domain of haptic sensing, we provide a review of models of how the complexity and heterogeneity of sensory information from touch can be harnessed in simplified, tractable abstractions. These abstractions are amenable to fast processing to enable quick reflexes as well as elaboration of high-level percepts. Applications of the synergy model to the design and control of artificial hands and tactile sensors are illustrated. PMID:21969697

  8. Modelling natural and artificial hands with synergies.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Antonio; Gabiccini, Marco; Santello, Marco

    2011-11-12

    We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to the pre-grasping phase occurring when shaping the hand before actual contact with the grasped object. To extend applicability of the synergy model to study force distribution in the actual grasp, we introduce a modified model including the mechanical compliance of the hand's musculotendinous system. Numerical results obtained by this model indicate that the same principal synergies observed from pre-grasp postural data are also fundamental in achieving proper grasp force distribution. To illustrate the concept of synergies in the dual domain of haptic sensing, we provide a review of models of how the complexity and heterogeneity of sensory information from touch can be harnessed in simplified, tractable abstractions. These abstractions are amenable to fast processing to enable quick reflexes as well as elaboration of high-level percepts. Applications of the synergy model to the design and control of artificial hands and tactile sensors are illustrated.

  9. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual's behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  10. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  11. Shared muscle synergies in human walking and cycling.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Filipe O; Torricelli, Diego; Moreno, Juan C; Taylor, Julian; Gomez-Soriano, Julio; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Piazza, Stefano; Santos, Cristina; Pons, José L

    2014-10-15

    The motor system may rely on a modular organization (muscle synergies activated in time) to execute different tasks. We investigated the common control features of walking and cycling in healthy humans from the perspective of muscle synergies. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) muscle synergies extracted from walking trials are similar to those extracted during cycling; 2) muscle synergies extracted from one of these motor tasks can be used to mathematically reconstruct the electromyographic (EMG) patterns of the other task; 3) muscle synergies of cycling can result from merging synergies of walking. A secondary objective was to identify the speed (and cadence) at which higher similarities emerged. EMG activity from eight muscles of the dominant leg was recorded in eight healthy subjects during walking and cycling at four matched cadences. A factorization technique [nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF)] was applied to extract individual muscle synergy vectors and the respective activation coefficients behind the global muscular activity of each condition. Results corroborated hypotheses 2 and 3, showing that 1) four synergies from walking and cycling can successfully explain most of the EMG variability of cycling and walking, respectively, and 2) two of four synergies from walking appear to merge together to reconstruct one individual synergy of cycling, with best reconstruction values found for higher speeds. Direct comparison of the muscle synergy vectors of walking and the muscle synergy vectors of cycling (hypothesis 1) produced moderated values of similarity. This study provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that cycling and walking share common neuromuscular mechanisms.

  12. Cortex Integrity Relevance in Muscle Synergies in Severe Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    García-Cossio, Eliana; Broetz, Doris; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental evidence has indicated that the motor system coordinates muscle activations through a linear combination of muscle synergies that are specified at the spinal or brainstem networks level. After stroke upper limb impairment is characterized by abnormal patterns of muscle activations or synergies. Objective: This study aimed at characterizing the muscle synergies in severely affected chronic stroke patients. Furthermore, the influence of integrity of the sensorimotor cortex on synergy modularity and its relation with motor impairment was evaluated. Methods: Surface electromyography from 33 severely impaired chronic stroke patients was recorded during 6 bilateral movements. Muscle synergies were extracted and synergy patterns were correlated with motor impairment scales. Results: Muscle synergies extracted revealed different physiological patterns dependent on the preservation of the sensorimotor cortex. Patients without intact sensorimotor cortex showed a high preservation of muscle synergies. On the contrary, patients with intact sensorimotor cortex showed poorer muscle synergies preservation and an increase in new generated synergies. Furthermore, the preservation of muscle synergies correlated positively with hand functionality in patients with intact sensorimotor cortex and subcortical lesions only. Conclusion: Our results indicate that severely paralyzed chronic stroke patient with intact sensorimotor cortex might sculpt new synergy patterns as a response to maladaptive compensatory strategies. PMID:25294998

  13. Project SYNERGY: Software Support for Underprepared Students. Year Four Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Div. of Educational Technologies.

    With funds from the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation, Project SYNERGY was launched in January 1990 to address the problem of students deficient in basic skills entering colleges. Project SYNERGY I focused on reviewing and compiling a list of useful instructional software for basic skills remediation; Project SYNERGY II focused on…

  14. IT Portfolio Selection and IT Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Woo Je

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. The primary objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to provide a methodological framework of IT (Information Technology) portfolio management, and (2) to identify the effect of IT synergy on IT portfolio selection of a firm. The first chapter presents a methodological framework for IT project…

  15. Exploring Synergy between Classic Mutagens and Antibiotics To Examine Mechanisms of Synergy and Antibiotic Action.

    PubMed

    Song, Lisa Yun; D'Souza, Sara; Lam, Karen; Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yeh, Pamela; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2015-12-28

    We used classical mutagens in Gram-negative Escherichia coli to study synergies with different classes of antibiotics, test models of antibiotic mechanisms of action, and examine the basis of synergy. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), zebularine (ZEB), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), 2-aminopurine (2AP), and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) as mutagens (with bactericidal potency of 4NQO > ZEB > 5AZ > 2AP > 5BrdU) and vancomycin (VAN), ciprofloxacin (CPR), trimethoprim (TMP), gentamicin (GEN), tetracycline (TET), erythromycin (ERY), and chloramphenicol (CHL) as antibiotics. We detected the strongest synergies with 4NQO, an agent that oxidizes guanines and ultimately results in double-strand breaks when paired with the bactericidal antibiotics VAN, TMP, CPR, and GEN, but no synergies with the bacteriostatic antibiotics TET, ERY, and CHL. Each of the other mutagens displays synergies with the bactericidal antibiotics to various degrees that reflect their potencies, as well as with some of the other mutagens. The results support recent models showing that bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria principally by ultimately generating more double-strand breaks than can be repaired. We discuss the synergies seen here and elsewhere as representing dose effects of not the proximal target damage but rather the ultimate resulting double-strand breaks. We also used the results of pairwise tests to place the classic mutagens into functional antibacterial categories within a previously defined drug interaction network.

  16. Exploring Synergy between Classic Mutagens and Antibiotics To Examine Mechanisms of Synergy and Antibiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lisa Yun; D'Souza, Sara; Lam, Karen; Kang, Tina Manzhu

    2015-01-01

    We used classical mutagens in Gram-negative Escherichia coli to study synergies with different classes of antibiotics, test models of antibiotic mechanisms of action, and examine the basis of synergy. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), zebularine (ZEB), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), 2-aminopurine (2AP), and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) as mutagens (with bactericidal potency of 4NQO > ZEB > 5AZ > 2AP > 5BrdU) and vancomycin (VAN), ciprofloxacin (CPR), trimethoprim (TMP), gentamicin (GEN), tetracycline (TET), erythromycin (ERY), and chloramphenicol (CHL) as antibiotics. We detected the strongest synergies with 4NQO, an agent that oxidizes guanines and ultimately results in double-strand breaks when paired with the bactericidal antibiotics VAN, TMP, CPR, and GEN, but no synergies with the bacteriostatic antibiotics TET, ERY, and CHL. Each of the other mutagens displays synergies with the bactericidal antibiotics to various degrees that reflect their potencies, as well as with some of the other mutagens. The results support recent models showing that bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria principally by ultimately generating more double-strand breaks than can be repaired. We discuss the synergies seen here and elsewhere as representing dose effects of not the proximal target damage but rather the ultimate resulting double-strand breaks. We also used the results of pairwise tests to place the classic mutagens into functional antibacterial categories within a previously defined drug interaction network. PMID:26711761

  17. Consistency of muscle synergies during pedaling across different mechanical constraints.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether muscle synergies are constrained by changes in the mechanics of pedaling. The decomposition algorithm used to identify muscle synergies was based on two components: "muscle synergy vectors," which represent the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy, and "synergy activation coefficients," which represent the relative contribution of muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern. We hypothesized that muscle synergy vectors would remain fixed but that synergy activation coefficients could vary, resulting in observed variations in individual electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Eleven cyclists were tested during a submaximal pedaling exercise and five all-out sprints. The effects of torque, maximal torque-velocity combination, and posture were studied. First, muscle synergies were extracted from each pedaling exercise independently using non-negative matrix factorization. Then, to cross-validate the results, muscle synergies were extracted from the entire data pooled across all conditions, and muscle synergy vectors extracted from the submaximal exercise were used to reconstruct EMG patterns of the five all-out sprints. Whatever the mechanical constraints, three muscle synergies accounted for the majority of variability [mean variance accounted for (VAF) = 93.3 ± 1.6%, VAF (muscle) > 82.5%] in the EMG signals of 11 lower limb muscles. In addition, there was a robust consistency in the muscle synergy vectors. This high similarity in the composition of the three extracted synergies was accompanied by slight adaptations in their activation coefficients in response to extreme changes in torque and posture. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that these muscle synergies reflect a neural control strategy, with only a few timing adjustments in their activation regarding the mechanical constraints.

  18. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ≈ 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  19. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time.

  20. Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    The article offers a way to unite three recent developments in the field of motor control and coordination: (1) The notion of synergies is introduced based on the principle of motor abundance; (2) The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is described as offering a computational framework to identify and quantify synergies; and (3) The equilibrium-point hypothesis is described for a single muscle, single joint, and multijoint systems. Merging these concepts into a single coherent scheme requires focusing on control variables rather than performance variables. The principle of minimal final action is formulated as the guiding principle within the referent configuration hypothesis. Motor actions are associated with setting two types of variables by a controller, those that ultimately define average performance patterns and those that define associated synergies. Predictions of the suggested scheme are reviewed, such as the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments, quick actions without changes in synergies, atypical synergies, and changes in synergies with practice. A few models are briefly reviewed.

  1. Polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Richard J.; Hajishengallis, George

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation of the periodontal area may arise when complex microbial communities transition from a commensal to a pathogenic entity. Communication among constituent species leads to polymicrobial synergy among metabolically compatible organisms that acquire functional specialization within the developing community. Keystone pathogens, even at low abundance, elevate community virulence and the resulting dysbiotic community targets specific aspects of host immunity to further disable immune surveillance while promoting an overall inflammatory response. Inflammophilic organisms benefit from proteinaceous substrates derived from inflammatory tissue breakdown. Inflammation and dysbiosis reinforce each other and the escalating environmental changes further select for a pathobiotic community. We have synthesized the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiotic components of the process into a new model for inflammatory diseases. PMID:25498392

  2. Polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Richard J; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-03-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation of the periodontal area may arise when complex microbial communities transition from a commensal to a pathogenic entity. Communication among constituent species leads to polymicrobial synergy between metabolically compatible organisms that acquire functional specialization within the developing community. Keystone pathogens, even at low abundance, elevate community virulence, and the resulting dysbiotic community targets specific aspects of host immunity to further disable immune surveillance while promoting an overall inflammatory response. Inflammophilic organisms benefit from proteinaceous substrates derived from inflammatory tissue breakdown. Inflammation and dysbiosis reinforce each other, and the escalating environmental changes further select for a pathobiotic community. We have synthesized the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiotic components of the process into a new model for inflammatory diseases.

  3. Synergy between penicillin and gentamicin against enterococci.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, T G; Hastings, J G

    1990-04-01

    The role of active uptake in aminoglycoside activity against penicillin-treated enterococci was studied by viable counts and ATP determinations. Penicillin and gentamicin gave synergistic bactericidal and post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) which were partially reduced by sodium azide, an electron transport inhibitor, and totally blocked in the presence of both sodium azide and EDTA, which chelates divalent cations. EDTA and gentamicin showed marked synergy in both 'killing curve' and PAE experiments. This synergy was completely inhibited by sodium azide. The data indicate that the activity of gentamicin against enterococci that have been damaged by penicillin or EDTA is energy-dependent. This is consistent with present theories of gentamicin uptake via transportation drive by a protonmotive force.

  4. Leveraging synergy for multiple agent infotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hagberg, Aric A; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2008-01-01

    Social computation, whether in the form of a search performed by a swarm of agents or the predictions of markets, often supplies remarkably good solutions to complex problems, which often elude the best experts. There is an intuition, built upon many anecdotal examples, that pervading principles are at play that allow individuals trying to solve a problem locally to aggregate their information to arrive at an outcome superior than any available to isolated parties. Here we show that the general structure of this problem can be cast in terms of information theory and derive general mathematical conditions for information sharing and coordination that lead to optimal multi-agent searches. Specifically we illustrate the problem in terms of the construction of local search algorithms for autonomous agents looking for the spatial location of a stochastic source. We explore the types of search problems -defined in terms of the properties of the source and the nature of measurements at each sensor -for which coordination among multiple searchers yields an advantage beyond that gained by having the same number of independent searchers. We assert that effective coordination corresponds to synergy and that ineffective coordination corresponds to redundancy as defined using information theory. We classify explicit types of sources in terms of their potential for synergy. We show that sources that emit uncorrelated particles based on a Poisson process, provide no opportunity for synergetic coordination while others, particularly sources that emit correlated signals, do allow for strong synergy between searchers. These general considerations are crucial for designing optimal algorithms for particular search problems in real world settings.

  5. Influence of intermittency and synergy on grasping.

    PubMed

    Neilson, P D

    1999-07-01

    The commentary firstly supports Smeets and Brenner in their choice of a kinematic trajectory, submitting that the challenge posed by the rival torque-change formulation is resolved by consideration of intermittency in human movement control. Second, it examines the choice of optimization criterion for trajectory planning, arguing in favor of minimum acceleration rather than minimum jerk. Third, using the notion of optimized trajectories in task-dependent coordinate space together with synergy generation, it suggests a formulation that reduces the processing load entailed in Smeets and Brenner's proposal of individual trajectories for each digit.

  6. Toward a new theory of motor synergies.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Scholz, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2007-07-01

    Driven by recent empirical studies, we offer a new understanding of the degrees of freedom problem, and propose a refined concept of synergy as a neural organization that ensures a one-to-many mapping of variables providing for both stability of important performance variables and flexibility of motor patterns to deal with possible perturbations and/or secondary tasks. Empirical evidence is reviewed, including a discussion of the operationalization of stability/flexibility through the method of the uncontrolled manifold. We show how this concept establishes links between the various accounts for how movement is organized in redundant effector systems.

  7. The synergy model: the ultimate mentoring model.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M; Cox, Marilyn

    2005-06-01

    Clarian Health Partners is a system that includes Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Indiana University Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. The nurses of Clarian Health Partners are the recipients of many national awards for their leadership and innovations in critical care. Nurse leaders at Clarian have developed and implemented a unique framework for professional development based on the synergy model. In this article, the Chief Nurse Executive for the System, Dr. Karlene Kerfoot, and Marilyn Cox, the Senior Vice President for Nursing and Patient Care at Riley Hospital for Children, describe their vision of and strategies for a new approach to mentoring professional nursing staff.

  8. Hierarchical and multiple hand action representation using temporal postural synergies.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, G; Sinigaglia, C; Prevete, R

    2013-03-01

    The notion of synergy enables one to provide simplified descriptions of hand actions. It has been used in a number of different meanings ranging from kinematic and dynamic synergies to postural and temporal postural synergies. However, relatively little is known about how representing an action by synergies might take into account the possibility to have a hierarchical and multiple action representation. This is a key aspect for action representation as it has been characterized by action theorists and cognitive neuroscientists. Thus, the aim of the present paper is to investigate whether and to what extent a hierarchical and multiple action representation can be obtained by a synergy approach. To this purpose, we took advantage of representing hand action as a linear combination of temporal postural synergies (TPSs), but on the assumption that TPSs have a tree-structured organization. In a tree-structured organization, a hand action representation can involve a TPS only if the ancestors of the synergy in the tree are themselves involved in the action representation. The results showed that this organization is enough to force a multiple representation of hand actions in terms of synergies which are hierarchically organized.

  9. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Dr. Florini�s idealistic definition, transparency today is at best a mix of � legislated � voluntary and involuntary disclosure by states, private...SPACE-DERIVED TRANSPARENCY : PLAYERS, POLICIES, IMPLICATIONS, AND SYNERGIES BY C. J. KINNAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...to) - Title and Subtitle Space-Derived Transparency : Players, Policies, Implicatons, and Synergies Contract Number Grant Number Program Element

  10. Influence of locomotion speed on biomechanical subtask and muscle synergy.

    PubMed

    Gui, Kai; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the relationship of biomechanical subtasks, and muscle synergies with various locomotion speeds. Ground reaction force (GRF) of eight healthy subjects is measured synchronously by force plates of treadmill at five different speeds ranging from 0.5m/s to 1.5m/s. Four basic biomechanical subtasks, body support, propulsion, swing, and heel strike preparation, are identified according to GRF. Meanwhile, electromyography (EMG) data, used to extract muscle synergies, are collected from lower limb muscles. EMG signals are segmented periodically based on GRF with the heel strike as the split points. Variability accounted for (VAF) is applied to determine the number of muscle synergies. We find that four muscle synergies can be extracted in all five situations by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Furthermore, the four muscle synergies and biomechanical subtasks keep invariant as the walking speed changes.

  11. Muscle synergy analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Fei; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Wu, De; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To explore the mechanism of lower extremity dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children through muscle synergy analysis. Approach. Twelve CP children were involved in this study, ten adults (AD) and eight typically developed (TD) children were recruited as a control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected bilaterally from eight lower limb muscles of the subjects during forward walking at a comfortable speed. A nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies. In view of muscle synergy differences in number, structure and symmetry, a model named synergy comprehensive assessment (SCA) was proposed to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies. Main results. There existed larger variations between the muscle synergies of the CP group and the AD group in contrast with the TD group. Fewer mature synergies were recruited in the CP group, and many abnormal synergies specific to the CP group appeared. Specifically, CP children were found to recruit muscle synergies with a larger difference in structure and symmetry between two legs of one subject and different subjects. The proposed SCA scale demonstrated its great potential to quantitatively assess the lower-limb motor dysfunction of CP children. SCA scores of the CP group (57.00 ± 16.78) were found to be significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of the control group (AD group: 95.74 ± 2.04; TD group: 84.19 ± 11.76). Significance. The innovative quantitative results of this study can help us to better understand muscle synergy abnormality in CP children, which is related to their motor dysfunction and even the physiological change in their nervous system.

  12. Representation of Muscle Synergies in the Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    d'Avella, Andrea; Roh, Jinsook; Carmena, Jose M.; Bizzi, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the CNS uses motor primitives to simplify movement control, but whether it actually stores primitives instead of computing solutions on the fly to satisfy task demands is a controversial and still-unanswered possibility. Also in contention is whether these primitives take the form of time-invariant muscle coactivations (“spatial” synergies) or time-varying muscle commands (“spatiotemporal” synergies). Here, we examined forelimb muscle patterns and motor cortical spiking data in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) handling objects of variable shape and size. From these data, we extracted both spatiotemporal and spatial synergies using non-negative decomposition. Each spatiotemporal synergy represents a sequence of muscular or neural activations that appeared to recur frequently during the animals' behavior. Key features of the spatiotemporal synergies (including their dimensionality, timing, and amplitude modulation) were independently observed in the muscular and neural data. In addition, both at the muscular and neural levels, these spatiotemporal synergies could be readily reconstructed as sequential activations of spatial synergies (a subset of those extracted independently from the task data), suggestive of a hierarchical relationship between the two levels of synergies. The possibility that motor cortex may execute even complex skill using spatiotemporal synergies has novel implications for the design of neuroprosthetic devices, which could gain computational efficiency by adopting the discrete and low-dimensional control that these primitives imply. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We studied the motor cortical and forearm muscular activity of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) as they reached, grasped, and carried objects of varied shape and size. We applied non-negative matrix factorization separately to the cortical and muscular data to reduce their dimensionality to a smaller set of time-varying “spatiotemporal” synergies. Each synergy

  13. NCDs: can healthy synergies replace fatal interactions?

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A growing global movement argues for health to take center stage in the post-2015 sustainable human development agenda, building on the Millennium Development Goals and improving measurement of outcomes and equity. Considered key is the urgent need to effectively stem chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The reasoning is straightforward and yet addresses the interactive complexities of NCD impact and the potential synergies to reduce it: NCDs constitute the most important, if until recently neglected, pandemic of our era. They accounted for over 65% of global deaths and 54% of the global disease burden in 2010.[1,2] Such a negative "contribution" -including the sequelae of disability and alarming costs of treatment for multimorbidities associated with aging populations worldwide-jeopardizes sustainable human development.

  14. Synergy as a rationale for phage therapy using phage cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Schmerer, Matthew; Molineux, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Where phages are used to treat bacterial contaminations and infections, multiple phages are typically applied at once as a cocktail. When two or more phages in the cocktail attack the same bacterium, the combination may produce better killing than any single phage (synergy) or the combination may be worse than the best single phage (interference). Synergy is of obvious utility, especially if it can be predicted a priori, but it remains poorly documented with few examples known. This study addresses synergy in which one phage improves adsorption by a second phage. It first presents evidence of synergy from an experimental system of two phages and a mucoid E. coli host. The synergy likely stems from a tailspike enzyme produced by one of the phages. We then offer mathematical models and simulations to understand the dynamics of synergy and the enhanced magnitude of bacterial control possible. The models and observations complement each other and suggest that synergy may be of widespread utility and may be predictable from easily observed phenotypes. PMID:25279269

  15. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks.

    PubMed

    McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2=0.94+/-0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFSs) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F=1556.01, p<0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control.

  16. Developing a scale to measure synergy in health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2011-06-01

    Synergy is the degree to which a partnership combines the assets of all the partners in the search for better solutions and is generally regarded as the product of a partnership including vertical integration, shared know-how and shared resources. There has been very little research on the determinants and measurement of synergy in health promotion partnerships. This study was designed to describe how synergy is conceptualized in health promotion partnerships and to develop a synergy measurement tool. Five focus groups were organized with 36 health promotion partners in order to explore how synergy is conceptualized in their partnerships. Participants represented health, community, education, arts, sports and youth sectors. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A content analysis was carried out on the transcripts using counting and data reduction techniques. An item pool was generated from these findings and an eight-item five-point scale was developed called the Jones synergy scale. This scale was incorporated into an overall questionnaire on partnership functioning which was posted to 469 partners in 40 health promotion partnerships. A response rate of 72% was achieved for the postal survey (n = 337). The Jones synergy scale was subjected to reliability and validity tests. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Corrected item-total correlations ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 with a Cronbach's alpha if item deleted of 0.9 for all items. Principal components analysis (PCA) was the chosen factor analysis method. One component was extracted explaining 62% of the variance. Coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.70 with an initial eigenvalue of 4.94. The scale was subjected to item-convergent, item-discriminant and concurrent validity tests. All items correlated more strongly with their own scale than with any other scales used in the questionnaire. The Jones synergy scale was highly correlated (0.73, P < 0.01) with an existing synergy scale.

  17. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-19

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  19. Brain Connectivity Associated with Muscle Synergies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Manku; Yani, Moheb S.; Asavasopon, Skulpan; Fisher, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is believed to simplify the control of the large number of muscles in the body by flexibly combining muscle coordination patterns, termed muscle synergies. However, the neural connectivity allowing the human brain to access and coordinate muscle synergies to accomplish functional tasks remains unknown. Here, we use a surprising pair of synergists in humans, the flexor hallucis longus (FHL, a toe flexor) and the anal sphincter, as a model that we show to be well suited in elucidating the neural connectivity underlying muscle synergy control. First, using electromyographic recordings, we demonstrate that voluntary FHL contraction is associated with synergistic anal sphincter contraction, but voluntary anal sphincter contraction occurs without FHL contraction. Second, using fMRI, we show that two important medial wall motor cortical regions emerge in relation to these tasks: one located more posteriorly that preferentially activates during voluntary FHL contraction and one located more anteriorly that activates during both voluntary FHL contraction as well as voluntary anal sphincter contraction. Third, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we demonstrate that the anterior region is more likely to generate anal sphincter contraction than FHL contraction. Finally, using a repository resting-state fMRI dataset, we demonstrate that the anterior and posterior motor cortical regions have significantly different functional connectivity with distinct and distant brain regions. We conclude that specific motor cortical regions in humans provide access to different muscle synergies, which may allow distinct brain networks to coordinate muscle synergies during functional tasks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the human nervous system coordinates activity in a large number of muscles is a fundamental question. The brain and spinal cord are believed to simplify the control of muscles by grouping them into functional units called muscle synergies. Motor cortex is

  20. Do muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality of behavior?

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Harris, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The muscle synergy hypothesis is an archetype of the notion of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) occurring in the central nervous system due to modular organization. Toward validating this hypothesis, it is important to understand if muscle synergies can reduce the state-space dimensionality while maintaining task control. In this paper we present a scheme for investigating this reduction utilizing the temporal muscle synergy formulation. Our approach is based on the observation that constraining the control input to a weighted combination of temporal muscle synergies also constrains the dynamic behavior of a system in a trajectory-specific manner. We compute this constrained reformulation of system dynamics and then use the method of system balancing for quantifying the DR; we term this approach as Trajectory Specific Dimensionality Analysis (TSDA). We then investigate the consequence of minimization of the dimensionality for a given task. These methods are tested in simulations on a linear (tethered mass) and a non-linear (compliant kinematic chain) system. Dimensionality of various reaching trajectories is compared when using idealized temporal synergies. We show that as a consequence of this Minimum Dimensional Control (MDC) model, smooth straight-line Cartesian trajectories with bell-shaped velocity profiles emerged as the optima for the reaching task. We also investigated the effect on dimensionality due to adding via-points to a trajectory. The results indicate that a trajectory and synergy basis specific DR of behavior results from muscle synergy control. The implications of these results for the synergy hypothesis, optimal motor control, motor development, and robotics are discussed.

  1. Do muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality of behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Harris, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The muscle synergy hypothesis is an archetype of the notion of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) occurring in the central nervous system due to modular organization. Toward validating this hypothesis, it is important to understand if muscle synergies can reduce the state-space dimensionality while maintaining task control. In this paper we present a scheme for investigating this reduction utilizing the temporal muscle synergy formulation. Our approach is based on the observation that constraining the control input to a weighted combination of temporal muscle synergies also constrains the dynamic behavior of a system in a trajectory-specific manner. We compute this constrained reformulation of system dynamics and then use the method of system balancing for quantifying the DR; we term this approach as Trajectory Specific Dimensionality Analysis (TSDA). We then investigate the consequence of minimization of the dimensionality for a given task. These methods are tested in simulations on a linear (tethered mass) and a non-linear (compliant kinematic chain) system. Dimensionality of various reaching trajectories is compared when using idealized temporal synergies. We show that as a consequence of this Minimum Dimensional Control (MDC) model, smooth straight-line Cartesian trajectories with bell-shaped velocity profiles emerged as the optima for the reaching task. We also investigated the effect on dimensionality due to adding via-points to a trajectory. The results indicate that a trajectory and synergy basis specific DR of behavior results from muscle synergy control. The implications of these results for the synergy hypothesis, optimal motor control, motor development, and robotics are discussed. PMID:25002844

  2. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  3. Similarity of different lifting techniques in trunk muscular synergies.

    PubMed

    Mirakhorlo, Mojtaba; Azghani, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Lifting is known to be a major reason for musculoskeletal injuries. In this way, lifting has a crucial effect on human musculoskeletal system and intensity of this impact depends slightly on the selection of techniques. Underlying mechanisms by which trunk muscles are executed during performing lifting are central to biomechanical study of lifting techniques. In the current study, the trunk muscular control mechanisms of lifting are investigated using the synergetic control analysis. Non-negative matrix factorization has been used to extract trunk muscles synergies from their activities - which are computed by a previously validated musculoskeletal model - during different lifting techniques aimed to investigate motor control strategies. Three lifting techniques are considered; stoop, squat and semi-squat. Three synergies account for variety among muscle activation of trunk muscles with related VAF (Variability Account For) of over 95%. Trunk muscle synergy weightings and related time-varying coefficients are calculated for each kind of lifting techniques considering three synergies. Paired correlation coefficients between muscle synergies are all greater than 0.91 (P < 0.05) suggesting that trunk muscle synergies are similar for examined techniques in spite of their kinematic diversity. This similarity can be a result of their common ultimate goal. The acquired results also elucidate the mechanisms of muscle activation patterns that can be exploited in future studies and ergonomic interventions.

  4. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives.

  5. Synergies with CTA and VHE Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next-generation observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. With one array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes each in the northern and southern hemispheres, CTA will provide full-sky coverage, enhance flux sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to current instruments, cover gamma-ray energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, and provide angular resolution of a few arc-minutes across a multi-degree field of view. In the context of its Key Science Projects (KSPs), CTA will conduct a census of particle acceleration in the universe, with quarter-sky extragalactic, full-plane Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud surveys planned. Additional KSPs are focused on transients, acceleration up to PeV energies in our own galaxy, active galaxies, star-forming systems on a wide range of scales, and the Perseus cluster of galaxies. A major element of the programme is the search for dark matter, in particular the annihilation signature of WIMPs. Like for current-generation VHE instruments, CTA science will strongly rely upon multiwavelength observations of sources, with the X-ray domain playing a particularly crucial role. The presentation will briefly introduce CTA, summarize its science perspectives, and address the synergies with instruments in other wavebands.

  6. Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb–VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb–VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels. PMID:20033397

  7. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF INORGANICS: REALISM AND SYNERGIES.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Nicholas M; Baker, Alan J M; Doronila, Augustine; Laidlaw, Scott; Reeves, Roger D

    2009-02-01

    There are very few practical demonstrations of the phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from soils and sediments beyond small-scale and short-term trials. The two approaches used have been based on using 1) hyperaccumulator species, such as Thlaspi caerulescens (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni), Alyssum spp. (Ni, Co), and Pteris vittata (As) or 2) fast-growing plants, such as Salix and Populus spp. that accumulate above-average concentrations of only a smaller number of the more mobile trace elements (Cd, Zn, B). Until we have advanced much more along the pathway of genetic isolation and transfer of hyperaccumulator traits into productive plants, there is a high risk in marketing either approach as a technology or stand-alone solution to clean up contaminated land. There are particular uncertainties over the longer-term effectiveness of phytoextraction and associated environmental issues. Marginally contaminated agricultural soils provide the most likely land use where phytoextraction can be used as a polishing technology. An alternative and more useful practical approach in many situations currently would be to give more attention to crops selected for phytoexclusion: selecting crops that do not translocate high concentrations of metals to edible parts. Soils of brownfield, urban, and industrial areas provide a large-scale opportunity to use phytoremediation, but the focus here should be on the more realistic possibilities of risk-managed phytostabilization and monitored natural attenuation. We argue that the wider practical applications of phytoremediation are too often overlooked. There is huge scope for cross-cutting other environmental agenda, with synergies that involve the recovery and provision of services from degraded landscapes and contaminated soils. An additional focus on biomass energy, improved biodiversity, watershed management, soil protection, carbon sequestration, and improved soil health is required for the justification and advancement of phytotechnologies.

  8. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-10-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  9. Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Walter; Fanta, S.E.; Roberts, Brian J; Francoeur, Steven N.

    2011-03-01

    1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more

  10. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  11. Synergy and Anti-Synergy between Palladium and Gold in Nanoparticles Dispersed on a Reducible Support

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Highly active and stable bimetallic Au–Pd catalysts have been extensively studied for several liquid-phase oxidation reactions in recent years, but there are far fewer reports on the use of these catalysts for low-temperature gas-phase reactions. Here we initially established the presence of a synergistic effect in a range of bimetallic Au–Pd/CeZrO4 catalysts, by measuring their activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The catalysts were then evaluated for low-temperature WGS, CO oxidation, and formic acid decomposition, all of which are believed to be mechanistically related. A strong anti-synergy between Au and Pd was observed for these reactions, whereby the introduction of Pd to a monometallic Au catalyst resulted in a significant decrease in catalytic activity. Furthermore, monometallic Pd was more active than Pd-rich bimetallic catalysts. The nature of the anti-synergy was probed by several ex situ techniques, which all indicated a growth in metal nanoparticle size with Pd addition. However, the most definitive information was provided by in situ CO-DRIFTS, in which CO adsorption associated with interfacial sites was found to vary with the molar ratio of the metals and could be correlated with the catalytic activity of each reaction. As a similar correlation was observed between activity and the presence of Au0* (as detected by XPS), it is proposed that peripheral Au0* species form part of the active centers in the most active catalysts for the three gas-phase reactions. In contrast, the active sites for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol are generally thought to be electronically modified gold atoms at the surface of the nanoparticles. PMID:27990317

  12. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  13. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  14. Unravelling novel synergies between organometallic and biological partners: a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of an artificial metalloenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Carrasco, Elisabeth; Lledós, Agustí; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the design of artificial metalloenzymes obtained by the insertion of homogeneous catalysts into biological macromolecules has become a major field of research. These hybrids, and the corresponding X-ray structures of several of them, are offering opportunities to better understand the synergy between organometallic and biological subsystems. In this work, we investigate the resting state and activation process of a hybrid inspired by an oxidative haemoenzyme but presenting an unexpected reactivity and structural features. An extensive series of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations show that the resting state and the activation processes of the novel enzyme differ from naturally occurring haemoenzymes in terms of the electronic state of the metal, participation of the first coordination sphere of the metal and the dynamic process. This study presents novel insights into the sensitivity of the association between organometallic and biological partners and illustrates the molecular challenge that represents the design of efficient enzymes based on this strategy. PMID:24829279

  15. Unravelling novel synergies between organometallic and biological partners: a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of an artificial metalloenzyme.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Carrasco, Elisabeth; Lledós, Agustí; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2014-07-06

    In recent years, the design of artificial metalloenzymes obtained by the insertion of homogeneous catalysts into biological macromolecules has become a major field of research. These hybrids, and the corresponding X-ray structures of several of them, are offering opportunities to better understand the synergy between organometallic and biological subsystems. In this work, we investigate the resting state and activation process of a hybrid inspired by an oxidative haemoenzyme but presenting an unexpected reactivity and structural features. An extensive series of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations show that the resting state and the activation processes of the novel enzyme differ from naturally occurring haemoenzymes in terms of the electronic state of the metal, participation of the first coordination sphere of the metal and the dynamic process. This study presents novel insights into the sensitivity of the association between organometallic and biological partners and illustrates the molecular challenge that represents the design of efficient enzymes based on this strategy.

  16. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and underemployed…

  17. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  18. Academic Entrepreneurship and Traditional Academic Duties: Synergy or Rivalry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of academic entrepreneurship on traditional academic duties carried out in a resource-constrained environment, particularly focusing on whether there is synergy or rivalry between these two activities. Using qualitative evidence, we discover that there are funding, resource, knowledge and skill and networking…

  19. Building Synergy: The Power of High Performance Work Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, Martha A.; Van Buren, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that high-performance work systems create the synergy that lets companies gain and keep a competitive advantage. Identifies the components of high-performance work systems and critical action steps for implementation. Describes the results companies such as Xerox, Lever Brothers, and Corning Incorporated have achieved by using them. (JOW)

  20. Project SYNERGY: Software Support for Underprepared Students. Software Implementation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandam, Kamala; And Others

    Miami-Dade Community College's (MDCC's) implementation and assessment of computer software as a part of Project SYNERGY, a multi-institutional project funded by the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation designed to seek technological solutions for helping students underprepared in reading, writing and mathematics, is described in this…

  1. Project SYNERGY: Software Support for Underprepared Students. Year Two Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Div. of Educational Technologies.

    With funds from the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation, Project SYNERGY was launched in January 1990 to address the problem of students entering colleges underprepared in basic skills and to make use of the tremendous potential for significant remediation through computers. Twenty-two institutions in the United States and Canada,…

  2. Peace Education, ESD and the Earth Charter: Interconnections and Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin; Cawagas, Virginia Floresca

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the values and principles of the Earth Charter initiative relate to two specific innovative movements of educational transformation, namely peace education and education for sustainable development (ESD). The interconnections and synergies between these movements and the Earth Charter are highlighted.…

  3. Shared and specific muscle synergies in natural motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    d'Avella, Andrea; Bizzi, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate muscle pattern to achieve a given goal is an extremely complex task because of the dimensionality of the search space and because of the nonlinear and dynamical nature of the transformation between muscle activity and movement. To investigate whether the central nervous system uses a modular architecture to achieve motor coordination we characterized the motor output over a large set of movements. We recorded electromyographic activity from 13 muscles of the hind limb of intact and freely moving frogs during jumping, swimming, and walking in naturalistic conditions. We used multidimensional factorization techniques to extract invariant amplitude and timing relationships among the muscle activations. A decomposition of the instantaneous muscle activations as combinations of nonnegative vectors, synchronous muscle synergies, revealed a spatial organization in the muscle patterns. A decomposition of the same activations as a combination of temporal sequences of nonnegative vectors, time-varying muscle synergies, further uncovered specific characteristics in the muscle activation waveforms. A mixture of synergies shared across behaviors and synergies for specific behaviors captured the invariances across the entire dataset. These results support the hypothesis that the motor controller has a modular organization. PMID:15708969

  4. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Anantharaman; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a “muscle synergy” based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings) and their control signals (termed synergy controls) have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements—movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of “simulated” synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1) synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution) (2) along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution). On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy) to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy) did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures. PMID:25520645

  5. Shared and Task-Specific Muscle Synergies during Normal Walking and Slipping

    PubMed Central

    Nazifi, Mohammad Moein; Yoon, Han Ul; Beschorner, Kurt; Hur, Pilwon

    2017-01-01

    Falling accidents are costly due to their prevalence in the workplace. Slipping has been known to be the main cause of falling. Understanding the motor response used to regain balance after slipping is crucial to developing intervention strategies for effective recovery. Interestingly, studies on spinalized animals and studies on animals subjected to electrical microstimulation have provided major evidence that the Central Nervous System (CNS) uses motor primitives, such as muscle synergies, to control motor tasks. Muscle synergies are thought to be a critical mechanism used by the CNS to control complex motor tasks by reducing the dimensional complexity of the system. Even though synergies have demonstrated potential for indicating how the body responds to balance perturbations by accounting for majority of the data set's variability, this concept has not been applied to slipping. To address this gap, data from 11 healthy young adults were collected and analyzed during both unperturbed walking and slipping. Applying an iterative non-negative matrix decomposition technique, four muscle synergies and the corresponding time-series activation coefficients were extracted. The synergies and the activation coefficients were then compared between baseline walking and slipping to determine shared vs. task-specific synergies. Correlation analyses found that among four synergies, two synergies were shared between normal walking and slipping. However, the other two synergies were task-specific. Both limbs were contributing to each of the four synergies, suggesting substantial inter-limb coordination during gait and slip. These findings stay consistent with previous unilateral studies that reported similar synergies between unperturbed and perturbed walking. Activation coefficients corresponding to the two shared synergies were similar between normal walking and slipping for the first 200 ms after heel contact and differed later in stance, suggesting the activation of muscle

  6. The flexion synergy, mother of all synergies and father of new models of gait

    PubMed Central

    Duysens, Jacques; De Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the modular organization of leg movements, in particular those related to locomotion. One of the basic modules involves the flexion of the leg during swing and it was shown that this module is already present in neonates (Dominici et al., 2011). In this paper, we question how these finding build upon the original work by Sherrington, who proposed that the flexor reflex is the basic building block of flexion during swing phase. Similarly, the relation between the flexor reflex and the withdrawal reflex modules of Schouenborg and Weng (1994) will be discussed. It will be argued that there is large overlap between these notions on modules and the older concepts of reflexes. In addition, it will be shown that there is a great flexibility in the expression of some of these modules during gait, thereby allowing for a phase-dependent modulation of the appropriate responses. In particular, the end of the stance phase is a period when the flexor synergy is facilitated. It is proposed that this is linked to the activation of circuitry that is responsible for the generation of locomotor patterns (CPG, “central pattern generator”). More specifically, it is suggested that the responses in that period relate to the activation of a flexor burst generator. The latter structure forms the core of a new asymmetric model of the CPG. This activation is controlled by afferent input (facilitation by a broad range of afferents, suppression by load afferent input). Meanwhile, many of these physiologic features have found their way in the control of very flexible walking bipedal robots. PMID:23494365

  7. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  8. Interpersonal synergies: static prehension tasks performed by two actors.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Reschechtko, Sasha; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    We investigated multidigit synergies stabilizing components of the resultant force vector during joint performance of a static prehension task by two persons as compared to similar tasks performed by a single person using both hands. Subjects transferred the instrumented handle from the right hand to the left hand (one-person condition) or passed that handle to another person (two-person condition) while keeping the handle's position and orientation stationary. Only three digits were involved per hand, the thumb, the index finger, and the middle finger; the forces and moments produced by the digits were measured by six-component sensors. We estimated the performance-stabilizing synergies within the uncontrolled manifold framework by quantifying the intertrial variance structure of digit forces and moments. The analysis was performed at three levels: between hands, between virtual finger and virtual thumb (imagined digits producing the same mechanical variables as the corresponding actual digits combined) produced by the two hands (in both interpersonal and intrapersonal conditions), and between the thumb and virtual finger for one hand only. Additionally, we performed correlation and phase synchronization analyses of resultant tangential forces and internal normal forces. Overall, the one-person conditions were characterized by higher amount of intertrial variance that did not affect resultant normal force components, higher internal components of normal forces, and stronger synchronization of the normal forces generated by the hands. Our observations suggest that in two-person tasks, when participants try to achieve a common mechanical outcome, the performance-stabilizing synergies depend on non-visual information exchange, possibly via the haptic and proprioceptive systems. Therefore, synergies quantified in tasks using visual feedback only may not be generalizable to more natural tasks.

  9. Analgesic synergy between opioid and α2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Doré, A-J; Schuster, D J; Stone, L S; Wilcox, G L

    2015-01-01

    Opioid and α2-adrenoceptor agonists are potent analgesic drugs and their analgesic effects can synergize when co-administered. These supra-additive interactions are potentially beneficial clinically; by increasing efficacy and/or reducing the total drug required to produce sufficient pain relief, undesired side effects can be minimized. However, combination therapies of opioids and α2-adrenoceptor agonists remain underutilized clinically, in spite of a large body of preclinical evidence describing their synergistic interaction. One possible obstacle to the translation of preclinical findings to clinical applications is a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic interactions between these two drug classes. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the interactions between different opioid and α2-adrenoceptor agonist combinations in preclinical studies. These studies have identified the spinal cord as an important site of action of synergistic interactions, provided insights into which receptors mediate these interactions and explored downstream signalling events enabling synergy. It is now well documented that the activation of both μ and δ opioid receptors can produce synergy with α2-adrenoceptor agonists and that α2-adrenoceptor agonists can mediate synergy through either the α2A or the α2C adrenoceptor subtypes. Current hypotheses surrounding the cellular mechanisms mediating opioid–adrenoceptor synergy, including PKC signalling and receptor oligomerization, and the evidence supporting them are presented. Finally, the implications of these findings for clinical applications and drug discovery are discussed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24641506

  10. Muscle synergy patterns as physiological markers of motor cortical damage

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; Turolla, Andrea; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kasi, Patrick; Paganoni, Sabrina; Bonato, Paolo; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Cortical damage, whether by trauma or stroke, interferes with the flow of descending signals to the modular interneuronal structures of the spinal cord. These spinal modules subserve normal motor behaviors by activating groups of muscles as individual units (muscle synergies). Damage to the motor cortical areas disrupts the orchestration of the modules, resulting in abnormal movements. To gain insights into this complex process, we recorded myoelectric signals from multiple upper-limb muscles in subjects with cortical lesions. We used a factorization algorithm to identify the muscle synergies. Our factorization analysis revealed, in a quantitative way, three distinct patterns of muscle coordination—including preservation, merging, and fractionation of muscle synergies—that reflect the multiple neural responses that occur after cortical damage. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. We think these muscle-synergy patterns can be used as physiological markers of the status of any patient with stroke or trauma, thereby guiding the development of different rehabilitation approaches, as well as future physiological experiments for a further understanding of postinjury mechanisms of motor control and recovery. PMID:22908288

  11. Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David R; Gross, Myron D; Tapsell, Linda C

    2009-05-01

    Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that "thinking food first"' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of dietary supplementation suggests that although supplements may be beneficial in states of insufficiency, the safe middle ground for consumption likely is food. Also, food provides a buffer during absorption. Constituents delivered by foods taken directly from their biological environment may have different effects from those formulated through technologic processing, but either way health benefits are likely to be determined by the total diet. The concept of food synergy is based on the proposition that the interrelations between constituents in foods are significant. This significance is dependent on the balance between constituents within the food, how well the constituents survive digestion, and the extent to which they appear biologically active at the cellular level. Many examples are provided of superior effects of whole foods over their isolated constituents. The food synergy concept supports the idea of dietary variety and of selecting nutrient-rich foods. The more we understand about our own biology and that of plants and animals, the better we will be able to discern the combinations of foods, rather than supplements, which best promote health.

