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Sample records for 60hz electromagnetic field

  1. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Abraham O.; Alcocer-González, Juan M.; Heredia-Rojas, J. Antonio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E.; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A.; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) results in a number of important biological changes, including modification of genetic expression. We have investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal EMFs at a magnetic flux density of 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labelled as pEMF (EMF plasmid). This gene construct contains the specific sequences for the induction of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) expression by EMFs, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was electrotransferred into quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice that were later exposed to EMFs. Increased luciferase expression was observed in mice exposed to EMFs 2 h daily for 7 days compared with controls (P<0.05). These data along with other reports in the literature suggest that EMFs can have far-reaching effects on the genome. PMID:23124775

  2. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham O; Alcocer-González, Juan M; Antonio Heredia-Rojas, J; Balderas-Candanosa, Isaías; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2009-03-01

    We have evaluated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields (MF) at 8 and 8 microT on expression of the luciferase gene contained in a gene construct labelled as Electromagnetic Field-plasmid (pEMF). The vector included the hsp70 promotor containing the 3 nCTCTn sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by magnetic fields, as well as the reporter of the luciferase gene. We also replicated the study of Lin et al. [Lin H, Blank M, Rossol-Haseroth K, Goodman R. Regulating genes with electromagnetic response elements. J Cell Biochem 2001;81(1):143-48]. The pEMF plasmid was transfected into HeLa and BMK16 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). An increased luciferase expression was found in both the cells exposed to MF and TS compared with their control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined effect of MF and TS was also analyzed. A synergistic effect between two factors was observed for this co-exposure condition in terms of luciferase gene expression.

  3. Occupational and residential 60-Hz electromagnetic fields and high-frequency electric transients: exposure assessment using a new dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Deadman, J E; Camus, M; Armstrong, B G; Héroux, P; Cyr, D; Plante, M; Thériault, G

    1988-08-01

    One problem that has limited past epidemiologic studies of cancer and exposure to extremely low-frequency (0-100 Hz) electric and magnetic fields has been the lack of adequate methods for assessing personal exposure to these fields. A new 60-Hz electromagnetic field dosimeter was tested to assess occupational and residential exposures of a group of electrical utility workers and a comparison background group over a 7-day period. Comparing work periods only, utility workers' exposures were significantly higher than background levels by a factor of about 10 for electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields and by a factor of 171 for high-frequency transient electric (HFTE) fields. When overall weekly time-weighted averages combining work and nonwork exposures were compared, ratios of the exposed to background groups were lower. B and HFTE exposure ratios remained statistically significant, with values of 3.5 and 58, respectively, whereas the electric field exposure ratio was no longer significant, with a value of 1.7. E-field exposures of the background group were the highest during the nonwork period, probably reflecting the use of electrical appliances at home. Residential E- and B-field exposures were in the same range as published results from other surveys, whereas occupational E-field exposures tended to be lower than exposures reported in other studies. The high variability associated with occupational exposures probably accounts for the latter discrepancy. Worker acceptance of wearing the dosimeter was good: 95% of participants found it to be of little or no inconvenience while at work. At home, 37% found the device to be inconvenient in its present form but would not object to wearing a slightly smaller and lighter dosimeter.

  4. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  5. Increase in radiation-induced HPRT gene mutation frequency after nonthermal exposure to nonionizing 60 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Walleczek, J; Shiu, E C; Hahn, G M

    1999-04-01

    It is widely accepted that moderate levels of nonionizing electric or magnetic fields, for example 50/60 Hz magnetic fields of about 1 mT, are not mutagenic. However, it is not known whether such fields can enhance the action of known mutagens. To explore this question, a stringent experimental protocol, which included blinding and systematic negative controls, was implemented, minimizing the possibility of observer bias or experimental artifacts. As a model system, we chose to measure mutation frequencies induced by 2 Gy gamma rays in the redox-sensitive hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested whether a 12-h exposure to a 60 Hz sinusoidally oscillating magnetic-flux density (Brms = 0.7 mT) could affect the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation on the HPRT gene locus. We determined that the magnetic-field exposure induced an approximate 1.8-fold increase in HPRT mutation frequency. Additional experiments at Brms = 0.23 and 0.47 mT revealed that the effect was reduced at lower flux densities. The field exposure did not enhance radiation-induced cytotoxicity or mutation frequencies in cells not exposed to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that moderate-strength, oscillating magnetic fields may act as an enhancer of mutagenesis in mammalian cells.

  6. Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of cancer?

    PubMed

    Jackson, J D

    1992-04-15

    The putative causal relation between ambient low-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (necessarily present in living and working environments because of our ever increasing use of electrical devices) and cancer, especially leukemia, can be tested on the large scale by examining historical data on the growth of the generation and consumption of electric power since 1900 and corresponding data on cancer death and incidence rates. The United States per capita generation and residential consumption of electric power have grown roughly exponentially since 1900; total per capita generation has increased by a factor of 10 since 1940, and per capita residential consumption has increased by a factor of 20 in the same period. The ubiquitous stray fields from power distribution lines and internal and external wiring in buildings have grown in the same proportions. In contrast to the explosive increase in the generation and use of electricity, the age-adjusted cancer death rate for the population as a whole shows only a slight rise since 1900. When respiratory cancers (largely caused by tobacco use) are subtracted, the remaining death rate has actually fallen since 1940. That the death rate may have fallen because of better diagnosis and treatment, despite a rising incidence rate, is not substantiated, especially for leukemia, including childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate has been constant or declining slightly for the past 25 yr. The absence of any appreciable change in the national cancer incidence rates during a period in which residential use of electric power has increased dramatically shows that the associated stray 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields pose no significant hazard to the average individual. PMID:1565645

  7. Absence of DNA damage after 60-Hz electromagnetic field exposure combined with ionizing radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or c-Myc overexpression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage in a normal cell line system after exposure to 60 Hz of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) and particularly in combination with various external factors, via comet assays. NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, WI-38 human lung fibroblast cells, L132 human lung epithelial cells, and MCF10A human mammary gland epithelial cells were exposed for 4 or 16 h to a 60-Hz, 1 mT uniform magnetic field in the presence or absence of ionizing radiation (IR, 1 Gy), H(2)O(2) (50 μM), or c-Myc oncogenic activation. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the cells exposed to ELF-MF alone and the unexposed cells. Moreover, no synergistic or additive effects were observed after 4 or 16 h of pre-exposure to 1 mT ELF-MF or simultaneous exposure to ELF-MF combined with IR, H(2)O(2), or c-Myc activation.

  8. Endocrinological effects of strong 60-Hz electric fields on rats

    SciTech Connect

    Free, M.J.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.; Cheng, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields without spark discharges, ozone, or significant levels or other secondary variables. No effects were discharges, ozone, or significant levels of other secondary variables. No effects were observed on body weights or plasma hormone levels after 30 days of exposure at an effective field strength of 68 kV/m. After 120 days of exposure (effective field strength = 64 kV/m), effects were inconsistent, with signficant reductions in body weight and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone occurring in one replicate experiment but not in the other. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced after 120 days of exposure in one experiment, with a similar but not statistically significant reduction in a replicate experiment. Weanling rats, exposed or sham-exposed in electric fields with an effective field strength of 80 kV/m from 20 to 56 days of age, exhibited identical or closely similar growth trends in body and organ weights. Hormone levels in exposed and sham-exposed groups were also similar. However, there was an apparent phase shift between the two groups in the cyclic variations of concentrations of hormones at different stages of development, particularly with respect to follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone. We concluded that 60-Hz electric fields may bring about subtle changes in the endocrine system of rats, and that these changes may be related to alterations in episodic rhythms.