  12. Analysis of muscle synergy for evaluation of task-specific performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Zhuang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao; Niu, Chuanxin M; Xie, Qing; Lan, Ning; Si Li; Cheng Zhuang; Xiao Zhang; Niu, Chuanxin M; Qing Xie; Ning Lan; Niu, Chuanxin M; Zhang, Xiao; Zhuang, Cheng; Li, Si; Lan, Ning; Xie, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Muscle synergy represents a central neural module that organizes and activates a group of muscles when performing a certain task. However, whether muscle synergy is a good physiological indicator of motor ability in task performance for patients suffering stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study is to understand how information of task-specific muscle synergy in healthy subjects and patients post stroke can be used to evaluate their motor ability, and further to assist motor rehabilitation for stroke patients. Electromyography (EMG) signals and movement kinematics in reaching tasks were recorded in 5 healthy subjects and 4 stroke patients. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMGs and compared cross healthy and stroke subjects. Normal synergies displayed a characteristic pattern common in healthy subjects. But pathological synergies in stroke subjects lacked the characteristics of normal synergy without a common component, implicating varying extent of damage to the motor module due to lesion in cerebral circuits. Further analysis in stroke subjects showed that pathological patterns of synergy in stroke subjects corresponded to the abnormality in their movement control compared with healthy subjects. Data showed that task-specific muscle synergy did reveal a positive correlation to the ability of neural control of tasks. It was further observed that task-specific synergy was changed towards the normal pattern after intervention with functional electrical stimulation in patients post stroke.

  13. Novel Methods to Enhance Precision and Reliability in Muscle Synergy Identification during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yushin; Bulea, Thomas C.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult. Here, we utilize k-means clustering and intra-class and between-level correlation coefficients to precisely discriminate reliable from unreliable synergies. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight leg muscles during treadmill walking at self-selected speed. Muscle synergies were extracted from 20 consecutive gait cycles using non-negative matrix factorization. We demonstrate that the number of synergies is highly dependent on the threshold when using the variance accounted for by reconstructed EMG. Beyond use of threshold, our method utilized a quantitative metric to reliably identify four or five synergies underpinning walking in unimpaired adults and revealed synergies having poor reproducibility that should not be considered as true synergies. We show that robust and unreliable synergies emerge similarly, emphasizing the need for careful analysis in those with pathology. PMID:27695403

  14. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space. PMID

  15. Synergy: A language and framework for robot design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katragadda, Lalitesh Kumar

    Due to escalation in complexity, capability and application, robot design is increasingly difficult. A design environment can automate many design tasks, relieving the designer's burden. Prior to robot development, designers compose a robot from existing or custom developed components, simulate performance, optimize configuration and parameters, and write software for the robot. Robot designers customize these facets to the robot using a variety of software ranging from spreadsheets to C code to CAD tools. Valuable resources are expended, and very little of this expertise and development is reusable. This research begins with the premise that a language to comprehensively represent robots is lacking and that the aforementioned design tasks can be automated once such a language exists. This research proposes and demonstrates the following thesis: "A language to represent robots, along with a framework to generate simulations, optimize designs and generate control software, increases the effectiveness of design." Synergy is the software developed in this research to reflect this philosophy. Synergy was prototyped and demonstrated in the context of lunar rover design, a challenging real-world problem with multiple requirements and a broad design space. Synergy was used to automatically optimize robot parameters and select parts to generate effective designs, while meeting constraints of the embedded components and sub-systems. The generated designs are superior in performance and consistency when compared to designs by teams of designers using the same knowledge. Using a single representation, multiple designs are generated for four distinct lunar exploration objectives. Synergy uses the same representation to auto-generate landing simulations and simultaneously generate control software for the landing. Synergy consists of four software agents. A database and spreadsheet agent compiles the design and component information, generating component interconnections and

  16. Impacts of Synergy-505 on the Functional Response and Behavior of the Reduviid Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, D. P.; Rajan, S. J.; Raja, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide, Synergy-505 (chlorpyrifos 50% and cypermethrin 5% E.C), on the functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior of a non-target reduviid, Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a potential biological control agent, were studied. Though both normal and Synergy-505-exposed R. marginatus exhibited Holling's type II curvilinear functional response, Synergy-505 caused a less pronounced type II functional response with reduced numbers of prey killed, attack rate, searching time, and prolonged handling time in 4th and 5th nymphal instars and adult males and females reflecting reduced predatory potential. Synergy-505 also delayed the predatory and mating events. The impacts of Synergy-505 on functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior were more evident at higher concentrations of Synergy-505. PMID:21265616

  17. Comparison of muscle synergies for running between different foot strike patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Koji; Hagio, Shota; Kibushi, Benio; Moritani, Toshio; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that humans run with a fore-foot strike (FFS), a mid-foot strike (MFS) or a rear-foot strike (RFS). A modular neural control mechanism of human walking and running has been discussed in terms of muscle synergies. However, the neural control mechanisms for different foot strike patterns during running have been overlooked even though kinetic and kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns have been reported. Thus, we examined the differences in the neural control mechanisms of human running between FFS and RFS by comparing the muscle synergies extracted from each foot strike pattern during running. Muscle synergies were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization with electromyogram activity recorded bilaterally from 12 limb and trunk muscles in ten male subjects during FFS and RFS running at different speeds (5–15 km/h). Six muscle synergies were extracted from all conditions, and each synergy had a specific function and a single main peak of activity in a cycle. The six muscle synergies were similar between FFS and RFS as well as across subjects and speeds. However, some muscle weightings showed significant differences between FFS and RFS, especially the weightings of the tibialis anterior of the landing leg in synergies activated just before touchdown. The activation patterns of the synergies were also different for each foot strike pattern in terms of the timing, duration, and magnitude of the main peak of activity. These results suggest that the central nervous system controls running by sending a sequence of signals to six muscle synergies. Furthermore, a change in the foot strike pattern is accomplished by modulating the timing, duration and magnitude of the muscle synergy activity and by selectively activating other muscle synergies or subsets of the muscle synergies. PMID:28158258

  18. Effects of unilateral stroke on multi-finger synergies and their feed-forward adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hang Jin; Maenza, Candice; Good, David C.; Huang, Xuemei; Park, Jaebum; Sainburg, Robert L.; Latash, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    We explored the changes in multi-finger synergies in patients after a single cortical stroke with mild motor impairments. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The patients with history of cortical stroke, and age-matched controls (n = 12 in each group) performed one-finger and multi-finger accurate force production tasks involving both steady-state and quick force pulse production. Finger interdependence (enslaving) and multi-finger synergies stabilizing total force were quantified. The stroke patients showed lower maximal finger forces, in particular in the contralesional hand, which also showed increased enslaving indices. Multi-finger synergies during steady-state force production were, however, unchanged after stroke. In contrast, a drop in the synergy index prior to the force pulse generation was significantly delayed in the stroke patients. Our results show that mild cortical stroke leads to no significant changes in multifinger synergies, but there is impairment in feed-forward adjustments of the synergies prior to a quick action, a drop in the maximal force production, and an increase in enslaving. We conclude that studies of synergies reveal two aspects of synergic control differentially affected by cortical stroke. PMID:26828408

  19. [Analysis on the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiatai; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yongming; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Based on traditional acupuncture theory and modern researches, the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect are summarized and analyzed. It is found that the factors include the specificity of acupoint, the interaction of acupoints, the pathway of acupuncture signal, the body condition level, acupuncture manipulation, etc. It is believed that the specificity of acupoint is the key factor to determine the difference of acupoints synergy effect. Interaction of acupoints may be related to the pathway of selected acupuncture signal, which is an important factor in difference of acupoints synergy effect. The body condition level and acupuncture manipulation are internal and external factor to influence acupoints synergy effect, respectively.

  20. Classification of hand and wrist tasks of unknown force levels using muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Atoufi, B; Kamavuako, E N; Hudgins, B; Englehart, K

    2015-08-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS) to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large portion of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control prostheses proportionally with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we investigated if muscle synergies can be used to identify different wrist and hand motions. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight arm muscles while the subjects exerted seven different intensity levels during the motions when performing seven classes of hand and wrist motion. From these data we extracted the muscle synergies and classified the tasks associated to each contraction intensity profile by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We compared the performance obtained using muscle synergies with the performance of using the mean absolute values (MAV) as a feature. Also, the consistency of extracted muscle synergies was studied across intensity variations. While the synergies showed relative consistency particularly across closer intensity levels, average classification results generated with the synergies were less accurate than MAVs. These results indicate that although the performance of muscle synergies was very close to MAVs, they do not provide additional information for task identification across different exerted intensity levels.

  1. Between-subject variability of muscle synergies during a complex motor skill

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Julien; Hug, François

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether subjects who have learned a complex motor skill exhibit similar neuromuscular control strategies. We studied a population of experienced gymnasts during backward giant swings on the high bar. This cyclic movement is interesting because it requires learning, as untrained subjects are unable to perform this task. Nine gymnasts were tested. Both kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) patterns of 12 upper-limb and trunk muscles were recorded. Muscle synergies were extracted by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), providing two components: muscle synergy vectors and synergy activation coefficients. First, the coefficient of correlation (r) and circular cross-correlation (rmax) were calculated to assess similarities in the mechanical patterns, EMG patterns, and muscle synergies between gymnasts. We performed a further analysis to verify that the muscle synergies (in terms of muscle synergy vectors or synergy activation coefficients) extracted for one gymnast accounted for the EMG patterns of the other gymnasts. Three muscle synergies explained 89.9 ± 2.0% of the variance accounted for (VAF). The coefficients of correlation of the muscle synergy vectors among the participants were 0.83 ± 0.08, 0.86 ± 0.09, and 0.66 ± 0.28 for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the muscle synergy vectors constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 79 ± 4%. For the synergy activation coefficients, rmax-values were 0.96 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.03, and 0.95 ± 0.03, for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the synergy activation coefficients constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 72 ± 5%. Although variability was found (especially for synergy #3), the gymnasts exhibited gross similar neuromuscular strategies when performing backward giant swings. This confirms that the muscle synergies are consistent across participants, even during a skilled

  2. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  3. Additivity and synergy between an antimicrobial peptide and inhibitory ions.

    PubMed

    Walkenhorst, William F; Sundrud, Justine N; Laviolette, Joshua M

    2014-09-01

    Recently we described the pH dependence of activity for a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selected from a combinatorial library. In the current work we report on the effects of toxic ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and F(-)) and the chelator EDTA on the activity profiles of one member of this family, the 12-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide *ARVA, against a panel of microorganisms. All four ions exhibited either synergy or additivity with *ARVA for all organisms tested with the exception of *ARVA combined with NaF against Candida albicans which exhibited indifference. CuCl2 and ZnCl2 exhibited synergy with *ARVA against both the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus as well as strong additivity against Escherichia coli at submillimolar concentrations. The chelator EDTA was synergistic with *ARVA against the two Gram negative organisms but showed only simple additivity with S. aureus and C. albicans despite their much lower MICs with EDTA. This effect may be related to the known differences in the divalent ion binding properties of the Gram negative LPS layer as compared to the peptidoglycan layer of the Gram positive organism. Unlike the other ions, NaF showed only additivity or indifference when combined with *ARVA and required much higher concentrations for activity. The yeast C. albicans did not show synergy or strong additivity with any of the inhibitory compounds tested. The effects of toxic ions and chelators observed here have important implications for applications using CAMPs and for the design of novel formulations involving CAMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  4. Staged and effortless explantation of CircuLite Synergy micropump.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Prashant N; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia, Diana; Zych, Bartlomeij; Simon, Andre R

    2014-09-01

    Synergy(®) micropump was implanted as a bridge to heart transplantation in a middle-age lady with chronic advanced heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. After a good initial recovery, patient was discharged to ward, where her stay was prolonged due to non-healing operative wound over the micropump and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. After 3 months of therapy, the heart seemed to be recovered and the micropump was explanted. In view of the patient's bleeding tendency, the micropump was explanted in staged manner.

  5. Interdisciplinary evidence-based practice: moving from silos to synergy.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Robin P; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform.

  6. Strategies for Fostering Synergy between Neuroscience Programs and Chemistry Departments

    PubMed Central

    Ulness, Darin J.; Mach, Julie R.

    2011-01-01

    The successful model of the Neuroscience Program at Concordia College is used as a source of illustrative examples in a presentation of strategies to foster synergy between neuroscience programs and chemistry departments. Chemistry is an increasing voice in the dialog of modern neuroscience. To be well-prepared to engage in this dialog, students must have strong chemistry training and be comfortable applying it to situations in neuroscience. The strategies presented here are designed to stimulate thought and discussion in the undergraduate neuroscience education community. Hopefully this will lead to greater interaction between chemistry and neuroscience at the undergraduate level in other institutions. PMID:23626488

  7. Is interindividual variability of EMG patterns in trained cyclists related to different muscle synergies?

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Dorel, Sylvain

    2010-06-01

    Our aim was to determine whether muscle synergies are similar across trained cyclists (and thus whether the same locomotor strategies for pedaling are used), despite interindividual variability of individual EMG patterns. Nine trained cyclists were tested during a constant-load pedaling exercise performed at 80% of maximal power. Surface EMG signals were measured in 10 lower limb muscles. A decomposition algorithm (nonnegative matrix factorization) was applied to a set of 40 consecutive pedaling cycles to differentiate muscle synergies. We selected the least number of synergies that provided 90% of the variance accounted for VAF. Using this criterion, three synergies were identified for all of the subjects, accounting for 93.5+/-2.0% of total VAF, with VAF for individual muscles ranging from 89.9+/-8.2% to 96.6+/-1.3%. Each of these synergies was quite similar across all subjects, with a high mean correlation coefficient for synergy activation coefficients (0.927+/-0.070, 0.930+/-0.052, and 0.877+/-0.110 for synergies 1-3, respectively) and muscle synergy vectors (0.873+/-0.120, 0.948+/-0.274, and 0.885+/-0.129 for synergies 1-3, respectively). Despite a large consistency across subjects in the weighting of several monoarticular muscles into muscle synergy vectors, we found larger interindividual variability for another monoarticular muscle (soleus) and for biarticular muscles (rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus). This study demonstrated that pedaling is accomplished by the combination of the similar three muscle synergies among trained cyclists. The interindividual variability of EMG patterns observed during pedaling does not represent differences in the locomotor strategy for pedaling.

  8. Are movement disorders and sensorimotor injuries pathologic synergies? When normal multi-joint movement synergies become pathologic.

    PubMed

    Santello, Marco; Lang, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    The intact nervous system has an exquisite ability to modulate the activity of multiple muscles acting at one or more joints to produce an enormous range of actions. Seemingly simple tasks, such as reaching for an object or walking, in fact rely on very complex spatial and temporal patterns of muscle activations. Neurological disorders such as stroke and focal dystonia affect the ability to coordinate multi-joint movements. This article reviews the state of the art of research of muscle synergies in the intact and damaged nervous system, their implications for recovery and rehabilitation, and proposes avenues for research aimed at restoring the nervous system's ability to control movement.

  9. Supersite synergies improve volcanic SO2 flux monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael; Di Muro, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Both the Etna, Italy, volcano and Piton de la Fournaise (PdF), France, volcano Supersites are monitored with networks of scanning UV spectrometers. An ongoing collaboration between INGV and IPGP researchers has led to a dynamic technology transfer of novel new data analysis procedures to both networks. This new approach has been custom built to account for the particularities of both Supersites. For the Etna Supersite, the large, continuous gas emission, wide plumes and high plume height produce significant challenges for automatic networks of scanning UV spectrometers, due to the lack of a clear sky spectrum and light dilution effects. The novel approach presented here addresses both these issues. In the case of the PdF Supersite, negligible SO2 efflux is observed apart from immediately before, during and after volcanic eruptions. This necessitates a very sensitive and precise automatic analysis in order to detect the first whiffs of SO2 which act as a precursor to eruptive activity. Exactly such a solution has been developed and is demonstrated here. The technology transfer between these two Supersites promotes synergistic advantages, improving the monitoring capacity at both sites. However, until now such synergies have come about exclusively through local support from each site and the initiative of individual researchers. The full potential of such synergies can be greatly enhanced in the future if they are fully recognised and supported within the context of the Supersite initiative.

  10. Food synergy: the key to a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David R; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-05-01

    Food synergy is the concept that the non-random mixture of food constituents operates in concert for the life of the organism eaten and presumably for the life of the eater. Isolated nutrients have been extensively studied in well-designed, long-term, large randomised clinical trials, typically with null and sometimes with harmful effects. Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect. It appears that the focus on nutrients rather than foods is in many ways counterproductive. This observation is the basis for the argument that nutrition research should focus more strongly on foods and on dietary patterns. Unlike many dietary phenomena in nutritional epidemiology, diet pattern appears to be highly correlated over time within person. A consistent and robust conclusion is that certain types of beneficial diet patterns, notably described with words such as 'Mediterranean' and 'prudent', or adverse patterns, often described by the word 'Western', predict chronic disease. Food is much more complex than drugs, but essentially uninvestigated as food or pattern. The concept of food synergy leads to new thinking in nutrition science and can help to forge rational nutrition policy-making and to determine future nutrition research strategies.

  11. Synergy 3000 CCS{trademark}: A new precision cleaning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.; Bohnert, G.; Carter, R.; Flink, F.; Powers, M.

    1995-11-01

    Some of the semiaqueous cleaners in use employ terpenes as the cleaning agent, usually followed by a water rinse to remove the cleaner. Because terpenes are not miscible in water, these cleaners require the addition of surfactant to facilitate the water rinsing step, complicating recycling of the cleaner for reuse. A new critical cleaning solvent (CCS), named Synergy 3000 CCS{trademark} is a proprietary blend of terpene and heterocyclic alcohol solvents formulated to remove polar and nonpolar contaminants such as rosin fluxes, machining oils, greases, waxes, tape adhesive residue and handling soils from electrical and mechanical components and assemblies. It is a high purity, low odor solvent that does not require surfactants for water rinsing, and is derived from naturally and annually renewable resources. It demonstrates a high loading capacity for soils, grease, and contaminants and is compatible with a wide range of engineering materials commonly used in electronics applications. All of its components are biodegradable, are approved as food additives, and have no known human health effects. It has been formulated to have a higher flash point than citrus terpenes and flammable alcohols, and can be recycled via distillation. This paper presents some of the tests and evaluations that were performed during the development of Synergy 3000 CCS{trademark}, hereafter referred to as CCS, as well as current and potential applications for the solvent.

  12. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  13. Potent Synergy between Spirocyclic Pyrrolidinoindolinones and Fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Scott, Kevin A; Shen, Chengtian; Wang, Fuqiang; Lane, Shelley; Liu, Haoping; Van Vranken, David L

    2015-10-01

    A spiroindolinone, (1S,3R,3aR,6aS)-1-benzyl-6'-chloro-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-7'-methylspiro[1,2,3a,6a-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-3,3'-1H-indole]-2',4,6-trione, was previously reported to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against Candida albicans. A diastereomer of this compound was synthesized, along with various analogues. Many of the compounds were shown to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against C. albicans, some with exquisite potency. One spirocyclic piperazine derivative, which we have named synazo-1, was found to enhance the effect of fluconazole with an EC50 value of 300 pM against a susceptible strain of C. albicans and going as low as 2 nM against some resistant strains. Synazo-1 exhibits true synergy with fluconazole, with an FIC index below 0.5 in the strains tested. Synazo-1 exhibited low toxicity in mammalian cells relative to the concentrations required for antifungal synergy.

  14. Potent Synergy between Spirocyclic Pyrrolidinoindolinones and Fluconazole against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Scott, Kevin A.; Shen, Chengtian; Wang, Fuqiang; Lane, Shelley; Liu, Haoping

    2015-01-01

    A spiroindolinone (1S,3R,3aR,6aS)-1-benzyl-6′-chloro-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-7′-methylspiro[1,2,3a,6a-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-3,3′-1H-indole]-2′,4,6-trione was previously reported to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against C. albicans. A diastereomer of that compound was synthesized, along with various analogues. Many of the compounds were shown to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against C. albicans, some with exquisite potency. One spirocyclic piperazine derivative, which we have named synazo-1, enhanced the effect of fluconazole with EC50 of 300 pM against a susceptible strain of C. albicans and as low as 2 nM against some resistant strains. Synazo-1 exhibits true synergy with fluconazole with an FIC index below 0.5 in the strains tested. Synazo-1 exhibited low toxicity in mammalian cells relative to the concentrations required for the antifungal synergy. PMID:26263912

  15. A model-based approach to predict muscle synergies using optimization: application to feedback control.

    PubMed

    Sharif Razavian, Reza; Mehrabi, Naser; McPhee, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-based method to define muscle synergies. Unlike the conventional factorization approach, which extracts synergies from electromyographic data, the proposed method employs a biomechanical model and formally defines the synergies as the solution of an optimal control problem. As a result, the number of required synergies is directly related to the dimensions of the operational space. The estimated synergies are posture-dependent, which correlate well with the results of standard factorization methods. Two examples are used to showcase this method: a two-dimensional forearm model, and a three-dimensional driver arm model. It has been shown here that the synergies need to be task-specific (i.e., they are defined for the specific operational spaces: the elbow angle and the steering wheel angle in the two systems). This functional definition of synergies results in a low-dimensional control space, in which every force in the operational space is accurately created by a unique combination of synergies. As such, there is no need for extra criteria (e.g., minimizing effort) in the process of motion control. This approach is motivated by the need for fast and bio-plausible feedback control of musculoskeletal systems, and can have important implications in engineering, motor control, and biomechanics.

  16. A model-based approach to predict muscle synergies using optimization: application to feedback control

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Razavian, Reza; Mehrabi, Naser; McPhee, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-based method to define muscle synergies. Unlike the conventional factorization approach, which extracts synergies from electromyographic data, the proposed method employs a biomechanical model and formally defines the synergies as the solution of an optimal control problem. As a result, the number of required synergies is directly related to the dimensions of the operational space. The estimated synergies are posture-dependent, which correlate well with the results of standard factorization methods. Two examples are used to showcase this method: a two-dimensional forearm model, and a three-dimensional driver arm model. It has been shown here that the synergies need to be task-specific (i.e., they are defined for the specific operational spaces: the elbow angle and the steering wheel angle in the two systems). This functional definition of synergies results in a low-dimensional control space, in which every force in the operational space is accurately created by a unique combination of synergies. As such, there is no need for extra criteria (e.g., minimizing effort) in the process of motion control. This approach is motivated by the need for fast and bio-plausible feedback control of musculoskeletal systems, and can have important implications in engineering, motor control, and biomechanics. PMID:26500530

  17. Intra-Personal and Inter-Personal Kinetic Synergies During Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Slomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz; Sobota, Grzegorz; Furmanek, Mariusz; Rzepko, Marian; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    We explored synergies between two legs and two subjects during preparation for a long jump into a target. Synergies were expected during one-person jumping. No such synergies were expected between two persons jumping in parallel without additional contact, while synergies were expected to emerge with haptic contact and become stronger with strong mechanical contact. Subjects performed jumps either alone (each foot standing on a separate force platform) or in dyads (parallel to each other, each person standing on a separate force platform) without any contact, with haptic contact, and with strong coupling. Strong negative correlations between pairs of force variables (strong synergies) were seen in the vertical force in one-person jumps and weaker synergies in two-person jumps with the strong contact. For other force variables, only weak synergies were present in one-person jumps and no negative correlations between pairs of force variable for two-person jumps. Pairs of moment variables from the two force platforms at steady state showed positive correlations, which were strong in one-person jumps and weaker, but still significant, in two-person jumps with the haptic and strong contact. Anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to action initiation were observed in one-person trials only. We interpret the different results for the force and moment variables at steady state as reflections of postural sway. PMID:26839608

  18. Stakeholders' Partnership Synergy and its Impact on Commercialization of New Technologies: Renewable Energy Industry Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Agassy

    This study examines the impact of the partnership synergy and inter-organizational cooperation between government (federal, state, local), public agencies, private companies and local on successful communities commercialization of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The study produced several interesting results: (i) a model was developed that analyzes the role of partnership synergy on technology commercialization, conceptualizing the relationships among partnership drivers, partnership synergy, resources, and commercialization performance; (ii) the major drivers motivating stakeholders of RE projects have been identified and differences between those were recognized; (iii) a novel theoretical and analytical basis of commercialization through partnership and synergy has been established; (iv) interrelated effects of partnership synergy, dynamic capabilities and technology implementation mechanisms on various performance measures of project success have also been identified. Overall, this study and its conceptual model provide a richer understanding of the factors that lead to successful commercialization of RE technologies, possibly applicable to other infrastructural projects, as well.

  19. Assessment of Upper Limb Motor Dysfunction for Children with Cerebral Palsy Based on Muscle Synergy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Wu, De; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergies are considered to be building blocks underlying motor behaviors. The goal of this study is to explore an objective and effective method to assess the upper limb motor dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children from the aspect of muscle synergy analysis. Fourteen CP children and 10 typically developed (TD) children were recruited to perform three similar upper limb motion tasks related to the movements of elbow and shoulder joints, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were recorded from 10 upper arm and shoulder muscles involved in the defined tasks. Non-negative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies and the corresponding activation patterns during three similar tasks. For each subject in TD group, four muscle synergies were extracted in each task. Whereas, fewer mature synergies were recruited in CP group, and many abnormal synergy structures specific to CP group appeared. In view of neuromuscular control strategy differences, three synergy-related parameters were proposed and synergy structure similarity coefficient was found to have high ability in depicting the inter-subject similarity within task and the intra-subject similarity between tasks. Seven upper limb assessment (UPA) metrics, which were defined as the combinations of synergy structure similarity coefficients of three tasks, were proposed to assess the upper limb motor function of CP children. The experimental results demonstrated that these UPA metrics were able to assess upper limb motor function comprehensively and effectively. The proposed assessment method can serve as a promising approach to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies, thus offering potential to derive a physiologically based quantitative index for assessing upper limb motor function in CP clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation. PMID:28386223

  20. Actinide incineration in fusion-fission hybrid-A model nuclear synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taczanowski, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The alliance of fusion with fission is a cause worthy of great efforts, as being able to ease (if not even to solve) serious problems that both these forms of nuclear energy are facing. Very high investment costs caused by tokamak enormous size, material consumption and difficult technology put in doubt whether alone the minute demand for fuel raw material (Li) and lack of danger of uncontrolled supercriticality prove sufficient for making it competitive. Preliminary evaluations demonstrated that a radical shift of energy production i.e. the energy gain from plasma to fission blanket is feasible [1]. A reduction in the fusion component to about 2% at given system power allows for a radical drop in plasma Q down to the values of ˜0.2-0.3 achievable in small systems [2] (e.g. mirrors) of sizes comparable to fission reactors. As a result in a Fusion-Driven Actinide Incinerator (FDI) both radiations from the plasma: corpuscular (i.e. neutrons and ions) and photons are drastically reduced. Thus are too, first of all - the neutron induced radiation damage: DPA and gas production, then plasma-wall interactions. The fundamental safety of the system has been proved by simulation of its collapse that has shown preservation its subcriticality. Summarizing, all the above problems may be solved with synergic union of fusion with fission embodied in the concept of FDI - small and less expensive.

  1. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking. II. Hindlimb muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Buford, J A; Smith, J L

    1990-09-01

    1. To compare the basic hindlimb synergies for backward (BWD) and forward (FWD) walking, electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from selected flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints from four cats trained to perform both forms of walking at a moderate walking speed (0.6 m/s). For each muscle, EMG measurements included burst duration, burst latencies referenced to the time of paw contact or paw off, and integrated burst amplitudes. To relate patterns of muscle activity to various phases of the step cycle, EMG records were synchronized with kinematic data obtained by digitizing high-speed ciné film. 2. Hindlimb EMG data indicate that BWD walking in the cat was characterized by reciprocal flexor and extensor synergies similar to those for FWD walking, with flexors active during swing and extensors active during stance. Although the underlying synergies were similar, temporal parameters (burst latencies and durations) and amplitude levels for specific muscles were different for BWD and FWD walking. 3. For both directions, iliopsoas (IP) and semitendinosus (ST) were active as the hip and knee joints flexed at the onset of swing. For BWD walking, IP activity decreased early, and ST activity continued as the hip extended and the knee flexed. For FWD walking, in contrast, ST activity ceased early, and IP activity continued as the hip flexed and the knee extended. For both directions, tibialis anterior (TA) was active throughout swing as the ankle flexed and then extended. A second ST burst occurred at the end of swing for FWD walking as hip flexion and knee extension slowed for paw contact. 4. For both directions, knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL) activity began at paw contact. Ankle extensor (lateral gastrocnemius, LG) activity began during midswing for BWD walking but just before paw contact for FWD walking. At the ankle joint, flexion during the E2 phase (yield) of stance was minimal or absent for BWD walking, and ankle extension during BWD

  2. Star Formation Studies with SOFIA and its Synergy with TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, James

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a modified Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a 2.5m telescope that performs observations at high altitude from the optical to the sub-mm. The observatory just reached full operational capability in April of this year. Given that it is slated for a 20-year mission lifetime, SOFIA will overlap TMT by more than a decade. I will discuss the contrasting and complementary features of SOFIA and TMT in the context of star formation, discuss some of the early results from SOFIA in this field, and finish with a discussion of how TMT data can enhance and extended our understanding of star formation processes.[This talk could also be generalized to discuss more about synergies between SOFIA and TMT in a broader context (not just star formation), should the organizers prefer that.

  3. Synergies Between Quantum Mechanics and Machine Learning in Reaction Prediction.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Peter; Fooshee, David; Subrahmanya, Niranjan; Baldi, Pierre

    2016-11-28

    Machine learning (ML) and quantum mechanical (QM) methods can be used in two-way synergy to build chemical reaction expert systems. The proposed ML approach identifies electron sources and sinks among reactants and then ranks all source-sink pairs. This addresses a bottleneck of QM calculations by providing a prioritized list of mechanistic reaction steps. QM modeling can then be used to compute the transition states and activation energies of the top-ranked reactions, providing additional or improved examples of ranked source-sink pairs. Retraining the ML model closes the loop, producing more accurate predictions from a larger training set. The approach is demonstrated in detail using a small set of organic radical reactions.

  4. Hierarchical nanostructure and synergy of multimolecular signalling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Eilon; Barr, Valarie A.; Merrill, Robert K.; Regan, Carole K.; Sommers, Connie L.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Signalling complexes are dynamic, multimolecular structures and sites for intracellular signal transduction. Although they play a crucial role in cellular activation, current research techniques fail to resolve their structure in intact cells. Here we present a multicolour, photoactivated localization microscopy approach for imaging multiple types of single molecules in fixed and live cells and statistical tools to determine the nanoscale organization, topology and synergy of molecular interactions in signalling complexes downstream of the T-cell antigen receptor. We observe that signalling complexes nucleated at the key adapter LAT show a hierarchical topology. The critical enzymes PLCγ1 and VAV1 localize to the centre of LAT-based complexes, and the adapter SLP-76 and actin molecules localize to the periphery. Conditional second-order statistics reveal a hierarchical network of synergic interactions between these molecules. Our results extend our understanding of the nanostructure of signalling complexes and are relevant to studying a wide range of multimolecular complexes. PMID:27396911

  5. Synergy between cellulases and pectinases in the hydrolysis of hemp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Pakarinen, Annukka; Viikari, Liisa

    2013-02-01

    The impact of pectinases in the hydrolysis of fresh, steam-exploded and ensiled hemp was investigated and the synergy between cellulases, pectinases and xylanase in the hydrolysis was evaluated. About half; 59.3% and 46.1% of pectin in the steam-exploded and ensiled hemp, respectively, could be removed by a low dosage of pectinases used. Pectinases were more efficient than xylanase in the hydrolysis of fresh and ensiled hemp whereas xylanase showed higher hydrolytic efficiency than the pectinase preparation used in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Clear synergistic action between cellulases and xylanase could be observed in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Supplementation of pectinase resulted in clear synergism with cellulases in the hydrolysis of all hemp substrates. Highest hydrolysis yield of steam-exploded hemp was obtained in the hydrolysis with cellulases and xylanase. In the hydrolysis of ensiled hemp, the synergistic action between cellulases and pectinases was more obvious for efficient hydrolysis.

  6. Anomalies and synergy in the caloric effects of magnetoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Shashwat; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2014-12-01

    We determine isothermal entropy changes (Δ S) associated with electrocaloric, magnetocaloric, and the corresponding multicaloric effects in a model type-I multiferroic system using Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic analysis. We show that (a) the magnetocaloric effect exhibits an unexpected anomaly at the ferroelectric transition occurring at a high temperature, even in the absence of magnetic ordering, and (b) the synergy between electro- and magnetocaloric effects leads to a significantly enhanced multicaloric effect (\\mid Δ {{S}MultiCE}\\mid \\gt \\mid Δ {{S}ECE}\\mid +\\mid Δ {{S}MCE}\\mid ) over a wide temperature range when the difference in temperatures of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering (\\mid Δ {{T}C}\\mid =\\mid TCE-TCM\\mid ) is small. This result originate from the coupled thermal fluctuations of magnetic and electric order parameters. While the former is useful in detecting multiferroic materials from the measurements covering higher temperature transition alone, the latter augurs well for caloric applications of multiferroics.

  7. Creating partnership synergy: the critical role of community stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Roz D; Weiss, Elisa S

    2003-01-01

    While there are compelling reasons for professionals in health and human services administration to collaborate with other stakeholders in the community, the experience with such partnerships thus far has generated more frustration than results. Recent research on partnership synergy--a key indicator of a successful collaboration process--suggests that many of these partnerships are inadvertently compromising their own success by the way they involve community stakeholders. Applying research findings to current practice, this article shows how the ability of a partnership to understand and address complex problems--and sustain interventions over time--is related to who is involved in the partnership, how community stakeholders are involved, and the leadership and management of the partnership. The article addresses key challenges that health and human services administrators face when they seek to optimize the role of community stakeholders in partnership.

  8. Hierarchical nanostructure and synergy of multimolecular signalling complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Eilon; Barr, Valarie A.; Merrill, Robert K.; Regan, Carole K.; Sommers, Connie L.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-07-01

    Signalling complexes are dynamic, multimolecular structures and sites for intracellular signal transduction. Although they play a crucial role in cellular activation, current research techniques fail to resolve their structure in intact cells. Here we present a multicolour, photoactivated localization microscopy approach for imaging multiple types of single molecules in fixed and live cells and statistical tools to determine the nanoscale organization, topology and synergy of molecular interactions in signalling complexes downstream of the T-cell antigen receptor. We observe that signalling complexes nucleated at the key adapter LAT show a hierarchical topology. The critical enzymes PLCγ1 and VAV1 localize to the centre of LAT-based complexes, and the adapter SLP-76 and actin molecules localize to the periphery. Conditional second-order statistics reveal a hierarchical network of synergic interactions between these molecules. Our results extend our understanding of the nanostructure of signalling complexes and are relevant to studying a wide range of multimolecular complexes.

  9. Emerging Synergy between Nanotechnology and Implantable Biosensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Tomazos, Ioannis; Burgess, Diane J; Jain, Faquir C; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2010-01-01

    The development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of metabolites is an area of sustained scientific and technological interest. On the other hand, nanotechnology, a discipline which deals with the properties of materials at the nanoscale, is developing as a potent tool to enhance the performance of these biosensors. This article reviews the current state of implantable biosensors, highlighting the synergy between nanotechnology and sensor performance. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical method of detection in light of its widespread usage and substantial nanotechnology-based improvements in various aspects of electrochemical biosensor performance. Finally, issues regarding toxicity and biocompatibility of nanomaterials, along with future prospects for the application of nanotechnology in implantable biosensors, are discussed. PMID:20042326

  10. GlobCurrent- Multisensor Synergy for Surface Current Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Gaultier, L.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Raj, R. P.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Nencioli, F.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Guitton, G.; Miller, P.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2016-08-01

    The GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. It is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) and current fields and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2- dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean ( 100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-submesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 together with other satellite missions will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2-dimensional surface expressions and the upper ocean dynamics.

  11. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  12. GlobCurrent: Sentinel-3 Synergy in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Raj, R. P.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Labroue, S.; Miller, P.; Nencioli, F.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. Today, a synergetic approach for quantitative analysis can build on high-resolution imaging radar and spectrometer data, infrared radiometer data and radar altimeter measurements. It will further integrate Sentinel-3 in combination with Sentinel-1 SAR data. From existing and past missions, it is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) field and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2-dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean (~100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-sub-mesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-1 will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2

  13. Marine parameters from synergy of optical and radar satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S.; Hoja, D.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.

    In 2001 the European Space Agency ESA will launch the earth observation satellite ENVISAT. It will carry several instruments that provide new opportunities to measure oceanographic variables. Together, they represent the main measurement techniques of satellite oceanography, and complement each other in an ideal manner. These instruments are to be used in synergy to: Improve the analysis of measured wind and ocean wave fields, and thereby improve weather forecasting at weather centers; Determine the extent and variables of sea ice and develop a five-day sea ice prediction model, to support maritime shipping and offshore activities; Monitor and map sediment and suspended matter transport in coastal regions, especially in areas with large river estuaries, which greatly affects shipping lanes, harbors, and dredging activities; Monitor hydrobiological and bio-geochemical variables related to water quality in coastal regions and large inland waters, which affects ecology, coastal development, aquaculture, drinking water supplies, and tourism. To prepare the oceanographic community to make best use of the ENVISAT sensors in the pre-launch phase, existing algorithms to derive marine parameters are used and validated using data from the ERS SAR, the ERS RA, SeaWiFS and IRS MOS sensors now in operation. Derived products are used to address problems that can best be tackled using the synergy of radar and optical data, such as the effect of surface slicks on radar wind measurements, of sea state on ocean color, of wind and waves on the resuspension of suspended matter, and of wind and waves on sea ice variables.

  14. Voluntary and reactive recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Chvatal, Stacie A; Ting, Lena H

    2012-08-29

    The modular control of muscles in groups, often referred to as muscle synergies, has been proposed to provide a motor repertoire of actions for the robust control of movement. However, it is not clear whether muscle synergies identified in one task are also recruited by different neural pathways subserving other motor behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary and reactive modifications to walking in humans result from the recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies. We recorded the activity of 16 muscles in the right leg as subjects walked a 7.5 m path at two different speeds. To elicit a second motor behavior, midway through the path we imposed ramp and hold translation perturbations of the support surface in each of four cardinal directions. Variations in the temporal recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies could account for cycle-by-cycle variations in muscle activity across strides. Locomotor muscle synergies were also recruited in atypical phases of gait, accounting for both anticipatory gait modifications before perturbations and reactive feedback responses to perturbations. Our findings are consistent with the idea that a common pool of spatially fixed locomotor muscle synergies can be recruited by different neural pathways, including the central pattern generator for walking, brainstem pathways for balance control, and cortical pathways mediating voluntary gait modifications. Together with electrophysiological studies, our work suggests that muscle synergies may provide a library of motor subtasks that can be flexibly recruited by parallel descending pathways to generate a variety of complex natural movements in the upper and lower limbs.

  15. Robustness of muscle synergies underlying three-dimensional force generation at the hand in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, William Z.; Beer, Randall F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies using advanced matrix factorization techniques have shown that the coordination of human voluntary limb movements may be accomplished using combinations of a small number of intermuscular coordination patterns, or muscle synergies. However, the potential use of muscle synergies for isometric force generation has been evaluated mostly using correlational methods. The results of such studies suggest that fixed relationships between the activations of pairs of muscles are relatively rare. There is also emerging evidence that the nervous system uses independent strategies to control movement and force generation, which suggests that one cannot conclude a priori that isometric force generation is accomplished by combining muscle synergies, as shown in movement control. In this study, we used non-negative matrix factorization to evaluate the ability of a few muscle synergies to reconstruct the activation patterns of human arm muscles underlying the generation of three-dimensional (3-D) isometric forces at the hand. Surface electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from eight key elbow and shoulder muscles during 3-D force target-matching protocols performed across a range of load levels and hand positions. Four synergies were sufficient to explain, on average, 95% of the variance in EMG datasets. Furthermore, we found that muscle synergy composition was conserved across biomechanical task conditions, experimental protocols, and subjects. Our findings are consistent with the view that the nervous system can generate isometric forces by assembling a combination of a small number of muscle synergies, differentially weighted according to task constraints. PMID:22279190

  16. Adjustments of Motor Pattern for Load Compensation Via Modulated Activations of Muscle Synergies During Natural Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; d'Avella, Andrea; Bizzi, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the motor system may circumvent the difficulty of controlling many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal apparatus by generating motor outputs through a combination of discrete muscle synergies. How a discretely organized motor system compensates for diverse perturbations has remained elusive. Here, we investigate whether motor responses observed after an inertial-load perturbation can be generated by altering the recruitment of synergies normally used for constructing unperturbed movements. Electromyographic (EMG, 13 muscles) data were collected from the bullfrog hindlimb during natural behaviors before, during, and after the same limb was loaded by a weight attached to the calf. Kinematic analysis reveals the absence of aftereffect on load removal, suggesting that load-related EMG changes were results of immediate motor pattern adjustments. We then extracted synergies from EMGs using the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm and developed a procedure for assessing the extent of synergy sharing across different loading conditions. Most synergies extracted were found to be activated in all loaded and unloaded conditions. However, for certain synergies, the amplitude, duration, and/or onset time of their activation bursts were up- or down-modulated during loading. Behavioral parameterizations reveal that load-related modulation of synergy activations depended on the behavioral variety (e.g., kick direction and amplitude) and the movement phase performed. Our results suggest that muscle synergies are robust across different dynamic conditions and immediate motor adjustments can be accomplished by modulating synergy activations. An appendix describes the novel procedure we developed, useful for discovering shared and specific features from multiple data sets. PMID:19091930

  17. Are Movement Disorders and Sensorimotor Injuries Pathologic Synergies? When Normal Multi-Joint Movement Synergies Become Pathologic

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The intact nervous system has an exquisite ability to modulate the activity of multiple muscles acting at one or more joints to produce an enormous range of actions. Seemingly simple tasks, such as reaching for an object or walking, in fact rely on very complex spatial and temporal patterns of muscle activations. Neurological disorders such as stroke and focal dystonia affect the ability to coordinate multi-joint movements. This article reviews the state of the art of research of muscle synergies in the intact and damaged nervous system, their implications for recovery and rehabilitation, and proposes avenues for research aimed at restoring the nervous system’s ability to control movement. PMID:25610391

  18. Beyond synergies. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2016-07-01

    The target paper by Santello et al. [1] uses the observation that hand shape during grasping can be described by a small set of basic postures, or ;synergies,; to describe the possible neural basis of motor control during this complex behavior. In the literature, the term ;synergy; has been used with a number of different meanings and is still loosely defined, making it difficult to derive concrete analogs of corresponding neural structure. Here, I will define ;synergy; broadly, as a set of parameters bound together by a pattern of correlation. With this definition, it can be argued that behavioral synergies are just one facet of the correlational structuring used by the brain to generate behavior. As pointed out in the target article, the structure found in synergies is driven by the physical constraints of our bodies and our surroundings, combined with the behavioral control imparted by our nervous system. This control itself is based on correlational structure which is likely to be a fundamental property of brain function.

  19. Multidimensional Hybridization of Dark Surface Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Verre, Ruggero; Olsén, Erik; Persson, Anton E O; Trinh, Viet; Dovner, Gudrun; Käll, Mikael; Olsson, Eva

    2017-04-07

    Synthetic three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectures are providing more control over light-matter interactions and rapidly progressing photonic-based technology. These applications often utilize the strong synergy between electromagnetic fields and surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanostructures. However, many of the SP interactions hosted by complex 3D nanostructures are poorly understood because they involve dark hybridized states that are typically undetectable with far-field optical spectroscopy. Here, we use experimental and theoretical electron energy loss spectroscopy to elucidate dark SPs and their interactions in layered metal-insulator-metal disc nanostructures. We go beyond the established dipole SP hybridization analysis by measuring breathing and multipolar SP hybridization. In addition, we reveal multidimensional SP hybridization that simultaneously utilizes in-plane and out-of-plane SP coupling. Near-field classic electrodynamics calculations provide excellent agreement with all experiments. These results advance the fundamental understanding of SP hybridization in 3D nanostructures and provide avenues to further tune the interaction between electromagnetic fields and matter.

  20. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  1. Exploring the molecular basis of antifungal synergies using genome-wide approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a review article summarizing genomic profiling strategies for determining the mechanism of action of antifungal synergies, and highlighting the potential applications of these technologies. Given the limitations of currently available antifungal agents and the development of drug resistance...

  2. Motor primitives and synergies in spinal cord and after injury– the current state of play

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.; Hart, Corey B.

    2013-01-01

    Modular pattern generator elements, also known as burst synergies or motor primitives, have become a useful and important way of describing motor behavior, albeit controversial. It is suggested that these synergy elements may comprise part of the pattern shaping layers of a McCrea/Rybak two layer pattern generator, as well as being used in other ways in spinal cord. The data supporting modular synergies ranges across species including man and encompasses motor pattern analyses and neural recordings. Recently, synergy persistence and changes following clinical trauma have been presented. These new data underscore the importance of understanding the modular structure of motor behaviors and the underlying circuitry in order to best provide principled therapies and to understand phenomena reported in the clinic. We discuss the evidence and different viewpoints on modularity, the neural underpinnings identified thus far, and possible critical issues for the future of this area. PMID:23531009

  3. Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the

  4. Synergy of SOCS-1 Inhibition and Microbial-Based Cancer Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    AD ____________ __ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0292 TITLE: Synergy of SOCS-1 Inhibition and Microbial-Based Cancer Vaccines PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Synergy of SOCS-1 Inhibition and Microbial-Based Cancer Vaccines Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81 XWH-12-1 -0292 Sc...growth or even complete eradication of the tumor. Vaccines capable of teaching the immune system to recognize cancer cells must be extremely potent

  5. Quantifying Synergy: A Systematic Review of Mixture Toxicity Studies within Environmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Cedergreen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Cocktail effects and synergistic interactions of chemicals in mixtures are an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. The main concern is whether some chemicals can enhance the effect of other chemicals, so that they jointly exert a larger effect than predicted. This phenomenon is called synergy. Here we present a review of the scientific literature on three main groups of environmentally relevant chemical toxicants: pesticides, metal ions and antifouling compounds. The aim of the review is to determine 1) the frequency of synergy, 2) the extent of synergy, 3) whether any particular groups or classes of chemicals tend to induce synergy, and 4) which physiological mechanisms might be responsible for this synergy. Synergy is here defined as mixtures with minimum two-fold difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations using Concentration Addition (CA) as a reference model and including both lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. The results showed that synergy occurred in 7%, 3% and 26% of the 194, 21 and 136 binary pesticide, metal and antifoulants mixtures included in the data compilation on frequency. The difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations was rarely more than 10-fold. For pesticides, synergistic mixtures included cholinesterase inhibitors or azole fungicides in 95% of 69 described cases. Both groups of pesticides are known to interfere with metabolic degradation of other xenobiotics. For the four synergistic metal and 47 synergistic antifoulant mixtures the pattern in terms of chemical groups inducing synergy was less clear. Hypotheses in terms of mechanisms governing these interactions are discussed. It was concluded that true synergistic interactions between chemicals are rare and often occur at high concentrations. Addressing the cumulative rather than synergistic effect of co-occurring chemicals, using standard models as CA, is therefore regarded as the most important step in the risk

  6. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  7. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands.

    PubMed

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M L; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project "The Hand Embodied" (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies.

  8. Stability of muscle synergies for voluntary actions after cortical stroke in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; Piron, Lamberto; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Turolla, Andrea; Bizzi, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Production of voluntary movements relies critically on the functional integration of several motor cortical areas, such as the primary motor cortex, and the spinal circuitries. Surprisingly, after almost 40 years of research, how the motor cortices specify descending neural signals destined for the downstream interneurons and motoneurons has remained elusive. In light of the many recent experimental demonstrations that the motor system may coordinate muscle activations through a linear combination of muscle synergies, we hypothesize that the motor cortices may function to select and activate fixed muscle synergies specified by the spinal or brainstem networks. To test this hypothesis, we recorded electromyograms (EMGs) from 12–16 upper arm and shoulder muscles from both the unaffected and the stroke-affected arms of stroke patients having moderate-to-severe unilateral ischemic lesions in the frontal motor cortical areas. Analyses of EMGs using a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm revealed that in seven of eight patients the muscular compositions of the synergies for both the unaffected and the affected arms were strikingly similar to each other despite differences in motor performance between the arms, and differences in cerebral lesion sizes and locations between patients. This robustness of muscle synergies that we observed supports the notion that descending cortical signals represent neuronal drives that select, activate, and flexibly combine muscle synergies specified by networks in the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Our conclusion also suggests an approach to stroke rehabilitation by focusing on those synergies with altered activations after stroke. PMID:19880747

  9. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project ;The Hand Embodied; (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies.

  10. An analysis of leg joint synergy during bipedal walking in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Kaichida, Shoko; Hashizume, Yoshimitsu; Ogihara, Naomichi; Nishii, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed bipedal locomotion of Japanese macaques from the view point of leg joint synergy by the UCM (Uncontrolled manifold) analysis in order to examine how and when hip, knee and ankle joints cooperate so as to suppress the variances of the toe position relative to the hip position. Our results showed that joint synergy is exploited at some moments during walking. For instance, the variance of the vertical toe position was suppressed by joint synergy when the tip of the finger passes its lowest position from the ground. Some characteristics of the synergy pattern of macaques have been also reported in human walking, on the other hand, some differences between humans and macaques were found. For instance, high degree of joint synergy that suppresses the variance of hip height was observed around the end of stance phase in human walking, but such synergy was weak in macaques. The results suggest that different control strategies are used in bipedal walking of macaques and humans.

  11. Target-Independent Prediction of Drug Synergies Using Only Drug Lipophilicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of compounds have been instrumental in selecting lead compounds with increased drug-likeness. However, the relationship between physicochemical properties of constituent drugs and the tendency to exhibit drug interaction has not been systematically studied. We assembled physicochemical descriptors for a set of antifungal compounds (“drugs”) previously examined for interaction. Analyzing the relationship between molecular weight, lipophilicity, H-bond donor, and H-bond acceptor values for drugs and their propensity to show pairwise antifungal drug synergy, we found that combinations of two lipophilic drugs had a greater tendency to show drug synergy. We developed a more refined decision tree model that successfully predicted drug synergy in stringent cross-validation tests based on only lipophilicity of drugs. Our predictions achieved a precision of 63% and allowed successful prediction for 58% of synergistic drug pairs, suggesting that this phenomenon can extend our understanding for a substantial fraction of synergistic drug interactions. We also generated and analyzed a large-scale synergistic human toxicity network, in which we observed that combinations of lipophilic compounds show a tendency for increased toxicity. Thus, lipophilicity, a simple and easily determined molecular descriptor, is a powerful predictor of drug synergy. It is well established that lipophilic compounds (i) are promiscuous, having many targets in the cell, and (ii) often penetrate into the cell via the cellular membrane by passive diffusion. We discuss the positive relationship between drug lipophilicity and drug synergy in the context of potential drug synergy mechanisms. PMID:25026390

  12. Synergy Repetition Training versus Task Repetition Training in Acquiring New Skill

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Craig, Jamie; Schumacher, Michelle; Burns, Martin K.; Florescu, Ionut; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning. A new task was designed to highlight the range of motion and dexterity of the human hand. Two separate training strategies were tested in healthy subjects: task repetition training and synergy training versus a control. All three groups showed improvements when retested on the same task. When tested on a similar, but different set of tasks, only the synergy group showed improvements in accuracy (9.27% increase) compared to the repetition (3.24% decline) and control (3.22% decline) groups. A kinematic analysis revealed that although joint angular peak velocities decreased, timing benefits stemmed from the initial feed-forward portion of the task (reaction time). Accuracy improvements may have derived from general improved coordination among the four involved fingers. These preliminary results warrant further investigation of synergy-based motor training in healthy individuals, as well as in individuals undergoing hand-based rehabilitative therapy. PMID:28289680

  13. Muscle synergies in neuroscience and robotics: from input-space to task-space perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Delis, Ioannis; Nori, Francesco; Panzeri, Stefano; Berret, Bastien

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the works related to muscle synergies that have been carried-out in neuroscience and control engineering. In particular, we refer to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) generates desired muscle contractions by combining a small number of predefined modules, called muscle synergies. We provide an overview of the methods that have been employed to test the validity of this scheme, and we show how the concept of muscle synergy has been generalized for the control of artificial agents. The comparison between these two lines of research, in particular their different goals and approaches, is instrumental to explain the computational implications of the hypothesized modular organization. Moreover, it clarifies the importance of assessing the functional role of muscle synergies: although these basic modules are defined at the level of muscle activations (input-space), they should result in the effective accomplishment of the desired task. This requirement is not always explicitly considered in experimental neuroscience, as muscle synergies are often estimated solely by analyzing recorded muscle activities. We suggest that synergy extraction methods should explicitly take into account task execution variables, thus moving from a perspective purely based on input-space to one grounded on task-space as well. PMID:23626535

  14. Absence of postural muscle synergies for balance after spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Chvatal, Stacie A.; Macpherson, Jane M.; Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy

    2013-01-01

    Although cats that have been spinalized can also be trained to stand and step with full weight support, directionally appropriate long-latency responses to perturbations are impaired, suggesting that these behaviors are mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether these responses reflect an attenuated postural response using the appropriate muscular coordination patterns for balance or are due to fundamentally different neural mechanisms such as increased muscular cocontraction or short-latency stretch responses. Here we used muscle synergy analysis on previously collected data to identify whether there are changes in the spatial organization of muscle activity for balance within an animal after spinalization. We hypothesized that the modular organization of muscle activity for balance control is disrupted by spinal cord transection. In each of four animals, muscle synergies were extracted from postural muscle activity both before and after spinalization with nonnegative matrix factorization. Muscle synergy number was reduced after spinalization in three animals and increased in one animal. However, muscle synergy structure was greatly altered after spinalization with reduced direction tuning, suggesting little consistent organization of muscle activity. Furthermore, muscle synergy recruitment was correlated to subsequent force production in the intact but not spinalized condition. Our results demonstrate that the modular structure of sensorimotor feedback responses for balance control is severely disrupted after spinalization, suggesting that the muscle synergies for balance control are not accessible by spinal circuits alone. Moreover, we demonstrate that spinal mechanisms underlying weight support are distinct from brain stem mechanisms underlying directional balance control. PMID:23803327

  15. The role of partnership functioning and synergy in achieving sustainability of innovative programmes in community care.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Phaff, Sanne; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study (conducted in April-May 2011) explored associations between partnership functioning synergy and sustainability of innovative programmes in community care. The study sample consisted of 106 professionals (of 244 individuals contacted) participating in 21 partnerships that implemented different innovative community care programmes in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Partnership functioning was evaluated by assessing leadership, resources administration and efficiency. Synergy was considered the proximal outcome of partnership functioning, which, in turn, influenced the achievement of programme sustainability. On a 5-point scale of increasing sustainability, mean sustainability scores ranged from 1.9 to 4.9. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated that sustainability was positively influenced by leadership (standardised regression coefficient β = 0.32; P < 0.001) and non-financial resources (β = 0.25; P = 0.008). No significant relationship was found between administration or efficiency and programme sustainability. Partnership synergy acted as a mediator for partnership functioning and significantly affected sustainability (β = 0.39; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the sustainability of innovative programmes in community care is achieved more readily when synergy is created between partners. Synergy was more likely to emerge with boundary-spanning leaders, who understood and appreciated partners' different perspectives, and could bridge their diverse cultures and were comfortable sharing ideas, resources and power. In addition, the acknowledgement of and ability to use members' resources were found to be valuable in engaging partners' involvement and achieving synergy in community care partnerships.

  16. Air quality and climate--synergies and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S

    2013-07-01

    Air quality and climate are often treated as separate science and policy areas. Air quality encompasses the here-and-now of pollutant emissions, atmospheric transformations and their direct effect on human and ecosystem health. Climate change deals with the drivers leading to a warmer world and the consequences of that. These two science and policy issues are inexorably linked via common pollutants, such as ozone (methane) and black carbon. This short review looks at the new scientific evidence around so-called "short-lived climate forcers" and the growing realisation that a way to meet short-term climate change targets may be through the control of "air quality" pollutants. None of the options discussed here can replace reduction of long-lived greenhouse gases, such as CO2, which is required for any long-term climate change mitigation strategy. An overview is given of the underlying science, remaining uncertainties, and some of the synergies and trade-offs for addressing air quality and climate in the science and policy context.

  17. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources. PMID:12713741

  18. Synergy with new radio facilities: from LOFAR to SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, R.

    2016-06-01

    A number of new radio telescopes are coming on-line paving the way to the Square Kilometre Array. Their new capabilities, e.g. large field of view, broad instantaneous band and fast response, offer new possibilities for the science. I will briefly give an overview of the facilities that are becoming available. Many of them have open time and some are planning large surveys that will be made available to the entire astronomical community, providing an important legacy. I will then focus on some of the results obtained with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) on topics where a strong synergy with XMM is (or should be) present. In particular, I will focus on pulsars (e.g. fast switching mode pulsars) and accreting systems among the galactic objects. For the extragalactic objects, the combination radio/X-ray is key for understanding the energetics and, therefore, the impact that radio AGN have on their surroundings. I will in particular focus on results from observations of radio galaxies and clusters. Fast response to transient objects in the radio sky is also receiving a lot of attention with LOFAR (and other radio telescopes).

  19. Global phosphorus scarcity: identifying synergies for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Neset, Tina-Simone S; Cordell, Dana

    2012-01-15

    Global food production is dependent on constant inputs of phosphorus. In the current system this phosphorus is not predominantly derived from organic recycled waste, but to a large degree from phosphate-rock based mineral fertilisers. However, phosphate rock is a finite resource that cannot be manufactured. Our dependency therefore needs to be addressed from a sustainability perspective in order to ensure global food supplies for a growing global population. The situation is made more urgent by predictions that, for example, the consumption of resource intensive foods and the demand for biomass energy will increase. The scientific and societal debate has so far been focussed on the exact timing of peak phosphorus and on when the total depletion of the global reserves will occur. Even though the timing of these events is important, all dimensions of phosphorus scarcity need to be addressed in a manner which acknowledges linkages to other sustainable development challenges and which takes into consideration the synergies between different sustainability measures. Many sustainable phosphorus measures have positive impacts on other challenges; for example, shifting global diets to more plant-based foods would not only reduce global phosphorus consumption, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce nitrogen fertiliser demand and reduce water consumption.

  20. Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Strengths and Synergies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is responsible for around 80% of all strokes and is a leading cause of disability and death globally. There are two potential treatment strategies: restoring blood flow (reperfusion) and preventing cellular injury (neuroprotection). As yet, all the successful trials have involved reperfusion with numerous failures of neuroprotectants. There are two proven reperfusion strategies. Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase was first demonstrated to reduce disability with publication of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke tissue plasminogen activator trial in 1995. Since that time further trials have solidified the evidence base and demonstrated benefit when alteplase is administered within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. Exploration of potentially more effective thrombolytics is still underway with tenecteplase but others, such as desmoteplase, have been unsuccessful in clinical trials. The second proven reperfusion strategy is endovascular clot retrieval. This has been practiced for several years but came of age with the publication of five strongly positive trials in 2015. This review discusses the evidence for intravenous and intra-arterial reperfusion strategies and the advantages, disadvantages, and synergies of the two approaches.

  1. Behaviors of Hydrogen, Helium and their Synergy in Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Tungsten (W) is one of the most promising plasma facing material (PFM) candidates for fusion energy systems. However, effects of hydrogen (H) isotopes and helium (He) particularly their retention and blistering in W remain to be key issues that need to be addressed. In this talk, we will discuss the effects of H and He in W in terms of the physical mechanism revealed by simulations in combination with related experiments. Via modelling and simulation in different scales, the nucleation and growth mechanism of H bubbles in W have been investigated. First-principles calculations show that a vacancy induces collective H binding on its internal surface. Further calculations suggest a cascading effect of H bubble growth in W. Based on such vacancy trapping mechanism, He as well as other inert gas elements such as neon and argon can suppress the H bubble nucleation and blistering, which is confirmed by the experimental observation. Difference between H and He behaviors and their synergy in W due to their different electronic structure will be emphasized, from which we can further consider the actual complicated H/He interaction with W and their effects on (mechanical) properties of W in future fusion reactors.

  2. Ocean Surface reconstruction from the synergy of Sentinel-3 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Haro, C.; Autret, E.; Isern-Fontanet, J.; Tandeo, P.; Le Goff, C.; Garello, R.; Fablet, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along-track altimetric measurements of Sea Surface Heights (SSH) are very well suited to quantify across-track currents. However, the spatial resolution of derived 2D velocities is restricted to scales above 100-150 km and the limited number of altimeters can lead to errors in the location of currents. On the contrary, infrared measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are well suited to locate flow patterns but it is difficult to extract quantitative estimations of ocean currents. During the last years, some works began to exploit the synergy of SST and altimetry measurements in order to retrieve ocean currents. Nevertheless, all this previous works employed measurements which were near in time but not simultaneous. In that sense, Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission that will circumvent this temporal limitation, providing simultaneous measurements of SST and altimetry with high-end accuracy and reliability. Our approach, based on the spectral properties of simultaneous SST and SSH observations, is tested using ENVISAT (RA, AATSR) data, since its geometry is similar to that of Sentinel-3 (SRAL, SLSTR).

  3. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  4. Synergy between LH and ECH waves in the FTU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Cirant, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Panaccione, L.; Peysson, Y.; Podda, S.; Tuccillo, A.; FTU Team; ECRH Team

    2000-10-01

    Synergy between 140 GHz EC waves and 8 GHz LH waves is carried out at B=7.2 T allowing EC waves to interact only with the LH generated fast electrons, the cold resonance being outside the FTU vessel. EC and LH power are simultaneously injected up to PLH£ 950 kW and PEC£ 750 kW. Absorption of EC power, about 70%, takes place in almost all conditions of density and LH driven current, but macroscopic effects are only observed, for the first time in a tokamak, when LH waves are absorbed within r/a <0.3, and for ne < 0.6× 10^20 m-3. This is attributed to the need of a high local density of suprathermal electrons. In these conditions, synergistic effects produce a clear Vloop dro and an increase >1 keV for central electron temperature. The variation of Vloop is consistent with 10% extra driven current (35-40 kA out of 350 kA). The radial temperature profile shows an overall increase respective to the LH alone phase, within r/a=0.3, depending on P_EC. The hard X-ray data show a significant increase of the signal level, but no large changes on their radial profile.

  5. Techno-ecological synergy: a framework for sustainable engineering.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Bhavik R; Ziv, Guy; Lepech, Michael D

    2015-02-03

    Even though the importance of ecosystems in sustaining all human activities is well-known, methods for sustainable engineering fail to fully account for this role of nature. Most methods account for the demand for ecosystem services, but almost none account for the supply. Incomplete accounting of the very foundation of human well-being can result in perverse outcomes from decisions meant to enhance sustainability and lost opportunities for benefiting from the ability of nature to satisfy human needs in an economically and environmentally superior manner. This paper develops a framework for understanding and designing synergies between technological and ecological systems to encourage greater harmony between human activities and nature. This framework considers technological systems ranging from individual processes to supply chains and life cycles, along with corresponding ecological systems at multiple spatial scales ranging from local to global. The demand for specific ecosystem services is determined from information about emissions and resource use, while the supply is obtained from information about the capacity of relevant ecosystems. Metrics calculate the sustainability of individual ecosystem services at multiple spatial scales and help define necessary but not sufficient conditions for local and global sustainability. Efforts to reduce ecological overshoot encourage enhancement of life cycle efficiency, development of industrial symbiosis, innovative designs and policies, and ecological restoration, thus combining the best features of many existing methods. Opportunities for theoretical and applied research to make this framework practical are also discussed.

  6. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  7. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  8. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.

    PubMed

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2015-01-01

    A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.

  9. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-20

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  10. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-01

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  11. Synergy, redundancy, and multivariate information measures: an experimentalist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Timme, Nicholas; Alford, Wesley; Flecker, Benjamin; Beggs, John M

    2014-04-01

    Information theory has long been used to quantify interactions between two variables. With the rise of complex systems research, multivariate information measures have been increasingly used to investigate interactions between groups of three or more variables, often with an emphasis on so called synergistic and redundant interactions. While bivariate information measures are commonly agreed upon, the multivariate information measures in use today have been developed by many different groups, and differ in subtle, yet significant ways. Here, we will review these multivariate information measures with special emphasis paid to their relationship to synergy and redundancy, as well as examine the differences between these measures by applying them to several simple model systems. In addition to these systems, we will illustrate the usefulness of the information measures by analyzing neural spiking data from a dissociated culture through early stages of its development. Our aim is that this work will aid other researchers as they seek the best multivariate information measure for their specific research goals and system. Finally, we have made software available online which allows the user to calculate all of the information measures discussed within this paper.

  12. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy

    PubMed Central

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Nosanchuk, Murphy D.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos; Weiss, Louis M.; Spray, David C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries. PMID:26691452

  13. ESD and Education for All: synergies and potential conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2010-06-01

    This paper analyses how Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) can assist in increasing access to quality education and discusses how it can contribute to the content and learning methods on the Education for All (EFA) agenda. It explores both the tensions and the common ground between ESD and EFA, and identifies the potential synergies between them. ESD implies a transformation of every aspect of school life at all levels: pre-school, primary and secondary. At the policy level, governments are in a position to establish links between ESD and EFA, recognising that the purpose of education is not just to support present economic development, but also to help individuals and societies to develop their potential without damaging the environment. At the grassroots level, in schools, much can—and must—be done by school leaders, teachers and students to integrate sustainability into all aspects of school life and the curriculum, thereby establishing connections between social, environmental, cultural and economic problems and achievements.

  14. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  15. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-04-07

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources.

  16. Association between Muscle Synergy and Stability during Prolonged Walking

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Nishida, Yusuke; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in muscle synergy could affect gait stability or muscle activity by comparing muscle activity before and after prolonged walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy male subjects walked on a treadmill for 10 min as a warm-up. Data were recorded from the participants during the first and last 1 min during 90 min of walking at 4.5 km/h. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded for 7 leg muscles, and patterns of coordination were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). The patterns of activity within the anatomic muscle groups were additionally determined by repeating PCA. iEMG was calculated using the mean EMG for each cycle step during the 1 min walking periods. The largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated to quantify each subject’s inherent local dynamic stability. [Results] The patterns for each of the 7 muscles showed no change between the start and end periods. However, the end period showed a higher co-activation of the triceps surae, lower iEMG of the medial gastrocnemius, and a smaller largest Lyapunov exponent of the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions than those observed during the start period. [Conclusion] The increase in triceps surae co-activation may be associated with gait stability. PMID:25364133

  17. 10+ more years of Chandra-XMM-Newton Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this current golden age of X-ray astronomy, the frontiers of the X-ray Universe are continually expanding in multiple, often unexpected, directions, due to the extraordinary success and longevity of both ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These two ground-breaking, major observatories are supported by a number of smaller, more focused missions which feed into and expand the discovery space of X-ray astronomy even further. With the prospect of another decade of observing, now is an excellent time to take stock of how far we have come, and to look forward to the future with a view to maximizing the scientific legacy of both XMM-Newton and Chandra. This not only involves optimizing the contents of the archives and the impact of the science results, but also laying the ground-work for the next generation of X-ray telescopes, led by ESA's Athena mission in the late 2020s. I will summarize the synergy between XMM-Newton and Chandra, including complementary capabilities which facilitate coordinated observations and science programs, and overlapping capabilities which often provide the necessary confirmation (or not) of new, marginal and/or controversial results.

  18. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  19. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  20. Synergy Conference: Industry's Role in the Reform of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education. Report of the Synergy Conference (Leesburg, Virginia, June 23-25, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    The purpose of the Synergy Conference was to define and initiate new roles for industry in the systemic reform of K-12 science, mathematics, and technology education. The three specific goals of the conference were: (1) inform the corporate community about the status of education reform and its relationship to the larger economic context; (2)…

  1. Investigating reduction of dimensionality during single-joint elbow movements: a case study on muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Berret, Bastien; Delis, Ioannis; Panzeri, Stefano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A long standing hypothesis in the neuroscience community is that the central nervous system (CNS) generates the muscle activities to accomplish movements by combining a relatively small number of stereotyped patterns of muscle activations, often referred to as "muscle synergies." Different definitions of synergies have been given in the literature. The most well-known are those of synchronous, time-varying and temporal muscle synergies. Each one of them is based on a different mathematical model used to factor some EMG array recordings collected during the execution of variety of motor tasks into a well-determined spatial, temporal or spatio-temporal organization. This plurality of definitions and their separate application to complex tasks have so far complicated the comparison and interpretation of the results obtained across studies, and it has always remained unclear why and when one synergistic decomposition should be preferred to another one. By using well-understood motor tasks such as elbow flexions and extensions, we aimed in this study to clarify better what are the motor features characterized by each kind of decomposition and to assess whether, when and why one of them should be preferred to the others. We found that three temporal synergies, each one of them accounting for specific temporal phases of the movements could account for the majority of the data variation. Similar performances could be achieved by two synchronous synergies, encoding the agonist-antagonist nature of the two muscles considered, and by two time-varying muscle synergies, encoding each one a task-related feature of the elbow movements, specifically their direction. Our findings support the notion that each EMG decomposition provides a set of well-interpretable muscle synergies, identifying reduction of dimensionality in different aspects of the movements. Taken together, our findings suggest that all decompositions are not equivalent and may imply different neurophysiological

  2. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Joshua M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies—correlated muscle activations—to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption—when available—can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the

  3. Critical Importance of In Vivo Amoxicillin and Cefotaxime Concentrations for Synergy in Treatment of Experimental Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Join-Lambert, Olivier; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Cuvelier, Catherine; Dautrey, Sophie; Farinotti, Robert; Fantin, Bruno; Carbon, Claude

    1998-01-01

    The synergy between amoxicillin and cefotaxime against two strains of Enterococcus faecalis (JH2-2 and 6370) in vitro and in rabbit endocarditis was investigated. In vitro synergy was obtained only when amoxicillin concentrations were below the MBC and when cefotaxime concentrations were above 1 μg/ml. No synergy was observed in vivo, because of the short period of time during which these pharmacologic requirements were achieved. PMID:9527811

  4. AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances; Gilmour, Jill; McDermott, Adrian B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Anzala, Omu; Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard J.; Koff, Wayne; Berkley, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract While the long-term goal is to develop highly effective AIDS vaccines, first generation vaccines may be only partially effective. Other HIV prevention modalities such as preexposure prophylaxis with antiretrovirals (PrEP) may have limited efficacy as well. The combined administration of vaccine and PrEP (VAXPREP), however, may have a synergistic effect leading to an overall benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual effects. We propose two test-of-concept trial designs for an AIDS vaccine plus oral or topical ARV. In one design, evidence that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition is assumed to justify offering it to all participants. A two-arm study comparing PrEP alone to VAXPREP is proposed in which 30 to 60 incident infections are observed to assess the additional benefit of vaccination on risk of infection and setpoint viral load. The demonstrated superiority of VAXPREP does not imply vaccine alone is efficacious. Similarly, the lack of superiority does not imply vaccine alone is ineffective, as antagonism could exist between vaccine and PrEP. In the other design, PrEP is assumed not to be in general use. A 2 × 2 factorial design is proposed in which high-risk individuals are randomized to one of four arms: placebo vaccine given with placebo PrEP, placebo vaccine given with PrEP, vaccine given with placebo PrEP, or VAXPREP. Between 60 and 210 infections are required to detect a benefit of vaccination with or without PrEP on risk of HIV acquisition or setpoint viral load, with fewer infections needed when synergy is present. PMID:21043994

  5. Nefopam and ketoprofen synergy in rodent models of antinociception.

    PubMed

    Girard, Philippe; Verniers, Danielle; Coppé, Marie-Claude; Pansart, Yannick; Gillardin, Jean-Marie

    2008-04-28

    Combinations of analgesics with different mechanisms of action offer the possibility of efficient analgesia with a decrease in side effects as a result of reduced dosages of one or both compounds. Based on a clinical observation of synergism between nefopam, a centrally acting non-opioid that inhibits monoamines reuptake, and ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, the objective of this study was to further explore this antinociceptive synergy in four distinct animal models of pain (both drugs were administered subcutaneously). Strong antinociceptive properties were observed in the mouse writhing abdominal test with ED50 values of 2.56+/-0.38 and 1.41+/-0.41 mg/kg for nefopam and ketoprofen, respectively. In the inflammatory phase of the mouse formalin test, both compounds significantly inhibited the licking time of the injected hind-paw with ED50 of 4.32+/-0.17 mg/kg for nefopam and 49.56+/-15.81 mg/kg for ketoprofen. Isobolographic analysis revealed that this drug combination is synergistic in the formalin test and additive in the writhing test. In rat carrageenan-induced tactile allodynia, single administration of nefopam or ketoprofen only partially reduced allodynia. Combination of low analgesic doses of nefopam (10 or 30 mg/kg) with low analgesic doses of ketoprofen (30 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced or reversed allodynia, with a more pronounced anti-allodynic effect and a longer duration efficacy. In a rat model of postoperative thermal hyperalgesia induced by incision, co-administration of nefopam at a low analgesic dose (10 mg/kg) with ketoprofen at non-analgesic doses (30 or 100 mg/kg) showed the appearance of a strong anti-hyperalgesic effect, maintained during at least 3 h. In conclusion, co-administration of nefopam with ketoprofen is synergistic, and should allow either to increase their analgesic efficacy and/or to reduce their side effects.

  6. Collaborative Research. Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, James Gary

    2015-12-01

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources offers the promise of greatly expanding the range of applications for each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by the addition of photons and the associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. This project combined the construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling. Through a continuous discussion and co-design process with the UC-Berkeley Team, we have successfully completed the fabrication and testing of all components for a microplasma array-assisted system designed for photon-activated plasma chemistry research. Microcavity plasma lamps capable of generating more than 20 mW/cm2 at 172 nm (Xe dimer) were fabricated with a custom form factor to mate to the plasma chemistry setup, and a lamp was current being installed by the Berkeley team so as to investigate plasma chemistry-photon synergies at a higher photon energy (~7.2 eV) as compared to the UVA treatment that is afforded by UV LEDs operating at 365 nm. In particular, motivated by the promising results from the Berkeley team with UVA treatment, we also produced the first generation of lamps that can generate photons in the 300-370 nm wavelength range. Another set of experiments, conducted under the auspices of this grant, involved the use of plasma microjet arrays. The combination of the photons and excited radicals produced by the plasma column resulted in broad area deactivation of bacteria.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Cancer Immunotherapy and Its Synergy with Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Serre, Raphael; Benzekry, Sebastien; Padovani, Laetitia; Meille, Christophe; André, Nicolas; Ciccolini, Joseph; Barlesi, Fabrice; Muracciole, Xavier; Barbolosi, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Combining radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade may offer considerable therapeutic impact if the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME) can be relieved. In this study, we used mathematical models, which can illustrate the potential synergism between immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy. A discrete-time pharmacodynamic model of the combination of radiotherapy with inhibitors of the PD1-PDL1 axis and/or the CTLA4 pathway is described. This mathematical framework describes how a growing tumor first elicits and then inhibits an antitumor immune response. This antitumor immune response is described by a primary and a secondary (or memory) response. The primary immune response appears first and is inhibited by the PD1-PDL1 axis, whereas the secondary immune response happens next and is inhibited by the CTLA4 pathway. The effects of irradiation are described by a modified version of the linear-quadratic model. This modeling offers an explanation for the reported biphasic relationship between the size of a tumor and its immunogenicity, as measured by the abscopal effect (an off-target immune response). Furthermore, it explains why discontinuing immunotherapy may result in either tumor recurrence or a durably sustained response. Finally, it describes how synchronizing immunotherapy and radiotherapy can produce synergies. The ability of the model to forecast pharmacodynamic endpoints was validated retrospectively by checking that it could describe data from experimental studies, which investigated the combination of radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In summary, a model such as this could be further used as a simulation tool to facilitate decision making about optimal scheduling of immunotherapy with radiotherapy and perhaps other types of anticancer therapies. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4931-40. ©2016 AACR.

  8. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnan, C. J.

    2001-06-01

    Space-derived transparency will become a common means of monitoring, preventing, and mitigating crises, verifying compliance with treaties and law, and enabling confidence and security building measures. Democratization and globalization, the proliferation of information technologies, the availability of commercial space high-resolution imagery, and the growing influence of NGOs invite this question: What is (space-derived) transparency and what effect does it have on US security policy? Three camps have emerged in the debate -Horaeists who seek to build a transnational society through complete transparency; Preservationists, mostly military, who fear the threat to national security, want to deny most space-derived information to non-traditional/non-state actors; and Synergists who seek to capitalize on the best of both camps. There is evidence suggesting that space-derived transparency is an inevitable trend and will resist even the best means of preservationist control. Space-derived transparency may change the dynamic of the security environment by introducing new players into the policy fomentation and implementation process. These players, if not properly schooled in imagery analysis or the potential effects of their use of misinterpreted space-derived imagery, could force policy makers to make fast, ill-considered decisions in order to respond to incidents. In some cases this fast response will defuse potential crises and in other situations these rushed decisions might result in policies without considering the potential consequences, which could turn incidents into crises. Space-derived transparency is a step forward into the future for each camp . . . the challenge for the United States lies in forging synergies in an increasingly transparent world while maintaining the balance between openness and security.

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  10. Electromyogram synergy control of a dexterous artificial hand to unscrew and screw objects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to their limited dexterity, it is currently not possible to use a commercially available prosthetic hand to unscrew or screw objects without using elbow and shoulder movements. For these tasks, prosthetic hands function like a wrench, which is unnatural and limits their use in tight working environments. Results from timed rotational tasks with human subjects demonstrate the clinical need for increased dexterity of prosthetic hands, and a clinically viable solution to this problem is presented for an anthropomorphic artificial hand. Methods Initially, a human hand motion analysis was performed during a rotational task. From these data, human hand synergies were derived and mapped to an anthropomorphic artificial hand. The synergy for the artificial hand is controlled using conventional dual site electromyogram (EMG) signals. These EMG signals were mapped to the developed synergy to control four joints of the dexterous artificial hand simultaneously. Five limb absent and ten able-bodied test subjects participated in a comparison study to complete a timed rotational task as quickly as possible with their natural hands (except for one subject with a bilateral hand absence), eight commercially available prosthetic hands, and the proposed synergy controller. Each test subject used two to four different artificial hands. Results With the able-bodied subjects, the developed synergy controller reduced task completion time by 177% on average. The limb absent subjects completed the task faster on average than with their own prostheses by 46%. There was a statistically significant improvement in task completion time with the synergy controller for three of the four limb absent participants with integrated prostheses, and was not statistically different for the fourth. Conclusions The proposed synergy controller reduced average task completion time compared to commercially available prostheses. Additionally, the synergy controller is able to function in a small

  11. Analysis of hand synergies in healthy subjects during bimanual manipulation of various objects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand synergies have been extensively studied over the last few decades. Objectives of such research are numerous. In neuroscience, the aim is to improve the understanding of motor control and its ability to reduce the control dimensionality. In applied research fields like robotics the aim is to build biomimetic hand structures, or in prosthetics to design more performant underactuated replacement hands. Nevertheless, most of the synergy schemes identified to this day have been obtained from grasping experiments performed with one single (generally dominant) hand to objects placed in a given position and orientation in space. Aiming at identifying more generic synergies, we conducted similar experiments on postural synergy identification during bimanual manipulation of various objects in order to avoid the factors due to the extrinsic spatial position of the objects. Methods Ten healthy naive subjects were asked to perform a selected “grasp-give-receive” task with both hands using 9 objects. Subjects were wearing Cyberglove Ⓒ on both hands, allowing a measurement of the joint posture (15 degrees of freedom) of each hand. Postural synergies were then evaluated through Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Matches between the identified Principal Components and the human hand joints were analyzed thanks to the correlation matrix. Finally, statistical analysis was performed on the data in order to evaluate the effect of some specific variables on the hand synergies: object shape, hand side (i.e., laterality) and role (giving or receiving hand). Results Results on PCs are consistent with previous literature showing that a few principal components might be sufficient to describe a large variety of different grasps. Nevertheless some simple and strong correlations between PCs and clearly identified sets of hand joints were obtained in this study. In addition, these groupings of DoF corresponds to well-defined anatomo-functional finger joints according to

  12. Pilot Screening to Determine Antimicrobial Synergies in a Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strain Library

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, there has been increasing interest in combinations of ≥2 antimicrobial agents with synergistic effects. We established an MDR bacterial strain library to screen for in vitro antimicrobial synergy by using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and high-throughput luciferase-based bacterial cell viability assay. In total, 39 MDR bacterial strains, including 23 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 9 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, were used to screen for potential antimicrobial synergies. Synergies were more frequently identified with combinations of imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the library. To verify this finding, we tested 34 A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to both imipenem and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole by the checkerboard method. The imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole combination showed synergy in the treatment of 21 (62%) of the clinical isolates. The results indicate that pilot screening for antimicrobial synergy in the MDR bacterial strain library could be valuable in the selection of combination therapeutic regimens to treat MDR bacterial infections. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this screening system can be useful to screen for the combined effects of conventional antimicrobials and new-generation antimicrobials or nonantimicrobials. PMID:26974861

  13. Reaction null-space filter: extracting reactionless synergies for optimal postural balance from motion capture data.

    PubMed

    Nenchev, D N; Miyamoto, Y; Iribe, H; Takeuchi, K; Sato, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a reactionless synergy: a postural variation for a specific motion pattern/strategy, whereby the movements of the segments do not alter the force/moment balance at the feet. Given an optimal initial posture in terms of stability, a reactionless synergy can ensure optimality throughout the entire movement. Reactionless synergies are derived via a dynamical model wherein the feet are regarded to be unfixed. Though in contrast with the conventional fixed-feet models, this approach has the advantage of exhibiting the reactions at the feet explicitly. The dynamical model also facilitates a joint-space decomposition scheme yielding two motion components: the reactionless synergy and an orthogonal complement responsible for the dynamical coupling between the feet and the support. Since the reactionless synergy provides the basis (a feedforward control component) for optimal balance control, it may play an important role when evaluating balance abnormalities or when assessing optimality in balance control. We show how to apply the proposed method for analysis of motion capture data obtained from three voluntary movement patterns in the sagittal plane: squat, sway, and forward bend.

  14. In vitro synergy testing of macrolide-quinolone combinations against 41 clinical isolates of Legionella.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S J; Pendland, S L; Chen, C; Schreckenberger, P; Danziger, L H

    1996-01-01

    Combination antimicrobial therapy against Legionella species has not been well studied. Several quinolones have activity against Legionella strains, which prompted this in vitro search for a synergistic combination with the macrolides. By a checkerboard assay, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, each in combination with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, were tested for synergy against 46 isolates of Legionella. The agar dilution method was employed using buffered charcoal-yeast extract media. A final inoculum of 10(4) CFU per spot was prepared from 24-h growth of each isolate. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Synergy, partial synergy, additive effect, or indifference was observed for all combinations of antibiotics tested. There was no antagonism observed. Synergy occurred to a significantly greater extent for the clarithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.0001) and azithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.003) combinations versus erythromycin-levofloxacin. The azithromycin-ciprofloxacin combination demonstrated significantly greater synergy than did either erythromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.003) or clarithromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001). The newer macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin may be more active in combination with a fluoroquinolone than is erythromycin. PMID:8726012

  15. In vitro synergy testing of macrolide-quinolone combinations against 41 clinical isolates of Legionella.

    PubMed

    Martin, S J; Pendland, S L; Chen, C; Schreckenberger, P; Danziger, L H

    1996-06-01

    Combination antimicrobial therapy against Legionella species has not been well studied. Several quinolones have activity against Legionella strains, which prompted this in vitro search for a synergistic combination with the macrolides. By a checkerboard assay, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, each in combination with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, were tested for synergy against 46 isolates of Legionella. The agar dilution method was employed using buffered charcoal-yeast extract media. A final inoculum of 10(4) CFU per spot was prepared from 24-h growth of each isolate. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Synergy, partial synergy, additive effect, or indifference was observed for all combinations of antibiotics tested. There was no antagonism observed. Synergy occurred to a significantly greater extent for the clarithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.0001) and azithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.003) combinations versus erythromycin-levofloxacin. The azithromycin-ciprofloxacin combination demonstrated significantly greater synergy than did either erythromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.003) or clarithromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001). The newer macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin may be more active in combination with a fluoroquinolone than is erythromycin.

  16. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguma, Lalisa A.; Minang, Peter A.; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-09-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual framing of the approach and constraining policy issues. In this paper, we explore the attributes of synergy and the necessary enabling conditions and discuss, as an example, experience with the Ngitili system in Tanzania that serves both adaptation and mitigation functions. An in-depth look into the current practices suggests that more emphasis is laid on complementarity—i.e., mitigation projects providing adaptation co-benefits and vice versa rather than on synergy. Unlike complementarity, synergy should emphasize functionally sustainable landscape systems in which adaptation and mitigation are optimized as part of multiple functions. We argue that the current practice of seeking co-benefits (complementarity) is a necessary but insufficient step toward addressing synergy. Moving forward from complementarity will require a paradigm shift from current compartmentalization between mitigation and adaptation to systems thinking at landscape scale. However, enabling policy, institutional, and investment conditions need to be developed at global, national, and local levels to achieve synergistic goals.

  17. Kaempferol and Chrysin Synergies to Improve Septic Mice Survival.

    PubMed

    Harasstani, Omar A; Tham, Chau Ling; Israf, Daud A

    2017-01-06

    Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids-namely, chrysin and kaempferol-in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice (n = 7) via the CLP procedure. The effects of chrysin and kaempferol combination treatment on septic mice were investigated using a 7-day survival study. The levels of key proinflammatory mediators and markers-such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), TNF-α, and NO-in the sera samples of the septic mice were determined via ELISA and fluorescence determination at different time point intervals post-CLP challenge. Liver tissue samples from septic mice were harvested to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels using a spectrophotometer. Moreover, intraperitoneal fluid (IPF) bacterial clearance and total leukocyte count were also assessed to detect any antibacterial effects exerted by chrysin and kaempferol, individually and in combination. Kaempferol treatment improved the survival rate of CLP-challenged mice by up to 16%. During this treatment, kaempferol expressed antibacterial, antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities through the attenuation of bacterial forming units, AST and NO levels, and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in the IPF. On the other hand, the chrysin treatment significantly reduced serum TNF-α levels. However, it failed to significantly improve the survival rate of the CLP-challenged mice. Subsequently, the kaempferol/chrysin combination treatment significantly improved the overall 7-day survival rate by 2-fold-up to 29%. Kaempferol and chrysin revealed some synergistic effects by acting individually upon multiple

  18. Task constraints and minimization of muscle effort result in a small number of muscle synergies during gait

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Finding muscle activity generating a given motion is a redundant problem, since there are many more muscles than degrees of freedom. The control strategies determining muscle recruitment from a redundant set are still poorly understood. One theory of motor control suggests that motion is produced through activating a small number of muscle synergies, i.e., muscle groups that are activated in a fixed ratio by a single input signal. Because of the reduced number of input signals, synergy-based control is low dimensional. But a major criticism on the theory of synergy-based control of muscles is that muscle synergies might reflect task constraints rather than a neural control strategy. Another theory of motor control suggests that muscles are recruited by optimizing performance. Optimization of performance has been widely used to calculate muscle recruitment underlying a given motion while assuming independent recruitment of muscles. If synergies indeed determine muscle recruitment underlying a given motion, optimization approaches that do not model synergy-based control could result in muscle activations that do not show the synergistic muscle action observed through electromyography (EMG). If, however, synergistic muscle action results from performance optimization and task constraints (joint kinematics and external forces), such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic muscle activations that are similar to EMG-based synergies. We calculated muscle recruitment underlying experimentally measured gait patterns by optimizing performance assuming independent recruitment of muscles. We found that the muscle activations calculated without any reference to synergies can be accurately explained by on average four synergies. These synergies are similar to EMG-based synergies. We therefore conclude that task constraints and performance optimization explain synergistic muscle recruitment from a redundant set of muscles. PMID:25278871

  19. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G.; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R.; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited this therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here, we developed novel stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real–time control software that modulate extensor versus flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight–bearing capacities, endurance and skilled locomotion in multiple rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans. PMID:26779815

  20. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-02-15

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses.