  9. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  10. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  11. [The present state of knowledge concerning the effect of electromagnetic fields of 50/60 Hz on the circulatory system and the autonomic nervous system].

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Bortkiewicz, A; Zmyślony, M

    1997-01-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system together with neoplastic diseases are recognised as the major health problem in the contemporary world. Their origin and aggravation may be related to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) since theoretically, disorders in the functioning of the circulatory system are most likely due to electric impulses generated in it by external magnetic fields. The nervous system, including its autonomic part which regulates, among others, the functioning of the circulatory system, because of its electric nature is another system which may be disturbed by EMFs. From the 1960s, biological studies on the effects of power-line frequency EMFs have been carried out in many countries. In view of the applied study model, four main directions of these studies can be identified: in vitro and in vivo animal experiments, experimental studies on humans, clinical and epidemiological studies. Experimental studies on animals and humans have yielded ambiguous and very often contradictory results. Some of them indicate that EMF contributes to slowing down the cardiac rhythm and the stroke volume of the left ventricle, other results suggest their acceleration, and still other show no differences. The results of clinical studies performed in many countries in different groups of workers exposed to power-line frequency EMFs have not produced the evidence for drawing unequivocal conclusions. Again some studies reveal that those exposed show disorders in neurovegetative and blood pressure regulations (hypotension or hypertension) as well as in cardiac rhythm (bradycardia or tachycardia). Other studies do not confirm harmful effect of EMF on the circulatory system. Therefore, it is not feasible to find out, on the basis of these studies, whether and how chronic exposure to power-line frequency EMFs influences the functioning of the circulatory system, the more so as ECG standard recording has been to date the only diagnostic method, and according to the

  12. Detection thresholds for 60 Hz electric fields by nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    Because responses of animals to detection of the presence of an electric field (EF) are a possible mechanism for production of biological effects, it is important to know what EF intensities are detectable. Operant methods were used to train six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) to perform a psychophysical task involving detection of EF presence. During the response phase of a trial, a subject responded on one push button to report the presence of the EF and on a different push button to report the absence of the EF. Correct reports of EF presence or absence produced delivery of food rewards. The subjects became proficient at performing this psychophysical detection task; during 35 days of testing, false alarm rates averaged 9%. The average EF detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means among subjects was 5--15 kV/m. Two special test procedures confirmed that the subjects were responding directly to EF presence or absence and not to artifacts that might be associated with EF generation. The EF detection threshold of nonhuman primates is similar to thresholds reported for rats and humans.

  13. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    An overall description of this research program is presented. The objectives are to investigate using nonhuman primates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high-intensity, 60 Hz, electric fields. 6 tabs.

  14. Physiological variables and subjective symptoms by 60 Hz magnetic field in EHS and non-EHS persons.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Chang; Choi, Jae Lim; Kwon, Min Kyung; Jang, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Deok Won

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a set of claims of adverse medical symptoms self attributed by exposure to electromagnetic field. In this study, we simultaneously investigated both physiological changes (heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability) and subjective symptoms to determine the origin of EHS. Two volunteer groups (15 self-reported EHS and 16 non-EHS participants) were tested under both sham and real exposure to 12.5 μT magnetic fields at 60 Hz that lasted a half an hour. The magnetic field exposure did not have any effect on physiological variables or subjective symptoms in either group. We conclude that the subjective symptoms did not result from exposure to 12.5 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz. PMID:22254708

  15. Effects on g2/m phase cell cycle distribution and aneuploidy formation of exposure to a 60 Hz electromagnetic field in combination with ionizing radiation or hydrogen peroxide in l132 nontumorigenic human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hee; Yoon, Hye Eun; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether exposure to the combination of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 60 Hz, 1 mT or 2 mT) with a stress factor, such as ionizing radiation (IR) or H2O2, results in genomic instability in non-tumorigenic human lung epithelial L132 cells. To this end, the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells and aneuploid cells were examined. Exposure to 0.5 Gy IR or 0.05 mM H2O2 for 9 h resulted in the highest levels of aneuploidy; however, no cells were observed in the subG1 phase, which indicated the absence of apoptotic cell death. Exposure to an ELF-MF alone (1 mT or 2 mT) did not affect the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells, aneuploid cells, or the populations of cells in the subG1 phase. Moreover, when cells were exposed to a 1 mT or 2 mT ELF-MF in combination with IR (0.5 Gy) or H2O2 (0.05 mM), the ELF-MF did not further increase the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells or aneuploid cells. These results suggest that ELF-MFs alone do not induce either G2/M arrest or aneuploidy, even when administered in combination with different stressors.

  16. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  17. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  18. Comparison of cardiac and 60 Hz magnetically induced electric fields measured in anesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Creim, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields interact with an animal by inducing internal electric fields, which are in addition to the normal endogenous fields present in living animals. Male rats weighing about 560 g each were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Small incisions were made in the ventral body wall at the chest and upper abdomen to position a miniature probe for measuring internal electric fields. The calibration constant for the probe size was 5.7 mm, with a flat response from at least 12 Hz to 20 kHz. A cardiac signal, similar to the normal electrocardiogram with a heart rate of about 250 bpm, was readily obtained at the chest. Upon analysis of its spectrum, the cardiac field detected by the probe had a broad maximum at 32--95 Hz. When the rates were exposed to a 1 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field, a spike appeared in the spectrum at 60 Hz. The peak-to-peak magnitudes of electric fields associated with normal heart function were comparable to fields induced by a 1 mT magnetic field at 60 Hz for those positions measured on the body surface. Within the body, or in different directions relative to the applied field, the induced fields were reduced. The cardiac field increased near the heart, becoming much larger than the induced field. Thus, the cardiac electric field, together with the other endogenous fields, combine with induced electric fields and help to provide reference levels for the induced-field dosimetry of ELF magnetic field exposures of living animals.

  19. Immunological and biochemical effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fotopoulos, S.S.; Graham, C.

    1990-01-01

    Demand for electric energy increased at an annual average rate of 7.5% between 1912 and 1971. In order to meet this demand, utility companies have increased the number and size of their generating units and the operating voltages employed in overhead transmission lines. Recently public concern has been expressed about possible risks to human health, function, and well-being arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with overhead transmission line voltage. The Department of Energy funded the present project to investigate the effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on critically important immunological, biochemical, and hematological variables. Inclusion of such variables will be of great value in assessing the effects of 60-Hz fields on human health and welfare, and will provide results comparable to ongoing animal studies. The scope of this project includes six major goals: development of systems for incorporating biochemistry, hematology, and immunology data collection into the procedures already developed for the performance and physiology study funded by the New York State Overhead Power Lines Project; development of sample tracking and quality assurance procedures for project data; methods development and setting up of all procedures for performing assays; collecting data; carrying out assays according to the procedures defined; and statistically evaluating and interpreting the effects of 60-Hz exposure on hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. 3 tabs.