  1. Making the most of collaboration: exploring the relationship between partnership synergy and partnership functioning.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisa S; Anderson, Rebecca Miller; Lasker, Roz D

    2002-12-01

    Considering the challenges inherent to collaboration and the time it takes to achieve measurable outcomes, partnerships need a way to determine, at an early stage, whether they are making the most of collaboration. The authors have developed a new measure, partnership synergy, which assesses the degree to which a partnership's collaborative process successfully combines its participants' perspectives, knowledge, and skills. This article reports the results of a national study designed to examine the relationship between partnership synergy and six dimensions of partnership functioning: leadership, administration and management, partnership efficiency, nonfinancial resources, partner involvement challenges, and community-related challenges. Data were collected from 815 informants in 63 partnerships. Results of regression analysis conducted with partnership-level data indicated that partnership synergy was most closely related to leadership effectiveness and partnership efficiency. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Aeraj Ul

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  3. Defining the Catechol-Cation Synergy for Enhanced Wet Adhesion to Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Michael V; Maier, Greg P; Dobbs, Howard A; Higdon, Nicholas J; Waite, J Herbert; Butler, Alison; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2016-07-27

    Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) exhibit remarkably adaptive adhesion and bridging between polar surfaces in aqueous solution despite the strong hydration barriers at the solid-liquid interface. Recently, catechols and amines-two functionalities that account for >50 mol % of the amino acid side chains in surface-priming Mfps-were shown to cooperatively displace the interfacial hydration and mediate robust adhesion between mineral surfaces. Here we demonstrate that (1) synergy between catecholic and guanidinium side chains similarly promotes adhesion, (2) increasing the ratio of cationic amines to catechols in a molecule reduces adhesion, and (3) the catechol-cation synergy is greatest when both functionalities are present within the same molecule.

  4. Health, supervisory support, and workplace culture in relation to work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  5. Anticipatory synergy adjustments: Preparing a quick action in an unknown direction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Bartsch, Angelo; Cuadra, Cristian; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of feed-forward control of a multi-finger action, namely anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a quick force correction in response to a change in the gain of the visual feedback. Synergies were defined as co-varied across trials adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized (decreased variance of) the total force. We hypothesized that ASAs would be highly sensitive to prior information about the timing of the action but not to information on its direction, i.e., on whether the gain would go up or down. The subjects produced accurate constant total force by pressing with four fingers on individual force sensors. The feedback signal could change from veridical (the sum of finger forces) to modified, with the middle finger force multiplied by 0.2 or by 1.8. The timing of the gain change and its direction could be known or unknown to the subject in advance. When the timing of the gain change was known, ASA was seen as a drop in the synergy index starting about 250–300 ms prior to the first visible correction of the total force. When the gain change timing was unknown, ASAs started much later, less than 100 ms prior to the total force correction. The magnitude of synergy index changes was significantly larger under the “time known” conditions. Information on the direction of the visual gain change had no effect on the ASA timing, while the ASA magnitude was somewhat larger when this information was not available to the subject. After the total force correction, the synergy index was significantly larger for the force signal computed using the modified gain values as compared to the synergy index value for the actual total force. We conclude that ASAs represent an important feed-forward motor control mechanism that allows preparing for a quick action even when the direction of the action is not known in advance. The results emphasize the subtle control of multi-finger synergies that are specific to the exact contributions of

  6. Muscle Synergies May Improve Optimization Prediction of Knee Contact Forces During Walking

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jonathan P.; Kinney, Allison L.; Banks, Scott A.; D'Lima, Darryl D.; Besier, Thor F.; Lloyd, David G.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to predict patient-specific joint contact and muscle forces accurately could improve the treatment of walking-related disorders. Muscle synergy analysis, which decomposes a large number of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals into a small number of synergy control signals, could reduce the dimensionality and thus redundancy of the muscle and contact force prediction process. This study investigated whether use of subject-specific synergy controls can improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces during walking. To generate the predictions, we performed mixed dynamic muscle force optimizations (i.e., inverse skeletal dynamics with forward muscle activation and contraction dynamics) using data collected from a subject implanted with a force-measuring knee replacement. Twelve optimization problems (three cases with four subcases each) that minimized the sum of squares of muscle excitations were formulated to investigate how synergy controls affect knee contact force predictions. The three cases were: (1) Calibrate+Match where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously matched, (2) Precalibrate+Predict where experimental knee contact forces were predicted using precalibrated muscle model parameters values from the first case, and (3) Calibrate+Predict where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously predicted, all while matching inverse dynamic loads at the hip, knee, and ankle. The four subcases used either 44 independent controls or five synergy controls with and without EMG shape tracking. For the Calibrate+Match case, all four subcases closely reproduced the measured medial and lateral knee contact forces (R2 ≥ 0.94, root-mean-square (RMS) error < 66 N), indicating sufficient model fidelity for contact force prediction. For the Precalibrate+Predict and Calibrate+Predict cases, synergy controls yielded better contact force

  7. The effect of parameters of equilibrium-based 3-D biomechanical models on extracted muscle synergies during isometric lumbar exertion.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, A H; Sedaghat-Nejad, E; Rashedi, E; Sedighi, A; Arjmand, N; Parnianpour, M

    2016-04-11

    A hallmark of more advanced models is their higher details of trunk muscles represented by a larger number of muscles. The question is if in reality we control these muscles individually as independent agents or we control groups of them called "synergy". To address this, we employed a 3-D biomechanical model of the spine with 18 trunk muscles that satisfied equilibrium conditions at L4/5, with different cost functions. The solutions of several 2-D and 3-D tasks were arranged in a data matrix and the synergies were computed by using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithms. Variance accounted for (VAF) was used to evaluate the number of synergies that emerged by the analysis, which were used to reconstruct the original muscle activations. It was showed that four and six muscle synergies were adequate to reconstruct the input data of 2-D and 3-D torque space analysis. The synergies were different by choosing alternative cost functions as expected. The constraints affected the extracted muscle synergies, particularly muscles that participated in more than one functional tasks were influenced substantially. The compositions of extracted muscle synergies were in agreement with experimental studies on healthy participants. The following computational methods show that the synergies can reduce the complexity of load distributions and allow reduced dimensional space to be used in clinical settings.

  8. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass.

  9. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    , frequent drought period and now with foreseen climate change impacts. This third case will demonstrate the efficiency of SPOT 5 programming in synergy with OBIA methodology to assess the evolution of dam surface water within a complete water cycle (i.e. 2008-09). In all those three cases image segmentation and classification algorithms developed with e-Cognition 8 software allow an easy to use implementation of simple to highly sophisticate OBIA rulsets fully operational in batch processes. Finally this contribution foresees the new opportunity of integration of Worldview 2 multispectral imagery (i.e. 8 bands) including its "coastal" band that will also find an application in continental surface water bathymetry. Worldview 2 is a recently launch satellite (e.g. October 2009) that starts to collect earth observation data since January 2010. It is therefore a promising new remote sensing tool to develop operational hydrology in combination high resolution SAR imagery and OBIA methodology. This contribution will conclude on the strong potential for operationalisation in hydrology and water resources management that recent and future sensors and image analysis methodologies are offering to water management and decision makers.

  10. Hybridization of XRF/XPS and scatterometry for Cu CMP process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Herron, Benoit; Chao, Robin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Wei Ti; Motoyama, Koichi; Deprospo, Bartlet; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Goldberg, Cindy

    2015-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the synergy between X-rays techniques and scatterometry, and the benefits to combine the data to improve the accuracy and precision for in-line metrology. Particular example is given to show that the hybridization addresses the challenges of aggressive patterning. In 10nm node back-end-of-line (BEOL) integration, we show that the hybridized data between scatterometry and simultaneous X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) provided the closest dimensional correlation to TEM results compared to the individual technique and CDSEM.

  11. The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes.

    PubMed

    Benito-Jardón, Maria; Klapproth, Sarah; Gimeno-LLuch, Irene; Petzold, Tobias; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Müller, Daniel J; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph A; Costell, Mercedes

    2017-01-16

    Fibronectin (FN), a major extracellular matrix component, enables integrin-mediated cell adhesion via binding of α5β1, αIIbβ3 and αv-class integrins to an RGD-motif. An additional linkage for α5 and αIIb is the synergy site located in close proximity to the RGD motif. We report that mice with a dysfunctional FN-synergy motif (Fn1(syn/syn)) suffer from surprisingly mild platelet adhesion and bleeding defects due to delayed thrombus formation after vessel injury. Additional loss of β3 integrins dramatically aggravates the bleedings and severely compromises smooth muscle cell coverage of the vasculature leading to embryonic lethality. Cell-based studies revealed that the synergy site is dispensable for the initial contact of α5β1 with the RGD, but essential to re-enforce the binding of α5β1/αIIbβ3 to FN. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the FN synergy site when external forces exceed a certain threshold or when αvβ3 integrin levels decrease below a critical level.

  12. Media Credibility Reconsidered: Synergy between On-Air and Online News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucy, Erik P.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the combined effects of on-air and online network news exposure, placing student and adult news consumers in broadcast news, online news, and telewebbing conditions. Indicates that perceptions of network news credibility are affected by channel used. Offers evidence for the existence of a synergy effect between on-air and online news. (PM)

  13. Neoliberalism, New Public Management and the Sustainable Development Agenda of Higher Education: History, Contradictions and Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Sophie E. F.; Robinson, Zoe P.; Ormerod, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ideological and the practical relationship between neoliberalism and New Public Management (NPM) and the sustainable development agenda of western higher education. Using the United Kingdom and specifically English universities as an example, it investigates the contradictions and the synergies between neoliberal and NPM…

  14. Inquiry and Irony: Promise and Paradox in Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry" (2014) is well-timed. The 2014 deadline set by No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) for universal student proficiency has come and gone, and according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, "proficiency rates last year were below 50 percent for nearly every racial and ethnic group, in…

  15. Multidigit movement synergies of the human hand in an unconstrained haptic exploration task.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pramodsingh H; Bastian, Amy J; Hsiao, Steven S

    2008-02-06

    Although the human hand has a complex structure with many individual degrees of freedom, joint movements are correlated. Studies involving simple tasks (grasping) or skilled tasks (typing or finger spelling) have shown that a small number of combined joint motions (i.e., synergies) can account for most of the variance in observed hand postures. However, those paradigms evoked a limited set of hand postures and as such the reported correlation patterns of joint motions may be task-specific. Here, we used an unconstrained haptic exploration task to evoke a set of hand postures that is representative of most naturalistic postures during object manipulation. Principal component analysis on this set revealed that the first seven principal components capture >90% of the observed variance in hand postures. Further, we identified nine eigenvectors (or synergies) that are remarkably similar across multiple subjects and across manipulations of different sets of objects within a subject. We then determined that these synergies are used broadly by showing that they account for the changes in hand postures during other tasks. These include hand motions such as reach and grasp of objects that vary in width, curvature and angle, and skilled motions such as precision pinch. Our results demonstrate that the synergies reported here generalize across tasks, and suggest that they represent basic building blocks underlying natural human hand motions.

  16. A Reflection on the Relationship between Technology and Teacher Education: Synergy or Separate Entities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1994-01-01

    Teacher education (TE) refers too infrequently to computer related technology. Much computer-related TE is simulated and delivered by non-teacher educators. The paper discusses the lack of integration between information technology (IT) and TE, noting that synergy rather than fragmentation is needed among people involved with IT and TE. (SM)

  17. "I've Known Rivers": A Reflection on the Synergy of Multigenre, Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this article an elementary literacy specialist reflects on the use of multigenre, multimodal texts to support the teaching of poetry. She explores the synergy between poetry and related informational, visual, and auditory texts to afford deeper insights into the poem and the poet, in this instance, the poem, "The Negro Speaks of…

  18. Distal longitudinal deformation of a Synergy stent by jailed Rotawire guidewire.

    PubMed

    Leong, A M; Ong, P J L; Ho, H H; Watson, T

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in stent technology have led to the development of thin strut platforms with fewer connectors. This has improved delivery but compromised strength, as illustrated by recent cases of longitudinal compression. We present an unusual case of longitudinal shortening at the distal end of a Synergy stent.

  19. Air surface microdischarge-photon synergy in antibacterial plasma-activated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David; Pavlovich, Mathew; Chang, Hung-Wen; Sakiyama, Yuki; Clark, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    We show that the antibacterial effects of air plasma on water can be amplified by synergy with ultraviolet (UV) photons. We use the surface microdischarge configuration (SMD) in atmospheric air adjacent to bacteria-laden water coupled with UVA (360 nm) photons from a light emitting diode (LED) to demonstrate this synergy. Air SMD, especially if operated in a confined space, can operate in different modes: low power mode (<0.1 W/cm2) generates primarily O3 whereas higher powers generate mainly nitrogen oxides; we focus here on the latter. The nitrogen oxide mode creates a powerful antibacterial mixture in water, including NO2-, NO3- and H2O2. Although these species alone can be strongly antibacterial, especially at low pH, we show that addition of UVA photons greatly amplifies the antibacterial effect. We first measured log reductions with only photons and then only plasma. Only when UVA exposes water after plasma does the synergy appear. Synergy appears to be due to UVA photolysis of plasma-generated NO2- to form NO and OH. We conclude that combining plasma-generated chemical species with activating photons can amplify and strengthen plasma effectiveness in many biological and other applications. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Science Plasma Science Center.

  20. In Vitro Synergy between Clofazimine and Amikacin in Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Totten, Sarah E.; Helstrom, Niels K.; Heifets, Leonid B.; Boeree, Martin J.; Daley, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing in frequency. The outcome of treatment for NTM lung disease is poor, particularly lung disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae and M. abscessus. Exploring synergy between active available drugs is a sensible way forward given the lack of new active drugs. We tested for synergy between amikacin and clofazimine, using standardized methods, in 564 consecutive clinical isolates identified as 21 species of rapidly growing mycobacteria, 16 clinical M. avium complex isolates, and 10 M. simiae isolates. Clofazimine and amikacin are each active in vitro against NTM; 97% (n = 548) of the rapid growers revealed MICs of clofazimine of ≤1 μg/ml, and 93% (n = 524) proved susceptible to amikacin. The combination showed significant synergistic activity in 56 of 68 (82%) eligible M. abscessus isolates, 4 of 5 M. chelonae isolates, and 1 M. fortuitum and 1 M. cosmeticum isolate, with 4- to 8-fold decreases in MICs to both drugs. Significant synergy could also be demonstrated against all M. avium complex and M. simiae isolates, with fractional inhibitory concentrations of <0.5. Clofazimine and amikacin show significant synergistic activity against both rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. The safety and tolerability of adding clofazimine to amikacin-containing regimens should be tested in clinical trials, and the results of susceptibility tests for these two compounds and their combination merit clinical validation. Synergy between clofazimine and other antibiotics with intracellular targets should be explored. PMID:23027189

  1. Neck rotation modulates flexion synergy torques, indicating an ipsilateral reticulospinal source for impairment in stroke.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael D; Drogos, Justin; Carmona, Carolina; Keller, Thierry; Dewald, Julius P A

    2012-12-01

    The effect of reticular formation excitability on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) generation and associated muscle activation at the shoulder and elbow was investigated through natural elicitation (active head rotation) of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) in 26 individuals with stroke and 9 age-range-matched controls. Isometric MVT generation at the shoulder and elbow was quantified with the head rotated (face pointing) contralateral and ipsilateral to the paretic (stroke) and dominant (control) arm. Given the dominance of abnormal torque coupling of elbow flexion with shoulder abduction (flexion synergy) in stroke and well-developed animal models demonstrating a linkage between reticular formation and ipsilateral elbow flexors and shoulder abductors, we hypothesized that constituent torques of flexion synergy, specifically elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, would increase with contralateral head rotation. The findings of this investigation support this hypothesis. Increases in MVT for three of four flexion synergy constituents (elbow flexion, shoulder abduction, and shoulder external rotation) were observed during contralateral head rotation only in individuals with stroke. Electromyographic data of the associated muscle coactivations were nonsignificant but are presented for consideration in light of a likely underpowered statistical design for this specific variable. This study not only provides evidence for the reemergence of ATNR following stroke but also indicates a common neuroanatomical link, namely, an increased reliance on ipsilateral reticulospinal pathways, as the likely mechanism underlying the expression of both ATNR and flexion synergy that results in the loss of independent joint control.

  2. Heat transfer enhancement with mixing vane spacers using the field synergy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lixin; Zhou, Mengjun; Tian, Zihao

    2017-01-01

    The single-phase heat transfer characteristics in a PWR fuel assembly are important. Many investigations attempt to obtain the heat transfer characteristics by studying the flow features in a 5 × 5 rod bundle with a spacer grid. The field synergy principle is used to discuss the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement using mixing vanes according to computational fluid dynamics results, including a spacer grid without mixing vanes, one with a split mixing vane, and one with a separate mixing vane. The results show that the field synergy principle is feasible to explain the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement in a fuel assembly. The enhancement in subchannels is more effective than on the rod's surface. If the pressure loss is ignored, the performance of the split mixing vane is superior to the separate mixing vane based on the enhanced heat transfer. Increasing the blending angle of the split mixing vane improves heat transfer enhancement, the maximum of which is 7.1%. Increasing the blending angle of the separate mixing vane did not significantly enhance heat transfer in the rod bundle, and even prevented heat transfer at a blending angle of 50°. This finding testifies to the feasibility of predicting heat transfer in a rod bundle with a spacer grid by field synergy, and upon comparison with analyzed flow features only, the field synergy method may provide more accurate guidance for optimizing the use of mixing vanes.

  3. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  4. Educational Opportunities Based on the University-Industry Synergies in an Open Innovation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucia, Oscar; Burdio, Jose M.; Acero, Jesus; Barragan, Luis A.; Garcia, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between Industry and University is becoming more important in order to improve the competitiveness of the research and development activities. Moreover, establishing synergies to bridge the gap between the academic and industrial spheres has demonstrated to be advantageous for both of them. Nowadays, Industry is moving towards an…

  5. The development of motor synergies in children: ultrasound and acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Noiray, Aude; Ménard, Lucie; Iskarous, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on differences in lingual coarticulation between French children and adults. The specific question pursued is whether 4-5 year old children have already acquired a synergy observed in adults in which the tongue back helps the tip in the formation of alveolar consonants. Locus equations, estimated from acoustic and ultrasound imaging data were used to compare coarticulation degree between adults and children and further investigate differences in motor synergy between the front and back parts of the tongue. Results show similar slope and intercept patterns for adults and children in both the acoustic and articulatory domains, with an effect of place of articulation in both groups between alveolar and non-alveolar consonants. These results suggest that 4-5 year old children (1) have learned the motor synergy investigated and (2) have developed a pattern of coarticulatory resistance depending on a consonant place of articulation. Also, results show that acoustic locus equations can be used to gauge the presence of motor synergies in children.

  6. Synergy between mu opioid ligands: evidence for functional interactions among mu opioid receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Elizabeth A; Tallarida, Ronald J; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2002-11-01

    Pharmacological differences among mu opioid drugs have been observed in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, as well as clinically, implying that all mu opioids may not be working through the same mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate analgesic synergy between L-methadone and several mu opioid ligands. Of the compounds examined, L-methadone selectively synergizes with morphine, morphine-6beta-glucuronide, codeine, and the active metabolite of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine. Morphine synergizes only with L-methadone. In analgesic assays, D-methadone was inactive alone and did not enhance morphine analgesia when the two were given together, confirming that L-methadone was not acting through N-methyl-D-aspartate mechanisms. Both L-methadone and morphine displayed only additive effects when paired with oxymorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl, alfentanyl, or meperidine. Although it displays synergy in analgesic assays, the L-methadone/morphine combination does not exhibit synergy in the gastrointestinal transit assay. This analgesic synergy of L-methadone with selective mu opioid drugs and the differences in opioid-mediated actions suggest that these drugs may be acting via different mechanisms. These findings provide further evidence for the complexity of the pharmacology of mu opioids.

  7. The "Synergies" Research-Practice Partnership Project: A "2020 Vision" Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Dierking, Lynn D.; Staus, Nancy L.; Wyld, Jennifer N.; Bailey, Deborah L.; Penuel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper, describes "Synergies," an on-going longitudinal study and design effort, being conducted in a diverse, under-resourced community in Portland, Oregon, with the goal of measurably improving STEM learning, interest and participation by early adolescents, both in school and out of school. Authors examine how the work of this…

  8. Simplified and effective motor control based on muscle synergies to exploit musculoskeletal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Berniker, Max; Jarc, Anthony; Bizzi, Emilio; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    The basic hypothesis of producing a range of behaviors using a small set of motor commands has been proposed in various forms to explain motor behaviors ranging from basic reflexes to complex voluntary movements. Yet many fundamental questions regarding this long-standing hypothesis remain unanswered. Indeed, given the prominent nonlinearities and high dimensionality inherent in the control of biological limbs, the basic feasibility of a low-dimensional controller and an underlying principle for its creation has remained elusive. We propose a principle for the design of such a controller, that it endeavors to control the natural dynamics of the limb, taking into account the nature of the task being performed. Using this principle, we obtained a low-dimensional model of the hindlimb and a set of muscle synergies to command it. We demonstrate that this set of synergies was capable of producing effective control, establishing the viability of this muscle synergy hypothesis. Finally, by combining the low-dimensional model and the muscle synergies we were able to build a relatively simple controller whose overall performance was close to that of the system's full-dimensional nonlinear controller. Taken together, the results of this study establish that a low-dimensional controller is capable of simplifying control without degrading performance. PMID:19380738

  9. Synergy, Holistic Education and R. Buckminster Fuller: Education for a World in Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Alex

    This pamphlet relates this quotation by R. Buckminster Fuller to the educational process: "To be optimally effective, undertake at outset the most comprehensive task in the most comprehensive and incisively detailed manner." The principle of synergy can be used to determine when something is "optimally effective." One example…

  10. The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Jardón, Maria; Klapproth, Sarah; Gimeno-LLuch, Irene; Petzold, Tobias; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Müller, Daniel J; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph A; Costell, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a major extracellular matrix component, enables integrin-mediated cell adhesion via binding of α5β1, αIIbβ3 and αv-class integrins to an RGD-motif. An additional linkage for α5 and αIIb is the synergy site located in close proximity to the RGD motif. We report that mice with a dysfunctional FN-synergy motif (Fn1syn/syn) suffer from surprisingly mild platelet adhesion and bleeding defects due to delayed thrombus formation after vessel injury. Additional loss of β3 integrins dramatically aggravates the bleedings and severely compromises smooth muscle cell coverage of the vasculature leading to embryonic lethality. Cell-based studies revealed that the synergy site is dispensable for the initial contact of α5β1 with the RGD, but essential to re-enforce the binding of α5β1/αIIbβ3 to FN. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the FN synergy site when external forces exceed a certain threshold or when αvβ3 integrin levels decrease below a critical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22264.001 PMID:28092265

  11. Tuning of Muscle Synergies During Walking Along Rectilinear and Curvilinear Trajectories in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chia Bejarano, Noelia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco; Baccinelli, Walter; Monticone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology based on muscle synergies to investigate whether rectilinear and curvilinear walking shared the same neuro-motor organization, and how this organization was fine-tuned by the walking condition. Thirteen healthy subjects walked on rectilinear and curvilinear paths. Electromyographic data from thirteen back and lower-limb muscles were acquired, together with kinematic data using inertial sensors. Four macroscopically invariant muscle synergies, extracted through non-negative matrix factorization, proved a shared modular organization across conditions. The fine-tuning of muscle synergies was studied through non-negative matrix reconstruction, applied by fixing muscle weights or activation profiles to those of the rectilinear condition. The activation profiles tended to be recruited for a longer period and with a larger amplitude during curvilinear walking. The muscles of the posterior side of the lower limb were those mainly influenced by the fine-tuning, with the muscles inside the rotation path being more active than the outer muscles. This study shows that rectilinear and curvilinear walking share a unique motor command. However, a fine-tuning in muscle synergies is introduced during curvilinear conditions, adapting the kinematic strategy to the new biomechanical needs.

  12. Synergy in Urban Relationships--Public School Adult Education, Community Colleges, and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.

    The presentation reviews selected developments in inter-organizational cooperation and coordination at the local, State, and national levels in order to provide a basis for identifying major questions and issues faced by the National Council of Urban Administrators of Adult Education (NCUAAE) as they strive for synergy in adult education. Trends…

  13. Factors that Affect Synergies in Mergers, at Banking Sector: Simulation with a Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannis, Triantafyllopoulos; Sakas, Damianos P.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    This article examines the factors that affect the intended synergy following an M&A, as they have emerged from the study of the M&A's that have taken place as yet in the Bank Sector of an EU country. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation models have been created for two out of the five factors.

  14. Synergy Access: A Global Newsletter on Futuristic Communications, Media & Networking. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Wes, Ed.

    A global newsletter on futuristic communications, media and networking is dedicated to creating open, humanistic environments for better interpersonal communication and to exploring the phenomenon of synergy, the coming together of people, ideas and environments for creation of something greater than the sum of the parts. Editorials, poetry, and…

  15. Understanding Youth STEM Interest Pathways within a Single Community: The "Synergies" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Staus, Nancy; Dierking, Lynn D.; Penuel, William; Wyld, Jennifer; Bailey, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic decline in youth interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) during adolescence, both in the USA and internationally, has been a phenomenon of societal concern for several decades. The Synergies project was launched to help deal with this issue. In this paper, we report findings from the first two years of our…

  16. Muscle Synergies Facilitate Computational Prediction of Subject-Specific Walking Motions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew J.; Eskinazi, Ilan; Jackson, Jennifer N.; Rao, Anil V.; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke. The main question we addressed was whether driving a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model with muscle synergy controls (5 per leg) facilitates generation of accurate walking predictions compared to a model driven by muscle activation controls (35 per leg) or joint torque controls (5 per leg). To explore this question, we developed a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model of a single high-functioning hemiparetic subject using instrumented treadmill walking data collected at the subject’s self-selected speed of 0.5 m/s. The model included subject-specific representations of lower-body kinematic structure, foot–ground contact behavior, electromyography-driven muscle force generation, and neural control limitations and remaining capabilities. Using direct collocation optimal control and the subject-specific model, we evaluated the ability of the three control approaches to predict the subject’s walking kinematics and kinetics at two speeds (0.5 and 0.8 m/s) for which experimental data were available from the subject. We also evaluated whether synergy controls could predict a physically realistic gait period at one speed (1.1 m/s) for which no experimental data were available. All three control approaches predicted the subject’s walking kinematics and kinetics (including ground reaction forces) well for the model calibration speed of 0.5 m/s. However, only activation and synergy controls could predict the

  17. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  18. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  19. Improving activity of minicellulosomes by integration of intra- and intermolecular synergies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complete hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose requires the synergistic action of three general types of glycoside hydrolases; endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and cellobiases. Cellulases that are found in Nature vary considerably in their modular diversity and architecture. They include: non-complexed enzymes with single catalytic domains, independent single peptide chains incorporating multiple catalytic modules, and complexed, scaffolded structures, such as the cellulosome. The discovery of the latter two enzyme architectures has led to a generally held hypothesis that these systems take advantage of intramolecular and intermolecular proximity synergies, respectively, to enhance cellulose degradation. We use domain engineering to exploit both of these concepts to improve cellulase activity relative to the activity of mixtures of the separate catalytic domains. Results We show that engineered minicellulosomes can achieve high levels of cellulose conversion on crystalline cellulose by taking advantage of three types of synergism; (1) a complementary synergy produced by interaction of endo- and exo-cellulases, (2) an intramolecular synergy of multiple catalytic modules in a single gene product (this type of synergism being introduced for the first time to minicellulosomes targeting crystalline cellulose), and (3) an intermolecular proximity synergy from the assembly of these cellulases into larger multi-molecular structures called minicellulosomes. The binary minicellulosome constructed in this study consists of an artificial multicatalytic cellulase (CBM4-Ig-GH9-X11-X12-GH8-Doc) and one cellulase with a single catalytic domain (a modified Cel48S with the structure CBM4-Ig-GH48-Doc), connected by a non-catalytic scaffoldin protein. The high level endo-exo synergy and intramolecular synergies within the artificial multifunctional cellulase have been combined with an additional proximity-dependent synergy produced by incorporation into a minicellulosome

  20. Inference and representations of hand actions through grasping synergies. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio, Bartoli, and Maffongelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The concept of synergy, denoting the coordination of multiple elements working together toward a common goal, has been extensively studied to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) controls movement (for review see [5,9]). Although this definition is appealing in its simplicity, 'multiple elements', 'working together', and 'common goal' each take different meanings depending on the scale at which a given sensorimotor system is studied, whether the 'working together' is defined in spatial and/or temporal domains, and the hypothesized synergy's 'common goal'. For example, the elements involved in a synergy can be defined as single motor units, muscles, or joints. Similarly, the goal of a synergy may be defined as a means available to the CNS to 'simplify' the control of multiple elements, or to minimize a given cost function or movement feature - all of which may differ across tasks and tasks conditions. These considerations underscore the fact that a universally accepted definition of synergies and their functional role remains to be established (for review see [6]). Thus, the nature and functional role(s) of synergies is still debated in the literature. Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that the reduction in the number of independent degrees of freedom that is manifested through synergies emerges from the interaction of biomechanical and neural factors constraining the spatial and temporal coordination of multiple muscles.

  1. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project ;The Hand Embodied; are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  2. On the Origin of Muscle Synergies: Invariant Balance in the Co-activation of Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Koba, Keitaro; Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Uemura, Mitsunori; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist–antagonist (AA) muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame in the muscle space. In this study, we examined the AA concept using the following explanatory variables: the AA ratio, which is related to the equilibrium-joint angle, and the AA sum, which is associated with joint stiffness. We formulated muscle synergies as a function of AA sums, positing that muscle synergies are composite units of mechanical impedance. The AA concept can be regarded as another form of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, and it can be extended to the concept of EP-based synergies. We introduce, here, a novel tool for analyzing the neurological and motor functions underlying human movements and review some initial insights from our results about the relationships between muscle synergies, endpoint stiffness, and virtual trajectories (time series of EP). Our results suggest that (1) muscle synergies reflect an invariant balance in the co-activation of AA muscle pairs; (2) each synergy represents the basis for the radial, tangential, and null movements of the virtual trajectory in the polar coordinates centered on the specific joint at the base of the body; and (3) the alteration of muscle synergies (for example, due to spasticity or rigidity following neurological injury) results in significant distortion of endpoint stiffness and concomitant virtual trajectories. These results indicate that muscle synergies (i.e., the balance of muscle mechanical impedance) are essential for motor control. PMID:26636079

  3. On the Origin of Muscle Synergies: Invariant Balance in the Co-activation of Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Pairs.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Koba, Keitaro; Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Uemura, Mitsunori; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame in the muscle space. In this study, we examined the AA concept using the following explanatory variables: the AA ratio, which is related to the equilibrium-joint angle, and the AA sum, which is associated with joint stiffness. We formulated muscle synergies as a function of AA sums, positing that muscle synergies are composite units of mechanical impedance. The AA concept can be regarded as another form of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, and it can be extended to the concept of EP-based synergies. We introduce, here, a novel tool for analyzing the neurological and motor functions underlying human movements and review some initial insights from our results about the relationships between muscle synergies, endpoint stiffness, and virtual trajectories (time series of EP). Our results suggest that (1) muscle synergies reflect an invariant balance in the co-activation of AA muscle pairs; (2) each synergy represents the basis for the radial, tangential, and null movements of the virtual trajectory in the polar coordinates centered on the specific joint at the base of the body; and (3) the alteration of muscle synergies (for example, due to spasticity or rigidity following neurological injury) results in significant distortion of endpoint stiffness and concomitant virtual trajectories. These results indicate that muscle synergies (i.e., the balance of muscle mechanical impedance) are essential for motor control.

  4. Hybrid Supramolecular and Colloidal Hydrogels that Bridge Multiple Length Scales.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Emma-Rose; McKee, Jason R; Tan, Cindy S Y; Nykänen, Antti; Kettunen, Marjo; Laine, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Scherman, Oren A

    2015-04-27

    Hybrid nanocomposites were constructed based on colloidal nanofibrillar hydrogels with interpenetrating supramolecular hydrogels, displaying enhanced rheological yield strain and a synergistic improvement in storage modulus. The supramolecular hydrogel consists of naphthyl-functionalized hydroxyethyl cellulose and a cationic polystyrene derivative decorated with methylviologen moieties, physically cross-linked with cucurbit[8]uril macrocyclic hosts. Fast exchange kinetics within the supramolecular system are enabled by reversible cross-linking through the binding of the naphthyl and viologen guests. The colloidal hydrogel consists of nanofibrillated cellulose that combines a mechanically strong nanofiber skeleton with a lateral fibrillar diameter of a few nanometers. The two networks interact through hydroxyethyl cellulose adsorption to the nanofibrillated cellulose surfaces. This work shows methods to bridge the length scales of molecular and colloidal hybrid hydrogels, resulting in synergy between reinforcement and dynamics.

  5. Synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and paclitaxel in both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shang, Donghao; Liu, Yuting; Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Fengbo; Feng, Lang; Lv, Wencheng; Tian, Ye

    2009-06-08

    To determine the synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and paclitaxel (PTX) against prostate carcinoma (PC) cells by isobolographic analysis. We demonstrated that DAC could significantly increase the susceptibility of PC cells to PTX, and confirmed the synergy of DAC and PTX. DAC enhanced the PTX induced up-regulation of caspase activity and antiproliferative effect, resulting in an increase of cells in subG1 and G2/M phases. In addition, the synergy was observed in both androgen-dependent and -independent PC cell lines. It suggested that combination chemotherapy with DAC and PTX might be a new strategy to improve the clinical response rate of PC.

  6. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  7. Enhanced photocurrent production by the synergy of hematite nanowire-arrayed photoanode and bioengineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Yang, Yun; Liu, Juan; Liu, Feng; Lu, Anhuai; He, Weidong

    2017-03-08

    Coupling the light-harvesting capabilities of semiconductors with the catalytic power of bacteria is a promising way to increase the efficiency of bioelectrochemical systems. Here, we reported the enhanced photocurrents produced by the synergy of hematite nanowire-arrayed photoanode and the bio-engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in a solar-assisted microbial photoelectrochemical system (solar MPS) under the visible light. To increase the supply of bioelectrons, the D-lactate transporter, SO1522, was overexpressed in the recombinant S. oneidensis (T-SO1522) that could digest D-lactate 61% faster than the wild-type S. oneidenesis. Without light illumination, the addition of either the wild-type or the recombinant S. oneidensis to the system did not induce any obvious increase in the current output. However, under one-sun illumination, the photocurrent of the abiotic control was 16±2 μA cm(-2) at 0.8V vs. Ag/AgCl, and the addition of the wild-type S. oneidensis and the recombinant S. oneidensis increased the photocurrent to 70±6 and 95±8 μA cm(-2), respectively, at 0.8V vs. Ag/AgCl. Moreover, the solar MPS with T-SO1522 presented quick and repeatable responses to the on/off illumination cycles, and had relatively stable photocurrent generation in the 273-h operation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the cell density on the hematite photoelectrode was similar between the recombinant and the wild-type S. oneidensis. These findings revealed the pronounced influence of metabolic rates on the light-to-electricity conversion in the complex photocatalyst-electricigen hybrid system, which is important to promote the development of the solar MPS for electricity production and wastewater treatment.

  8. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.

  9. Modifications of muscle synergies and spinal maps due to absence of visual feedback in patients with unilateral vestibular disease.

    PubMed

    Monaco, V; Martelli, D; Nacci, A; Fattori, B; Berrettini, S; Micera, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at describing the modifications of muscle synergies and spinal activity due to the absence of visual feedback, in patients affected by unilateral vestibular disease. Patients were tested both during unperturbed quite stance and walking while the activity of 7 bilateral muscles, from the leg to the trunk, were recorded for the estimation of muscle synergies and spinal activity. Results showed that during locomotion the absence of visual feedback did not significantly modify either the principal roles underlying muscle activity (i.e., synergies) or the spinal bursts. Conversely, during the upright stance, the absence of visual feedback involved a significant coupling of ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscle groups with a consequent shift of the motoneuronal (MN) activity toward most caudal segments. Results revealed that the muscle synergies are able to document an increased activity of sensory-motor afferences leading a more intense role of the forward based mechanism underlying balance control in vestibular patients.

  10. E3 Success Story - Working Together: E3 Ohio and the Ohio By-Product Synergy Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC) received funding to support the integration of the national E3 sustainability initiative with the Ohio By-Product Synergy (BPS) Network to create an efficient and replicable model for reducing GHGs.

  11. EBW-Bootstrap Current Synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Harvey; G. Taylor

    2005-02-02

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code, to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target {beta} = 40% NSTX plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity-space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions which are displaced radially by a half-banana width outwards/inwards for the co-/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations, over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current.

  12. The Successful Synergy of Swift and Fermi/GBM in Magnetars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    The magnetar rate of discovery has increased dramatically in the last decade. Five sources were discovered in the last three years alone as a result of the very efficient synergy among three X- and .gamma-ray instruments on NASA satellites: the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the Fermi/Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer; RXTE/Proportional Counter Array (PCA). To date, there are approx. 25 magnetar candidates, of which two are (one each) in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud and the rest reside on the Galactic plane of our Milky Way. I will discuss here the main properties of the Magnetar Population and the common projects that can be achieved with the synergy of Swift and GBM.

  13. Synergy temporal sequences and topography in the spinal cord: evidence for a traveling wave in frog locomotion.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Philippe; d'Avella, Andrea; Wyler-Duda, Kuno; Bizzi, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Locomotion is produced by a central pattern generator. Its spinal cord organization is generally considered to be distributed, with more rhythmogenic rostral lumbar segments. While this produces a rostrocaudally traveling wave in undulating species, this is not thought to occur in limbed vertebrates, with the exception of the interneuronal traveling wave demonstrated in fictive cat scratching (Cuellar et al. J Neurosci 29:798-810, 2009). Here, we reexamine this hypothesis in the frog, using the seven muscle synergies A to G previously identified with intraspinal NMDA (Saltiel et al. J Neurophysiol 85:605-619, 2001). We find that locomotion consists of a sequence of synergy activations (A-B-G-A-F-E-G). The same sequence is observed when focal NMDA iontophoresis in the spinal cord elicits a caudal extension-lateral force-flexion cycle (flexion onset without the C synergy). Examining the early NMDA-evoked motor output at 110 sites reveals a rostrocaudal topographic organization of synergy encoding by the lumbar cord. Each synergy is preferentially activated from distinct regions, which may be multiple, and partially overlap between different synergies. Comparing the sequence of synergy activation in locomotion with their spinal cord topography suggests that the locomotor output is achieved by a rostrocaudally traveling wave of activation in the swing-stance cycle. A two-layer circuitry model, based on this topography and a traveling wave reproduces this output and explores its possible modifications under different afferent inputs. Our results and simulations suggest that a rostrocaudally traveling wave of excitation takes advantage of the topography of interneuronal regions encoding synergies, to activate them in the proper sequence for locomotion.

  14. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  15. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P) and host plant odors (kairomone: K) in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1) Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2) Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3) Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4) P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects. PMID:21463509

  16. Synergy as design principle for metabolic engineering of 1-propanol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shen, Claire R; Liao, James C

    2013-05-01

    Synthesis of a desired product can often be achieved via more than one metabolic pathway. Whether naturally evolved or synthetically engineered, these pathways often exhibit specific properties that are suitable for production under distinct conditions and host organisms. Synergy between pathways arises when the underlying pathway characteristics, such as reducing equivalent demand, ATP requirement, intermediate utilization, and cofactor preferences, are complementary to each other. Utilization of such pathways in combination leads to an increased metabolite productivity and/or yield compared to using each pathway alone. This work illustrates the principle of synergy between two different pathways for 1-propanol production in Escherichia coli. A model-guided design based on maximum theoretical yield calculations identified synergy of the native threonine pathway and the heterologous citramalate pathway in terms of production yield across all flux ratios between the two pathways. Characterization of the individual pathways by host gene deletions demonstrates their distinct metabolic characteristics: the necessity of TCA cycle for threonine pathway and the independence of TCA cycle for the citramalate pathway. The two pathways are also complementary in driving force demands. Production experiments verified the synergistic effects predicted by the yield model, in which the platform with dual pathway for 2-ketobutyrate synthesis achieved higher yield (0.15g/g of glucose) and productivity (0.12g/L/h) of 1-propanol than individual ones alone: the threonine pathway (0.09g/g; 0.04g/L/h) or the citramalate pathway (0.11g/g; 0.04g/L/h). Thus, incorporation of synergy into the design principle of metabolic engineering may improve the production yield and rate of the desired compound.

  17. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  18. Synergy in Polymicrobial Infections in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes†

    PubMed Central

    Mastropaolo, Matthew D.; Evans, Nicholas P.; Byrnes, Meghan K.; Stevens, Ann M.; Robertson, John L.; Melville, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Human diabetics frequently suffer delayed wound healing, increased susceptibility to localized and systemic infections, and limb amputations as a consequence of the disease. Lower-limb infections in diabetic patients are most often polymicrobial, involving mixtures of aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and anaerobic bacteria. The purpose of this study is to determine if these organisms contribute to synergy in polymicrobial infections by using diabetic mice as an in vivo model. The model was the obese diabetic mouse strain BKS.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb/J, a model of human type 2 diabetes. Young (5- to 6-week-old) prediabetic mice and aged (23- to 24-week-old) diabetic mice were compared. The mice were injected subcutaneously with mixed cultures containing Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium perfringens. Progression of the infection (usually abscess formation) was monitored by examining mice for bacterial populations and numbers of white blood cells at 1, 8, and 22 days postinfection. Synergy in the mixed infections was defined as a statistically significant increase in the number of bacteria at the site of injection when coinfected with a second bacterium, compared to when the bacterium was inoculated alone. E. coli provided strong synergy to B. fragilis but not to C. perfringens. C. perfringens and B. fragilis provided moderate synergy to each other but only in young mice. B. fragilis was anergistic (antagonistic) to E. coli in coinfections in young mice at 22 days postinfection. When age-matched nondiabetic mice (C57BLKS/J) were used as controls, the diabetic mice exhibited 5 to 35 times the number of CFU as did the nondiabetic mice, indicating that diabetes was a significant factor in the severity of the polymicrobial infections. PMID:16113326

  19. Antibacterial synergy of curcumin with antibiotics against biofilm producing clinical bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kali, Arunava; Bhuvaneshwar, Devaraj; Charles, Pravin M. V.; Seetha, Kunigal Srinivasaiah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of natural bioactive substances in treating infections has been rediscovered as bacterial resistance become common to most of the antibiotics. Curcumin is a bioactive substance from turmeric. Owing to antimicrobial properties, its prospect as an antibacterial agent is currently under focus. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated the in vitro synergy of curcumin with antibiotics against sixty biofilm producing bacterial isolates. Congo red agar method was used to identify the biofilm producing isolates. Curcumin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. Its antibiotic synergy was identified by the increase in disc diffusion zone size on Mueller-Hinton agar with 32 mg/L curcumin. Results: The mean MICs of curcumin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates were 126.9 mg/L and 117.4 mg/L, respectively. Maximum synergy was observed with ciprofloxacin among Gram-positive and amikacin, gentamicin, and cefepime among Gram-negative isolates. Conclusions: Curcumin per se as well as in combination with other antibiotics has a demonstrable antibacterial action against biofilm producing bacterial isolates. It may have a beneficial role in supplementing antibiotic therapy. PMID:27330262

  20. Striking multiple synergies created by combining reduced graphene oxides and carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ping'an; Liu, Lina; Fu, Shenyuan; Yu, Youming; Jin, Chunde; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2013-03-01

    The extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene stimulate the development of advanced composites. Recently, several studies have reported significant synergies in the mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity properties of polymer nanocomposites by incorporating their nanohybrids. In this work, we created polypropylene nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and reduced graphene oxides via a facile polymer-latex-coating plus melt-mixing strategy, and investigated their synergistic effects in their viscoelastic, gas barrier, and flammability properties. Interestingly, the results show remarkable synergies, enhancing their melt modulus and viscosity, O2 barrier, and flame retardancy properties and respectively exhibiting a synergy percentage of 15.9%, 45.3%, and 20.3%. As previously reported, we also observed remarkable synergistic effects in their tensile strength (14.3%) and Young’s modulus (27.1%), electrical conductivity (32.3%) and thermal conductivity (34.6%). These impressive results clearly point towards a new strategy to create advanced materials by adding binary combinations of different types of nanofillers.

  1. Stages in learning motor synergies: a view based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-10-01

    This review describes a novel view on stages in motor learning based on recent developments of the notion of synergies, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point hypothesis (referent configuration) that allow to merge these notions into a single scheme of motor control. The principle of abundance and the principle of minimal final action form the foundation for analyses of natural motor actions performed by redundant sets of elements. Two main stages of motor learning are introduced corresponding to (1) discovery and strengthening of motor synergies stabilizing salient performance variable(s) and (2) their weakening when other aspects of motor performance are optimized. The first stage may be viewed as consisting of two steps, the elaboration of an adequate referent configuration trajectory and the elaboration of multi-joint (multi-muscle) synergies stabilizing the referent configuration trajectory. Both steps are expected to lead to more variance in the space of elemental variables that is compatible with a desired time profile of the salient performance variable ("good variability"). Adjusting control to other aspects of performance during the second stage (for example, esthetics, energy expenditure, time, fatigue, etc.) may lead to a drop in the "good variability". Experimental support for the suggested scheme is reviewed.

  2. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  3. Cortical activation associated with muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Kirages, Daniel J; Yani, Moheb S; Fisher, Beth E; Hwang, Darryl H; Lohman, Everett B; Berk, Lee S; Kutch, Jason J

    2014-10-08

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic recordings to extend previous findings and demonstrate that pelvic floor muscles activate synergistically during voluntary activation of gluteal muscles, but not during voluntary activation of finger muscles. We then show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that a region of the medial wall of the precentral gyrus consistently activates during both voluntary pelvic floor muscle activation and voluntary gluteal activation, but not during voluntary finger activation. We finally confirm, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, that the fMRI-identified medial wall region is likely to generate pelvic floor muscle activation. Thus, muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor appear to involve activation of motor cortical areas associated with pelvic floor control.

  4. Evaluating synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Jerzsele, Ákos; Pásztiné-Gere, Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25-64 mg/L and 0.25-32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031-8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.

  5. Molecular Signatures of Nicotinoid-Pathogen Synergy in the Termite Gut

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Ruchira; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Cai, Yunpeng; Sun, Yijun; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Peterson, Brittany F.; Scharf, Michael E.; Boucias, Drion G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in lower termites revealed unexpected synergies between nicotinoid insecticides and fungal entomopathogens. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, using the nicotinoid, imidacloprid, in combination with fungal and bacterial entomopathogens. Particular focus was placed on metatranscriptome composition and microbial dynamics in the symbiont-rich termite gut, which houses diverse mixes of protists and bacteria. cDNA microarrays containing a mix of host and protist symbiont oligonucleotides were used to simultaneously assess termite and protist gene expression. Five treatments were compared that included single challenges with sublethal doses of fungi (Metharizium anisopliae), bacteria (Serratia marcescens) or imidacloprid, and dual challenges with fungi + imidacloprid or bacteria + imidacloprid. Our findings point towards protist dysbiosis and compromised social behavior, rather than suppression of stereotypical immune defense mechanisms, as the dominant factors underlying nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in termites. Also, greater impacts observed for the fungal pathogen than for the bacterial pathogen suggest that the rich bacterial symbiont community in the R. flavipes gut (>5000 species-level phylotypes) exists in an ecological balance that effectively excludes exogenous bacterial pathogens. These findings significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial defenses in this important eusocial insect group, as well as provide novel insights into how nicotinoids can exert deleterious effects on social insect colonies. PMID:25837376

  6. Cortical Activation Associated with Muscle Synergies of the Human Male Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Kirages, Daniel J.; Yani, Moheb S.; Fisher, Beth E.; Hwang, Darryl H.; Lohman, Everett B.; Berk, Lee S.

    2014-01-01

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic recordings to extend previous findings and demonstrate that pelvic floor muscles activate synergistically during voluntary activation of gluteal muscles, but not during voluntary activation of finger muscles. We then show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that a region of the medial wall of the precentral gyrus consistently activates during both voluntary pelvic floor muscle activation and voluntary gluteal activation, but not during voluntary finger activation. We finally confirm, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, that the fMRI-identified medial wall region is likely to generate pelvic floor muscle activation. Thus, muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor appear to involve activation of motor cortical areas associated with pelvic floor control. PMID:25297107

  7. Field synergy analysis of six starts spiral corrugated tube under high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin-yuan; Liu, Bu-zhan; Chen, Fu-qiang; Gao, Xiao-fei; Jin, Zhi-jiang

    2016-09-01

    Coaxial heat exchanger is widely used in air conditioning, refrigeration etc., due to its highly efficient heat transfer performance. Spiral corrugated tube plays an important role in coaxial heat exchanger. In this paper, the numerical model of a six starts spiral corrugated tube and a smooth tube with the same size are developed. The temperature field and the velocity field of their streamline and longitudinal vortex are investigated respectively. Then, their heat transfer and pressure drop performance inside the spiral corrugated tube under different high Reynolds number is investigated by compared their Nusselt number and friction coefficient. Meanwhile, their field synergy performances with their field synergy angles are presented. The result shows that the Nusselt number and friction coefficient of spiral corrugated tube are always larger than the smooth tube, and with the increasing of Reynolds number, the heat transfer performance of SCT becomes better than smooth tube, however, the friction coefficient ratio also increases synchronously. And in spiral corrugated tube, the field synergy angel is smaller than in the smooth tube. This work can be referred by some who are also dealing with spiral corrugated tube and its heat performance research.

  8. Sensorimotor feedback based on task-relevant error robustly predicts temporal recruitment and multidirectional tuning of muscle synergies

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that motor outputs are hierarchically organized such that descending temporal commands based on desired task-level goals flexibly recruit muscle synergies that specify the spatial patterns of muscle coordination that allow the task to be achieved. According to this hypothesis, it should be possible to predict the patterns of muscle synergy recruitment based on task-level goals. We demonstrated that the temporal recruitment of muscle synergies during standing balance control was robustly predicted across multiple perturbation directions based on delayed sensorimotor feedback of center of mass (CoM) kinematics (displacement, velocity, and acceleration). The modulation of a muscle synergy's recruitment amplitude across perturbation directions was predicted by the projection of CoM kinematic variables along the preferred tuning direction(s), generating cosine tuning functions. Moreover, these findings were robust in biphasic perturbations that initially imposed a perturbation in the sagittal plane and then, before sagittal balance was recovered, perturbed the body in multiple directions. Therefore, biphasic perturbations caused the initial state of the CoM to differ from the desired state, and muscle synergy recruitment was predicted based on the error between the actual and desired upright state of the CoM. These results demonstrate that that temporal motor commands to muscle synergies reflect task-relevant error as opposed to sensory inflow. The proposed hierarchical framework may represent a common principle of motor control across motor tasks and levels of the nervous system, allowing motor intentions to be transformed into motor actions. PMID:23100133

  9. KINEMATIC SYNERGIES DURING SACCADES INVOLVING WHOLE-BODY ROTATION: A STUDY BASED ON THE UNCONTROLLED MANIFOLD HYPOTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Adriana M.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Robert, Thomas; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to study the coordination of body segments and eye movements in standing persons during the task of shifting the gaze to a target positioned behind the body. The task was performed at a comfortable speed and fast. Multi-segment and head-eye synergies were quantified as co-varied changes in elemental variables (body segment rotations and eye rotation) that stabilized (reduced the across trials variability) of head rotation in space and gaze trajectory. Head position in space was stabilized by co-varied rotations of body segments prior to the action, during its later stages, and after its completion. The synergy index showed a drop that started prior to the action initiation (anticipatory synergy adjustment) and continued during the phase of quick head rotation. Gaze direction was stabilized only at the movement completion and immediately after the saccade at movement initiation under the “fast” instruction. The study documents for the first time anticipatory synergy adjustments during whole-body actions. It shows multi-joint synergies stabilizing head trajectory in space. In contrast, there was no synergy between head and eye rotations during saccades that would achieve a relatively invariant gaze trajectory. PMID:20346529

  10. A meta-analysis of in vitro antibiotic synergy against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    March, Gabriel A; Bratos, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the work was to describe the different in vitro models for testing synergism of antibiotics and gather the results of antibiotic synergy against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-Ab). The different original articles were obtained from different web sites. In order to compare the results obtained by the different methods for synergy testing, the Pearson chi-square and the Fischer tests were used. Moreover, non-parametric chi-square test was used in order to compare the frequency distribution in each analysed manuscript. In the current meta-analysis 24 manuscripts, which encompassed 2016 tests of in vitro synergism of different antimicrobials against MDR-Ab, were revised. Checkerboard synergy testing was used in 11 studies, which encompasses 1086 tests (53.9%); time-kill assays were applied in 12 studies, which encompass 359 tests (17.8%); gradient diffusion methods were used in seven studies, encompassing 293 tests (14.5%). And, finally, time-kill plus checkerboard were applied in two studies, encompassing 278 tests (13.8%). By comparing these data, checkerboard and time-kill methods were significantly more used than gradient diffusion methods (p<0.005). Regarding synergy rates obtained on the basis of the applied method, checkerboard provided 227 tests (20.9%) with a synergistic effect; time-kill assays yielded 222 tests (61.8%) with a synergistic effect; gradient diffusion methods only provided 29 tests (9.9%) with a synergistic effect; and, finally, time-kill plus checkerboard yielded just 15 tests (5.4%) with a synergistic effect. When comparing these percentages, synergy rates reported by time-kill methods were significantly higher than that obtained by checkerboard and gradient diffusion methods (p<0.005). On the basis of the revised data, the combinations of a bactericidal antibiotic plus Tigecycline, Vancomycin or Teicoplanin are not recommended. The best combinations of antibiotics are those which include bactericidal antibiotics

  11. Postural Control during Upper Body Locomotor-Like Movements: Similar Synergies Based on Dissimilar Muscle Modes

    PubMed Central

    Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Shapkova, Elena Yu.; Shapkova, Alexandra L.; Degani, Adriana M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the organization of leg and trunk muscles into groups (M-modes) and co-variation of M-mode involvement (M-mode synergies) during whole-body tasks associated with large variations of the moment of force about the vertical body axis. Our major questions were: (1) Can muscle activation patterns during such tasks be described with a few M-modes common across tasks and subjects? (2) Do these modes form the basis for synergies stabilizing MZ time pattern? (3) Will this organization differ between an explicit body rotation task and a task associated with locomotor-like alternating arm movements? Healthy subjects stood barefoot on the force platform and performed two motor tasks while paced by the metronome at 0.7, 1.0, and 1.4 Hz: Cyclic rotation of the upper body about the vertical body axis (body rotation task), and alternating rhythmic arm movements imitating those during running or quick walking (arm movement task). Principal component analysis was used to identify three M-modes within the space of integrated indices of muscle activity. The M-mode vectors showed clustering neither across subjects nor across frequencies. Variance in the M-mode space across sway cycles was partitioned into two components, one that did not affect the average value of MZ shift ("good variance") and the other that did. An index was computed reflecting the relative amount of the "good variance"; positive values of this index have been interpreted as reflecting a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the MZ trajectory. On average, the index was positive for both tasks and across all frequencies studied. However, the magnitude of the index was smaller for the intermediate frequency (1 Hz). The results show that the organization of muscles into groups during relatively complex whole-body tasks can differ significantly across both task variations and subjects. Nevertheless, the central nervous system seems to be able to build MZ stabilizing synergies based on different sets of M

  12. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2015-09-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture.

  13. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage.

    PubMed

    Vlad, A; Singh, N; Rolland, J; Melinte, S; Ajayan, P M; Gohy, J-F

    2014-03-07

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles--bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents.

  14. Synergy of β-Lactams with Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation of Disk Diffusion and Checkerboard Methods.

    PubMed

    Sy, Cheng Len; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Chii Shiang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Wann, Shue-Renn; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Modified disk diffusion (MDD) and checkerboard tests were employed to assess the synergy of combinations of vancomycin and β-lactam antibiotics for 59 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mu50 (ATCC 700699). Bacterial inocula equivalent to 0.5 and 2.0 McFarland standard were inoculated on agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin. Oxacillin-, cefazolin-, and cefoxitin-impregnated disks were applied to the surface, and the zones of inhibition were measured at 24 h. The CLSI-recommended checkerboard method was used as a reference to detect synergy. The MICs for vancomycin were determined using the Etest method, broth microdilution, and the Vitek 2 automated system. Synergy was observed with the checkerboard method in 51% to 60% of the isolates when vancomycin was combined with any β-lactam. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices were significantly lower in MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MIC combinations (P < 0.05). The overall agreement between the MDD and checkerboard methods to detect synergy in MRSA isolates with bacterial inocula equivalent to McFarland standard 0.5 were 33.0% and 62.5% for oxacillin, 45.1% and 52.4% for cefazolin, and 43.1% and 52.4% for cefoxitin when combined with 0.5 and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin, respectively. Based on our study, the simple MDD method is not recommended as a replacement for the checkerboard method to detect synergy. However, it may serve as an initial screening method for the detection of potential synergy when it is not feasible to perform other labor-intensive synergy tests.

  15. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  16. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Keyu; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-11-03

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  17. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Keyu; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making. PMID:26540068

  18. Synergy of Penicillin-Netilmicin Combinations Against Enterococci Including Strains Highly Resistant to Streptomycin or Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Christine C.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro activity of combinations of penicillin and netilimicin was determined against 20 clinical isolates of enterococci and compared with that obtained in simultaneous tests with penicillin/sisomicin, penicillin/streptomycin, and penicillin/kanamycin. Synergy between the two drugs in each combination was determined by the use of quantitative kill curves and was defined as a killing by the combination at least 100-fold greater than that produced by the most effective drug alone. Penicillin/netilmicin and penicillin/sisomicin combinations were found to be synergistic against the majority of isolates tested, including strains resistant to penicillin/streptomycin or penicillin/kanamycin combinations. This synergy with penicillin could be demonstrated at a concentration of ≤7 μg/ml for either netilmicin or sisomicin. Studies on the kinetics of killing produced by these combinations showed the rate and extent of killing to be directly dependent upon the organism's relative susceptibility to the aminoglycoside alone and the aminoglycoside concentration in the combination. Results also indicated that the interaction between penicillin and netilmicin was true synergy; i.e., rapid and complete killing was produced by combinations containing each drug at concentrations insufficient to produce any killing alone, and the killing observed could not be produced by either drug alone at a concentration equivalent to the total drug concentration in the combination. The potential clinical application of this synergistic interaction should be investigated further, especially in view of recent reports showing netilmicin to be considerably less toxic than gentamicin in experimental animals. PMID:242509

  19. Synergy and redundancy in the Granger causal analysis of dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    We analyze, by means of Granger causality (GC), the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. While we show that fully conditioned GC (CGC) is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to prove synergetic effects. In cases when the number of samples is low, thus making the fully conditioned approach unfeasible, we show that partially conditioned GC (PCGC) is an effective approach if the set of conditioning variables is properly chosen. Here we consider two different strategies (based either on informational content for the candidate driver or on selecting the variables with highest pairwise influences) for PCGC and show that, depending on the data structure, either one or the other might be equally valid. On the other hand, we observe that fully conditioned approaches do not work well in the presence of redundancy, thus suggesting the strategy of separating the pairwise links in two subsets: those corresponding to indirect connections of the CGC (which should thus be excluded) and links that can be ascribed to redundancy effects and, together with the results from the fully connected approach, provide a better description of the causality pattern in the presence of redundancy. Finally we apply these methods to two different real datasets. First, analyzing electrophysiological data from an epileptic brain, we show that synergetic effects are dominant just before seizure occurrences. Second, our analysis applied to gene expression time series from HeLa culture shows that the underlying regulatory networks are characterized by both redundancy and synergy.

  20. Analysis of Hand and Wrist Postural Synergies in Tolerance Grasping of Various Objects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Li; Yang, Dapeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human can successfully grasp various objects in different acceptable relative positions between human hand and objects. This grasp functionality can be described as the grasp tolerance of human hand, which is a significant functionality of human grasp. To understand the motor control of human hand completely, an analysis of hand and wrist postural synergies in tolerance grasping of various objects is needed. Ten healthy right-handed subjects were asked to perform the tolerance grasping with right hand using 6 objects of different shapes, sizes and relative positions between human hand and objects. Subjects were wearing CyberGlove attaching motion tracker on right hand, allowing a measurement of the hand and wrist postures. Correlation analysis of joints and inter-joint/inter-finger modules were carried on to explore the coordination between joints or modules. As the correlation between hand and wrist module is not obvious in tolerance grasping, individual analysis of wrist synergies would be more practical. In this case, postural synergies of hand and wrist were then presented separately through principal component analysis (PCA), expressed through the principal component (PC) information transmitted ratio, PC elements distribution and reconstructed angle error of joints. Results on correlation comparison of different module movements can be well explained by the influence factors of the joint movement correlation. Moreover, correlation analysis of joints and modules showed the wrist module had the lowest correlation among all inter-finger and inter-joint modules. Hand and wrist postures were both sufficient to be described by a few principal components. In terms of the PC elements distribution of hand postures, compared with previous investigations, there was a greater proportion of movement in the thumb joints especially the interphalangeal (IP) and opposition rotation (ROT) joint. The research could serve to a complete understanding of hand grasp, and the design

  1. Drivers and synergies in the management of inland fisheries: Searching for sustainable solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail; Beard, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    At the 2015 Global Conference on Inland Fisheries, we convened a Drivers and Synergies panel and working group to discuss competing sectors (e.g., hydropower, transportation, agriculture, mining and oil and gas extraction, forestry, tourism and recreation, and aquaculture) and large-scale drivers which exist predominately outside of the water sectors (e.g., economic growth, diversifying economies, population growth, urbanization, and climate change).  Drivers will influence these sectors and tradeoffs will be made.  Management of sustainable inland water systems requires making informed choices emphasizing those services that will provide sustainable benefits for humans while maintaining well-functioning ecological systems.  

  2. The SKA and its pathfinders in the next decade: synergies with the TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkens, Kristine

    2014-07-01

    The next decade will be extremely exciting for centimeter- and meter-wave radio astronomy. Large new facilities such as ASKAP, LOFAR and MeerKAT, as well as major retrofits to existing facilities such as the JVLA and WSRT, are under construction or have begun operations. While revolutionary in and of themselves, these facilities are also important pathfinders to the SKA, whose construction will begin towards the end of this decade. This talk will review the key science that will be delivered by the SKA pathfinders as well as that anticipated with SKA Phase One (2018-2023) and Phase Two (>2023), with a focus on potential synergies with the TMT.

  3. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  4. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  5. The influence of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit on postural synergies.

    PubMed

    Allum, J H; Honegger, F; Schicks, H

    1994-01-01

    The role of vestibular sensory information in the triggering, selection and modulation of postural response synergies was evaluated by comparing the EMG responses of normal subjects to balance perturbations with those of subjects with a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit. The balance perturbations were a rotation and/or a translation of a support surface on which the test subjects stood with eyes open. Onset latencies and most timing patterns of muscle responses were not altered in vestibular-loss subjects. Major changes were observed, however, in the muscle amplitude synergy. Responses between 120 and 240 ms in tibialis anterior, soleus, and quadriceps muscles were reduced more than 50% with respect to normal amplitudes. In contrast, responses in paraspinal muscles were enhanced nearly 100% with respect to normal values. These changes in muscle amplitudes with accompanying vestibular loss were highest for rotation and lowest for translation perturbations. The identification of a bilateral vestibular loss using EMG amplitudes was always 100% correct for rotation perturbations and between 75 to 85% correct for translation perturbations. Multivariate linear correlations between muscle EMG response areas, and the amplitudes of initial link velocities revealed an increased contribution of afferent signals from the upper leg and a decreased dependence on signals from the trunk and head to postural synergies in vestibular-loss subjects. The afferent modulation of the muscle amplitude synergy correcting a balance disturbance to the stance of normal subjects is, on the basis of these findings, highly dependent on vestibular afferent signals. Our results indicate that vestibular afferent signals are used to enhance the amplitude of responses in tibialis anterior, quadriceps, and soleus muscles; and inhibit the responses of paraspinal muscles, once the response timing has been triggered and selected by proprioceptive signals. Lacking this modulation, bilateral

  6. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  7. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  8. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  9. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  10. Working hard to make a simple definition of synergies. Comment on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Oliveira Barroso, Filipe; Tresch, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The paper "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" [1] presents a comprehensive review of the work carried out as part of the EU funded project "The Hand Embodied". The work uses the concept of "synergy" to study the neuromuscular control of the human hand and to design novel robotics systems. The project has been very productive and has made important contributions. We are therefore confident that it will lead to further advancements and experiments in the future.

  11. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  12. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  13. A central back-coupling hypothesis on the organization of motor synergies: a physical metaphor and a neural model

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Shim, Jae Kun; Smilga, Andrei V.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a hypothesis on the organization of multi-effector motor synergies and illustrate it with the task of force production with a set of fingers. A physical metaphor, a leaking bucket, is analyzed to demonstrate that an inanimate structure can show apparent error compensation among its elements. A neural model is developed using tunable back-coupling loops as means of assuring error compensation in a task-specific way. The model demonstrates non-trivial features of multi-finger interaction such as delayed emergence of force stabilizing synergies and simultaneous stabilization of the total force and total moment produced by the fingers. The hypothesis suggests that neurophysiological structures involving short-latency feedback may play a central role in the formation of motor synergies. PMID:15739110

  14. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, A; Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Campanella, M; Ferrari, E; Berry, J; Fadiga, L

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners' tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan.

  15. An approach for improving repeatability and reliability of non-negative matrix factorization for muscle synergy analysis.

    PubMed

    Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Flaxman, Teresa E; Benoit, Daniel L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and concatenated NMF (CNMF) to analyze and reliably extract muscle synergies. NMF and CNMF were used to extract knee joint muscle synergies from surface EMGs collected during a weight bearing, force matching task. Repeatability and between subject similarity were evaluated for each method using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). High repeatability was found for CNMF (>0.99; 0.99-1.0) compared to NMF (>0.26; range 0.26-0.98). Reasonable consistency across subjects was improved using the CNMF over the NMF approach. CNMF was found to be a more reliable approach than NMF and suitable for between subject comparison of muscle synergies.

  16. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  17. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  18. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  19. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  20. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  1. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  2. Common muscle synergies for control of center of mass and force in nonstepping and stepping postural behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chvatal, Stacie A; Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Safavynia, Seyed A; Ting, Lena H

    2011-08-01

    We investigated muscle activity, ground reaction forces, and center of mass (CoM) acceleration in two different postural behaviors for standing balance control in humans to determine whether common neural mechanisms are used in different postural tasks. We compared nonstepping responses, where the base of support is stationary and balance is recovered by returning CoM back to its initial position, with stepping responses, where the base of support is enlarged and balance is recovered by pushing the CoM away from the initial position. In response to perturbations of the same direction, these two postural behaviors resulted in different muscle activity and ground reaction forces. We hypothesized that a common pool of muscle synergies producing consistent task-level biomechanical functions is used to generate different postural behaviors. Two sets of support-surface translations in 12 horizontal-plane directions were presented, first to evoke stepping responses and then to evoke nonstepping responses. Electromyographs in 16 lower back and leg muscles of the stance leg were measured. Initially (∼100-ms latency), electromyographs, CoM acceleration, and forces were similar in nonstepping and stepping responses, but these diverged in later time periods (∼200 ms), when stepping occurred. We identified muscle synergies using non-negative matrix factorization and functional muscle synergies that quantified correlations between muscle synergy recruitment levels and biomechanical outputs. Functional muscle synergies that produce forces to restore CoM position in nonstepping responses were also used to displace the CoM during stepping responses. These results suggest that muscle synergies represent common neural mechanisms for CoM movement control under different dynamic conditions: stepping and nonstepping postural responses.

  3. Synergy between bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Teekens, Amanda M; Bruins, Marieke E; van Kasteren, Johannes Mn; Hendriks, Wouter H; Sanders, Johan Pm

    2016-06-01

    Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio-based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio-based industry and creates synergy between bio-based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Age-related modifications of muscle synergies and spinal cord activity during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Vito; Ghionzoli, Alessio; Micera, Silvestro

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that neural circuits located in the spinal cord drive muscular activations during locomotion while intermediating between descending signals and peripheral sensory information. This relationship could be modified by the natural aging process. To address this issue, the activity of 12 ipsilateral leg muscles was analyzed in young and elderly people (7 subjects per group) while walking at six different cadences (40-140 steps/min). These signals were used to extract synergies underlying muscle activation and to map the motoneuronal activity of the pools belonging to the lumbosacral enlargement (L(2)-S(2)). The comparison between the two groups showed that neither temporal patterning of motor primitives nor muscles loading synergies seemed to be significantly affected by aging. Conversely, as the cadence increased, spinal maps differ significantly between the groups, showing higher and scattered activity during the whole gait cycle in elders and well-defined bursts in young subjects. The results suggested that motor primitives lead the synchronization of muscle activation mainly depending on the biomechanical demand of the locomotion; hence they are not significantly affected by aging. Nevertheless, at the spinal cord level, biomechanical requirements, peripheral afference, and descending inputs are differently integrated between the two groups, probably reflecting age-related changes of both nervous system and motor control strategies during locomotion.

  5. Epigenetic synergies between biotin and folate in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and repeats.

    PubMed

    Xue, J; Zempleni, J

    2013-11-01

    The protein biotin ligase, holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS), is a chromatin protein that interacts physically with the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, the methylated cytosine-binding protein MeCP2 and the histone H3 K9-methyltransferase EHMT1, all of which participate in folate-dependent gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that biotin and folate synergize in the repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and long-terminal repeats (LTRs), mediated by interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins. Biotin and folate supplementation could compensate for each other's deficiency in the repression of LTRs in Jurkat and U937 cells. For example, when biotin-deficient Jurkat cells were supplemented with folate, the expression of LTRs decreased by >70%. Epigenetic synergies were more complex in the regulation of cytokines compared with LTRs. For example, the abundance of TNF-α was 100% greater in folate- and biotin-supplemented U937 cells compared with biotin-deficient and folate-supplemented cells. The NF-κB inhibitor curcumin abrogated the effects of folate and biotin in cytokine regulation, suggesting that transcription factor signalling adds an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of cytokine genes by epigenetic phenomena. We conclude that biotin and folate synergize in the repression of LTRs and that these interactions are probably mediated by HLCS-dependent epigenetic mechanisms. In contrast, synergies between biotin and folate in the regulation of cytokines need to be interpreted in the context of transcription factor signalling.

  6. Techno-ecological synergy as a path toward sustainability of a North American residential system.

    PubMed

    Urban, Robert A; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2013-02-19

    For any human-designed system to be sustainable, ecosystem services that support it must be readily available. This work explicitly accounts for this dependence by designing synergies between technological and ecological systems. The resulting techno-ecological network mimics nature at the systems level, can stay within ecological constraints, and can identify novel designs that are economically and environmentally attractive that may not be found by the traditional design focus on technological options. This approach is showcased by designing synergies for a typical American suburban home at local and life cycle scales. The objectives considered are carbon emissions, water withdrawal, and cost savings. Systems included in the design optimization include typical ecosystems in suburban yards: lawn, trees, water reservoirs, and a vegetable garden; technological systems: heating, air conditioning, faucets, solar panels, etc.; and behavioral variables: heating and cooling set points. The ecological and behavioral design variables are found to have a significant effect on the three objectives, in some cases rivaling and exceeding the effect of traditional technological options. These results indicate the importance and benefits of explicitly including ecosystems in the design of sustainable systems, something that is rarely done in existing methods.

  7. Confirmation of Maslow's Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2016-04-30

    This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow's hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Significant (p < 0.001) positive moderate correlations between ASWS scores and job control scores support the ASWS's convergent and discriminant validity. Significant (p < 0.001) associations of ASWS scores with psychological distress and work engagement supported the ASWS's criterion validity. In short, ASWS was a psychometrically satisfactory measure. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions between a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace in linear regression models showed that when those two factors are low, psychological distress becomes high. However, when a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness are high, work engagement also becomes high. Thus, Maslow's hypothesis of synergy was confirmed.

  8. Synergy-COPD: a systems approach for understanding and managing chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases (CD) are generating a dramatic societal burden worldwide that is expected to persist over the next decades. The challenges posed by the epidemics of CD have triggered a novel health paradigm with major consequences on the traditional concept of disease and with a profound impact on key aspects of healthcare systems. We hypothesized that the development of a systems approach to understand CD together with the generation of an ecosystem to transfer the acquired knowledge into the novel healthcare scenario may contribute to a cost-effective enhancement of health outcomes. To this end, we designed the Synergy-COPD project wherein the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was addressed as a use case representative of CD. The current manuscript describes main features of the project design and the strategies put in place for its development, as well the expected outcomes during the project life-span. Moreover, the manuscript serves as introductory and unifying chapter of the different papers associated to the Supplement describing the characteristics, tools and the objectives of Synergy-COPD PMID:25472826

  9. An Automated Miniaturized Method to Perform and Analyze Antimicrobial Drug Synergy Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Peter; Enogieru, Imarhia; Madoux, Franck; Bishop, Eric; Beer, Jacob; Scampavia, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the light of emerging antibiotic resistance mechanisms found in bacteria throughout the world, discovery of drugs that potentiate the effect of currently available antibiotics remains an important aspect of pharmaceutical research in the 21st century. Well-established clinical tests exist to determine synergy in vitro, but these are only optimal for low-throughput experimentation while leaving analysis of results and interpretation of high-throughput microscale assays poorly standardized. Here, we describe a miniaturized broth microdilution checkerboard assay and data analysis method in 384-well plate format that conforms to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. This method has been automated and developed to rapidly determine the synergism of current antibiotics with various beta-lactamase inhibitors emerging from our antimicrobial research efforts. This technique increases test throughput and integrity of results, and saves test compound and labor. We facilitated the interpretation of results with an automated analysis tool allowing us to rapidly qualify inter- and intraplate robustness, determine efficacy of multiple antibiotics at the same time, and standardize the results of synergy interpretation. This procedure should enhance high-throughput antimicrobial drug discovery and supersedes former techniques. PMID:26669516

  10. Non-communicable diseases and human rights: Global synergies, gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Hoffmann, Michael; Gruskin, Sofia

    2016-03-28

    The incorporation of human rights in health policy and programmes is known to strengthen responses to health problems and help address disparities created or exacerbated by illness yet this remains underexplored in relation to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Aiming to understand existing synergies and how they might be further strengthened, we assessed the extent to which human rights are considered in global NCD policies and strategies and the degree of attention given to NCDs by select United Nations human rights mechanisms. Across global NCD policies and strategies, rhetorical assertions regarding human rights appear more often than actionable statements, thus limiting their implementation and impact. Although no human rights treaty explicitly mentions NCDs, some human rights monitoring mechanisms have been paying increasing attention to NCDs. This provides important avenues for promoting the incorporation of human rights norms and standards into NCD responses as well as for accountability. Linking NCDs and human rights at the global level is critical for encouraging national-level action to promote better outcomes relating to both health and human rights. The post-2015 development agenda constitutes a key entry point for highlighting these synergies and strengthening opportunities for health and rights action at global, national and local levels.

  11. Biologically inspired kinematic synergies enable linear balance control of a humanoid robot.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Helmut; Neumann, Gerhard; Ijspeert, Auke J; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Despite many efforts, balance control of humanoid robots in the presence of unforeseen external or internal forces has remained an unsolved problem. The difficulty of this problem is a consequence of the high dimensionality of the action space of a humanoid robot, due to its large number of degrees of freedom (joints), and of non-linearities in its kinematic chains. Biped biological organisms face similar difficulties, but have nevertheless solved this problem. Experimental data reveal that many biological organisms reduce the high dimensionality of their action space by generating movements through linear superposition of a rather small number of stereotypical combinations of simultaneous movements of many joints, to which we refer as kinematic synergies in this paper. We show that by constructing two suitable non-linear kinematic synergies for the lower part of the body of a humanoid robot, balance control can in fact be reduced to a linear control problem, at least in the case of relatively slow movements. We demonstrate for a variety of tasks that the humanoid robot HOAP-2 acquires through this approach the capability to balance dynamically against unforeseen disturbances that may arise from external forces or from manipulating unknown loads.

  12. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  13. Probing Corticospinal Recruitment Patterns and Functional Synergies with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, James; Kübler, Angelika; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: On the one hand, stimulating the motor cortex at different spots may activate the same muscle and result in a muscle-specific cortical map. Maps of different muscles, which are functionally coupled, may present with a large overlap but may also show a relevant variability. On the other hand, stimulation of the motor cortex at one spot with different stimulation intensities results in a characteristic input–output (IO) curve for one specific muscle but may simultaneously also activate different, functionally coupled muscles. A comparison of the cortical map overlap of synergistic muscles and their IO curves has not yet been carried out. Objective: The aim of this study was to probe functional synergies of forearm muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation by harnessing the convergence and divergence of the corticospinal output. Methods: We acquired bihemispheric cortical maps and IO curves of the extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, and extensor digitorum communis muscles by subjecting 11 healthy subjects to both monophasic and biphasic pulse waveforms. Results: The degree of synergy between pairs of forearm muscles was captured by the overlap of the cortical motor maps and the respective IO curves which were influenced by the pulse waveform. Monophasic and biphasic stimulation were particularly suitable for disentangling synergistic muscles in the right and left hemisphere, respectively. Conclusion: Combining IO curves and different pulse waveforms may provide complementary information on neural circuit dynamics and corticospinal recruitment patterns of synergistic muscles and their neuroplastic modulation. PMID:27458344

  14. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; Singh, Ramesh P.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Snidvongs, Arond; Le, Huy V.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  15. The metaphor-gestalt synergy underlying the self-organisation of perception as a semiotic process.

    PubMed

    Rail, David

    2013-04-01

    Recently the basis of concept and language formation has been redefined by the proposal that they both stem from perception and embodiment. The experiential revolution has lead to a far more integrated and dynamic understanding of perception as a semiotic system. The emergence of meaning in the perceptual process stems from the interaction between two key mechanisms. These are first, the generation of schemata through recurrent sensorimotor activity (SM) that underlies category and language formation (L). The second is the interaction between metaphor (M) and gestalt mechanisms (G) that generate invariant mappings beyond the SM domain that both conserve and diversify our understanding and meaning potential. We propose an important advance in our understanding of perception as a semiotic system through exploring the affect of self-organising to criticality where hierarchical behaviour becomes widely integrated through 1/f process and isomorphisms. Our proposal leads to several important implications. First, that SM and L form a functional isomorphism depicted as SM <=> L. We contend that SM <=> L is emergent, corresponding to the phenomenal self. Second, meaning structures the isomorphism SM <=>L through the synergy between M and G (M-G). M-G synergy is based on a combination of structuring and imagination. We contend that the interaction between M-G and SM <=> L functions as a macro-micro comutation that governs perception as semiosis. We discuss how our model relates to current research in fractal time and verb formation.

  16. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  17. The Synergy of Double Cross-linking Agents on the Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber Foams

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Liang; Ji, Zhan-You; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Ma, Zhong-Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur (S) cross-linking styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) foams show high shrinkage due to the cure reversion, leading to reduced yield and increased processing cost. In this paper, double cross-linking system by S and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used to decrease the shrinkage of SBR foams. Most importantly, the synergy of double cross-linking agents was reported for the first time to our knowledge. The cell size and its distribution of SBR foams were investigated by FESEM images, which show the effect of DCP content on the cell structure of the SBR foams. The relationships between shrinkage and crystalline of SBR foams were analyzed by the synergy of double cross-linking agents, which were demonstrated by FTIR, Raman spectra, XRD, DSC and TGA. When the DCP content was 0.6 phr, the SBR foams exhibit excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density (0.223 g/cm3), reduced shrinkage (2.25%) and compression set (10.96%), as well as elevated elongation at break (1.78 × 103%) and tear strength (54.63 N/mm). The results show that these properties are related to the double cross-linking system of SBR foams. Moreover, the double cross-linking SBR foams present high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties compared with the S cross-linking SBR foams. PMID:27841307

  18. Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons revived interest in motor theories of perception, fostering a number of new studies as well as controversies. In particular, the degree of motor specificity with which others' actions are simulated is highly debated. Human corticospinal excitability studies support the conjecture that a mirror mechanism encodes object-directed goals or low-level kinematic features of others' reaching and grasping actions. These interpretations lead to different experimental predictions and implications for the functional role of the simulation of others' actions. We propose that the representational granularity of the mirror mechanism cannot be any different from that of the motor system during action execution. Hence, drawing from motor control models, we propose that the building blocks of the mirror mechanism are the relatively few motor synergies explaining the variety of hand functions. The recognition of these synergies, from action observation, can be potentially very robust to visual noise and thus demonstrate a clear advantage of using motor knowledge for classifying others' action.

  19. The synergy professional practice model and its patient characteristics tool: a staff empowerment strategy.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Maura; Wardrop, Andrea; Campbell, Cheryl; Wejr, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Nurse leaders can positively influence practice environments through a number of empowerment strategies, among them professional practice models. These models encompass the philosophy, structures and processes that support nurses' control over their practice and their voice within healthcare organizations. Nurse-driven professional practice models can serve as a framework for collaborative decision-making among nursing and other staff. This paper describes a provincewide pilot project in which eight nurse-led project teams in four healthcare sectors worked with the synergy professional practice model and its patient characteristics tool. The teams learned how the model and tool can be used to classify patients' acuity levels and make staffing assignments based on a "best fit" between patient needs and staff competencies. The patient characteristics tool scores patients' acuities on eight characteristics such as stability, vulnerability and resource availability. This tool can be used to make real-time patient assessments. Other potential applications for the model and tool are presented, such as care planning, team-building and determining appropriate staffing levels. Our pilot project evidence suggests that the synergy model and its patient characteristics tool may be an empowerment strategy that nursing leaders can use to enhance their practice environments.

  20. The Synergy of Double Cross-linking Agents on the Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Liang; Ji, Zhan-You; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Ma, Zhong-Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Sulfur (S) cross-linking styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) foams show high shrinkage due to the cure reversion, leading to reduced yield and increased processing cost. In this paper, double cross-linking system by S and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used to decrease the shrinkage of SBR foams. Most importantly, the synergy of double cross-linking agents was reported for the first time to our knowledge. The cell size and its distribution of SBR foams were investigated by FESEM images, which show the effect of DCP content on the cell structure of the SBR foams. The relationships between shrinkage and crystalline of SBR foams were analyzed by the synergy of double cross-linking agents, which were demonstrated by FTIR, Raman spectra, XRD, DSC and TGA. When the DCP content was 0.6 phr, the SBR foams exhibit excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density (0.223 g/cm3), reduced shrinkage (2.25%) and compression set (10.96%), as well as elevated elongation at break (1.78 × 103%) and tear strength (54.63 N/mm). The results show that these properties are related to the double cross-linking system of SBR foams. Moreover, the double cross-linking SBR foams present high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties compared with the S cross-linking SBR foams.

  1. Carbapenems and Rifampin Exhibit Synergy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Amit; Makkar, Nayani; Pandey, Pooja; Parrish, Nicole; Singh, Urvashi; Lamichhane, Gyanu

    2015-10-01

    An effective regimen for treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is comprised of multiple drugs that inhibit a range of essential cellular activities in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The effectiveness of a regimen is further enhanced if constituent drugs act with synergy. Here, we report that faropenem (a penem) or biapenem, doripenem, or meropenem (carbapenems), which belong to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and rifampin, one of the drugs that forms the backbone of TB treatment, act with synergy when combined. One of the reasons (carba)penems are seldom used for treatment of TB is the high dosage levels required, often at the therapeutic limits. The synergistic combination of rifampin and these (carba)penems indicates that (carba)penems can be administered at dosages that are therapeutically relevant. The combination of faropenem and rifampin also limits the frequency of resistant mutants, as we were unable to obtain spontaneous mutants in the presence of these two drugs. The combinations of rifampin and (carba)penems were effective not only against drug-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis but also against drug-resistant clinical isolates that are otherwise resistant to rifampin. A combination of doripenem or biapenem and rifampin also exhibited synergistic activity against Mycobacterium abscessus. Although the MICs of these three drugs alone against M. abscessus are too high to be of clinical relevance, their concentrations in combinations are therapeutically relevant; therefore, they warrant further evaluation for clinical utility to treat Mycobacterium abscessus infection, especially in cystic fibrosis patients.

  2. Synergy effects of Cu and Sn on pitting corrosion resistance of ultra-purified medium chromium ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiangJun; Liu, ZhenYu

    2017-03-01

    The influence of combination of Cu and Sn on pitting resistance of ultra-purified medium chromium ferritic stainless steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl at 25°C was investigated by using electrochemical method. The results show that there is synergy effect between Cu and Sn, and the strong interaction between Cu and Sn in ferritic stainless steels clearly affects their pitting corrosion behaviour in 3.5% NaCl. A mechanism of the synergy of Cu and Sn was discussed.

  3. Merging and Fractionation of Muscle Synergy Indicate the Recovery Process in Patients with Hemiplegia: The First Study of Patients after Subacute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Koji; Kitatani, Ryosuke; Yamakami, Natsuki; Sakuma, Kaoru; Osako, Sayuri; Aga, Yumi; Watanabe, Aki; Yamada, Shigehito

    2016-01-01

    Loss of motor coordination is one of the main problems for patients after stroke. Muscle synergy is widely accepted as an indicator of motor coordination. Recently, the characteristics of muscle synergy were quantitatively evaluated using nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) with surface electromyography. Previous studies have identified that the number and structure of synergies were associated with motor function in patients after stroke. However, most of these studies had a cross-sectional design, and the changes in muscle synergy during recovery process are not clear. In present study, two consecutive measurements were conducted for subacute patients after stroke and the change of number and structure of muscle synergies during gait were determined using NNMF. Results showed that functional change did not rely on number of synergies in patients after subacute stroke. However, the extent of merging of the synergies was negatively associated with an increase in muscle strength and the range of angle at ankle joint. Our results suggest that the neural changes represented by NNMF were related to the longitudinal change of function and gait pattern and that the merging of synergy is an important marker in patients after subacute stroke. PMID:28090358

  4. Single-step One-pot Synthesis of Graphene Foam/TiO2 Nanosheet Hybrids for Effective Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Wang, Zhaofeng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sun, Luyi

    2017-03-01

    Millions of tons of wastewater containing both inorganic and organic pollutants are generated every day, leading to significant social, environmental, and economic issues. Herein, we designed a graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, which is able to effectively remove both chromium (VI) cations and organic pollutants simultaneously. This graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid was synthesized via a facile single-step one-pot hydrothermal method. The structure of the hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hybrid was evaluated for both chromium (VI) and organic pollutants (using methyl blue (MB) as an example) removal, and the removal mechanism was also investigated. During water treatment, graphene and TiO2 nanosheets function complimentarily, leading to a significant synergy. The hybrid exhibited outstanding chromium (VI) and MB removal capacity, much superior to the performance of the individual pure TiO2 sheets or pure graphene foam. The hybrid could also be easily separated after water treatment, and exhibited excellent recycle stability. Considering the very facile synthesis of this graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, and its excellent water treatment performance and recycle stability, such a hybrid is promising for large scale production for practical applications where both chromium (VI) cations and organic dyes are the main pollutants.