  20. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

  1. Behavioral studies with mice exposed to DC and 60-Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.P.; Mizumori, S.J.Y.; Allen, H.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Bennett, E.L.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral measures were evaluated in adult CD-1 and LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a 1.5-Tesla (1 T = 10/sup 4/ Gauss) homogeneous DC magnetic field, and in LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a sinusoidal 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) homogeneous AC field. Three types of behavioral tests were employed: (1) memory of an electroshock-motivated passive avoidance task was assessed in animals that had been trained immediately prior to the field exposure. The strength of memory was varied either by altering the strength of the electric footshock during training, or by administering a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, at the time of training. (2) General locomotor activity was measured using a quadrant-crossing test immediately after termination of the magnetic field exposure. (3) Sensitivity of the experimental subjects to the seizure-inducing neuropharmacological agent, pentylenetetrazole, was assessed immediately after the field exposure on the basis of three criteria: (a) the percentage of subjects exhibiting a generalized seizure, (b) the mean time to seizure, and (c) the mean seizure level. The results of these studies revealed no behavior alterations in exposed mice relative to controls in any of the experimental tests with the 1.5-T DC field or the 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) AC field. 57 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  2. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  3. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  4. Attempts to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and (2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 +/- 5 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test between water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 +/- 2 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 +/- 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin. 16 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  5. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 7. Neurology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Neurophysiological responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Results are presented from experiments on peripheral nerve function in parental (F/sub 0/) female swine at 100 days of gestation, and from experiments on synaptic transmission in first- and second-generation (F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/) progeny at 6 weeks of age, all following chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. In the several measures of peripheral nerve function examined, only two showed consistent differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals: C-fiber (but not B-fiber) conduction velocity was decreased in nerve preparations from exposed swine, and recovery, as measured by the increase in amplitude of the compound action potential, was consistently, although not statistically, less in B- and C-fibers from exposed animals when compared to values for the sham-exposed controls. Although changes (increases or decreases) in various parameters of synaptic transmission were observed between exposed and sham-exposed groups, the differences were not consistent across experiments or generations. Only one measure of synaptic function showed a consistent difference throughout the studies: the conduction velocities of B and C components of the postsynaptic compound action potential were increased following electric-field exposure (statistically significant only in B-fibers of the F/sub 2/ generations). 7 refs., 60 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on central cholinergic systems of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1993-03-15

    The authors studied the effects of an acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field on sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in the brain of the rat. Decreases in uptake were observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after the animals were exposed to a magnetic field at flux densities [>=] 0.75 mT. These effects of the magnetic field were blocked by pretreating the animals with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide. These data indicate that the magnetic-field-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain were mediated by endogenous opioids in the central nervous systems.

  7. Electric fields induced in chicken eggs by 60-Hz magnetic fields and the dosimetric importance of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Chicken eggs are convenient models for observing the effects of inhomogeneities and variations, such as those found in biological membranes and in cellular conductivities, on the distribution of internal electric fields as induced by exposure to magnetic fields. The vitelline membrane separates the yolk, which has a conductivity of 0.26 S/m, from the white, which has a conductivity of 0.85 S/m. A miniaturized probe with 2.4-mm resolution was used to measure induced fields in eggs placed in a uniform, 1-mT magnetic field at 60 Hz. The E fields induced in eggs with homogenized contents agreed with expectations based on simple theory. Results were similar to intact eggs unless the probe moved the yolk off-center, which greatly perturbed the induced fields. A more reproducible arrangement, which consisted of saline-agar filled dishes with a hole cut for test samples, was developed to enhance definition of electrical parameters. With this test system, the vitelline membrane was found to be responsible for most of the perturbation of the induced field, because it electrically isolates the yolk from the surrounding white. From a theoretical viewpoint, this dosimetry for the macroscopic egg yolk is analogous to the interaction of fields with microscopic cells. These findings may have important implications for research on biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields, especially for studies of avian embryonic development.

  8. Effect of chronic 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammary tumorigenesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    Female rats were administered a single dosage of 7 or 10 mg of DMBA intragastrically between 50 and 55 days of age and palpated weekly for mammary tumors in two experiments. Rats were either exposed to a 40 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or sham-exposed in utero through 18 or 23 weeks of age. There was no difference between electric field exposed and sham-exposed in incidence of first tumor. When the results of the two experiments were combined, the electric field exposed groups had significantly more tumors per tumor-bearing animal than the sham-groups. These results may have implications for the role of electric power use in the etiology and promotion of breast cancer. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of 60 Hz electrical fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.

    1988-04-06

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort involving the United State Department of Energy, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Japan's Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry. Since August of 1984, four major research projects were successfully completed. 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Philips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, with lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.

  11. Biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small and large laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Rats and mice were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields up to 330 kV/m for durations as long as four months. No significant effects were found in the following major areas: metabolic status and growth; organ and tissue morphology; brain morphology; cardiovascular function; serum chemistry; reproduction; prenatal growth and development; teratology; bone growth; peripheral nerve function; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; susceptibility to viral infection; cell and membrane function; illness/malaise; and cytogenetics. Statistically significant effects of electric field exposures were observed in the following areas: bone fracture repair; neonatal development; neuromuscular function; endocrinology; hematology; neurochemistry; urine volume and chemistry; sympathetic nervous system; behavior. It is likely that many of the effects observed are secondary to chronic stimulation of the animal by the field. Our research efforts have shifted to an in-depth investigation of nervous system functions, with emphasis in behavior, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and dosimetry. Current and future research in these areas will focus on: relationship of effects to field strength and duration of exposure; recovery from observed effects; fundamental understanding of observed effects; fundamental understanding of interaction of field with animal (dosimetry); and biological significance of observed effects. (ERB)

  12. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 2: Behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The behavioral responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Tests were conducted on mature swine as well as on very young swine and weanlings and included measures of: (1) preference for exposure to or shielding from the electric field; (2) early neuromuscular development; (3) exploratory behavior; (4) simple learning and memory function; and (5) short-term memory. Repeated evaluations of behavioral parameters show few statistically significant effects. In the parental (F/sub 0/) generation, exposed sows showed a preference to remain out of the field, particularly during the dark period. Adult first-generation (F/sub 1/) sows, however, failed to demonstrate such a preference to stay out of the field. In other behavioral assessments, the singular significant effect in F/sub 1/ swine was the increased number of vocalizations in both male and female swine during the exploratory behavior test. This result, also inconsistent across generations, was not repeated in the second-generation (F/sub 2/) exploratory tests, where exposed female swine made significantly fewer vocalizations than their sham-exposed counterparts. The study provides no other evidence of an overall behavioral effect in swine of prenatal exposure to electric fields. 13 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Immunological and biochemical effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fotopoulos, S.S.; Graham, C.

    1985-02-05

    Demand for electric power increased at an annual average rate of 7.5% between 1912 and 1971. In order to meet this demand, utility companies have had to increase both the number and the operating voltages employed in their overhead transmission lines. Public concern has been expressed about possible risks to human health and function arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated by these lines. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDH) is currently administering a wide-ranging research program to address the above issues. As part of this effort, MRI was funded to perform the first double-blind human study of the effects of exposure to combined 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. The study focused on measure of human performance physiology and subjective state. The present project into the planned double-blind study. The purpose of Phase 1 was to conduct a comprehensive, screening evaluation of the effects of field exposure on human immunologic hematologic and biochemical parameters. Phase 1 of the current program has now also been completed, and the purpose of this report is to summarize our findings in regard to the effects of field exposure on measures of human immunologic, hematologic and biochemical function. The following sections of this document present the specific aims of the research conducted, the experimental methods and procedures followed, and the statistical analysis performed. The document concludes with a discussion of the findings obtained.

  14. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Nonhuman primates will not respond to turn off strong 60 Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    Using a set of six baboons (Papio cynocephalus), the authors conducted a series of seven experiments designed to evaluate the potentially aversive character of a 60 Hz electric field (EF). Initially, the subjects were trained, using food rewards as the reinforcer, to respond only when a cue light was illuminated. Next, an EF was presented along with the cue light; responses produced delivery of a food pellet and turned off both the cue light and the EF. Then, stimulus and reward conditions were varied. The authors determined that (1) presence of a strong EF does not affect operant responding for food rewards, (2) subjects will not respond at normal rates when the only reinforcer is termination of a strong EF, (3) presence of a strong EF can serve as a discriminative stimulus, (4) presence of a strong EF does not affect extinction of an appetite-motivated task, and (5) presentation of an EF can become a secondary reinforcer. The pattern of results was consistent across all experiments, suggesting that an EF of as much as 65 kV/m is not aversive to nonhuman primates. Separately, the authors demonstrated that the average EF detection threshold for baboons is 12 kV/m. Thus, EF exposure at intensities well above the detection threshold and at species-scaled EF strengths greater than those found environmentally does not appear to be aversive.

  16. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 6. Immunology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Immunological response in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. The study was designed to investigate functional aspects of the humoral and cellular components of the mammalian immune system. Circulating levels of immunoglobulins were measured in parental-generation (F/sub 0/) sows (0 to 22 months of exposure), first-generation fetuses (F/sub 1/) at 100 days of gestation, F/sub 1/ females (0 to 32 months of exposure) and second-generation (F/sub 2/) weanlings at 1.5 and 6 months of age. No consistent, statistically significant changes in the levels of serum immunoglobins were observed when exposed groups were compared with sham-exposed controls, either within or across generations. An examination of cellular immunity included measurements of the mitogen response of peripheral-blood lymphocytes (PBL), spleen cells and lymph-node cells of F/sub 0/ sows sacrificed after 100 days of pregnancy, and PBL, spleen cells and thymocytes of F/sub 1/ fetuses at 100 days of gestation. Mitogen response studies of PBL, spleen cells, thymocytes and lymph-node cells of 42-day-old F/sub 1/ male weanlings and F/sub 2/ male and female swine were also conducted. In the statistical comparisons of mitogen-response data obtained for F/sub 0/, F/sub 1/, and F/sub 2/ swine, no consistent differences were observed between exposed and matched sham-exposed control groups. These observations indicate that the distribution of cells in the various tissues studied and the responses observed were not altered as a result of exposure to the fields. 22 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Analysis of the effect of a 60 Hz AC field on histamine release by rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Price, J A; Strattan, R D

    1998-01-01

    Reports have indicated effects of electromagnetic fields on inflammatory processes in vivo. To begin a systematic approach toward separating and examining the many components of such responses, we created and tested a temperature-controlled device to develop 5 mT 60 Hz magnetic fields for studies of the effects of fields on mast cells, a key component in acute inflammatory responses. Such fields have been reported to modulate cell activity, including changes in membrane function, in various systems. The magnetic field was generated using a solenoid and calibrated with an induction probe. Tests of mast cell function were determined by histamine release response to stimulation by compound 48/80, using both an "expose then test" and a "test during exposure" protocol. Aliquots not treated with 48/80 were used to evaluate field treatment effects on spontaneous histamine release. Freshly harvested rat peritoneal mast cells were exposed to the magnetic field for periods of 30 min to 2 h at 37 degrees C. They showed no significant degranulation during treatment, nor did they show reduced sensitivity to the degranulating agent 48/80. These observations are consistent with a model in which such processes are exclusively reflexive by the cells using field-independent membrane systems. This observation is very useful and was needed before examining longer term exposures in which gene expression in the cells might be influenced; this is the first such report of in vitro exposure of purified mast cells under these conditions and will further the study of the effects of electromagnetic fields on cell types active in acute inflammation.

  18. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields and harmonic frequencies in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B M; Polen, M; Gauger, J R; Mallett, E; Kearns, M B; Bryan, T L; McCormick, D L

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz MFs (third harmonic), alone or in combination with 60 Hz MFs, induces birth defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of sperm-positive dams (> or =20/group) were exposed for 18.5 h per day from gestation days 6 through 19 to (1) ambient MFs only (<0.0001 mT; sham controls); (2) 60 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; (3) 180 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; or (4) 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs (10% third harmonic; total field strength = 0.2 mT). Litter size, litter weight, percentage live births, sex ratio, and number of resorption sites were determined for each dam, and gross external, visceral, cephalic and skeletal examinations were performed on all fetuses. MF exposure had no significant effects on litter size, litter weight, or fetal development. With the exception of common rib variants, the incidence of fetal anomalies was comparable in all groups. A small increase in the incidence of rib variants was seen in the group exposed to 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs; however, the incidence of rib variants in this group was similar to that in historical controls from our laboratory. These data extend the existing database on developmental toxicity of MFs by demonstrating that exposure to 180 Hz MFs, either alone or superimposed on an underlying 60 Hz signal, does not induce biologically significant developmental toxicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to power-frequency MFs is an important risk factor for fetal development. PMID:10790286

  19. Reproduction, growth, and development of rats during chronic exposure to multiple field strengths of 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rommereim, D.N.; Rommereim, R.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Buschbom, R.L.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1990-04-01

    A study with multiple exposure groups and large group sizes was performed to establish whether exposure to 60-Hz electric fields would result in reproductive and developmental toxicity. A response model was developed from previous results and tested in groups of rats exposed to electric fields at various field strengths. Female rats were mated, and sperm-positive animals randomly distributed among four groups: sham-exposed or exposed to 10, 65, or 130 kV/m, 60-Hz vertical electric fields. Animals were exposed for 19 hr/day throughout the experiment. During gestation, exposure to the higher field strengths resulted in slightly depressed weight gains of dams. Offspring were born in the field and remained with their dams through the suckling period. Numbers of pups per litter and pup mortality did not differ among the exposure groups. Dams exposed at 65 kV/m lost slightly more weight through the lactation period than the control group. Male pups exposed to higher field strengths gained slightly less weight from 4 to 21 days of age than did sham-exposed animals. At weaning, two F1 females per litter (randomly selected) continued on the same exposure regimen were mated at 11 weeks of age to unexposed males, and euthanized at 20 days of gestation. Uterine contents were evaluated, and all live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. Fertility and gestational weight gain of F1 females were not affected by exposure, nor was prenatal viability or fetal body weight. No significant increase in the incidence of litters with malformations was observed. Although no developmental toxicity was detected, exposures produced physical changes in the dams, evidenced as a rust-colored deposit on the muzzle and ears (chromodacryorrhea) that increased in incidence and severity at 65 and 130 kV/m.