  5. Single-step One-pot Synthesis of Graphene Foam/TiO2 Nanosheet Hybrids for Effective Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weilin; Wang, Zhaofeng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sun, Luyi

    2017-01-01

    Millions of tons of wastewater containing both inorganic and organic pollutants are generated every day, leading to significant social, environmental, and economic issues. Herein, we designed a graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, which is able to effectively remove both chromium (VI) cations and organic pollutants simultaneously. This graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid was synthesized via a facile single-step one-pot hydrothermal method. The structure of the hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hybrid was evaluated for both chromium (VI) and organic pollutants (using methyl blue (MB) as an example) removal, and the removal mechanism was also investigated. During water treatment, graphene and TiO2 nanosheets function complimentarily, leading to a significant synergy. The hybrid exhibited outstanding chromium (VI) and MB removal capacity, much superior to the performance of the individual pure TiO2 sheets or pure graphene foam. The hybrid could also be easily separated after water treatment, and exhibited excellent recycle stability. Considering the very facile synthesis of this graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, and its excellent water treatment performance and recycle stability, such a hybrid is promising for large scale production for practical applications where both chromium (VI) cations and organic dyes are the main pollutants. PMID:28251998

  6. Single-step One-pot Synthesis of Graphene Foam/TiO2 Nanosheet Hybrids for Effective Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weilin; Wang, Zhaofeng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sun, Luyi

    2017-03-02

    Millions of tons of wastewater containing both inorganic and organic pollutants are generated every day, leading to significant social, environmental, and economic issues. Herein, we designed a graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, which is able to effectively remove both chromium (VI) cations and organic pollutants simultaneously. This graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid was synthesized via a facile single-step one-pot hydrothermal method. The structure of the hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hybrid was evaluated for both chromium (VI) and organic pollutants (using methyl blue (MB) as an example) removal, and the removal mechanism was also investigated. During water treatment, graphene and TiO2 nanosheets function complimentarily, leading to a significant synergy. The hybrid exhibited outstanding chromium (VI) and MB removal capacity, much superior to the performance of the individual pure TiO2 sheets or pure graphene foam. The hybrid could also be easily separated after water treatment, and exhibited excellent recycle stability. Considering the very facile synthesis of this graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, and its excellent water treatment performance and recycle stability, such a hybrid is promising for large scale production for practical applications where both chromium (VI) cations and organic dyes are the main pollutants.

  7. Synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding of atmospheric temperature and minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, Ugo; Del Bianco, Samuele; Ceccherini, Simone; Gai, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Castelli, Elisa; Oelhaf, Hermann; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Gerber, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Synergistic exploitation of redundant and complementary information from independent observations of the same target remains a major issue in atmospheric remote sounding and increasing attention is devoted to investigate optimized or innovative methods for the combination of two or more measured data sets. This paper focuses on the synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding measurements of atmospheric composition and temperature and reports the results of a study conducted as part of the preparatory activities of the PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimeter-wave Emitted Radiation) mission candidate to the Core Missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Explorer 7. The activity was based on data acquired by the MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) and MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instruments on-board the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica during the flight of the PremierEx (PREMIER Experiment) campaign on 10 March 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden, for observation of the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The cloud coverage observed along the flight provided representative test cases to evaluate the synergy in three different scenarios: low clouds in the first part, no clouds in the central part and high tropospheric clouds at the end. The calculation of synergistic profiles of four atmospheric targets (i.e., O3, HNO3, H2O and temperature) was performed using a posteriori combination of individual retrieved profiles, i.e., Level 2 (L2) data rather than simultaneous inversion of observed radiances, i.e., Level 1 (L1) data. An innovative method of data fusion, based on the Measurement Space Solution (MSS) was applied along with the standard approach of inversion of MARSCHALS spectral radiances using MIPAS-STR retrieval products as a priori

  8. Synergy between middle infrared and millimetre-wave limb sounding of atmospheric temperature and minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, U.; Del Bianco, S.; Ceccherini, S.; Gai, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Castelli, E.; Oelhaf, H.; Woiwode, W.; Höpfner, M.; Gerber, D.

    2015-11-01

    Synergistic exploitation of redundant and complementary information from independent observations of the same target remains a major issue in atmospheric remote-sounding and increasing attention is devoted to investigate optimised or innovative methods for the combination of two or more measured data sets. This paper is focusing on the synergy between middle infrared and millimetre-wave limb sounding measurements of atmospheric composition and temperature and reports the results of a study conducted as part of the preparatory activities of the PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre wave Emitted Radiation) mission candidate to the Core Missions of ESA Earth Explorer 7. The activity was based on data acquired by the MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) and MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instruments onboard the high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica during the flight of the PremierEx (PREMIER Experiment) campaign on 10 March 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden for observation of the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The cloud coverage observed along the flight provided representative test cases to evaluate the synergy in three different scenarios: low clouds in the first part, no clouds in the central part and high tropospheric clouds at the end. The calculation of synergistic profiles of four atmospheric targets (i.e., O2, HNO3, H2O and temperature) was performed using a posteriori combination of individual retrieved profiles, i.e., Level 2 (L2) data rather than simultaneous inverse processing of observed radiances, i.e., Level 1 (L1) data. An innovative method of data fusion, based on the Measurement Space Solution (MSS) was applied along with the standard approach of inverse processing of MARSCHALS spectral radiances using MIPAS-STR retrieval products as a priori information (L1

  9. Challenges and Opportunities to Developing Synergies Among Diverse Environmental Observatories: FSML, NEON, and GLEON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, C. E.; Weathers, K. C.; Knoll, L. B.; Brentrup, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in sensor technology and cyberinfrastructure have enabled the development of numerous environmental observatories ranging from local networks at field stations and marine laboratories (FSML) to continental scale observatories such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to global scale observatories such as the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). While divergent goals underlie the initial development of these observatories, and they are often designed to serve different communities, many opportunities for synergies exist. In addition, the use of existing infrastructure may enhance the cost-effectiveness of building and maintaining large scale observatories. For example, FSMLs are established facilities with the staff and infrastructure to host sensor nodes of larger networks. Many field stations have existing staff and long-term databases as well as smaller sensor networks that are the product of a single or small group of investigators with a unique data management system embedded in a local or regional community. These field station based facilities and data are a potentially untapped gold mine for larger continental and global scale observatories; common ecological and environmental challenges centered on understanding the impacts of changing climate, land use, and invasive species often underlie these efforts. The purpose of this talk is to stimulate a dialog on the challenges of merging efforts across these different spatial and temporal scales, as well as addressing how to develop synergies among observatory networks with divergent roots and philosophical approaches. For example, FSMLs have existing long-term databases and facilities, while NEON has sparse past data but a well-developed template and closely coordinated team working in a coherent format across a continental scale. GLEON on the other hand is a grass-roots network of experts in science, information technology, and engineering with a common goal

  10. Flexible muscle modes and synergies in challenging whole-body tasks.

    PubMed

    Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Degani, Adriana M; Latash, Mark L

    2008-08-01

    We used the idea of hierarchical control to study multi-muscle synergies during a whole-body sway task performed by a standing person. Within this view, at the lower level of the hierarchy, muscles are united into groups (M-modes). At the higher level, gains at the M-modes are co-varied by the controller in a task-specific way to ensure low variability of important physical variables. In particular, we hypothesized that (1) the composition of M-modes could adjust and (2) an index of M-mode co-variation would become weaker in more challenging conditions. Subjects were required to perform a whole-body sway at 0.5 Hz paced by a metronome. They performed the task with eyes open and closed, while standing on both feet or on one foot only, with and without vibration applied to the Achilles tendons. Integrated indices of muscle activation were subjected to principal component analysis to identify M-modes. An increase in the task complexity led to an increase in the number of principal components that contained significantly loaded indices of muscle activation from 3 to 5. Hence, in more challenging tasks, the controller manipulated a larger number of variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to define the Jacobian of the system mapping small changes in M-mode gains onto shifts of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior direction. Further, the variance in the M-mode space across sway cycles was partitioned into two components, one that did not affect an average across cycles COP coordinate and the other that did (good and bad variance, respectively). Under all conditions, the subjects showed substantially more good variance than bad variance interpreted as a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the COP trajectory. An index of the strength of the synergy was comparable across all conditions, and there was no modulation of this index over the sway cycle. Hence, our first hypothesis that the composition of M-modes could adjust under challenging conditions

  11. Protein kinase Cε is required for spinal analgesic synergy between delta opioid and alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist pairs.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Daniel J; Kitto, Kelley F; Overland, Aaron C; Messing, Robert O; Stone, Laura S; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L

    2013-08-14

    We recently showed that spinal synergistic interactions between δ opioid receptors (δORs) and α2A adrenergic receptors (α2AARs) require protein kinase C (PKC). To identify which PKC isoforms contribute to analgesic synergy, we evaluated the effects of various PKC-isoform-specific peptide inhibitors on synergy between δORs and α2AARs using the tail flick assay of thermal nociception in mice. Only a PKCε inhibitor abolished synergy between a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist. We tested a panel of combinations of opioid and adrenergic agonists in PKCε knock-out mice and found that all four combinations of a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist required PKCε for antinociceptive synergy. None of the combinations of a μOR agonist with an α2AR agonist required PKCε. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PKCε could be found in the population of peptidergic primary afferent nociceptors where δORs and α2AARs have been found to extensively colocalize. Immunoreactivity for PKCε was found in the majority of dorsal root ganglion neurons and intensely labeled laminae I and II of the spinal cord dorsal horn. PKCε is widespread in the spinal nociceptive system and in peptidergic primary afferents it appears to be specifically involved in mediating the synergistic interaction between δORs and α2AARs.

  12. How to Achieve Synergy between Medical Education and Cognitive Neuroscience? An Exercise on Prior Knowledge in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Dirk J.; van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of…

  13. Synergy dynamics of vortices and solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Kazuya; Tsubota, Makoto

    2010-10-15

    The hydrodynamics of quantized vortices and solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential are studied by numerically solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The oscillating potential keeps nucleating vortex dipoles, whose impulses alternately change their direction synchronously with the oscillation of the potential. This leads to synergy dynamics of vortices and solitons in quantum fluids.

  14. Research Synergy: The Graduate School of Public Health, the SDSU Research Foundation, and San Diego State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a research university can take many paths. Described here is a case study of the synergy between the establishment and growth of a primarily graduate school and the commitment to developing a research university, all with the assistance of a separately incorporated non-profit research administration entity. The result has been a…

  15. Protein Kinase Cϵ Is Required for Spinal Analgesic Synergy between Delta Opioid and Alpha-2A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Daniel J.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Overland, Aaron C.; Messing, Robert O.; Stone, Laura S.; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that spinal synergistic interactions between δ opioid receptors (δORs) and α2A adrenergic receptors (α2AARs) require protein kinase C (PKC). To identify which PKC isoforms contribute to analgesic synergy, we evaluated the effects of various PKC-isoform-specific peptide inhibitors on synergy between δORs and α2AARs using the tail flick assay of thermal nociception in mice. Only a PKCϵ inhibitor abolished synergy between a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist. We tested a panel of combinations of opioid and adrenergic agonists in PKCϵ knock-out mice and found that all four combinations of a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist required PKCϵ for antinociceptive synergy. None of the combinations of a μOR agonist with an α2AR agonist required PKCϵ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PKCϵ could be found in the population of peptidergic primary afferent nociceptors where δORs and α2AARs have been found to extensively colocalize. Immunoreactivity for PKCϵ was found in the majority of dorsal root ganglion neurons and intensely labeled laminae I and II of the spinal cord dorsal horn. PKCϵ is widespread in the spinal nociceptive system and in peptidergic primary afferents it appears to be specifically involved in mediating the synergistic interaction between δORs and α2AARs. PMID:23946412

  16. A Personalized Multi-Channel FES Controller Based on Muscle Synergies to Support Gait Rehabilitation after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Simona; Chia Bejarano, Noelia; Ambrosini, Emilia; Nardone, Antonio; Turcato, Anna M.; Monticone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns. The novel intervention was tested on two chronic stroke patients. They underwent a 4-week intervention consisting of 30-min sessions of FES-supported treadmill walking three times per week. The two patients were characterized by a mild gait disability (walking speed > 0.8 m/s) at baseline. However, before treatment both patients presented only three independent muscle synergies during locomotion, resembling two different gait abnormalities. After treatment, the number of extracted synergies became four and they increased their resemblance with the physiological muscle synergies, which indicated a general improvement in muscle coordination. The originally merged synergies seemed to regain their distinct role in locomotion control. The treatment benefits were more evident for one patient, who achieved a clinically important change

  17. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  18. Agricultural and food chemistry: 50 years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2009-09-23

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and editorials, for agricultural and food chemists from many nations. JAFC has expanded coverage of current areas of intense interest, such as bioactive constituents of foods, biotechnology, and biobased products and biofuels, as well as continuing strong coverage of such mainstream categories as food chemistry/biochemistry, analytical methods, safety and toxicology, and agrochemistry. In 2008 alone, JAFC published over 1650 peer-reviewed manuscripts, several symposia (largely from AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings), and a number of reviews. The synergy between AGFD and JAFC offers many benefits and exciting opportunities for advancing the science of agricultural and food chemistry for the future.

  19. Uncovering Tensions and Capitalizing on Synergies in HIV/AIDS and Antiviolence Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Krishnan, Suneeta; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Sawires, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Research frequently points to the need to empower women to effectively combat the twin epidemics of HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Simultaneously, there has been increased attention given to working with men in gender equality efforts. The latter approach intervenes on masculinities as part of the fight against HIV/AIDS and violence. No research has considered these 2 lines of work side by side to address several important questions: What are the points of overlap, and the tensions and contradictions between these 2 approaches? What are the limitations and unintended consequences of each? We analyzed these 2 parallel research trends and made suggestions for how to capitalize on the synergies that come from bolstering each position with the strengths of the other. PMID:21164091

  20. Synergy between baicalein and penicillins against penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qian, Minyi; Tang, Shusheng; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; He, Tao; Chen, Tingting; Xiao, Xilong

    2015-09-01

    The combination of baicalein (the active constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis) with penicillin G/amoxicillin showed potent synergy against 20 clinical penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains including 10 isolates that were additionally methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of penicillins+baiclein ranged from 0.14 to 0.38. Baicalein protected penicillins (penicillin G and amoxicillin) from penicillinase and increased the susceptibility of penicillinase-supplemented S. aureus ATCC 29213 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of penicillinase activity by baicalein should be responsible for the synergism and protective effect. These findings offer us good evidence that the penicillins combined with baicalein showed potent synergistic activity against penicillinase-producing S. aureus and penicillinase-producing MRSA in vitro and might provide promising implications for clinical treatment of these bacterial infections.

  1. Synergies Between Wind and Solar Generation and Demand Response: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Sheila; Burke, Daniel; Wajahat Qazi, Hassan; Flynn, Damian; O'Malley, Mark; Kiviluoma, Juha; Hummon, Marissa; Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    Recent years have seen the interest in demand response increase, in academia and in industry, for both large scale demands and aggregated domestic demands. A number of power systems have established demand response programs in energy, ancillary services and capacity markets, while many are currently undertaking system specific customizations. One of the key reasons for the burgeoning interest in demand response lies in its ability to enhance variable renewable penetration levels, through the provision of flexibility, wind/solar curtailment reduction and other system ancillary services. This paper will review and evaluate various demand response studies, projects and programs from different countries, examining the synergies with renewables integration, also identify some of the main barriers which exist to the deployment of such demand response at greater scale.

  2. Allosteric cross-talk in chromatin can mediate drug-drug synergy

    PubMed Central

    Adhireksan, Zenita; Palermo, Giulia; Riedel, Tina; Ma, Zhujun; Muhammad, Reyhan; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Dyson, Paul J.; Davey, Curt A.

    2017-01-01

    Exploitation of drug–drug synergism and allostery could yield superior therapies by capitalizing on the immensely diverse, but highly specific, potential associated with the biological macromolecular landscape. Here we describe a drug–drug synergy mediated by allosteric cross-talk in chromatin, whereby the binding of one drug alters the activity of the second. We found two unrelated drugs, RAPTA-T and auranofin, that yield a synergistic activity in killing cancer cells, which coincides with a substantially greater number of chromatin adducts formed by one of the compounds when adducts from the other agent are also present. We show that this occurs through an allosteric mechanism within the nucleosome, whereby defined histone adducts of one drug promote reaction of the other drug at a distant, specific histone site. This opens up possibilities for epigenetic targeting and suggests that allosteric modulation in nucleosomes may have biological relevance and potential for therapeutic interventions. PMID:28358030

  3. Alginate Lyase Exhibits Catalysis-Independent Biofilm Dispersion and Antibiotic Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Lamppa, John W.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2 decades of study support the hypothesis that alginate lyases are promising therapeutic candidates for treating mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In particular, the enzymes' ability to degrade alginate, a key component of mucoid biofilm matrix, has been the presumed mechanism by which they disrupt biofilms and enhance antibiotic efficacy. The systematic studies reported here show that, in an in vitro model, alginate lyase dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms and enzyme synergy with tobramycin are completely decoupled from catalytic activity. In fact, equivalent antibiofilm effects can be achieved with bovine serum albumin or simple amino acids. These results provide new insights into potential mechanisms of alginate lyase therapeutic activity, and they should motivate a careful reexamination of the fundamental assumptions underlying interest in enzymatic biofilm dispersion. PMID:23070175

  4. A Tool for Balance Control Training Using Muscle Synergies and Multimodal Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Galeano, D.; Brunetti, F.; Torricelli, D.; Piazza, S.; Pons, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies. PMID:24982896

  5. Benefits from synergies and advanced technologies for an advanced-technology space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.; Queijo, Manuel J.; Butterfield, Ansel J.

    1991-01-01

    A configuration for a second-generation advanced technology space station has been defined in a series of NASA-sponsored studies. Definitions of subsystems specifically addressed opportunities for beneficial synergistic interactions and those potential synergies and their benefits are identified. One of the more significant synergistic benefits involves the multi-function utilization of water within a large system that generates artificial gravity by rotation. In such a system, water not only provides the necessary crew life support, but also serves as counterrotator mass, as moveable ballast, and as a source for propellant gases. Additionally, the synergistic effects between advanced technology materials, operation at reduced artificial gravity, and lower cabin atmospheric pressure levels show beneficial interactions that can be quantified in terms of reduced mass to orbit.

  6. A comprehensive tool to analyse dynamic log files from an Elekta-Synergy accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Pagulayan, Claire; Holloway, Lois

    2014-03-01

    This study presents the development of a software tool 'Treat Check' to analyse the dynamic log files from an Elekta - Synergy accelerator. The software generates formatted output in the form of a plot presenting errors in various treatment delivery parameters such as gantry angle, Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) leaf position, jaw position and Monitor Units (MU) for each of the control-points (CP) of the treatment beam. The plots are automatically saved in Portable Document Format (pdf). The software also has the functionality to introduce these treatment delivery errors into the original plan in the Pinnacle (Philips) treatment planning system (TPS) in order to assess the clinical impact of treatment delivery errors on delivered dose.

  7. Cytokine Synergy: an underappreciated contributor to innate anti-viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bartee, Eric; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and the members of the interferon family, are potent mediators of the innate anti-viral immune response. The intracellular anti-viral states resulting from treatment of cultured cells with each of these molecules independently has been well studied; but, within complex tissues, the early inflammatory response is likely mediated by simultaneously expressed mixures of these, and other, protective anti-viral cytokines. Such cytokine mixtures have been shown to induce potently synergistic anti-viral responses in vitro which are more complex than the simple summation of the individual cytokine response profiles. The physiological role of this ‘cytokine synergy’, however, remains largely unappreciated in vivo. This brief commentary will attempt to summarize the potential effects and mechanisms of anti-viral cytokine synergy as well as present several ‘real-world’ applications where this phenomenon might play an important role. PMID:23693158

  8. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-07

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  9. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Greg P.; Rapp, Michael V.; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (Ead ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a “one-two punch,” whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  10. Forest Dragon-3: Decadal Trends of Northeastern Forests in China from Earth Observation Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmullius, C.; Balling, J.; Schratz, P.; Thiel, C.; Santoro, M.; Wegmuller, U.; Li, Z.; Yong, P.

    2016-08-01

    In Forest DRAGON 3, synergy of Earth Observation products to derive information of decadal trends of forest in northeast China was investigated. Following up the results of Forest-DRAGON 1 and 2, Growing Stock Volume (GSV) products from different years were investigated to derive information on vegetational in north- east China. The BIOMASAR maps of 2005 and 2010, produced within the previous DRAGON projects, set the base for all analyses. We took a closer look at scale problems regarding GSV derivation, which are introduced by differing landcover within one pixel, to investigate differences throughout pixel classes with varying landcover class percentages. We developed an approach to select pixels containing forest only with the aim of undertaking a detailed analysis on retrieved GSV values for such pixels for the years 2005 and 2010. Using existing land cover products at different scales, the plausibility of changes in the BIOMASAR maps were checked.

  11. 3D Online Visualization and Synergy of NASA A-Train Data Using Google Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Kempler, Steven; Leptoukh, Gregory; Smith, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of Google Earth to assist in three dimensional online visualization of NASA Earth science and geospatial data. The NASA A-Train satellite constellation is a succession of seven sun-synchronous orbit satellites: (1) OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) (will launch in Feb. 2013), (2) GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission), (3) Aqua, (4) CloudSat, (5) CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar & Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), (6) Glory, (7) Aura. The A-Train makes possible synergy of information from multiple resources, so more information about earth condition is obtained from the combined observations than would be possible from the sum of the observations taken independently

  12. Cellulase-Xylanase Synergy in Designer Cellulosomes for Enhanced Degradation of a Complex Cellulosic Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Moraïs, Sarah; Barak, Yoav; Caspi, Jonathan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Designer cellulosomes are precision-engineered multienzyme complexes in which the molecular architecture and enzyme content are exquisitely controlled. This system was used to examine enzyme cooperation for improved synergy among Thermobifida fusca glycoside hydrolases. Two T. fusca cellulases, Cel48A exoglucanase and Cel5A endoglucanase, and two T. fusca xylanases, endoxylanases Xyn10B and Xyn11A, were selected as enzymatic components of a mixed cellulase/xylanase-containing designer cellulosome. The resultant mixed multienzyme complex was fabricated on a single scaffoldin subunit bearing all four enzymes. Conversion of T. fusca enzymes to the cellulosomal mode followed by their subsequent incorporation into a tetravalent cellulosome led to assemblies with enhanced activity (~2.4-fold) on wheat straw as a complex cellulosic substrate. The enhanced synergy was caused by the proximity of the enzymes on the complex compared to the free-enzyme systems. The hydrolytic properties of the tetravalent designer cellulosome were compared with the combined action of two separate divalent cellulase- and xylanase-containing cellulosomes. Significantly, the tetravalent designer cellulosome system exhibited an ~2-fold enhancement in enzymatic activity compared to the activity of the mixture of two distinct divalent scaffoldin-borne enzymes. These results provide additional evidence that close proximity between cellulases and xylanases is key to the observed concerted degradation of the complex cellulosic substrate in which the integrated enzymes complement each other by promoting access to the relevant polysaccharide components of the substrate. The data demonstrate that cooperation among xylanases and cellulases can be augmented by their integration into a single designer cellulosome. PMID:21157512

  13. Synergy between coproduced CC and CXC chemokines in monocyte chemotaxis through receptor-mediated events.

    PubMed

    Gouwy, Mieke; Struyf, Sofie; Noppen, Samuel; Schutyser, Evemie; Springael, Jean-Yves; Parmentier, Marc; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Jo

    2008-08-01

    CC and CXC chemokines coinduced in fibroblasts and leukocytes by cytokines and microbial agents determine the number of phagocytes infiltrating into inflamed tissues. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 significantly and dose-dependently increased the migration of monocytes, expressing the corresponding CXC chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, toward suboptimal concentrations of the monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2 or CCL7. These findings were confirmed using different chemotaxis assays and monocytic THP-1 cells. In contrast, the combination of two CC chemokines (CCL2 plus CCL7) or two CXC chemokines (CXCL8 plus CXCL12) did not provide synergy in monocyte chemotaxis. These data show that chemokines competing for related receptors and using similar signaling pathways do not synergize. Receptor heterodimerization is probably not essential for chemokine synergy as shown in CXCR4/CCR2 cotransfectants. It is noteworthy that CCL2 mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and calcium mobilization was significantly enhanced by CXCL8 in monocytes, indicating cooperative downstream signaling pathways during enhanced chemotaxis. Moreover, in contrast to intact CXCL12, truncated CXCL12(3-68), which has impaired receptor signaling capacity but can still desensitize CXCR4, was unable to synergize with CCL2 in monocytic cell migration. Furthermore, AMD3100 and RS102895, specific CXCR4 and CCR2 inhibitors, respectively, reduced the synergistic effect between CCL2 and CXCL12 significantly. These data indicate that for synergistic interaction between chemokines binding and signaling of the two chemokines via their proper receptors is necessary.

  14. Synergy Between Experiments and Simulations in Laser and Beam-Driven Plasma Acceleration and Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Warren B.

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations have been an integral part of plasma physics research since the early 1960s. Initially, they provided the ability to confirm and test linear and nonlinear theories in one-dimension. As simulation capabilities and computational power improved, then simulations were also used to test new ideas and applications of plasmas in multi-dimensions. As progress continued, simulations were also used to model experiments. Today computer simulations of plasmas are ubiquitously used to test new theories, understand complicated nonlinear phenomenon, model the full temporal and spatial scale of experiments, simulate parameters beyond the reach of current experiments, and test the performance of new devices before large capital expenditures are made to build them. In this talk I review the progress in simulations in a particular area of plasma physics: plasma based acceleration (PBA). In PBA a short laser pulse or particle beam propagates through long regions of plasma creating plasma wave wakefields on which electrons or positrons surf to high energies. In some cases the wakefields are highly nonlinear, involve three-dimensional effects, and the trajectories of plasma particles cross making it essential that fully kinetic and three-dimensional models are used. I will show how particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were initially used to propose the basic idea of PBA in one dimension. I will review some of the dramatic progress in the experimental demonstration of PBA and show how this progress was dramatically helped by a synergy between experiments and full-scale multi-dimensional PIC simulations. This will include a review of how the capability of PIC simulation tools has improved. I will also touch on some recent progress on improvements to PIC simulations of PBA and discuss how these improvements may push the synergy further towards real time steering of experiments and start to end modeling of key components of a future linear collider or XFEL based on PBA

  15. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL−1. They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. LINKED ARTICLES

  16. Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium-Nickel Nanoalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Joseph, Pharrah; Mayzel, Dina; Prasai, Binay; Wang, Lingyan; Engelhard, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-05-05

    Alloying palladium (Pd) with other transition metals at the nanoscale has become an important pathway for preparation of low-cost, highly active and stable catalysts. However, the lack of understanding of how the alloying phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of the alloys at the nanoscale influence their catalytic activity impedes the rational design of Pd-nanoalloy catalysts. This work addresses this challenge by a novel approach to investigating the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) over palladium–nickel (PdNi) nanoalloys with well-defined bimetallic composition, which reveals a remarkable maximal catalytic activity at Pd:Ni ratio of ~50:50. Key to understanding the structural-catalytic synergy is the use of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function (HE-XRD/PDF) analysis to probe the atomic structure of PdNi nanoalloys under controlled thermochemical treatments and CO reaction conditions. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the atomic structure of the nanoalloy particles were generated by reverse Monte Carlo simulations (RMC) guided by the experimental HE-XRD/PDF data. Structural details of the PdNi nanoalloys were extracted from the respective 3D models and compared with the measured catalytic properties. The comparison revealed a strong correlation between the phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of PdNi nanoalloys and their catalytic activity for CO oxidation. This correlation is further substantiated by analyzing the first atomic neighbor distances and coordination numbers inside the nanoalloy particles and at their surfaces. These findings have provided new insights into the structural synergy of nanoalloy catalysts by controlling the phase state, composition and atomic structure, complementing findings of traditional density functional theory studies.

  17. Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium-Nickel Nanoalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Joseph, Pharrah; Mayzel, Dina; Prasai, Binay; Wang, Lingyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-05-05

    Alloying palladium (Pd) with other transition metals at the nanoscale has become an important pathway for preparation of low-cost, highly-active and stable catalysts. However the lack of understanding of how the alloying phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of the alloys at the nanoscale influence their catalytic activity impedes the rational design of Pd-nanoalloy catalysts. This work addresses this challenge by a novel approach to investigating the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) over palladium-nickel (PdNi) nanoalloys with well-defined bimetallic composition, which reveals a remarkable a maximal catalytic activity at Pd:Ni ratio of ~50:50. Key to understanding the structural-catalytic synergy is the use of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function (HE-XRD/PDF) analysis to probe the atomic structure of PdNi nanoalloys under controlled thermochemical treatments and CO reaction conditions. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the atomic structure of the nanoalloy particles were generated by reverse Monte Carlo simulations (RMC) guided by the experimental HE-XRD/PDF data. Structural details of the PdNi nanoalloys were extracted from the respective 3D models and compared with the measured catalytic properties. The comparison revealed a strong correlation between the phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of PdNi nanoalloys and their catalytic activity for CO oxidation. This correlation is further substantiated by analyzing the first atomic neighbor distances and coordination numbers inside the nanoalloy particles and at their surfaces. These findings have provided new insights into the structural synergy of nanoalloy catalysts by controlling the phase state, composition and atomic structure, complementing findings of traditional density functional theory studies.

  18. Defining Fibronectin's Cell Adhesion Synergy Site by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Redick, Sambra D.; Settles, Daniel L.; Briscoe, Gina; Erickson, Harold P.

    2000-01-01

    Fibronectin's RGD-mediated binding to the α5β1 integrin is dramatically enhanced by a synergy site within fibronectin III domain 9 (FN9). Guided by the crystal structure of the cell-binding domain, we selected amino acids in FN9 that project in the same direction as the RGD, presumably toward the integrin, and mutated them to alanine. R1379 in the peptide PHSRN, and the nearby R1374 have been shown previously to be important for α5β1-mediated adhesion (Aota, S., M. Nomizu, and K.M. Yamada. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269:24756–24761). Our more extensive set of mutants showed that R1379 is the key residue in the synergistic effect, but other residues contribute substantially. R1374A decreased adhesion slightly by itself, but the double mutant R1374A-R1379A was significantly less adhesive than R1379A alone. Single mutations of R1369A, R1371A, T1385A, and N1386A had negligible effects on cell adhesion, but combining these substitutions either with R1379A or each other gave a more dramatic reduction of cell adhesion. The triple mutant R1374A/P1376A/R1379A had no detectable adhesion activity. We conclude that, in addition to the R of the PHRSN peptide, other residues on the same face of FN9 are required for the full synergistic effect. The integrin-binding synergy site is a much more extensive surface than the small linear peptide sequence. PMID:10769040

  19. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2011-08-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL(-1) . They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. http

  20. Plasma-Photocatalyst Interaction for VOC Removal: Origin of the Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Antoine

    2007-10-01

    It is well known that the coupling of an atmospheric non-thermal plasma with catalytic materials lead to synergetic effects for the abatement of some volatiles organic compounds (VOC). We analyze, here, the mechanisms of such a synergy where the catalyst is a porous semi-conductor (TiO2). Different porous materials are compared: silica fibers possibly containing SiO2 and/or TiO2 nanoparticles. The respective influence of the porosity versus the chemical type of the catalyst is investigated and the oxidizing species are identified using two complementary approaches. 1) Efficiency of the plasma-catalyst coupling in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, 2) Plasma-catalytic surface interaction in a pulsed low pressure discharge. It is shown that the VOC oxidation scales as a function of the specific injected energy and occurs mainly on the porous surface due to short-life species produced the plasma [1-3]; Time resolved and in-situ measurements using laser absorption spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in a low-pressure experiment have shown that i) plasma-TiO2 synergy is also evidenced at low pressure[4], ii) O atoms are reversively adsorbed on porous nanoparticles of TiO2; their desorption occur during the first millisecond of a plasma pulse [5], iii) air-plasma pre-treatment of the porous material leads to an enhancement of VOC adsorption on porous TiO2 and has no influence on porous silica. [1] U. Roland et al. Catalysis Today 73 315--323 [2] F. Thevenet et al. Catal. Today 122 (2007) 186--194 [3] F. Thevenet et al. International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 1, (2007), 52-56 [4] A. Rousseau et al. Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 221501 (2005) [5] Allegraud et al. J. Phys. D. : Appl. Phys submitted.

  1. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A R; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy.

  2. Atomic-structural synergy for catalytic CO oxidation over palladium-nickel nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Joseph, Pharrah; Mayzel, Dina; Prasai, Binay; Wang, Lingyan; Engelhard, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-05-14

    Alloying palladium (Pd) with other transition metals at the nanoscale has become an important pathway for preparation of low-cost, highly active and stable catalysts. However, the lack of understanding of how the alloying phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of the alloys at the nanoscale influence their catalytic activity impedes the rational design of Pd-nanoalloy catalysts. This work addresses this challenge by a novel approach to investigating the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) over palladium-nickel (PdNi) nanoalloys with well-defined bimetallic composition, which reveals a remarkable maximal catalytic activity at Pd:Ni ratio of ~50:50. Key to understanding the structural-catalytic synergy is the use of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function (HE-XRD/PDF) analysis to probe the atomic structure of PdNi nanoalloys under controlled thermochemical treatments and CO reaction conditions. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the atomic structure of the nanoalloy particles were generated by reverse Monte Carlo simulations (RMC) guided by the experimental HE-XRD/PDF data. Structural details of the PdNi nanoalloys were extracted from the respective 3D models and compared with the measured catalytic properties. The comparison revealed a strong correlation between the phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of PdNi nanoalloys and their catalytic activity for CO oxidation. This correlation is further substantiated by analyzing the first atomic neighbor distances and coordination numbers inside the nanoalloy particles and at their surfaces. These findings have provided new insights into the structural synergy of nanoalloy catalysts by controlling the phase state, composition and atomic structure, complementing findings of traditional density functional theory studies.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...This hybrid mixture is not well supported by existing cosimulation standards, and speci cally not by FMI 2.0, for reasons that are explained in this...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard

  5. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  6. Incorporating mobile nanospheres in the lumen of hybrid microcapsules for enhanced enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiaoman; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2013-11-13

    Physical encapsulation of enzymes in microcapsules, as a mild, controllable method, has been widely utilized for enzyme immobilization. However, this method often suffers from the big mass transfer resistance from the capsule lumen. In this study, a novel biocatalysis system with enhanced catalytic activity is constructed through coencapsulating enzymes and nanospheres in the lumen of protamine/silica hybrid microcapsules, which are synthesized through the synergy of biomimetic silicification and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. When utilized as the host for catalase (CAT) encapsulation, the hybrid microcapsules maintain high mechanical stability, high enzyme loading, and low enzyme leaching. Particularly, because of the existence of mobile nanospheres, the mass transfer resistance in the microcapsules is significantly reduced because of the vigorous agitation, thus acquiring an enhanced catalytic activity. Our strategy may also find applications in drug delivery and biosensor fields.

  7. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  8. The New Information Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Karen B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the creation and existence of "hybrid" organizations, i.e., nonprofit companies sponsored by the government to provide extensive research and development services. Possibilities for hybrids are brought about by government intervention in the information marketplace to produce social benefits. (SW)

  9. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  10. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  11. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  12. The hybrid BCI.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  13. Explorations into the Synergy Between Faith, Health, and Health-Care Among Black Baptists

    PubMed Central

    Maclin, Sandy D.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. health disparities are documented by race/ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, and geographic demographics. Since federal health record keeping began, regardless of other demographic factors, Black people continue to record statistical significant disparities. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) domain of mind-body medicine provides a method and language to assess the metaphysical constructs of faith, spirituality and religion and their influence on health and healthcare practices. Explorations into the synergy between faith, health and healthcare among a convenient sample of Black Baptist conventioneers provides an opportunity to better understand if and how faith can be used to enhance the health and wellbeing of Black people. Methodology In 2005 a convenience sample of 2,500 Black persons among 10,000 Joint Baptist conventioneers participated in the study; 1,827 completed and returned an 80 item questionnaire. 500 surveys were lost due to computer malfunctions. Survey results covered: demographic, health/safety, health care, and faith/religion/health. Results 58.6% of respondents were women; 61% were married. Most (66.2%) reported good health and few were told by their physician they had a chronic disease. 33.5% never talk to their pastor about health problems or (42.7%) physician visits. Mental health responses: (98.7%) get along well with others; (93.6%) were satisfied with life; (92.8%) feel good about themselves; and (97.6%) were in good spirits most times. Many were in social organizations (40.6%). 96.1% felt religion was very important in their life; 91% thought religion affects physical/mental health; and 89.1% believed faith affects mental/physical health. 95.7% believe faith can change a health crisis. Most described religion and faith differently. Discussion The Black Church has history in social justice connected to community health. Responses to religion/faith affirm the interconnectedness of the synergy between faith

  14. Possible Origin of Chlorobenzene Detected by SAM Instrument at Gale Crater, Mars: Synergy of Iron Oxides and Perchlorate and Consequences for Organic Matter Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, P.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Georgelin, T.; Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Belmahdi, I.; McAdam, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Kashyap, S.; Navarro-Gonzalez, A. R.; Mahaffy, P.; Cabane, M.

    2014-07-01

    Chlorobenzene, potentially of martian origin, has been detected by the SAM experiment onboard Curiosity rover. We explore its potential formation by a synergy between oxychlorine phases and iron oxides in the presence of a carbon source.

  15. Muscle synergies involved in shifting the center of pressure while making a first step.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2005-11-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to analyze multi-muscle synergies involved in making a step by a standing person. We hypothesized that leg and trunk muscles are organized into stable groups (muscle modes, M-modes) related to shifts of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. Another hypothesis was that the magnitudes of the modes co-vary across repetitive trials to stabilize a certain magnitude of the COP shift in both directions. M-modes were defined using principal component analysis applied to indices of changes in the electromyographic (EMG) activity prior to releasing variable loads that were held by the subject using a pulley system. For the task of releasing the load behind the body three M-modes associated with a backward COP shift were defined. Four M-modes were defined for the task of releasing the load at the body side associated with a lateral COP shift. Multiple regression analysis was used to relate changes in the M-mode magnitudes to COP shifts. EMG changes prior to making a step were quantified over five 100 ms time windows before the lift-off of the stepping leg. Two components of the variance in the M-mode space computed across repetitions of a stepping task were quantified-a component that did not affect the average COP shift in a particular direction (variance within the UCM, V (UCM)), and a component that affected the COP shift (variance orthogonal to the UCM, V (ORT)). V (UCM) was significantly higher than V (ORT) for both directions of the COP shifts. This relation was observed for the M-modes in the stepping leg as well as in the support leg. The stepping leg showed a different time evolution of the ratio V (UCM)/V (ORT) such that the difference between the two variance components disappeared closer to the time of the lift-off. The findings corroborate both main hypotheses. The study supports a view that control of whole-body actions involves grouping the muscles

  16. Drug Synergy of Tenofovir and Nanoparticle-Based Antiretrovirals for HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Krogstad, Emily; Ball, Cameron; Woodrow, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of drug combinations has revolutionized the treatment of HIV but there is no equivalent combination product that exists for prevention, particularly for topical HIV prevention. Strategies to combine chemically incompatible agents may facilitate the discovery of unique drug-drug activities, particularly unexplored combination drug synergy. We fabricated two types of nanoparticles, each loaded with a single antiretroviral (ARV) that acts on a specific step of the viral replication cycle. Here we show unique combination drug activities mediated by our polymeric delivery systems when combined with free tenofovir (TFV). Methodology/Principal Findings Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with efavirenz (NP-EFV) or saquinavir (NP-SQV) were individually prepared by emulsion or nanoprecipitation techniques. Nanoparticles had reproducible size (d ∼200 nm) and zeta potential (-25 mV). The drug loading of the nanoparticles was approximately 7% (w/w). NP-EFV and NP-SQV were nontoxic to TZM-bl cells and ectocervical explants. Both NP-EFV and NP-SQV exhibited potent protection against HIV-1 BaL infection in vitro. The HIV inhibitory effect of nanoparticle formulated ARVs showed up to a 50-fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to free drug. To quantify the activity arising from delivery of drug combinations, we calculated combination indices (CI) according to the median-effect principle. NP-EFV combined with free TFV demonstrated strong synergistic effects (CI50 = 0.07) at a 1∶50 ratio of IC50 values and additive effects (CI50 = 1.05) at a 1∶1 ratio of IC50 values. TFV combined with NP-SQV at a 1∶1 ratio of IC50 values also showed strong synergy (CI50 = 0.07). Conclusions ARVs with different physicochemical properties can be encapsulated individually into nanoparticles to potently inhibit HIV. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that combining TFV with either NP-EFV or NP

  17. Ground based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertically resolved thermodynamic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Verdejo, M.; Crewell, S.; Löhnert, U.; Orlandi, E.; Di Girolamo, P.

    2015-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity and temperature profiles is important for many applications, e.g. assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. While lidar measurements can provide high vertical resolution albeit with limited coverage, microwave radiometers receive information throughout the troposphere though their vertical resolution is poor. In order to overcome these specific limitations the synergy of a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and a Raman Lidar (RL) system is presented in this work. The retrieval algorithm that combines these two instruments is an Optimal Estimation Method (OEM) that allows for a uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied for a two month field campaign around Jülich, Germany for clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyse the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity error can be reduced by 59.8% (37.9%) with respect to the retrieval using only-MWR (only-RL) data. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom for signal reveals that most information is gained above the usable lidar range. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using radiosounding and GPS water vapor measurements. Within a single case study we also explore the potential of the OEM for deriving the relative humidity profile, which is especially interesting to study cloud formation in the vicinity of cloud edges. To do so temperature information is added both from RL and MWR. For temperature, it is shown that the error is reduced by 47.1% (24.6%) with respect to the only-MWR (only-RL) profile. Due to the use of MWR brightness temperatures at multiple elevation angles, the

  18. Odorant synergy effects as the cause of fishy malodors in algal marine oils.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Raymond T; Laskonis, Charles R

    2014-10-08

    As unsaturated lipids oxidize, they form hydroperoxides, which are susceptible to further oxidation or decomposition to secondary reaction products including aldehydes, ketones, acids, and alcohols. While oxidation reactions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are responsible for fishy off-flavors in marine oils, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and other types of analytical studies have failed to reveal which specific oxidation products are involved. Previous research (Marsili, R.T.; Laskonis, C. The importance of odourant synergy effects in understanding malodour problems in DHA and EPA products. Lipid Technol. 2014, 26 (2), 31-34) has indicated that fishy malodor may be caused by the presence of two lipid oxidation products, heptanal and (E,Z)-3,5-octadien-2-one. The aims of the present study are to provide experimental method details and offer further evidence that these two oxidation products are indeed the cause of fishy malodors. Initial GC-MS-O studies of marine oils with fishy malodors revealed numerous oxidation products, but none were characterized as fishy. However, when all sample volatiles were captured together and then desorbed simultaneously in GC-O experiments, the fishy malodor was evident, indicating odorant synergy effects were responsible. A simple, novel method was developed using an olfactometry detector as a fraction collector to trap various peaks in marine oil chromatograms. The nose cone of the olfactometry detector was replaced with a PDMS foam absorption tube at various times during GC analysis. Combinations of GC peaks were trapped on PDMS tubes, desorbed in a Gerstel thermal extractor (off-line), and sniffed. The combination of two analytes was found to cause fishy malodors: heptanal and (E,Z)-3,5-octadien-2-one. Purge-and-trap, solid phase microextraction (SPME), and headspace stir bar sorptive extraction (HSSE) sample preparation methods prior to GC-MS were investigated. All methods confirmed the

  19. Imaging doses from the Elekta Synergy X-ray cone beam CT system.

    PubMed

    Amer, A; Marchant, T; Sykes, J; Czajka, J; Moore, C

    2007-06-01

    The Elekta Synergy is a radiotherapy treatment machine with integrated kilovoltage (kV) X-ray imaging system capable of producing cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the patient in the treatment position. The aim of this study is to assess the additional imaging dose. Cone beam CT dose index (CBDI) is introduced and measured inside standard CTDI phantoms for several sites (head: 100 kV, 38 mAs, lung: 120 kV, 152 mAs and pelvis: 130 kV, 456 mAs). The measured weighted doses were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements at various locations in a Rando phantom and at patients' surfaces. The measured CBDIs in-air at the isocentre were 9.2 mGy 100 mAs(-1), 7.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) and 5.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) for 130 kV, 120 kV and 100 kV, respectively. The body phantom weighted CBDI were 5.5 mGy 100 mAs(-1) and 3.8 mGy 100 mAs(-1 )for 130 kV and 120 kV. The head phantom weighted CBDI was 4.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) for 100 kV. The weighted doses for the Christie Hospital CBCT imaging techniques were 1.6 mGy, 6 mGy and 22 mGy for the head, lung and pelvis. The measured CBDIs were used to estimate the total effective dose for the Synergy system using the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator. Measured CBCT doses using the Christie Hospital protocols are low for head and lung scans whether compared with electronic portal imaging (EPI), commonly used for treatment verification, or single and multiple slice CT. For the pelvis, doses are similar to EPI but higher than CT. Repeated use of CBCT for treatment verification is likely and hence the total patient dose needs to be carefully considered. It is important to consider further development of low dose CBCT techniques to keep additional doses as low as reasonably practicable.