  20. Clinical progression of transplanted large granular lymphocytic leukemia in Fischer 334 rats exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James E. ); Sasser, Lyle B. ); Miller, Douglas L. ); Dagle, Gerald E.; Rafferty, C N.; Ebi, K L.; Anderson, Larry E. )

    1999-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to determine if 60 Hz magnetic fields could alter the clinical progression of leukemia in an animal model. Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia cells from spleens of leukemic rats were transplanted into young male Fischer rats, producing signs of leukemia in about 2-3 months. The animals were injected with 2.2 x 107 LGL leukemia cells at the initiation of the study and assigned to 4 treatment groups 108/group) as follows: (1) 10 G linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields, (2) sham exposed null energized unit with residual 20 mG fields, (3) ambient controls < 1 mG, and (4) positive controls (a single 5 Gy whole body exposure to 60Co 4 days prior to initiation of exposure). The magnetic fields were activated 20h/day, 7 days/week. Eighteen Rats (18 from each treatment group) were bled, killed, and evaluated at a5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of exposure. Hematological endpoints, changes in spleen growth, and LGL cell infiltration into the spleen and liver were measured to evaluate the leukemia progression. Significant differences were not detected between the magnetic field exposed groups and the ambient control group, although the clinical progress of leukemia was enhanced in the positive control animals. These data indicate that exposure to sinusoidal, linearly polarized 60 Hz, 10 G magnetic fields did not significantly alter the clinical progression of LGL leukemia. Furthermore, the data are in general agreement with previous results of a companion repeated-bleeding study.

  1. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  2. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates. Project technical status report, November 23, 1985-January 17, 1986. [Papio cynocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-24

    The objective was to investigate, using baboons (superspecies Papio cynocephalus) as surrogates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. This program consists of four major projects. The first will evaluate the potential aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses. The second project will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields. The third will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR) and differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL). The fourth will investigate the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups.

  3. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  4. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    A series of pioneering electric and magnetic field experiments were completed using nonhuman primates and a unique, well-engineered, and reliable exposure facility. Effects of operant behavior, social behavior, and serum melatonin concentration were examined using 60 Hz field combinations of other 6 W/m and 0.6 G or 30 W/m and 1.0 G. Observations noted in the course of this study include: Combines electric and magnetic field exposure does not have any important effect on short-term memory; the transitory increases in social behavior observed in previous electric fields did not occur; combined electric and magnetic field exposure might lead to reduced behavioral frequency in baboon social groups; three experiments clearly establish that one set of exposure conditions does not produce molatonin suppression in nonhuman primates; and a small pilot experiment suggests that a different exposure protocol might result in melatonin suppression.

  5. Cancer promotion in a mouse-skin model by a 60-Hz magnetic field: I. Experimental design and exposure system

    SciTech Connect

    Stuchly, M.A.; Lecuyer, D.W.; McLean, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The rationale for selection of an animal model, the experimental design, and the design and evaluation of an exposure system used in studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields are described. The studies were conceived to assay development of cancer and immune responsiveness in mice exposed to magnetic fields. The exposure system utilized a quadrupole-coil configuration to minimize stray magnetic fields. Four square-wound coil provided a uniform field within a volume occupied by 16 animal cages. The magnetic field had a mean flux density of 2 mT that varied less than {plus minus} 10% within the volume occupied by animals' cages. The flux density decreased to less than 0.1 microT at a distance of 2 m from the coils. In each exposure system 32 animals could be housed in plastic cages.

  6. Effects of intermittent 60-Hz high voltage electric fields on metabolism, activity, and temperature in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbergy, R.S; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Transient effects of 100-kV/m extremely low frequency electric fields were studied in the white footed deermouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and core body temperature were monitored before, during, and after intermittent field exposures (four hour-long exposures, at one-hour intervals). Thirty-four mice were exposed in cages with plastic floors floating above ground potential, and 21 mice were exposed in cages with grounded metal floor plates. The first field exposure produced an immediate, transient increase of activity and gas measures during the inactive phase of the circadian cycle. All measures returned to baseline levels before the second exposure and were not significantly changed throughout the remainder of the exposures. The rapid habituation of field-induced arousal suggests that significant metabolic changes will not be measured in experiments in which the interval between exposure and measurement is greater than two hours.

  7. Immunological and biochemical effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1990-01-30

    Public concern is growing about the possible health risks of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated by power distribution systems. This research program is evaluating whether field exposure results in specific and replicable effects on measures of human performance, physiology, biochemistry, and subjective state. The studies reported here were performed under controlled laboratory conditions in the Human Exposure Test Facility at Midwest Research Institute (MRI). 80 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Chronic exposure of primates to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields: II. Neurochemical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F.; Wolpaw, J.R.; Dowman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We exposed Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaques) to electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields ranging in intensity from 3 kV/m and 0.1 G to 30 kV/m and 0.9 G for three 21-day (d) periods. Experimental animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for two 21-d periods, one prior to and one following actual exposure to E and B fields, resulting in a total of five 21-d periods. Control animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for the entire 105-d interval. At the end of each 21-d period cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained by lumbar puncture and analyzed for concentrations of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), metabolites of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters, respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Results are based on an examination of six experimental and four control animals. Exposure to E and B fields at all strengths was associated with a significant decline in CSF concentrations of both HVA and 5-HIAA when statistical comparisons were made against values obtained at the end of the preexposure interval. However, HVA returned to preexposure levels during the postexposure period, while 5-HIAA did not. No significant change in the concentrations of HVA or 5-HIAA was noted in the control animals. These results strongly suggest that exposure of the nonhuman primate to E and B fields can significantly affect specific biochemical estimates of nervous system function. These effects may involve alterations either in neuronal activity or in the activity of enzymes that catabolize the neurotransmitters.

  9. Effects of exposure to a 60-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Easley, S.P.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors found in a previously reported study that exposure to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field had significant effects on the social behavior of baboons. However, it was not established whether or not the effects were related specifically to the 30-kV/m intensity of the field. A new experiment was conducted to determine whether or not exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 60 kV/m would produce like changes in the baboons' social behavior. They exposed one group of eight male baboons to an electric field 12 hours a day, 7 days a week, for 6 weeks. A second group of eight animals was maintained under sham-exposure (control) conditions. Rates of performing on each of six categories of social behavior and on four categories of nonsocial behavior were used as criteria for comparing exposed with unexposed subjects and for within-group comparisons during three six-week experimental periods: Pre-Exposure, Exposure, and Post-Exposure. The results indicate that (1) during the exposure period, exposed animals exhibited statistically significant differences from controls in means of performance rates based on several behavioral categories; (2) across all three periods, within-group comparisons revealed that behaviors of exposed baboons were significantly affected by exposure to the electric field; (3) changes in performance levels probably reflect a stress response to the electric field; and (4) the means of response rates of animals exposed at 60 kV/m were higher, but not double, those of animals exposed at 30 kV/m. As in the 30-kV/m experiment, animals exposed at 60 kV/m exhibited significant differences in performances of Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. Mean rates of performing these categories were 122% (Passive Affinity), 48% (Tension), and 40% (Stereotypy) higher in the exposed group than in the control group during exposure to the 60-kV/m field.

  10. Effect of 60 Hz magnetic fields on the activation of hsp70 promoter in cultured INER-37 and RMA E7 cells.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham Octavio; Alcocer González, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that 50-60 Hz magnetic fields (MF) with flux densities ranging from microtesla to millitesla are able to induce heat shock factor or heat shock proteins in various cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal MF at 8 and 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labeled as electromagnetic field-plasmid (pEMF). This gene construct contains the specific sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by MF, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was transfected into INER-37 and RMA E7 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). Cells that received the MF or TS treatments and their controls were processed according to the luciferase assay system for evaluate luciferase activity. An increased luciferase gene expression was observed in INER-37 cells exposed to MF and TS compared with controls (p < 0.05), but MF exposure had no effect on the RMA E7 cell line.

  11. BIGEL analysis of gene expression in HL60 cells exposed to X rays or 60 Hz magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Zhang, X. F.; Han, L. H.; Harrison, G. H.; Davis, C. C.; Zhou, X. J.; Ioffe, V.; McCready, W. A.; Abraham, J. M.; Meltzer, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    We screened a panel of 1,920 randomly selected cDNAs to discover genes that are differentially expressed in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields (2 mT) or X rays (5 Gy) compared to unexposed cells. Identification of these clones was accomplished using our two-gel cDNA library screening method (BIGEL). Eighteen cDNAs differentially expressed in X-irradiated compared to control HL60 cells were recovered from a panel of 1,920 clones. Differential expression in experimental compared to control cells was confirmed independently by Northern blotting of paired total RNA samples hybridized to each of the 18 clone-specific cDNA probes. DNA sequencing revealed that 15 of the 18 cDNA clones produced matches with the database for genes related to cell growth, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, oxidative stress or apoptosis (including MYC, neuroleukin, copper zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase, TC4 RAS-like protein, peptide elongation factor 1alpha, BNIP3, GATA3, NF45, cytochrome c oxidase II and triosephosphate isomerase mRNAs). In contrast, BIGEL analysis of the same 1,920 cDNAs revealed no differences greater than 1.5-fold in expression levels in magnetic-field compared to sham-exposed cells. Magnetic-field-exposed and control samples were analyzed further for the presence of mRNA encoding X-ray-responsive genes by hybridization of the 18 specific cDNA probes to RNA from exposed and control HL60 cells. Our results suggest that differential gene expression is induced in approximately 1% of a random pool of cDNAs by ionizing radiation but not by 60 Hz magnetic fields under the present experimental conditions.

  12. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high strength 60 HZ electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, 12 May 1984-3 August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-15

    Progress is reported in the construction of a test facility for studying the effects of high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields on baboons. Effects to be studied include operant out social behaviors. (ACR)

  13. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Hirasaki, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short-term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 microT static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can observed during short-term MF exposure.

  14. Electric field of the power terrestrial sources observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere in frequency range 1-60 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-07-01

    The power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz and the Schumann resonance (SR) harmonics were detected by the use of a compact electrical field sensor of length 0.42 m during microsatellite Chibis-M mission in years 2012-2014. The initial orbit of Chibis-M has altitude 500 km and inclination 52°. We present the space distribution of PLE and its connections with the possible overhead power lines. PLE has been recorded both in the shade and sunlit parts of the orbits as opposed to SR which have been recorded only in the nightside of the Earth. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere and increased value of SR Q factor have been also observed. These results should stimulate the ionosphere model refinement for ultralow frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation as well as a study on new possibility of the ionosphere diagnostics.

  15. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 1. Overview and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Over a three-year period, three generations of female miniature swine and their offspring were exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field. Such a field approximates the 12-kV/m field that a human would experience under a 765-kV line. After swine exposures varying from 6 to 36 months, project personnel analyzed a wide range of biological parameters including growth, blood cell and serum biochemistry, blood immunoglobulin levels, behavior, peripheral nerve function, cell-mediated immunity, cytogenetics, and reproduction and development. There were no significant differences in health effects between the exposed and sham-exposed swine, except in the area of fetal development. The first breeding produced no significant difference between exposed and control offspring. When those offspring were bred after 18 months of exposure, the fetuses of exposed sows had an increased incidence of morphological malformations and lower body weight than fetuses from control sows. The live-born had lower body weights and increased birth defects. Several factors suggest that electric fields per se may not have caused these reproductive changes. For example, similar types of malformations occurred in control pigs. Also, in second-generation sows, the incidence of fetal malformations was similar for both exposed and control groups. It is possible that other factors such as housing, inbreeding, disease, or treatment of disease may have produced the observed effects. 64 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Investigation of fertility and in utero effects in rats chronically exposed to a high-intensity 60-Hz electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Y.J.; Majeau-Chargois, D.; Lymangrover, J.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Walker, C.F.

    1984-11-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate subtle bioeffects in Sprague-Dawley rats chronically exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 80 kV/m unperturbed intensity. The details of our exposure facility, artifact considerations, environmental conditions, and exposure protocol are reported in this paper. Results of electric field exposure on reproduction and prenatal and postnatal development of rats over four generations are discussed. Statistical analysis of data from 305 females, 213 pregnancies, and 2683 births revealed no effects of electric field exposure on fertility, fecundity, nurturing, survival, or sex ratio of off-spring. In the final generation, 51 pregnant females were euthanized between days 16 and 20 of gestation, and 681 fetuses were carefully examined for gross malformations. Statistical analysis indicated that exposure to the electric field produced no significant increase in gross malformations, nor were any differences noted in resorptions, orientation of fetus in utero, sex ratio, or differential frequencies of uterine horn implantation. A detailed discussion of statistical power and sensitivity is included.

  17. Effects of exposure to 30 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that exposure to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field produces significant change (stress) in the social behavior of adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis). One group of eight baboons was exposed to an electric field (12 hours per day, 7 days per week for 6 weeks) while a second group of eight baboons was maintained in a sham-exposure (control) condition. Exposed subjects and control subjects were compared over three, six-week experimental periods (pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure). Performance rates of six categories of social behaviors (passive affinity, active affinity, approach, tension, threat, and attack) and four categories of nonsocial behaviors (forage, manipulate, posture, and stereotypy) were used to compare the two groups. The results of our study indicate that (1) there were no significant differences between the two groups during the pre-exposure or post-exposure periods; (2) during the exposure period, experimental and control groups exhibited statistically significant differences in the mean performance rates of three behavior categories; (3) within-group comparisons across periods indicate that the experimentally exposed group exhibited statistically significant changes in passive affinity, tension, and stereotypy; and (4) changes in behavior performance among the exposed subjects reflect a stress response to the electric field.

  18. A 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure facility for nonhuman primates: Design and operational data during experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Cory, W.E.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    A unique exposure facility was designed and constructed to generate large-scale vertical electric fields (EF) of up to 65 kV/m and horizontal magnetic fields (MF) of up to 100 {micro}T (1G), so that the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of 60 Hz EF or combined electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure could be examined using nonhuman primates as subjects. Facility design and operational problems and their solutions are presented, and representative operational data from four sets of experiments are provided. A specially designed, optically isolated, 4 cm spherical-dipole EF probe and a commercially available MF probe were used to map the EF and MF within the fiberglass animal cages. In addition, amplifiers, signal conditioners, and A/D converters provided EF, MF, and transformer signals to a microcomputer at 15 min intervals. The apparatus produced homogeneous, stable E/MF at the desired intensities, and the fiberglass cages did not produce appreciable distortion or attenuation. Levels of recognized EF artifacts such as corona and ozone were negligible. The facility worked as intended, providing a well-characterized and artifact-controlled environment for experiments with baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

  19. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-strength 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 18 December 1982-18 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-20

    The objective of this contract is to use the baboon as a surrogate for the human in studies of the possible deleterious effects of exposure to high strength, 60 Hz electric fields. The specific aims of this contract are to (1) design and construct an exposure facility in which baboons can be exposed to an electric field up to 60 kV/m in intensity for experiments and (2) to develop computer models relating the fields and currents produced in both baboons and humans by exposure to high strength, 60 Hz electric fields.