  20. Developing a synergy algorithm for land surface temperature: the SEN4LST project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Jimenez, Juan C.; Ghent, Darren J.

    2013-04-01

    Land surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales, combining the results of all surface-atmosphere interactions and energy fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. An adequate characterization of LST distribution and its temporal evolution requires measurements with detailed spatial and temporal frequencies. With the advent of the Sentinel 2 (S2) and 3 (S3) series of satellites a unique opportunity exists to go beyond the current state of the art of single instrument algorithms. The Synergistic Use of The Sentinel Missions For Estimating And Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (SEN4LST) project aims at developing techniques to fully utilize synergy between S2 and S3 instruments in order to improve LST retrievals. In the framework of the SEN4LST project, three LST retrieval algorithms were proposed using the thermal infrared bands of the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Retrieval (SLSTR) instrument on board the S3 platform: split-window (SW), dual-angle (DA) and a combined algorithm using both split-window and dual-angle techniques (SW-DA). One of the objectives of the project is to select the best algorithm to generate LST products from the synergy between S2/S3 instruments. In this sense, validation is a critical step in the selection process for the best performing candidate algorithm. A unique match-up database constructed at University of Leicester (UoL) of in situ observations from over twenty ground stations and corresponding brightness temperature (BT) and LST match-ups from multi-sensor overpasses is utilised for validating the candidate algorithms. Furthermore, their performance is also evaluated against the standard ESA LST product and the enhanced offline UoL LST product. In addition, a simulation dataset is constructed using 17 synthetic images of LST and the radiative transfer model MODTRAN carried under 66 different atmospheric conditions. Each candidate LST

  1. Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Verdejo, María; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Orlandi, Emiliano; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity profiles is important for many applications, e.g., assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. Nowadays there are a wide variety of ground-based sensors for atmospheric humidity profiling. Unfortunately there is no single instrument able to provide a measurement with complete vertical coverage, high vertical and temporal resolution and good performance under all weather conditions, simultaneously. For example, Raman lidar (RL) measurements can provide water vapor with a high vertical resolution, albeit with limited vertical coverage, due to sunlight contamination and the presence of clouds. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) receive water vapor information throughout the troposphere, though their vertical resolution is poor. In this work, we present an MWR and RL system synergy, which aims to overcome the specific sensor limitations. The retrieval algorithm combining these two instruments is an optimal estimation method (OEM), which allows for an uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information, taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied to a 2-month field campaign around Jülich (Germany), focusing on clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyze the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity uncertainty is reduced above the last usable lidar range by a factor of ˜ 2 with respect to the case where only RL measurements are used. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom per signal reveal that most information is gained above the usable lidar range, especially important during daytime when the lidar vertical coverage is limited. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using

  2. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Kenya E.; Carter, Dee A.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family. It is found abundantly in milk and is present as a major protein in human exocrine secretions where it plays a role in the innate immune response. Various antifungal functions of lactoferrin have been reported including a wide spectrum of activity across yeasts and molds and synergy with other antifungal drugs in combination therapy, and various modes of action have been proposed. Bioactive peptides derived from lactoferrin can also exhibit strong antifungal activity, with some surpassing the potency of the whole protein. This paper reviews current knowledge of the spectrum of activity, proposed mechanisms of action, and capacity for synergy of lactoferrin and its peptides, including the three most studied derivatives: lactoferricin, lactoferrampin, and Lf(1–11), as well as some lactoferrin-derived variants and modified peptides. PMID:28149293

  3. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kenya E; Carter, Dee A

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family. It is found abundantly in milk and is present as a major protein in human exocrine secretions where it plays a role in the innate immune response. Various antifungal functions of lactoferrin have been reported including a wide spectrum of activity across yeasts and molds and synergy with other antifungal drugs in combination therapy, and various modes of action have been proposed. Bioactive peptides derived from lactoferrin can also exhibit strong antifungal activity, with some surpassing the potency of the whole protein. This paper reviews current knowledge of the spectrum of activity, proposed mechanisms of action, and capacity for synergy of lactoferrin and its peptides, including the three most studied derivatives: lactoferricin, lactoferrampin, and Lf(1-11), as well as some lactoferrin-derived variants and modified peptides.

  4. Native valve Proteus mirabilis endocarditis: successful treatment of a rare entity formulated by in vitro synergy antibiotic testing

    PubMed Central

    Brotzki, Caroline R; Mergenhagen, Kari A; Bulman, Zackery P; Tsuji, Brian T; Berenson, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Infective endocarditis caused by Proteus mirabilis is a rare and poorly reported disease, with no well-defined effective antibiotic regimen. Here, we present a case of P. mirabilis aortic valve endocarditis. We reviewed prior cases and treatment regimens, and devised effective treatment, which was guided by in vitro sensitivity and synergy testing on the pathogen. Our patient survived without complications or the need for a surgical intervention. PMID:27797858

  5. Native valve Proteus mirabilis endocarditis: successful treatment of a rare entity formulated by in vitro synergy antibiotic testing.

    PubMed

    Brotzki, Caroline R; Mergenhagen, Kari A; Bulman, Zackery P; Tsuji, Brian T; Berenson, Charles S

    2016-10-20

    Infective endocarditis caused by Proteus mirabilis is a rare and poorly reported disease, with no well-defined effective antibiotic regimen. Here, we present a case of P. mirabilis aortic valve endocarditis. We reviewed prior cases and treatment regimens, and devised effective treatment, which was guided by in vitro sensitivity and synergy testing on the pathogen. Our patient survived without complications or the need for a surgical intervention.

  6. Challenging gait leads to stronger lower-limb kinematic synergies: The effects of walking within a more narrow pathway.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, N J; Latash, M L; Hurt, C P; Grabiner, M D

    2015-07-23

    Previous studies using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis demonstrated that during the swing phase of gait, multi-joint kinematic synergies act to stabilize, i.e., minimize the variance of, the mediolateral trajectory of the swinging limb. Importantly, these synergies are strongest during midswing, suggesting that during gait, individuals may employ strategies to avoid collisions between the limbs at this instance. The purpose of the current study was to test this hypothesis by quantifying whether the synergy index (ΔV) during the middle period of the swing phase of treadmill walking was affected when the width of the treadmill belt was narrowed, a task expected to increase the risk of limb collisions. Eleven healthy young adults walked on a dual-belt treadmill under two conditions: (1) dual-belt - both belts of the treadmill moved at 1.2 m/s (total width: 62.5 cm) and the subject walked with one foot on each of the moving belts and (2) single-belt - one treadmill belt moved at 1.2m/s while the other belt remained stationary and the subject walked with both feet on the moving belt (total width: 30.5 cm). During both conditions, motion capture recorded the positions of 22 passive reflective markers from which UCM analysis was used to quantify ΔV in the joint configuration space. Results indicate that ΔV during the middle-third of swing phase significantly increased by 20% during single-belt walking (p<.01). We interpret this as evidence that the stronger synergies at midswing are needed to stabilize the limb trajectory in order to reduce the risk of between-limb collisions during a period when the lower limbs are nearest each other in the frontal plane.

  7. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  8. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  10. Hybrid Bloch brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E. M.; Losano, L.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  11. Adapting portfolio theory for the evaluation of multiple investments in health with a multiplicative extension for treatment synergies.

    PubMed

    Bridges, J F P; Stewart, M; King, M T; van Gool, K

    2002-01-01

    Portfolio theory is central to the analysis of risk in many areas of economics but is seldom used appropriately in health economics. This contribution examines the use of portfolio theory in the context of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A number of modifications are needed to apply portfolio analysis to the economic evaluation of health care interventions. First, the method of reporting the results of a CEA, and consequently some of the underlying assumptions, needs to be modified. Second, portfolio theory needs to be expressed in terms of effects on individuals aggregated to a population. Finally, one needs to allow for the possibility of synergy between the various health interventions. This paper derives a general formula for a portfolio of health care interventions that allows for synergies between interventions where the population effects are aggregated from individual effects. A number of special cases are also derived to highlight the nature of the formulation of the modified portfolio theory. We conclude that, while modified portfolio theory adds a theoretical foundation to health care evaluations, it may not be operational until estimates of the correlation between interventions are available, and the question of uncertainty is resolved in health care evaluation. Also, while a synergy may be present at the individual level, when aggregated over a large population it may not be significant given the standard assumption of constant returns to scale.

  12. Synergy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in vitro by two old antibiotics: colistin and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Juan; Yang, Hai-Fei

    2017-03-01

    Combination antimicrobial therapy is an important option in the fight against Gram-negative 'superbugs'. This study systematically investigated the synergistic effect of colistin (CST) and chloramphenicol (CHL) in combination against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). The microtitre plate chequerboard assay was used to test synergy against 50 XDR-AB clinical strains. Then, three XDR-AB clinical isolates and the type strain A. baumannii ATCC 19606 were chosen for further synergy studies using time-kill assay, mutant prevention concentration (MPC) assay and real-time population analysis profile (PAP) assay. In the chequerboard assays, synergistic or additive effects [defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5 and 0.5 < FICI < 1, respectively] were observed in all 50 isolates. In further synergy testing, the results of time-kill assays indicated that CST monotherapy produced rapid bacterial killing followed by rapid re-growth, with the emergence of CST resistance; CHL monotherapy was largely ineffective. The combination CST/CHL, however, showed a synergistic effect and enhanced bacterial killing in the four tested strains. It also significantly delayed re-growth and suppressed the emergence of CST resistance. In the MPC assay, a decrease in MPCs for CST was observed in the two CST-susceptible strains. PAP assay showed that both CST-resistant strains were heteroresistant.

  13. Influence of hydrophobic residues on the activity of the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 and its synergy with PGLa.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Erik; Zerweck, Jonathan; Horn, Diana; Pritz, Günther; Berditsch, Marina; Bürck, Jochen; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-05-01

    Magainin 2 (MAG2) and PGLa are two related antimicrobial peptides found in the skin of the African frog Xenopus laevis with a pronounced synergistic activity, which act by permeabilizing bacterial membranes. To probe the influence of hydrophobic peptide-lipid and peptide-peptide interactions on the antimicrobial activity and on synergy, the sequence of MAG2 was modified by replacing single amino acids either with a small alanine or with the stiff and bulky hydrophobic 3-(trifluoromethyl)-L-bicyclopent-[1.1.1]-1-ylglycine side chain. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 14 MAG2 analogs was strongly influenced by these single substitutions: the antimicrobial activity was consistently improved when the hydrophobicity was increased on the hydrophobic face of the amphiphilic helix, while the activity decreased when the hydrophobicity was reduced. The synergy with PGLa, on the other hand, was rather insensitive to mutations of hydrophobic residues. It thus seems that the antimicrobial effect of MAG2 on its own depends strongly on the hydrophobicity of the peptide, while the synergy with PGLa does not depend on the overall hydrophobicity of MAG2.

  14. Towards multifunctional agricultural landscapes in Europe: Assessing and governing synergies between food production, biodiversity, and ecosystem services - TALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Martin; Cord, Anna; Demiguel, Ángel; Holzkämper, Annelie; Kaim, Andrea; Kirchner, Mathias; Lienhoop, Nele; Nieto Romero, Marta; Nitsch, Heike; Rutz, Cordula; Saa, Antonio; Schmid, Erwin; Schönhart, Martin; Schramek, Jörg; Strauch, Michael; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter; Willaarts, Bárbara; Zarrineh, Nina; Rivas, David; Hagemann, Nina

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to improve our understanding of the synergies between biodiversity, food and energy production and other regulating or cultural ecosystem services (ESS) and the development of technical and policy measures to support these synergies. Procedures to quantify synergies and trade-offs between ESS and biodiversity are considered as promising solutions to close this gap. The BiodivERsA project TALE aims at developing such methodologies in a set of representative European agricultural landscapes in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, The Netherlands and Spain. This will be done by using i) a framework that links process-based, integrated, and statistical models with optimization algorithms, and ii) a set of land use scenarios and land use policies, iii) a systematic stakeholder integration process that allows the incorporation of expert knowledge in all phases of the research project to safeguard that research results are of practical relevance. Moreover, the project not only addresses experts but provides an innovative online learning environment that is accessible also for students and the general public.

  15. [Influence of penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration in the synergy between penicillin and gentamicin in viridans-group streptococci].

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, L; Ramírez, M S; Centrón, D; Lopardo, H

    2007-01-01

    Penicillin resistance rates higher than 60% have been recorded in viridans group streptococci by some authors during the 90's and recently such resistance was associated with higher levels of mortality in bacteremia. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of penicillin for which synergy with aminoglycosides is not yet possible is still unknown. In order to try to dilucidate this puzzle, a study on the susceptibility to penicillin of 28 strains of viridans group streptococci isolated from significant samples in the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" was carried out. Seven mitis group isolates presenting different susceptibility patterns were selected for performing time-killing curves with penicillin, gentamicin, and penicillin plus gentamicin, using higher and lower penicillin concentrations than their minimal inhibitory concentrations. Synergy was not observed when the penicillin concentration was lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration, at least in these strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin > or = 16 microg/ml. When using penicillin in higher concentrations than the minimum inhibitory concentration, synergy was found in five of the seven strains. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes were found in the two other streptococci.

  16. Investigation of the reformulated Remel Synergy Quad plate for detection of high-level aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance among enterococci.

    PubMed

    Free, L; Sahm, D F

    1995-06-01

    We investigated the accuracy of the recently released Remel Synergy Quad plate, a commercially available agar screening method for detecting high-level aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance among enterococci that is based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended guidelines (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, M7-A3, 1993). The Synergy Quad correctly determined the gentamicin and streptomycin resistance status for > or = 97% of 147 Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates tested. Detection of vancomycin resistance also was reliable, as no false susceptibility occurred with 36 vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium strains and false resistance occurred only once with the 47 susceptible strains tested. One strain each of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus failed to grow on the screen, but because the true nature and significance of resistance in such isolates is unknown the implication of their screen negativity is uncertain. In summary, the Remel Synergy Quad provides a highly accurate and convenient method for susceptibility testing of enterococci against gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin.

  17. A Programmable DNA Double-Write Material: Synergy of Photolithography and Self-Assembly Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngjun; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Kim, Sejung; Heaney, Yvonne C; Warner, John; Chen, Shaochen; Heller, Michael J

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrate a DNA double-write process that uses UV to pattern a uniquely designed DNA write material, which produces two distinct binding identities for hybridizing two different complementary DNA sequences. The process requires no modification to the DNA by chemical reagents and allows programmed DNA self-assembly and further UV patterning in the UV exposed and nonexposed areas. Multilayered DNA patterning with hybridization of fluorescently labeled complementary DNA sequences, biotin probe/fluorescent streptavidin complexes, and DNA patterns with 500 nm line widths were all demonstrated.

  18. Therapeutic synergy between microRNA and siRNA in ovarian cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunhua; Spizzo, Riccardo; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Han, Hee Dong; Ivan, Cristina; Rossi, Simona; Zhang, Xinna; Nicoloso, Milena S.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Almeida, Maria Ines; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pecot, Chad V.; Zand, Behrouz; Matsuo, Koji; Shahzad, Mian M.; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Calin, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Development of improved RNA interference based strategies is of utmost clinical importance. While siRNA-mediated silencing of EphA2, an ovarian cancer oncogene, results in reduction of tumor growth, we present evidence that additional inhibition of EphA2 by a microRNA further ‘boosts’ its anti-tumor effects. We identified miR-520d-3p as a tumor suppressor upstream of EphA2, whose expression correlated with favorable outcomes in two independent patient cohorts comprising of 647 patients. Restoration of miR-520d-3p prominently decreased EphA2 protein levels, and suppressed tumor growth and migration/invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Dual inhibition of EphA2 in vivo using DOPC nano-liposomes loaded with miR-520d-3p and EphA2-siRNA showed synergistic anti-tumor efficiency and greater therapeutic efficacy than either monotherapy alone. This synergy is atleast in part due to miR-520d-3p targeting EphB2, another Eph receptor. Our data emphasize the feasibility of combined miRNA-siRNA therapy, and will have broad implications for innovative gene silencing therapies for cancer and other diseases. PMID:24002999

  19. The FKBP52 Cochaperone Acts in Synergy with β-Catenin to Potentiate Androgen Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arundhati; Olivares, Karen; Guy, Naihsuan; Sivils, Jeffrey C.; Dey, Prasenjit; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Fletterick, Robert J.; Strom, Anders M.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Webb, Paul; Cox, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    FKBP52 and β-catenin have emerged in recent years as attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment. β-catenin interacts directly with the androgen receptor (AR) and has been characterized as a co-activator of AR-mediated transcription. FKBP52 is a positive regulator of AR in cellular and whole animal models and is required for the development of androgen-dependent tissues. We previously characterized an AR inhibitor termed MJC13 that putatively targets the AR BF3 surface to specifically inhibit FKBP52-regulated AR signaling. Predictive modeling suggests that β-catenin interacts with the AR hormone binding domain on a surface that overlaps with BF3. Here we demonstrate that FKBP52 and β-catenin interact directly in vitro and act in concert to promote a synergistic up-regulation of both hormone-independent and -dependent AR signaling. Our data demonstrate that FKBP52 promotes β-catenin interaction with AR and is required for β-catenin co-activation of AR activity in prostate cancer cells. MJC13 effectively blocks β-catenin interaction with the AR LBD and the synergistic up-regulation of AR by FKBP52 and β-catenin. Our data suggest that co-regulation of AR by FKBP52 and β-catenin does not require FKBP52 PPIase catalytic activity, nor FKBP52 binding to Hsp90. However, the FKBP52 proline-rich loop that overhangs the PPIase pocket is critical for synergy. PMID:26207810

  20. Developmental synergy between thalamic structure and interhemispheric connectivity in the visual system of preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Paquette, Lisa B.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Thalamic structural co-variation with cortical regions has been demonstrated in preterm infants, but its relationship to cortical function and severity of non-cystic white matter injury (non-cystic WMI) is unclear. The relationship between thalamic morphology and both cortical network synchronization and cortical structural connectivity has not been established. We tested the hypothesis that in preterm neonates, thalamic volume would correlate with primary cortical visual function and microstructural integrity of cortico-cortical visual association pathways. A total of 80 term-equivalent preterm and 44 term-born infants underwent high-resolution structural imaging coupled with visual functional magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging. There was a strong correlation between thalamic volume and primary visual cortical activation in preterms with non-cystic WMI (r = 0.81, p-value = 0.001). Thalamic volume also correlated strongly with interhemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity (splenium) in preterm neonates with a relatively higher severity of non-cystic WMI (p-value < 0.001). In contrast, there was lower correlation between thalamic volume and intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity, including the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal orbital fasciculus. This study shows distinct temporal overlap in the disruption of thalamo-cortical and interhemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity in preterm infants suggesting developmental synergy between thalamic morphology and the emergence of cortical networks in the last trimester. PMID:26106571

  1. IBEX: The Evolving Global View and Synergies with In Situ Voyager Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has now returned nearly seven years of observations, which comprise 14 full sets of energy resolved all-sky maps and provide the global view of our Sun's interaction with very local part of the galaxy. With such a long baseline of observations, we are able to examine time variations in the outer heliosphere as it responds to both 11-year solar cycle variations and longer term secular evolution of the three dimensional solar wind. Now that we have collected over half a solar cycle of observations, IBEX is beginning to show us how the heliosphere - our home in the galaxy - varies in time as well as space. In this talk we present the most recent observations and review some other recent discoveries from IBEX. We also examine the synergy between the global view provided by IBEX and the in situ observations form the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Finally, we discuss the incredible improvement in interstellar observations - and our understanding of the local interstellar medium - that the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) will provide.

  2. Synergy and destructive interferences between local magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Guihéry, Nathalie; Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Rémi

    2015-12-31

    Magnetic anisotropy is responsible for the single molecule magnet behavior of transition metal complexes. This behavior is characterized by a slow relaxation of the magnetization for low enough temperatures, and thus for a possible blocking of the magnetization. This bistable behavior can lead to possible technological applications in the domain of data storage or quantum computing. Therefore, the understanding of the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy has received a considerable interest during the last two decades. The presentation focuses on the determination of the anisotropy parameters of both mono-nuclear and bi-nuclear types of complexes and on the control and optimization of the anisotropic properties. The validity of the model Hamiltonians commonly used to characterize such complexes has been questioned and it is shown that neither the standard multispin Hamiltonian nor the giant spin Hamiltonian are appropriate for weakly coupled ions. Alternative models have been proposed and used to properly extract the relevant parameters. Rationalizations of the magnitude and nature of both local anisotropies of single ions and the molecular anisotropy of polynuclear complexes are provided. The synergy and interference effects between local magnetic anisotropies are studied in a series of binuclear complexes.

  3. Discovery of Drug Synergies in Gastric Cancer Cells Predicted by Logical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Flobak, Åsmund; Baudot, Anaïs; Remy, Elisabeth; Thommesen, Liv; Thieffry, Denis; Kuiper, Martin; Lægreid, Astrid

    2015-08-01

    Discovery of efficient anti-cancer drug combinations is a major challenge, since experimental testing of all possible combinations is clearly impossible. Recent efforts to computationally predict drug combination responses retain this experimental search space, as model definitions typically rely on extensive drug perturbation data. We developed a dynamical model representing a cell fate decision network in the AGS gastric cancer cell line, relying on background knowledge extracted from literature and databases. We defined a set of logical equations recapitulating AGS data observed in cells in their baseline proliferative state. Using the modeling software GINsim, model reduction and simulation compression techniques were applied to cope with the vast state space of large logical models and enable simulations of pairwise applications of specific signaling inhibitory chemical substances. Our simulations predicted synergistic growth inhibitory action of five combinations from a total of 21 possible pairs. Four of the predicted synergies were confirmed in AGS cell growth real-time assays, including known effects of combined MEK-AKT or MEK-PI3K inhibitions, along with novel synergistic effects of combined TAK1-AKT or TAK1-PI3K inhibitions. Our strategy reduces the dependence on a priori drug perturbation experimentation for well-characterized signaling networks, by demonstrating that a model predictive of combinatorial drug effects can be inferred from background knowledge on unperturbed and proliferating cancer cells. Our modeling approach can thus contribute to preclinical discovery of efficient anticancer drug combinations, and thereby to development of strategies to tailor treatment to individual cancer patients.

  4. The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire; Bloomer, Breaunnah E.; Provis, John L.; Henson, Neil J.; Page, Katharine L.

    2012-05-16

    With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

  5. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru L.; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies. PMID:26441750

  6. A Synergy-Based Optimally Designed Sensing Glove for Functional Grasp Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ciotti, Simone; Battaglia, Edoardo; Carbonaro, Nicola; Bicchi, Antonio; Tognetti, Alessandro; Bianchi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Achieving accurate and reliable kinematic hand pose reconstructions represents a challenging task. The main reason for this is the complexity of hand biomechanics, where several degrees of freedom are distributed along a continuous deformable structure. Wearable sensing can represent a viable solution to tackle this issue, since it enables a more natural kinematic monitoring. However, the intrinsic accuracy (as well as the number of sensing elements) of wearable hand pose reconstruction (HPR) systems can be severely limited by ergonomics and cost considerations. In this paper, we combined the theoretical foundations of the optimal design of HPR devices based on hand synergy information, i.e., the inter-joint covariation patterns, with textile goniometers based on knitted piezoresistive fabrics (KPF) technology, to develop, for the first time, an optimally-designed under-sensed glove for measuring hand kinematics. We used only five sensors optimally placed on the hand and completed hand pose reconstruction (described according to a kinematic model with 19 degrees of freedom) leveraging upon synergistic information. The reconstructions we obtained from five different subjects were used to implement an unsupervised method for the recognition of eight functional grasps, showing a high degree of accuracy and robustness. PMID:27271621

  7. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections: clinical and molecular characterization and analysis of in vitro synergy.

    PubMed

    de Maio Carrillho, Claudia M D; Gaudereto, Juliana J; Martins, Roberta Cristina Ruedas; de Castro Lima, Victor Augusto Camarinha; de Oliveira, Larissa M; Urbano, Mariana R; Perozin, Jamile S; Levin, Anna Sara; Costa, Silvia F

    2017-03-01

    We described 27 polyclonal colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MIC 4-16 μg/mL) infections (12 pneumonia, 12 urinary tract infection (UTI), two Bacteremia, and one skin/soft tissue infection) in which 74% harbored KPC. The isolates were polyclonal, 6 STs were identified and the colistin resistance was due to chromosome mutations. Eight patients with UTI received monotherapy, and combination therapy was given to 19 patients. Overall mortality was 37%. In vitro synergy using time-kill assay was observed in 14 of 19 (74%) isolates tested; the synergistic effect was observed for almost all isolates for the combination of three drugs: colistin, amikacin, and tigecycline. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed no significant difference comparing combination therapy with 2, 3, or more drugs and risk factors associated with death were dialysis and shock. These findings reinforce the fact that colistin in combination with other classes of drugs can be useful in treating infections caused by colistin-resistant CRE.

  8. Nanoparticle synergies in modifying thermal conductivity for heat exchanger in condensing boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; He, Shan; Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    The heat exchanger we are using for condensing boilers is mainly made from aluminum alloys and stainless steel. However, the metal is relatively expensive and corrosion together with maintenance is also a big problem. Therefore, we have developed a new design and material which contain carbon black, carbon nanotube, aluminum oxide and graphene as additives in polypropylene. When multiple types of particles can be melt blended simultaneously and synergies can be achieved, imparting particles to the nanocomposite, achieved much higher thermal conductivity rather than single additive. Here we show the flame retardant nanocomposite which can pass the UL-94-V0 vertical burning test, perform nice in Cone Calorimetry Test and has relatively good mechanical properties. SEM images of the blend show that the Carbon nanobute and other additives well dispersed within the polymer matrix which match our computational calculation for getting the percolation to achieve thermal conductivity around 1.5W/m .K rather than 0.23W/m .K as pure polypropylene. Haydale/Cheap Tubes

  9. Occurrence of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and Synergies among Them

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Laura P.; González, Virginia; Martínez, Aníbal; Paz, Beatriz; Lago, Jorge; Cordeiro, Victoria; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G.

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro. PMID:25815891

  10. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a ‘primed’ state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca2+ influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13696.001 PMID:27213521

  11. Synergy and Order Effects of Antibiotics and Phages in Killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Park, Taehyun; Andleeb, Saadia; Bull, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to planktonic cells, bacteria imbedded biofilms are notoriously refractory to treatment by antibiotics or bacteriophage (phage) used alone. Given that the mechanisms of killing differ profoundly between drugs and phages, an obvious question is whether killing is improved by combining antibiotic and phage therapy. However, this question has only recently begun to be explored. Here, in vitro biofilm populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were treated singly and with combinations of two phages and bactericidal antibiotics of five classes. By themselves, phages and drugs commonly had only modest effects in killing the bacteria. However some phage-drug combinations reduced bacterial densities to well below that of the best single treatment; in some cases, bacterial densities were reduced even below the level expected if both agents killed independently of each other (synergy). Furthermore, there was a profound order effect in some cases: treatment with phages before drugs achieved maximum killing. Combined treatment was particularly effective in killing in Pseudomonas biofilms grown on layers of cultured epithelial cells. Phages were also capable of limiting the extent to which minority populations of bacteria resistant to the treating antibiotic ascend. The potential of combined antibiotic and phage treatment of biofilm infections is discussed as a realistic way to evaluate and establish the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of humans. PMID:28076361

  12. Educational opportunities based on the university-industry synergies in an open innovation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Óscar; Burdio, José M.; Acero, Jesús; Barragán, Luis A.; Garcia, José R.

    2012-03-01

    Collaboration between Industry and University is becoming more important in order to improve the competitiveness of the research and development activities. Moreover, establishing synergies to bridge the gap between the academic and industrial spheres has demonstrated to be advantageous for both of them. Nowadays, Industry is moving towards an open innovation structure, in which external agents as universities play a key role. Besides, University is also seeking a more active learning methodology to improve the education of students for the real world. Considering this framework, a special effort should be done to take advantage of the collaborative work between Industry and University. The aim of this paper is to present the collaborative framework and the benefits obtained of the educational activities as a consequence of the long-term collaboration established between the University of Zaragoza and the Bosh and Siemens Home Appliances Group. The key stones of the collaboration are presented, and the positive outcomes for the students are highlighted. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the proposed program are also discussed.

  13. A Synergy-Based Optimally Designed Sensing Glove for Functional Grasp Recognition.

    PubMed

    Ciotti, Simone; Battaglia, Edoardo; Carbonaro, Nicola; Bicchi, Antonio; Tognetti, Alessandro; Bianchi, Matteo

    2016-06-02

    Achieving accurate and reliable kinematic hand pose reconstructions represents a challenging task. The main reason for this is the complexity of hand biomechanics, where several degrees of freedom are distributed along a continuous deformable structure. Wearable sensing can represent a viable solution to tackle this issue, since it enables a more natural kinematic monitoring. However, the intrinsic accuracy (as well as the number of sensing elements) of wearable hand pose reconstruction (HPR) systems can be severely limited by ergonomics and cost considerations. In this paper, we combined the theoretical foundations of the optimal design of HPR devices based on hand synergy information, i.e., the inter-joint covariation patterns, with textile goniometers based on knitted piezoresistive fabrics (KPF) technology, to develop, for the first time, an optimally-designed under-sensed glove for measuring hand kinematics. We used only five sensors optimally placed on the hand and completed hand pose reconstruction (described according to a kinematic model with 19 degrees of freedom) leveraging upon synergistic information. The reconstructions we obtained from five different subjects were used to implement an unsupervised method for the recognition of eight functional grasps, showing a high degree of accuracy and robustness.

  14. Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics stimulate virulent phage growth.

    PubMed

    Comeau, André M; Tétart, Françoise; Trojet, Sabrina N; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Krisch, H M

    2007-08-29

    Although the multiplication of bacteriophages (phages) has a substantial impact on the biosphere, comparatively little is known about how the external environment affects phage production. Here we report that sub-lethal concentrations of certain antibiotics can substantially stimulate the host bacterial cell's production of some virulent phage. For example, a low dosage of cefotaxime, a cephalosporin, increased an uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain's production of the phage PhiMFP by more than 7-fold. We name this phenomenon Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS). A related effect was observed in diverse host-phage systems, including the T4-like phages, with beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics, as well as mitomycin C. A common characteristic of these antibiotics is that they inhibit bacterial cell division and trigger the SOS system. We therefore examined the PAS effect within the context of the bacterial SOS and filamentation responses. We found that the PAS effect appears SOS-independent and is primarily a consequence of cellular filamentation; it is mimicked by cells that constitutively filament. The fact that completely unrelated phages manifest this phenomenon suggests that it confers an important and general advantage to the phages.

  15. Synergy and Mode of Action of Ceftazidime plus Quercetin or Luteolin on Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, Supatcharee; Thumanu, Kanjana; Hengpratom, Tanaporn; Eumkeb, Griangsak

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The recommended therapy has been often failure through the interfering of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB). The present study was to investigate antibacterial activity, synergy, and modes of action of luteolin and quercetin using alone and plus ceftazidime against S. pyogenes. The MICs of ceftazidime, luteolin, and quercetin against all S. pyogenes were 0.50, 128, and 128 µg mL−1, respectively. A synergistic effect was exhibited on luteolin and quercetin plus ceftazidime against these strains at fractional inhibitory concentration indices 0.37 and 0.27, respectively, and was confirmed by the viable count. These combinations increased cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, caused irregular cell shape, peptidoglycan, and CM damage, and decreased nucleic acid but increased proteins in bacterial cells. Enzyme assay demonstrated that these flavonoids had an inhibitory activity against β-lactamase. In summary, this study provides evidence that the inhibitory mode of action of luteolin and quercetin may be mediated via three mechanisms: (1) inhibiting of peptidoglycan synthesis, (2) increasing CM permeability, and (3) decreasing nucleic acid but increasing the protein contents of bacterial cells. So, luteolin and quercetin propose the high potential to develop adjunct to ceftazidime for the treatment of coexistence of the BLPB and S. pyogenes infections. PMID:26576195

  16. Antimicrobial activity of phenolics and glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their synergy with streptomycin against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Maria J; Borges, Anabela; Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo S; Simões, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed that all of the isothiocyanates had significant antimicrobial activities, while the phenolics were much less efficient. No antimicrobial activity was observed with phloridzin. In general P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism and L. monocytogenes the most resistant. The application of dual combinations demonstrated synergy between streptomycin and gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, allylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate against the Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, phytochemical products and more specifically the isothiocyanates were effective inhibitors of the in vitro growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, they can act synergistically with less efficient antibiotics to control bacterial growth.

  17. Landfills as critical infrastructures: synergy between non-invasive monitoring technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with a methodology for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system by means of the integration between two different non-invasive technologies. In fact, there is a widespread agreement on the fact that these infrastructures produce about 23% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Despite that, there's still no internationally accepted protocol to quantify the leakage of biogas from a landfill with a common standard approach. This work proposes an assessment of the performance of a landfill system in terms of biogas release to the atmosphere. Such evaluation is performed by means of a direct measurement of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with the detection of thermal anomalies by infrared radiometry. In order to derive flux maps from a set of punctual measurements and calculate an overall quantity of emitted gas, a geostatistical technique is necessarily applied and briefly illustrated. A case study regarding an infrastructure located in Tuscany (Italy) is shown, where a discussion about the evolution of the landfill site through successive campaigns is also suggested. The role played by infrared thermography and its synergy with direct flux measurements is clearly perceivable in this context. The main benefit of the presented approach is a significant increase of the energy recovered from the landfill sites by optimising the collection of biogas, which implies a reduction of the total anthropogenic methane originated from the disposal of wastes released to the atmosphere.

  18. Pore Structure and Synergy in Antimicrobial Peptides of the Magainin Family

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Angeles, Almudena; Leveritt, John M.; Lazaridis, Themis

    2016-01-01

    Magainin 2 and PGLa are among the best-studied cationic antimicrobial peptides. They bind preferentially to negatively charged membranes and apparently cause their disruption by the formation of transmembrane pores, whose detailed structure is still unclear. Here we report the results of 5–9 μs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations starting from tetrameric transmembrane helical bundles of these two peptides, as well as their stoichiometric mixture, and the analog MG-H2 in DMPC or 3:1 DMPC/DMPG membranes. The simulations produce pore structures that appear converged, although some effect of the starting peptide arrangement (parallel vs. antiparallel) is still observed on this timescale. The peptides remain mostly helical and adopt tilted orientations. The calculated tilt angles for PGLa are in excellent agreement with recent solid state NMR experiments. The antiparallel dimer structure in the magainin 2 simulations resembles previously determined NMR and crystal structures. More transmembrane orientations and a larger and more ordered pore are seen in the 1:1 heterotetramer with an antiparallel helix arrangement. Insights into the mechanism of synergy between these two peptides are obtained via implicit solvent modeling of homo- and heterodimers and analysis of interactions in the atomistic simulations. This analysis suggests stronger pairwise interactions in the heterodimer than in the two homodimers. PMID:26727376

  19. Occurrence of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and synergies among them.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Laura P; González, Virginia; Martínez, Aníbal; Paz, Beatriz; Lago, Jorge; Cordeiro, Victoria; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G

    2015-03-25

    Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro.

  20. Scaling and optimal synergy: Two principles determining microbial growth in complex media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Guimerà, Roger; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2015-06-01

    High-throughput experimental techniques and bioinformatics tools make it possible to obtain reconstructions of the metabolism of microbial species. Combined with mathematical frameworks such as flux balance analysis, which assumes that nutrients are used so as to maximize growth, these reconstructions enable us to predict microbial growth. Although such predictions are generally accurate, these approaches do not give insights on how different nutrients are used to produce growth, and thus are difficult to generalize to new media or to different organisms. Here, we propose a systems-level phenomenological model of metabolism inspired by the virial expansion. Our model predicts biomass production given the nutrient uptakes and a reduced set of parameters, which can be easily determined experimentally. To validate our model, we test it against in silico simulations and experimental measurements of growth, and find good agreement. From a biological point of view, our model uncovers the impact that individual nutrients and the synergistic interaction between nutrient pairs have on growth, and suggests that we can understand the growth maximization principle as the optimization of nutrient synergies.

  1. Inclusive fitness in finite populations-effects of heterogeneity and synergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter

    2017-03-01

    I review recent results concerning the relationship between the inclusive fitness (IF) effect and standard measures of allele fitness in a finite-population, with attention to the effect of heterogeneity in population structure and nonadditive fitness effects. In both cases, existing theoretical work is somewhat technical and I try to provide a more transparent account. In a heterogeneous population it is known that inclusive fitness will generally fail to incorporate the effects of selection on the distribution of alleles among states unless a reproductive-value weighting is used. But even given that, recent work shows that under certain updating rules, the IF effect can fail to be equivalent to standard measures such as fixation probability. In terms of synergistic fitness effects, I review the result that in the finite population model, the IF effect can be calculated using only "additive" relatedness coefficients so that computational difficulties found in the infinite-population model do not arise. In my own work, there is an interaction here in that my 2012 work on synergy with Maciejewski made an assumption about inclusive fitness that my 2014 work on heterogeneity with Tarnita showed to be wrong. I include (Appendix C) a corrected argument for the 2012 result.

  2. Synergy, compatibility, and innovation: merging Lewis acids with stereoselective enamine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Andrea; Mengozzi, Luca; Wilson, Claire M; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    In recent years there has been an accelerated rate of development in the field of organocatalysis, with asymmetric organocatalysis now reaching full maturity. The invention of new organocatalytic reactions and the exploration of new concepts now appear in tandem with the application of organocatalytic techniques in the synthesis of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). After a "golden rush" in organocatalysis, researchers are now starting to combine different methods, thereby taking advantage of the significant benefits of synergy. Metals are used in combination with organocatalytic processes, thus reaching complexity that is found in nature, where enzymes take advantage of the presence of certain metals to increase the arsenal of organic transformations available. In this Focus review, we illustrate the possibility of a "happy marriage" between Lewis acids and organocatalytic stereoselective processes. Questions have been raised about the combination of Lewis acids and organocatalysis owing to the presence of water and/or strong bases in these processes. Some Lewis acids have been shown to be compatible with organocatalysis and concepts relating to their use will be illustrated herein. To summarize the fruitful use of Lewis acids in stereoselective organocatalytic processes, we will draw attention to the advantages and selectivity achieved using this method.

  3. Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding their horizons by learning from adjacent disciplines would be mutually beneficial. A second challenge concerns the conceptualization of a new classification system for mental health problems. Adopting a classification system that integrates new insights from socio-neurobiology and from a networks perspective could bring cultural psychiatry and global mental health closer and change the way each field addresses the mental health gap, which constitutes the third challenge. I summarize attempts to achieve comprehensive mental health coverage around the globe and question whether the strategies employed to achieve these goals have been successful, both in high- (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, the dominant strategy needs to be complemented by mobilization of other community resources including local practitioners. A fourth challenge is the lack of mathematical models to guide action and research and solve major preoccupations such as access to care or multi-level analyses in complex ecological or health systems.

  4. The Synergies research-practice partnership project: a 2020 Vision case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, John H.; Dierking, Lynn D.; Staus, Nancy L.; Wyld, Jennifer N.; Bailey, Deborah L.; Penuel, William R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper, describes Synergies, an on-going longitudinal study and design effort, being conducted in a diverse, under-resourced community in Portland, Oregon, with the goal of measurably improving STEM learning, interest and participation by early adolescents, both in school and out of school. Authors examine how the work of this particular research-practice partnership is attempting to accommodate the six principles outlined in this issue: (1) to more accurately reflect learning as a lifelong process occurring across settings, situations and time frames; (2) to consider what STEM content is worth learning; (3) to examine learning as a cultural process, involving varied repertoires of practice across learners' everyday lives; (4) to directly involve practitioners (and learners) in the research process; (5) to document how existing and emerging technologies and new media are, and will continue, to shape and redefine the content and practice of STEM learning research; and, (6) to take into account the broader socio-cultural-political contexts of the needs and concerns of the larger global society.