  20. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-strength 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly progress report, 11 October 1981-10 January 1982. [Research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to study the effects of high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields on baboon behavior to obtain information which will assist in the determination of the degree of risk of deleterious consequences for humans exposed to such fields. The generalization of results obtained with the baboon to predictions concerning humans will be aided by the development of computer models relating the surface electric field intensities and internal current densities produced in baboons and humans by exposure to high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields. Research plans are described.

  1. Effects of a 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Up to 3000 μT on Human Brain Activation as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Brown, Samantha; Roberston, John; Thomas, Alex W.

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the human nervous system and associated motor and cognitive processes have been reported to be modulated by extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) time-varying Magnetic Fields (MF). Due do their worldwide prevalence; power-line frequencies (60 Hz in North America) are of particular interest. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, the potential effects of 60 Hz MF still need to be elucidated, and the underlying mechanisms to be understood. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to characterize potential changes in functional brain activation following human exposure to a 60 Hz MF through motor and cognitive tasks. First, pilot results acquired in a first set of subjects (N=9) were used to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using fMRI to detect subtle changes in functional brain activation with 60 Hz MF exposure at 1800 μT. Second, a full study involving a larger cohort of subjects tested brain activation during 1) a finger tapping task (N=20), and 2) a mental rotation task (N=21); before and after a one-hour, 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure. The results indicate significant changes in task-induced functional brain activation as a consequence of MF exposure. However, no impact on task performance was found. These results illustrate the potential of using fMRI to identify MF-induced changes in functional brain activation, suggesting that a one-hour 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure can modulate activity in specific brain regions after the end of the exposure period (i.e., residual effects). We discuss the possibility that MF exposure at 60 Hz, 3000 μT may be capable of modulating cortical excitability via a modulation of synaptic plasticity processes. PMID:26214312

  2. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This report covers a series of three experiments (Experiments III, IV, and IVA) on the effect of combined 60-Hz E/MF on operant behavior. These experiments were a continuation of previous investigations of 60-Hz electric field exposure on baboons.

  3. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Effects of a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field on the social behavior of baboons: A crossover experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Easley, S.P.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Using a crossover experimental design, we evaluated our earlier findings that exposure to a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field for 12 hours per day, 7 days per week for 6 weeks produced significant changes in the performance rates of social behaviors among young adult male baboons. In the crossover experiment, the former control group was exposed to a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field for 3 weeks. Only an extremely small, incidental magnetic field was generated by the exposure apparatus. We found that electric-field exposure again produced increases in the performance rates that index Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. These findings, combined with results from our other electric-field experiments, indicate that exposure to strong electric fields, in the absence of associated magnetic fields, consistently produces effects that are expressed as increases in rates of performance of social behaviors in young adult male baboons.

  5. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Activities this quarter extended those of the first project year: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine systems of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Activities this quarter extended those of the first project year which focused on two technical areas: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1993-01-22

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission.

  8. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D

    1993-01-22

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission.

  9. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 HZ electric fields. Interim technical progress report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Feldstone, C.; Spiegel, R.J.; Winters, W.; Polonis, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Progress is reported in studies of the effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields on baboon behavior - both individual performance (operant conditioning) and natural (social) behavior. The result of the study should be either a clear indication of the electric field intensity which produces deleterious effects in the baboon or an indication that the highest field intensity of practical interest (analogous to the highest intensity that can be encountered by man under power lines) produces no deleterious effects. The generalization of results to man will be futher aided by the development of models relating the physical effects of electric fields on man to the physical effects on the baboon. (LCL)

  10. Effects of 60 Hz magnetic field exposure on the pineal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, B W; Matt, K S; Morris, J E; Sasser, L B; Miller, D L; Anderson, L E

    1999-01-01

    Experiments using the dwarf Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus were carried out to determine possible neuroendocrine consequences of one-time and repeated exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields (MF). Animals were maintained in either a short-light (SL, 8 h light:16 h dark) or long-light (LL, 16 h light:8 h dark) photoperiod. Acute (one-time, 15 min) exposure of male SL animals to a linearly polarized, horizontally oriented, 60 Hz MF (0.1 mT) gave rise to a statistically significant (P < .005) reduction in pineal melatonin content as determined 3 and 5 h after onset of darkness. In LL animals, acute exposure to 0.10 mT resulted in a significant decrease in pineal melatonin as measured 4 h after onset of darkness, whereas acute exposure to 50 microT showed no effect compared with sham exposure. In SL animals, an increase in norepinephrine was observed in the medial basal hypothalamus (including the suprachiasmatic nucleus) after acute exposure (P < .01). Daily MF exposure of SL animals to a combination of steady-state and on/off 60 Hz magnetic fields (intermittent exposure) at 0.1 mT for 1 h per day for 16 days was associated with a reduction in melatonin concentrations at 4 h after onset of darkness and an increase in blood prolactin concentrations (P < .05). Exposure of SL animals to a steady state 60 Hz MF for 3 h/day for 42 days resulted in a statistically significant reduction in body weight (ANOVA: P > .05), compared with sham-exposed SL animals. At 42 days, however, no significant changes in overnight melatonin or prolactin levels were detected. In both repeated exposure experiments, gonadal weights were lowest in the MF-exposed groups. This difference was statistically significant (P < .05) after 42 days of exposure. These data indicate that both one-time and repeated exposure to a 0.1 mT, 60 Hz MF can give rise to neuroendocrine responses in Phodopus.

  11. Regularly scheduled, day-time, slow-onset 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure does not depress serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring of field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.

  12. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    This volume contains detailed experimental data to accompany quarterly report, dated July 14, 1992, by this group entitled Investigation of Effects of 60-Hz Electric Fields on Operant and Social Behavior and on the Neuroendocrine System of Nonhuman Primates.'' This volume is a collection of Appendices which are entitled: Appendix A- Field Mapping Data Forms, Appendix B- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix C- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix D- Sham Area (West Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix E- Memoranda Concerning Field Onset During Experiment IV and the Crossover Experiment, Appendix F- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix G- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix H- Sham Area (west Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix I- Compiled Data and Anovas for Experiment III Social Data, Appendix J -Written Comments Provided by Statistician Dr. Robert Mason, and Appendix K- Reference Text Provided by Dr. Coelho.

  13. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A cohort of sixteen male baboons were assigned to electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure and sham-exposure. The social behavior subjects were simultaneously exposed to 60 Hz E/MF. Ten behavioral categories were measured. Each behavioral category was comprised of multiple molecular behaviors that could be objectively identified and counted. Six of the behavior categories were social'', in that interactions between subjected were involved. The remaining four were non-social'' and pertained to individual behaviors such as movements or postural stances.