  5. Insights into Dynamic Polymicrobial Synergy Revealed by Time-Coursed RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Erik L.; Beck, David A. C.; Miller, Daniel P.; Wang, Qian; Whiteley, Marvin; Lamont, Richard J.; Hackett, Murray

    2017-01-01

    Many bacterial infections involve polymicrobial communities in which constituent organisms are synergistically pathogenic. Periodontitis, a commonly occurring chronic inflammatory disorder, is induced by multispecies bacterial communities. The periodontal keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the accessory pathogen Streptococcus gordonii exhibit polymicrobial synergy in animal models of disease. Mechanisms of co-adhesion and community formation by P. gingivalis and S. gordonii are well-established; however, little is known regarding the basis for increased pathogenicity. In this study we used time-coursed RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively examine the dynamic transcriptional landscape of P. gingivalis in a model consortium with S. gordonii. Genes encoding a number of potential virulence determinants had higher relative mRNA levels in the context of dual species model communities than P. gingivalis alone, including adhesins, the Type IX secretion apparatus, and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif proteins. In contrast, genes encoding conjugation systems and many of the stress responses showed lower levels of expression in P. gingivalis. A notable exception to reduced abundance of stress response transcripts was the genes encoding components of the oxidative stress-related OxyR regulon, indicating an adaptation of P. gingivalis to detoxify peroxide produced by the streptococcus. Collectively, the results are consistent with evolutionary adaptation of P. gingivalis to a polymicrobial oral environment, one outcome of which is increased pathogenic potential. PMID:28293219

  6. Regenerative and Rehabilitative Medicine: A Necessary Synergy for Functional Recovery from Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Dearth, Christopher L; Corona, Benjamin T

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a complex and heterogeneous problem due to significant traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle tissue. The consequences of VML are substantial functional deficits in joint range of motion and skeletal muscle strength, resulting in life-long dysfunction and disability. Traditional physical medicine and rehabilitation paradigms do not address the magnitude of force loss due to VML and related musculoskeletal comorbidities. Recent advancements in regenerative medicine have set forth encouraging and emerging therapeutic options for VML injuries. There is significant potential that combined rehabilitative and regenerative therapies can restore limb and muscle function following VML injury in a synergistic manner. This review presents the current state of the VML field, spanning clinical and preclinical literature, with particular focus on rehabilitation and regenerative medicine in addition to their synergy. Moving forward, multidisciplinary collaboration between clinical and research fields is encouraged in order to continue to improve the treatment of VML injuries and specifically address the encompassing physiology, pathology, and specific needs of this patient population. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the USA. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Synergies in the space of control variables within the equilibrium-point hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Ambike, Satyajit; Mattos, Daniela; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    We use an approach rooted in the recent theory of synergies to analyze possible co-variation between two hypothetical control variables involved in finger force production based in the equilibrium-point hypothesis. These control variables are the referent coordinate (R) and apparent stiffness (C) of the finger. We tested a hypothesis that inter-trial co-variation in the {R; C} space during repeated, accurate force production trials stabilizes the fingertip force. This was expected to correspond to a relatively low amount of inter-trial variability affecting force and a high amount of variability keeping the force unchanged. We used the “inverse piano” apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers during force production tasks. Across trials, R and C showed strong co-variation with the data points lying close to a hyperbolic curve. Hyperbolic regressions accounted for over 99% of the variance in the {R; C} space. Another analysis was conducted by randomizing the original {R; C} data sets and creating surrogate data sets that were then used to compute predicted force values. The surrogate sets always showed much higher force variance compared to the actual data, thus reinforcing the conclusion that finger force control was organized in the {R; C} space, as predicted by the equilibrium-point hypothesis, and involved co-variation in that space stabilizing total force. PMID:26701299

  8. Stochastic simulation of reaction subnetworks: Exploiting synergy between the chemical master equation and the Gillespie algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of reaction networks is limited by two factors: accuracy and time. The Gillespie algorithm (GA) is a Monte Carlo-type method for constructing probability distribution functions (pdf) from statistical ensembles. Its accuracy is therefore a function of the computing time. The chemical master equation (CME) is a more direct route to obtaining the pdfs, however, solving the CME is generally very difficult for large networks. We propose a method that combines both approaches in order to simulate stochastically a part of a network. The network is first divided into two parts: A and B. Part A is simulated using the GA, while the solution of the CME for part B, with initial conditions imposed by simulation results of part A, is fed back into the GA. This cycle is then repeated a desired number of times. The advantage of this synergy between the two approaches is: 1) the GA needs to simulate only a part of the whole network, and hence is faster, and 2) the CME is necessarily simpler to solve, as the part of the network it describes is smaller. We will demonstrate on two examples - a positive feedback (genetic switch) and oscillations driven by a negative feedback - the utility of this approach.

  9. Synergy among antibacterial peptides and between peptides and small-molecule antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Marco; Otvos, Laszlo

    2010-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are key components of native immunity. Unlike most common small-molecule antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have been refined by evolution to work synergistically within the host environment. The mechanisms of synergy are complex and specific, and it is only now that they are beginning to be understood. Thus, antimicrobial peptides are top candidates to broaden our limited therapeutic arsenal, and are very well suited to be used in synergic combinations with currently available antibiotics. In order for this promising strategy to become a reality, however, some key steps in basic and translational research need to be improved. These include the standardization and critical evaluation of testing and quantification methods, the characterization of the molecular mechanism of action, the study of indirect antibacterial activity such as immune-response modulation, and several other aspects that will be presented and discussed, with a focus primarily on antibacterial therapy. There will be a special focus on advances and innovations that might significantly improve the future perspectives of antimicrobial peptides from a therapeutic point-of-view.

  10. Tradeoffs and synergies between biofuel production and large-scale solar infrastructure in deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energy installations in deserts are on the rise, fueled by technological advances and policy changes. Deserts, with a combination of high solar radiation and availability of large areas unusable for crop production are ideal locations for large scale solar installations. For efficient power generation, solar infrastructures require large amounts of water for operation (mostly for cleaning panels and dust suppression), leading to significant moisture additions to desert soil. A pertinent question is how to use the moisture inputs for sustainable agriculture/biofuel production. We investigated the water requirements for large solar infrastructures in North American deserts and explored the possibilities for integrating biofuel production with solar infrastructure. In co-located systems the possible decline in yields due to shading by solar panels may be offsetted by the benefits of periodic water addition to biofuel crops, simpler dust management and more efficient power generation in solar installations, and decreased impacts on natural habitats and scarce resources in deserts. In particular, we evaluated the potential to integrate solar infrastructure with biomass feedstocks that grow in arid and semi-arid lands (Agave Spp), which are found to produce high yields with minimal water inputs. To this end, we conducted detailed life cycle analysis for these coupled agave biofuel - solar energy systems to explore the tradeoffs and synergies, in the context of energy input-output, water use and carbon emissions.

  11. Lasercom for interplanetary missions: recent European activities, future possibilities, and synergy aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreischer, T.; Arnold, F.; Kudielka, K.; Tissot, Y.; Weigel, T.

    2010-02-01

    Science return and high bandwidth communications are key issues to support the foreseen endeavors on spaceflights to the Moon and beyond. For a given mass, power consumption and volume, laser communications can offer an increase in telemetry bandwidth over classical RF technology allowing for a variety of new options, like more raw scientific data being sent back to Earth where data processing can be performed on ground. Recent European activities in the field of laser communications investigated mission scenarios for deep space and within the Earth's sphere of influence. Various link topologies have been investigated, involving Lissajous orbits at Libration points of the Earth-Sun and the Moon- Earth system, and also Martian orbiters. Different types of lasercom terminal concepts have been investigated, either operating fully autonomously or being attached to dedicated telecom orbiter spacecraft. Enhanced pulse position modulation formats were tested together with tailored FEC and interleaver technology in inter-island test campaigns using ESA's optical ground station on Tenerife. The paper summarizes the findings from all activities, highlights the potential and describes synergy aspects of involved technologies, all in view using lasercom as part of an integrated RF-optical TT&C subsystem to support enhanced science return.

  12. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  13. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Intra-Auditory Integration Improves Motor Performance and Synergy in an Accurate Multi-Finger Pressing Task

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Kyung; Kwon, Hyun Joon; Park, Yang Sun; Kiemel, Tim; Miller, Ross H.; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shin, Joon-Ho; Shim, Jae Kun

    2016-01-01

    Humans detect changes in the air pressure and understand the surroundings through the auditory system. The sound humans perceive is composed of two distinct physical properties, frequency and intensity. However, our knowledge is limited how the brain perceives and combines these two properties simultaneously (i.e., intra-auditory integration), especially in relation to motor behaviors. Here, we investigated the effect of intra-auditory integration between the frequency and intensity components of auditory feedback on motor outputs in a constant finger-force production task. The hierarchical variability decomposition model previously developed was used to decompose motor performance into mathematically independent components each of which quantifies a distinct motor behavior such as consistency, repeatability, systematic error, within-trial synergy, or between-trial synergy. We hypothesized that feedback on two components of sound as a function of motor performance (frequency and intensity) would improve motor performance and multi-finger synergy compared to feedback on just one component (frequency or intensity). Subjects were instructed to match the reference force of 18 N with the sum of all finger forces (virtual finger or VF force) while listening to auditory feedback of their accuracy. Three experimental conditions were used: (i) condition F, where frequency changed; (ii) condition I, where intensity changed; (iii) condition FI, where both frequency and intensity changed. Motor performance was enhanced for the FI conditions as compared to either the F or I condition alone. The enhancement of motor performance was achieved mainly by the improved consistency and repeatability. However, the systematic error remained unchanged across conditions. Within- and between-trial synergies were also improved for the FI condition as compared to either the F or I condition alone. However, variability of individual finger forces for the FI condition was not significantly

  18. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  19. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  20. Multifunctional hybrids by combining ordered mesoporous materials and macromolecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2011-02-01

    This critical review presents and discusses the recent advances in complex hybrid materials that result from the combination of polymers and mesoporous matrices. Ordered mesoporous materials derived from supramolecular templating present high surface area and tailored pore sizes; pore surfaces can be further modified by organic, organometallic or even biologically active functional groups. This permits the creation of hybrid systems with distinct physical properties or chemical functions located in the framework walls, the pore surface, and the pore interior. Bringing polymeric building blocks into the game opens a new dimension: the possibility to create phase separated regions (functional domains) within the pores that can behave as "reactive pockets" of nanoscale size, with highly controlled chemistry and interactions within restricted volumes. The possibilities of combining "hard" and "soft" building blocks to yield these novel nanocomposite materials with tuneable functional domains ordered in space are potentially infinite. New properties are bound to arise from the synergy of both kinds of components, and their spatial location. The main object of this review is to report on new approaches towards functional polymer-inorganic mesostructured hybrids, as well as to discuss the present challenges in this flourishing research field. Indeed, the powerful concepts resulting from the synergy of sol-gel processing, supramolecular templating and polymer chemistry open new opportunities in the design of advanced functional materials: the tailored production of complex matter displaying spatially-addressed chemistry based on the control of chemical topology. Breakthrough applications are expected in the fields of sustainable energy, environment sensing and remediation, biomaterials, pharmaceutical industry and catalysis, among others (221 references).

  1. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    SciTech Connect

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kornov, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in a

  2. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Victor S.T.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination. PMID:24956940

  3. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  4. Land science with Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data series synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose; Guanter, Luis; Alonso, Luis; Gomez, Luis; Amoros, Julia; Camps, Gustavo; Delegido, Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Although the GMES/Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Apart from the improved spatial and spectral capabilities, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities. The results already derived from MERIS/AATRS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications. Built on a constellation of two satellites operating simultaneously to provide 5 days geometric revisit time, the Sentinel-2 system will providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. Apart from providing continuity to Landsat and SPOT time series, the Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) incorporates new narrow bands around the red-edge for improved retrievals of biophysical parameters. The limitations imposed by the need of a proper cloud screening and atmospheric corrections have represented a serious constraint in the past for optical data. The fact that both Sentinel-2 and 3 have dedicated bands to allow such needed corrections for optical data represents an important step towards a proper exploitation, guarantying consistent time series showing actual variability in land surface conditions without the artefacts introduced by the atmosphere. Expected operational products (such as Land Cover maps, Leaf Area Index

  5. Role of synergy between wear and corrosion in degradation of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzi, Marwan

    Tribocorrosion is a term used to describe the material degradation due to the combination of electrochemical and tribological processes. Due to a synergetic effect, the material loss can be larger than the sum of the losses due to wear and corrosion acting separately. In this thesis, the synergy of wear and corrosion was investigated for different types of material, namely the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the SS316L stainless steel coated with a thin film of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC), and the SS301 stainless steel coated with a thin film of chromium silicon nitride (CrSiN). A tribocorrosion apparatus was designed and constructed to conduct wear experiments in corrosive media. Sliding ball-on-plate configuration was used in this design, where the contact between the ball and the specimen is totally immersed in the test electrolyte. The specimen was connected to a potentiostat to control its electrochemical parameters, namely the potential and the current. Electrochemical techniques were used to control the kinetics of corrosion reactions, and therefore it was possible to assess separately the role of corrosion and wear in the total degradation of material, and to evaluate the synergy between them. For Ti-6Al-4V, it was found that the corrosion and tribocorrosion depend strongly on the structure of the material. The alpha-equiaxed microstructure with fine dispersed beta-phase exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance was found to decrease when the basal plane was preferentially aligned parallel to the surface, which is attributed to a low resistance to charge transfer in the oxide films formed on this plane. On the other hand, when wear and corrosion were involved simultaneously, the oxide layer protecting the substrate against dissolution was mechanically destroyed leading to a high corrosion rate. It was found that the hardness was the most important factor determining the tribocorrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy; samples with high hardness

  6. Investigating synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in earth observation based rapid mapping workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, C.

    2013-12-01

    In humanitarian emergencies, the timeliness of data provision and the short time-window available for dispatching value-added information pose major challenges to the mapping community. We have been engaged with a continuous research effort to explore novel ways to catalyze the EO-based humanitarian crisis information retrieval chain. This paper is an exploratory study, which aimed to discover the synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in the context of EO-based rapid mapping workflows. Our approach pillared on the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) focusing on multiscale, internally-displaced persons' (IDP) camp information extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) images. We applied twelve pansharpening algorithms to two subsets of a GeoEye-1 image scene that was taken over a former war-induced ephemeral settlement in Sri Lanka. A multidimensional assessment was employed to benchmark pansharpening algorithms with respect to their spectral and spatial fidelity. The multiresolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm of the eCognition Developer software served as the key algorithm in the segmentation process. The first study site was used for comparing segmentation results produced from the twelve fused products at a series of scale, shape, and compactness settings of the MRS algorithm. The segmentation quality and optimum parameter settings of the MRS algorithm were estimated by using empirical discrepancy measures. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to compare the quality of image object candidates, which were derived from the twelve pansharpened products. A wall-to-wall classification was performed based on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify image objects candidates of the fused images. The second site simulated a more realistic crisis information extraction scenario where the domain expertise is crucial in segmentation and classification. We compared segmentation and classification results of the original

  7. Synergy between broccoli sprout extract and selenium in the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Kun; Howie, A Forbes; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wang, Wei; Bao, Yongping

    2008-09-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium (Se) can up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) in cultured human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells [Zhang et al. (2003). Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis, 24, 497-503; Wang et al. (2005). Sulforaphane, erucin and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase expression in human MCF-7 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1417-1421] at both the protein and mRNA levels. In this study, broccoli sprout extract (a rich source of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and iberin) and Se interacted synergistically to induce TR1 in immortalised human hepatocytes. Broccoli sprout extracts containing 1.6, 4 and 8μM isothiocyanates were tested for their ability to induce TR1 at the protein and mRNA level. Although induction of TR1 mRNA by broccoli sprout extract (1.6-8μM) was only 1.7-2.2-fold, co-treatment with Se (0.2-1μM) enhanced the expression of TR1 mRNA (3.0-3.3-fold). Moreover, broccoli sprout extract induced the cellular concentration of TR1 and TR enzymatic activity, an induction that was augmented by Se addition. Thus, broccoli sprout extract (8μM) and Se induced cellular TR1 concentration and enzymatic activity 3.7- and 5-fold respectively, whereas, Se or broccoli sprout extract alone produced an induction of only approximately 2-fold. These data suggest that dietary isothiocyanates from broccoli sprouts and Se are important agents in the regulation of redox status in human liver cells. The synergistic effect between isothiocyanates and Se at physiologically-relevant concentrations on the induction of TR1 may play an important role in protection against oxidative stress.

  8. Neural representations of ethologically relevant hand/mouth synergies in the human precentral gyrus.

    PubMed

    Desmurget, Michel; Richard, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Baraduc, Pierre; Szathmari, Alexandru; Mottolese, Carmine; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-04-15

    Complex motor responses are often thought to result from the combination of elemental movements represented at different neural sites. However, in monkeys, evidence indicates that some behaviors with critical ethological value, such as self-feeding, are represented as motor primitives in the precentral gyrus (PrG). In humans, such primitives have not yet been described. This could reflect well-known interspecies differences in the organization of sensorimotor regions (including PrG) or the difficulty of identifying complex neural representations in peroperative settings. To settle this alternative, we focused on the neural bases of hand/mouth synergies, a prominent example of human behavior with high ethological value. By recording motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials in the PrG of patients undergoing brain surgery (2-60 y), we show that two complex nested neural representations can mediate hand/mouth actions within this structure: (i) a motor representation, resembling self-feeding, where electrical stimulation causes the closing hand to approach the opening mouth, and (ii) a motor-sensory representation, likely associated with perioral exploration, where cross-signal integration is accomplished at a cortical site that generates hand/arm actions while receiving mouth sensory inputs. The first finding extends to humans' previous observations in monkeys. The second provides evidence that complex neural representations also exist for perioral exploration, a finely tuned skill requiring the combination of motor and sensory signals within a common control loop. These representations likely underlie the ability of human children and newborns to accurately produce coordinated hand/mouth movements, in an otherwise general context of motor immaturity.

  9. Soil moisture estimation using synergy of optical, SAR, and topographic data with Gaussian Process Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, J.; Notarnicola, C.; Spindler, N.; Cuozzo, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Greifeneder, F.; Tuia, D.; Borgeaud, M.; Thiran, J.-Ph.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we address the synergy of optical, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and topographic data in soil moisture retrieval over an Alpine area. As estimation technique, we consider Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The test area is located in South Tyrol, Italy where the main land types are meadows and pastures. Time series of ASAR Wide Swath - SAR, optical, topographic and ancillary data (meteorological information and snow cover maps) acquired repetitively in 2010 were examined. Regarding optical data, we used both, daily MODIS reflectances, and daily NDVI, interpolated from the 16-day MODIS composite. Slope, elevation and aspect were extracted from a 2.5 m DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and resampled to 10 m. Daily soil moisture measurements were collected in the three fixed stations (two located in meadows and one located in pasture). The snow maps were used to mask the points covered by snow. The best performance was obtained by adding MODIS band 6 at 1640 nm to SAR and DEM features. The corresponding coefficient of determination, R2, was equal to 0.848, and the root mean square error, RMSE, to 5.4 % Vol. Compared to the case when no optical data were considered, there was an increase of ca. 0.05 in R2 and a decrease in RMSE of ca. 0.7 % Vol. This work showed that the joint use of NDVI or water absorption reflectance with SAR and topographic data can improve the estimation of soil moisture in specific Alpine area and that GPR is an effective method for estimation.

  10. Inspiring future scientists in middle-schools through synergy between classroom learning and water cycle research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D. C.; Kellagher, E.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Kaushik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is at the core of many issues in environmental change from local to global scales, and learning about the water cycle offers students an opportunity to explore core scientific concepts and their local environment. In climate research, there are significant uncertainties in the role water plays in the climate system. Water also acts as a central theme that provides opportunities for experiential science education at all levels. The "Water Spotters" program underway at University of Colorado exploits the synergy between needs for enrichment of middle-school science education and the needs for water sample collection to provide primary data for climate research. The program takes advantage of the prominent agricultural landscape of the region in eastern Colorado, which is a poignant example of how society influences the climate through irrigation, evaporation/transpiration and run-off and whose productivity is influenced by the climate system. Both natural grasslands and alpine ecosystems in the surrounding regions serve as examples of the native landscape. In coordination with the St. Vrain Valley School District MESA (Math Engineering Science Achievement) program, middle-school students collect rain water samples that are analyzed and used as a core component of the research goals. In concert, new lessons have been developed in coordination with science teachers that emphasize both core scientific standards and application learning about the water cycle. We present the new curriculum modules developed for the program and that are distributed to middle-school teachers. The modules include original lessons and lessons with expanded original material to teach about water and water isotopes. Curriculum packages that include media resources are increasingly important to teachers. The Water Spotters program uses video to teach collection protocols and give background on the project. Weather station data from schools are disseminated online alongside the rainwater

  11. Preclinical Therapeutic Synergy of MEK1/2 and CDK4/6 Inhibition in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lori S; Rader, JulieAnn; Raman, Pichai; Batra, Vandana; Russell, Mike R; Tsang, Matthew; Gagliardi, Maria; Chen, Lucy; Martinez, Daniel; Li, Yimei; Wood, Andrew; Kim, Sunkyu; Parasuraman, Sudha; Delach, Scott; Cole, Kristina A; Krupa, Shiva; Boehm, Markus; Peters, Malte; Caponigro, Giordano; Maris, John M

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Neuroblastoma is treated with aggressive multimodal therapy, yet more than 50% of patients experience relapse. We recently showed that relapsed neuroblastomas frequently harbor mutations leading to hyperactivated ERK signaling and sensitivity to MEK inhibition therapy. Here we sought to define a synergistic therapeutic partner to potentiate MEK inhibition.Experimental Design: We first surveyed 22 genetically annotated human neuroblastoma-derived cell lines (from 20 unique patients) for sensitivity to the MEK inhibitor binimetinib. After noting an inverse correlation with sensitivity to ribociclib (CDK4/6 inhibitor), we studied the combinatorial effect of these two agents using proliferation assays, cell-cycle analysis, Ki67 immunostaining, time-lapse microscopy, and xenograft studies.Results: Sensitivity to binimetinib and ribociclib was inversely related (r = -0.58, P = 0.009). MYCN amplification status and expression were associated with ribociclib sensitivity and binimetinib resistance, whereas increased MAPK signaling was the main determinant of binimetinib sensitivity and ribociclib resistance. Treatment with both compounds resulted in synergistic or additive cellular growth inhibition in all lines tested and significant inhibition of tumor growth in three of four xenograft models of neuroblastoma. The augmented growth inhibition was attributed to diminished cell-cycle progression that was reversible upon removal of drugs.Conclusions: Here we demonstrate that combined binimetinib and ribociclib treatment shows therapeutic synergy across a broad panel of high-risk neuroblastoma preclinical models. These data support testing this combination therapy in relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma patients, with focus on cases with hyperactivated RAS-MAPK signaling. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1785-96. ©2016 AACR.

  12. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sara E; Ryu, Hodon; Boczek, Laura A; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Jeanis, Kaitlyn M; Rosenblum, James S; Lawal, Oliver R; Linden, Karl G

    2017-02-01

    A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage. All five UV sources demonstrated similar inactivation of E. coli. For MS2, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was most effective. When measuring electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was most efficient for inactivating E. coli and MS2; the LP UV and MP UV mercury lamps were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UV-C LEDs, there was no statistical difference in electrical efficiency for inactivating MS2, HAdV2, and B. pumilus spores. The 260 nm and 260|280 nm LEDs had a statistical energy advantage for E. coli inactivation. For UV-C LEDs to match the electrical efficiency per order of log reduction of conventional LP UV sources, they must reach efficiencies of 25-39% or be improved on by smart reactor design. No dual wavelength synergies were detected for bacterial and viral inactivation nor for DNA and RNA damage.

  13. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies.

  14. Burkholderia cepacia complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): antibiotics stimulate lytic phage activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Fatima; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing.

  15. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l−1 and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1R allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1R and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1V or the duplicated ace-1D allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects. PMID:26463842

  16. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  17. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  18. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  19. Study of atmospheric parameters measurements using MM-wave radar in synergy with LITE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Madeleine Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, (LITE), has been developed, designed, and built by NASA Langley Research Center, to be flown on the space shuttle 'Discovery' on September 9, 1994. Lidar, which stands for light detecting and ranging, is a radar system that uses short pulses of laser light instead of radio waves in the case of the common radar. This space-based lidar offers atmospheric measurements of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, the planetary boundary layer, cloud top heights, and atmospheric temperature and density in the 10-40 km altitude range. A study is being done on the use, advantages, and limitations of a millimeterwave radar to be utilized in synergy with the Lidar system, for the LITE-2 experiment to be flown on a future space shuttle mission. The lower atmospheric attenuation, compared to infrared and optical frequencies, permits the millimeter-wave signals to penetrate through the clouds and measure multi-layered clouds, cloud thickness, and cloud-base height. These measurements would provide a useful input to radiation computations used in the operational numerical weather prediction models, and for forecasting. High power levels, optimum modulation, data processing, and high antenna gain are used to increase the operating range, while space environment, radar tradeoffs, and power availability are considered. Preliminary, numerical calculations are made, using the specifications of an experimental system constructed at Georgia Tech. The noncoherent 94 GHz millimeter-wave radar system has a pulsed output with peak value of 1 kW. The backscatter cross section of the particles to be measured, that are present in the volume covered by the beam footprint, is also studied.

  20. Study of atmospheric parameters measurements using MM-wave radar in synergy with LITE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrawis, Madeleine Y.

    1994-12-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, (LITE), has been developed, designed, and built by NASA Langley Research Center, to be flown on the space shuttle 'Discovery' on September 9, 1994. Lidar, which stands for light detecting and ranging, is a radar system that uses short pulses of laser light instead of radio waves in the case of the common radar. This space-based lidar offers atmospheric measurements of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, the planetary boundary layer, cloud top heights, and atmospheric temperature and density in the 10-40 km altitude range. A study is being done on the use, advantages, and limitations of a millimeterwave radar to be utilized in synergy with the Lidar system, for the LITE-2 experiment to be flown on a future space shuttle mission. The lower atmospheric attenuation, compared to infrared and optical frequencies, permits the millimeter-wave signals to penetrate through the clouds and measure multi-layered clouds, cloud thickness, and cloud-base height. These measurements would provide a useful input to radiation computations used in the operational numerical weather prediction models, and for forecasting. High power levels, optimum modulation, data processing, and high antenna gain are used to increase the operating range, while space environment, radar tradeoffs, and power availability are considered. Preliminary, numerical calculations are made, using the specifications of an experimental system constructed at Georgia Tech. The noncoherent 94 GHz millimeter-wave radar system has a pulsed output with peak value of 1 kW. The backscatter cross section of the particles to be measured, that are present in the volume covered by the beam footprint, is also studied.

  1. Burkholderia cepacia Complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): Antibiotics Stimulate Lytic Phage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing. PMID:25452284

  2. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l(-1) and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1(R) allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1(R) and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1(V) or the duplicated ace-1(D) allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects.

  3. Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Kate; Møgedal, Sigrun; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Frymus, Diana; Oshin, Adetokunbo; Pate, Muhammad; Quain, Estelle; Pinel, Arletty; Wynd, Shona; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care. Scaling up and maintaining CHW programmes is fraught with a host of challenges: poor planning; multiple competing actors with little coordination; fragmented, disease-specific training; donor-driven management and funding; tenuous linkage with the health system; poor coordination, supervision and support, and under-recognition of CHWs' contribution. The current drive towards universal health coverage (UHC) presents an opportunity to enhance people's access to health services and their trust, demand and use of such services through CHWs. For their potential to be fully realized, however, CHWs will need to be better integrated into national health-care systems in terms of employment, supervision, support and career development. Partners at the global, national and district levels will have to harmonize and synchronize their engagement in CHW support while maintaining enough flexibility for programmes to innovate and respond to local needs. Strong leadership from the public sector will be needed to facilitate alignment with national policy frameworks and country-led coordination and to achieve synergies and accountability, universal coverage and sustainability. In moving towards UHC, much can be gained by investing in building CHWs' skills and supporting them as valued members of the health team. Stand-alone investments in CHWs are no shortcut to progress.

  4. Towards ICRF3:preparing the VLBI frame for future synergy with the Gaia frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bourda, Géraldine

    2012-08-01

    The European space astrometric mission Gaia to be launched in 2013 will produce a QSO - based celestial reference frame with unprecedented position accuracy and sky density. By the end of the decade, two highly - accurate reference frames will thus cohabit, the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data and the Gaia optical frame, both with individual source position accuracies below 100 microarcseconds. For consistency be tween optical and radio positions, it will be fundamental to align the two frames with the highest possible accuracy. This is important not only for continuity of celestial frames but also to exploit at best their synergies for astrophysics. The latter includes probing the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets properties and the physics of these objects by comparing the spatial location of the optical and radio emission re gions. The alignment between the VLBI and Gaia frames requires a large number of sources common to the two frames, i.e. radio - loud QSOs with position accurately known from both VLBI and Gaia. This implies that the sources must be brighter than magnitude 18 (so that their Gaia positions may be derived with the highest accuracy) and have compact VLBI structure on milliarcsecond scales (for highly - accurate VLBI positions). In this paper, we review the current source potential for this alignment based on the ICRF2 and an ongoing dedicated VLBI project aimed at finding additional weaker extragalactic radio sources for this purpose. We also stress that these sources must be monitored during the mission (especially their VLBI position stability and structure) in order to control their relevance for the alignment, and present the observations we envision to this end in the framework of the IVS and other VLBI networks.

  5. Hard Disk/Solid State Drive Synergy in Support of Data-Intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Ke; Jiang, Song; Davis, Kei

    2012-07-19

    Data-intensive applications are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing. Examples include combustion simulation, human genome analysis, and satellite image processing. Efficient access of data sets is critical to the performance of these applications. Because of the size of the data today's economically feasible approach is to store the data files on an array of hard disks or data servers equipped with hard disks and managed by a parallel file system such as PVFS or Lustre wherein the data is striped over a (large) number of disks for high aggregate I/O throughout. With file striping, a request for a segment of logically contiguous file space is decomposed into multiple sub-requests, each to a different server. While the data unit for this striping is usually reasonably large to benefit disk efficiency, the first and/or last sub-requests can be much smaller than the striping unit if the request does not align with the striping pattern, severely compromising hard disk efficiency and thus application performance. We propose to exploit solid state drives (SSD), whose efficiency is much less sensitive to small random accesses, to enable the alignment of requests to disk with the data striping pattern. In this scheme hard disks mainly serve large, aligned, sequential requests, with SSDs serving small or unaligned requests, thus respecting the relative cost, performance, and durability characteristics of the two media, and thereby achieving synergy in performance/cost. We will describe the design of the proposed scheme, its implementation on CCS-7's Darwin cluster, and performance results.

  6. Augmented reality and photogrammetry: A synergy to visualize physical and virtual city environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portalés, Cristina; Lerma, José Luis; Navarro, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Close-range photogrammetry is based on the acquisition of imagery to make accurate measurements and, eventually, three-dimensional (3D) photo-realistic models. These models are a photogrammetric product per se. They are usually integrated into virtual reality scenarios where additional data such as sound, text or video can be introduced, leading to multimedia virtual environments. These environments allow users both to navigate and interact on different platforms such as desktop PCs, laptops and small hand-held devices (mobile phones or PDAs). In very recent years, a new technology derived from virtual reality has emerged: Augmented Reality (AR), which is based on mixing real and virtual environments to boost human interactions and real-life navigations. The synergy of AR and photogrammetry opens up new possibilities in the field of 3D data visualization, navigation and interaction far beyond the traditional static navigation and interaction in front of a computer screen. In this paper we introduce a low-cost outdoor mobile AR application to integrate buildings of different urban spaces. High-accuracy 3D photo-models derived from close-range photogrammetry are integrated in real (physical) urban worlds. The augmented environment that is presented herein requires for visualization a see-through video head mounted display (HMD), whereas user's movement navigation is achieved in the real world with the help of an inertial navigation sensor. After introducing the basics of AR technology, the paper will deal with real-time orientation and tracking in combined physical and virtual city environments, merging close-range photogrammetry and AR. There are, however, some software and complex issues, which are discussed in the paper.

  7. Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy

    PubMed Central

    Møgedal, Sigrun; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Frymus, Diana; Oshin, Adetokunbo; Pate, Muhammad; Quain, Estelle; Pinel, Arletty; Wynd, Shona; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care. Scaling up and maintaining CHW programmes is fraught with a host of challenges: poor planning; multiple competing actors with little coordination; fragmented, disease-specific training; donor-driven management and funding; tenuous linkage with the health system; poor coordination, supervision and support, and under-recognition of CHWs’ contribution. The current drive towards universal health coverage (UHC) presents an opportunity to enhance people’s access to health services and their trust, demand and use of such services through CHWs. For their potential to be fully realized, however, CHWs will need to be better integrated into national health-care systems in terms of employment, supervision, support and career development. Partners at the global, national and district levels will have to harmonize and synchronize their engagement in CHW support while maintaining enough flexibility for programmes to innovate and respond to local needs. Strong leadership from the public sector will be needed to facilitate alignment with national policy frameworks and country-led coordination and to achieve synergies and accountability, universal coverage and sustainability. In moving towards UHC, much can be gained by investing in building CHWs’ skills and supporting them as valued members of the health team. Stand-alone investments in CHWs are no shortcut to progress. PMID:24347709

  8. SKA weak lensing - III. Added value of multiwavelength synergies for the mitigation of systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Stefano; Harrison, Ian; Bonaldi, Anna; Brown, Michael L.

    2017-02-01

    In this third paper of a series on radio weak lensing for cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array, we scrutinize synergies between cosmic shear measurements in the radio and optical/near-infrared (IR) bands for mitigating systematic effects. We focus on three main classes of systematics: (i) experimental systematic errors in the observed shear; (ii) signal contamination by intrinsic alignments and (iii) systematic effects due to an incorrect modelling of non-linear scales. First, we show that a comprehensive, multiwavelength analysis provides a self-calibration method for experimental systematic effects, only implying <50 per cent increment on the errors on cosmological parameters. We also illustrate how the cross-correlation between radio and optical/near-IR surveys alone is able to remove residual systematics with variance as large as 10-5, i.e. the same order of magnitude of the cosmological signal. This also opens the possibility of using such a cross-correlation as a means to detect unknown experimental systematics. Secondly, we demonstrate that, thanks to polarization information, radio weak lensing surveys will be able to mitigate contamination by intrinsic alignments, in a way similar but fully complementary to available self-calibration methods based on position-shear correlations. Lastly, we illustrate how radio weak lensing experiments, reaching higher redshifts than those accessible to optical surveys, will probe dark energy and the growth of cosmic structures in regimes less contaminated by non-linearities in the matter perturbations. For instance, the higher redshift bins of radio catalogues peak at z ≃ 0.8-1, whereas their optical/near-IR counterparts are limited to z ≲ 0.5-0.7. This translates into having a cosmological signal 2-5 times less contaminated by non-linear perturbations.

  9. Hybrid Breakdown in Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike Bahati; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids. PMID:25996870

  10. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  11. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  12. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program

    PubMed Central

    Pathman, Donald E; Chuang, Emmeline; Weiner, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP), which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. Methods We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Results Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes hindered by turf issues and

  13. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  14. Hybridization schemes for clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    The concept of an optimum hybridization scheme for cluster compounds is developed with particular reference to electron counting. The prediction of electron counts for clusters and the interpretation of the bonding is shown to depend critically upon the presumed hybridization pattern of the cluster vertex atoms. This fact has not been properly appreciated in previous work, particularly in applications of Stone's tensor surface harmonic (TSH) theory, but is found to be a useful tool when dealt with directly. A quantitative definition is suggested for the optimum cluster hybridization pattern based directly upon the ease of interpretation of the molecular orbitals, and results are given for a range of species. The relationship of this scheme to the detailed cluster geometry is described using Löwdin's partitioned perturbation theory, and the success and range of application of TSH theory are discussed.

  15. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  16. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  17. Release of IL-12 by dendritic cells activated by TLR ligation is dependent on MyD88 signaling, whereas TRIF signaling is indispensable for TLR synergy.

    PubMed

    Krummen, Mathias; Balkow, Sandra; Shen, Limei; Heinz, Stefanie; Loquai, Carmen; Probst, Hans-Christian; Grabbe, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    Recently, it has been shown that certain combinations of TLR ligands act in synergy to induce the release of IL-12 by DCs. In this study, we sought to define the critical parameters underlying TLR synergy. Our data show that TLR ligands act synergistically if MyD88- and TRIF-dependent ligands are combined. TLR4 uses both of these adaptor molecules, thus activation via TLR4 proved to be a synergistic event on its own. TLR synergy did not affect all aspects of DC activation but enhanced primarily the release of certain cytokines, particularly IL-12, whereas the expression of costimulatory molecules remained unchanged. Consequently, synergistic activation of DC did not affect their ability to induce T cell proliferation but resulted in T(H)1-biased responses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the impact of TLR ligand combinations on primary DC in vitro but observed only modest effects with a combination of CpG + Poly (I:C). However, noticeable synergy in terms of IL-12 production by DCs was detectable in vivo after systemic administration of CpG + Poly (I:C). Finally, we show that synergy is partially dependent on IFNAR signaling but does not require the release of IFNs to the enviroment, suggesting an autocrine action of type I IFNs.

  18. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L; Fairhall, Adrienne L

    2015-04-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  19. Epigenetic bivalent marking is permissive to the synergy of HDAC and PARP inhibitors on TXNIP expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Puglisi, Fabio; Damante, Giuseppe; Puppin, Cinzia

    2015-05-01

    Studies on stem cell differentiation led to the identification of paused genes, characterized by the contemporary presence of both activator and repressor epigenetic markers (bivalent marking). TXNIP is an oncosuppressor gene the expression of which was reduced in breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the concept of epigenetic bivalent marking can be applied to TXNIP gene in breast cancer cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), three histone modifications were investigated: two associated with transcriptional activation, lysines 9-14 acetylation of H3 histone (H3K9K14ac) and lysine 4 trimethylation of H3 histone (H3K4me3), and one associated with transcriptional silencing, lysine 27 trimethylation of H3 histone (H3K27me3). According to the bivalent marking model, TXNIP gene appears to be paused in MDA157 cells (markers of active and repressed transcription are present), but are definitively silenced in MDA468 cells (presence of only markers of transcription repression). This was proven by evaluating TXNIP mRNA and protein levels after the treatment of cell lines with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (SAHA) and a poly-ADP-ribose polymerases inhibitor (PJ34). In MDA157 cells, SAHA and PJ34 showed a synergistic effect: a large increment was observed in TXNIP mRNA and protein levels. By contrast, in MDA468 cells, synergy between the two compounds was not observed. Therefore, the pausing epigenetic signature was permissive for synergy between SAHA and PJ34 on TXNIP gene expression. The synergy between SAHA and PJ34 on TXNIP expression was associated with variation in cell viability and apoptosis. In MDA157 cells, but not in MDA468 cells, combined treatment of SAHA and PJ34 induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that TXNIP is an effective target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. The delta-opioid receptor is sufficient, but not necessary, for spinal opioid-adrenergic analgesic synergy.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Millecamps, Magali; Stone, Laura S

    2013-12-01

    Spinal administration of opioid and α2-adrenergic receptor (α2AR) agonists produces analgesia, and agonists interact synergistically when coadministered. The molecular mechanism underlying this synergy is largely unknown. Pharmacological studies have identified both the delta and the mu-opioid receptors (DOR and MOR) as candidate receptors capable of interacting synergistically with α2AR agonists. However, recent studies attribute the antinociceptive effect of DOR agonists to actions at the MOR, calling the role of DOR in opioid-adrenergic synergy into question. Other studies suggesting that DOR is implicated in morphine antinociception raise the possibility that DOR is nonetheless required for morphine synergy with α2AR agonists. This study aimed to determine whether DOR activation is sufficient and necessary to mediate opioid-adrenergic synergistic interactions in the spinal cord. The antinociceptive effects of clonidine, [D-Ala(2)]-deltorphin II (DeltII), morphine, and [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO) were evaluated using the substance P (SP) behavioral assay in wild type (WT) and DOR-knockout (KO) mice. Opioid-adrenergic drug interactions were evaluated after spinal coadministration of clonidine with DeltII, morphine, or DAMGO. Isobolographic analyses of dose-response curves determined whether interactions were synergistic or additive. The absence of DeltII antinociceptive efficacy in DOR-KO confirmed its selectivity in the SP assay. Although DeltII+clonidine interacted synergistically in WT mice, no interaction with clonidine was observed in DOR-KO mice. Clonidine was synergistic with morphine in both mouse strains. DAMGO did not synergize with clonidine in either strain. These findings confirm that although other opioid receptors can interact synergistically with α2AR agonists, DOR is sufficient for spinal opioid-adrenergic interactions.

  1. Anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments: preparing to a postural perturbation with predictable and unpredictable direction.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Daniele; Falaki, Ali; Solnik, Stanislaw; Latash, Mark L

    2017-03-01

    We explored two aspects of feed-forward postural control, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) seen prior to self-triggered unloading with known and unknown direction of the perturbation. In particular, we tested two main hypotheses predicting contrasting changes in APAs and ASAs. The first hypothesis predicted no major changes in ASAs. The second hypothesis predicted delayed APAs with predominance of co-contraction patterns when perturbation direction was unknown. Healthy subjects stood on the force plate and held a bar with two loads acting in the forward and backward directions. They pressed a trigger that released one of the loads causing a postural perturbation. In different series, the direction of the perturbation was either known (the same load released in all trials) or unknown (the subjects did not know which of the two loads would be released). Surface electromyograms were recorded and used to quantify APAs, synergies stabilizing center of pressure coordinate (within the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis), and ASA. APAs and ASAs were seen in all conditions. APAs were delayed, and predominance of co-contraction patterns was seen under the conditions with unpredictable direction of perturbation. In contrast, no significant changes in synergies and ASAs were seen. Overall, these results show that feed-forward control of vertical posture has two distinct components, reflected in APAs and ASAs, which show qualitatively different adjustments with changes in predictability of the direction of perturbation. These results are interpreted within the recently proposed hierarchical scheme of the synergic control of motor tasks. The observations underscore the complexity of the feed-forward postural control, which involves separate changes in salient performance variables (such as coordinate of the center of pressure) and in their stability properties.

  2. Synergy between phorbol esters, 1-oleyl-2-acetylglycerol, urushiol, and calcium ionophore in eliciting aggregation of marine sponge cells.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, G; Azaroff, L; Davidson, S; Dunham, P

    1986-05-01

    Aggregation of marine sponge cells (Microciona prolifera) resembles stimulus-response coupling of higher organisms in which activation of protein kinase C and movements of intracellular Ca provide twin signals. We now report that activators of protein kinase C (phorbol esters) and ionomycin act synergistically to aggregate sponge cells. Surprisingly--since extracellular Ca is required for integrity of the species-specific aggregation factor--synergistic aggregation proceeded in the complete absence of added extracellular Ca (2.5-20 mM EDTA). The order of activity of phorbol esters and related compounds was that of their effect on protein kinase C (phorbol myristate acetate, phorbol dibutyrate greater than phorbol diacetate much greater than phorbol, 4 alpha-phorbol). 1-Oleyl, 2-acetylglycerol a synthetic activator of protein kinase C, also showed synergy with ionomycin. Phorbol esters and 1-oleyl, 2-acetylglycerol acted in synergy with ionomycin to liberate membrane Ca as detected by decreased fluorescence of chlortetracycline in prelabeled cells. Moreover, urushiol, the toxic principle of poison ivy, but not pentadecanylcatechol, its inert analogue, showed synergy with ionomycin. Synergistic aggregation was inhibited by calmidazolium (10 microM), piroxicam (20-100 microM), and pertussis toxin (20 micrograms/ml). The data not only confirm that marine sponge cell aggregation follows the general sequence of stimulus-response coupling in the cells of higher organisms but also support, in this most ancient of multicellular creatures, the hypothesis that mobilization of intracellular Ca and activation of protein kinase C provide the twin signals for cell activation in the absence of added extracellular Ca.

  3. Synergy between Common γ Chain Family Cytokines and IL-18 Potentiates Innate and Adaptive Pathways of NK Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia; Goodier, Martin R; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Studies to develop cell-based therapies for cancer and other diseases have consistently shown that purified human natural killer (NK) cells secrete cytokines and kill target cells after in vitro culture with high concentrations of cytokines. However, these assays poorly reflect the conditions that are likely to prevail in vivo in the early stages of an infection and have been carried out in a wide variety of experimental systems, which has led to contradictions within the literature. We have conducted a detailed kinetic and dose-response analysis of human NK cell responses to low concentrations of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, and IFN-α, alone and in combination, and their potential to synergize with IL-2. We find that very low concentrations of both innate and adaptive common γ chain cytokines synergize with equally low concentrations of IL-18 to drive rapid and potent NK cell CD25 and IFN-γ expression; IL-18 and IL-2 reciprocally sustain CD25 and IL-18Rα expression in a positive feedback loop; and IL-18 synergizes with FcγRIII (CD16) signaling to augment antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. These data indicate that NK cells can be rapidly activated by very low doses of innate cytokines and that the common γ chain cytokines have overlapping but distinct functions in combination with IL-18. Importantly, synergy between multiple signaling pathways leading to rapid NK cell activation at very low cytokine concentrations has been overlooked in prior studies focusing on single cytokines or simple combinations. Moreover, although the precise common γ chain cytokines available during primary and secondary infections may differ, their synergy with both IL-18 and antigen-antibody immune complexes underscores their contribution to NK cell activation during innate and adaptive responses. IL-18 signaling potentiates NK cell effector function during innate and adaptive immune responses by synergy with IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 and immune complexes.

  4. Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    Driving Sequence," Federal Register, 35(219): 17288-313 (10 November 1970). 7. "Electric Cars : Where Batteries Stand," Automotive Industry, 185(13): 81-83...Storage Systems, November 1979. 11. Hiroyuko, Imai. "Optimal Acceleration Performance and Storage Battery Voltage of an Electri