  14. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort. This annual report marks the completion of the first year of the four year research program. This project year has focused on two technical areas: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. Activities in the social behavior, operant behavior, and laboratory animal sciences during this project year have been in preparation for the start of Experiment 3. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly ramped E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.

  16. Exposure of baboons to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields does not produce work stoppage or affect operant performance on a match-to-sample task

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors examined the effects of combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure on performance of delayed match-to-sample (MTS) procedure involving the flash rate of a light as the stimulus. Six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) fully acquired the task; four others functioned accurately only when cued. All ten subjects were assigned to EMF-exposed or sham-exposed groups of five and were used to test for a work-stoppage effect that was previously observed with initial exposure to electric fields (EF) of 30 or 60 kV/m. Here, the authors report the results of two experiments, each consisting of 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods. They found no evidence of work stoppage with fields of 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or with 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G). In neither experiment was there evidence of an adverse effect of 60 Hz EMF exposure on MTS performance.

  17. (Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-03-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. The test facility is being modified to include combined electric and magnetic field capability. This will be accomplished by the installation of a magnetic field exposure system and modification of the electric field exposure equipment. The purpose of this document is to provide information on the design. 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. 60 Hz electric field changes the membrane potential during burst phase in pancreatic β-cells: in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Neves, Gesilda F; Silva, José R F; Moraes, Renato B; Fernandes, Thiago S; Tenorio, Bruno M; Nogueira, Romildo A

    2014-06-01

    The production, distribution and use of electricity can generate low frequency electric and magnetic fields (50-60 Hz). Considering that some studies showed adverse effects on pancreatic β-cells exposed to these fields; the present study aimed to analyze the effects of 60 Hz electric fields on membrane potential during the silent and burst phases in pancreatic β-cells using a mathematical model. Sinusoidal 60 Hz electric fields with amplitude ranging from 0.5 to 4 mV were applied on pancreatic β-cells model. The sinusoidal electric field changed burst duration, inter-burst intervals (silent phase) and spike sizes. The parameters above presented dose-dependent response with the voltage amplitude applied. In conclusion, theoretical analyses showed that a 60 Hz electric field with low amplitudes changes the membrane potential in pancreatic β-cells.

  19. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats. The findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations.

  20. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.I.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-02-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats and the findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on nueroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1993-01-22

    This series of experiments, using a well-characterized exposure facility and employing a variety of control procedures to study behavior and the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates, does not provide any evidence that exposure to power-frequency electric fields, or electric and magnetic fields in combination, for 12 hours per day for six weeks produces any deleterious effects in young-adult males. The primate experiments summarized here confirm the general conclusion indicated by experiments with rodents; although biological and behavioral changes can occur, there are no clear results establishing the occurrence of adverse effects in experiments involving relatively short-term exposure to environmentally-relevant electric or magnetic fields. Given the general agreement of the primate and rodent results, conclusions from the laboratory animal studies therefore presumably generalize well to humans.

  2. (Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields): Quarterly technical progress report No. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-07-14

    Activities this quarter involved all phases of the project plus a meeting of the Joint Committee in Tokyo. Detailed mapping of the exposure facility is scheduled to be completed during the week of August 14, 1989. Both electric and magnetic fields should be available for tests of the components of the tether and blood sampling system for the neuroendocrine pilot study in September 1989. The groups for the social behavior study are stabilizing appropriately. Details on the formation of the groups and their status has been provided. Dr. Coelho has included information related to aspects of the social experiment ranging from age estimation in baboons through the cardiovascular consequences of psychosocial stress. In addition, a draft manuscript is included on the data from the previous experiments which describes the effects of 30 and 60 kV/m electric fields on the social behavior of baboons. Tests of the blood handling procedures and analysis methods have been completed. With the exception of the catecholamine analyses, the handling procedures and variability in replicate measurements are satisfactory. Logistic and practical considerations now weigh strongly against including the analysis of the blood samples for catecholamines. Preliminary tests indicate that a sampling procedure which will work for the other compounds is probably not satisfactory for the catecholamines.

  3. Effects of concurrent exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Rogers, W.R. |

    1995-12-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that 30 or 60 kV/m electric fields (EF) reliably produce temporary increases in the performance of three categories of baboon social behavior: Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. The experimental design included 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods with experimental and control groups, each with eight subjects. Here, the authors report two experiments that evaluated the effects of combined EF and magnetic fields (MF) on baboon social behavior. One experiment demonstrated that exposure to 6 kV/m EF and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) MF produced Period {times} Group interactions for Stereotypy and Attack, but the previously observed increases in Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy did not occur. A second experiment demonstrated that exposure to 30 kV/m EF and 100 {micro}T 1.0 G MF did not produce the same magnitude of increases in Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy observed previously with 30 kV/m EF alone. The exposed group exhibited decreased performance rates for several behavior categories during exposure with further declines during postexposure. The control group showed fewer downward trends across periods.

  4. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1992-11-02

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon surrogate for the human. Baboon social groups were scanned and electronically monitored during Experiments IV and IVA. The social scan, form that the technicians used to identify baboon locations and proximity to other baboons: was used to gain a simple snapshot of the position of the baboons in their cage. The scans were taken hourly every morning and evening for a total of eight scans per side per day. This report covers in detail the scan and activity data-gathering process. A set of appendices is attached which include printouts of the data sets and adjunct material pertinent to interpreting the data. The supporting material is comprised of calendars and listings of major events that occurred during the scan and activity data collection.

  5. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Results from this program are used to estimate consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Electric and magnetic field measurements for Experiment IIIA (Confirmatory), Experiment IV and Social Behavior portion of Experiment III are presented. The systems for the production and monitoring of the fields performed satisfactorily during Experiment IIIA and during all but the last part of Experiment IV. In Experiment III, two-way repeated analyses of variance revealed statistically significant Group (Exposed and Sham Exposed) and Period (Baseline. Exposure, and Post-Exposure) main effects. Two significant Period by Group interactions were also found. Seven of the ten behavioral categories showed a main effect of Period. Two-sample t-test comparisons of the two groups for each period indicated that performance rates in two behavioral categories (Stereotypy and Posture) were significantly lower in the Exposure Group. In general, the Exposed subjects exhibited a trend of progressively lower performance rates across the three periods. Specific accomplishments reported in this document were: measurement of electric and magnetic fields for Experiments IIIA and IV, completed analysis of the Social Behavioral data from Experiment III, and a detailed discussion of statistical methods employed on the Social Behavioral portion of Experiment III, and hematology data were collected and recorded for Operant and Social Behavioral subjects for Experiment IV.

  6. Evaluation of the possible copromoting effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field during chemically induced carcinogenesis in skin of SENCAR mice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Walborg, E.F.; Anderson, L.E.; Sasser, L.B.; Morris, J.E.; Miller, D.L. |

    1997-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields can enhance tumorigenesis through a copromotional mechanism. Equivocal support for this hypothesis was provided by experiments performed by Stuchly et al. using a mouse skin model; i.e. the induction of skin tumors in SENCAR mice exposed to a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by repetitive doses of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The mice were exposed to a 2 mT (60 Hz) magnetic field during the entire promotion phase of the experiment. The Stuchly study, which utilized single weekly doses of TPA, demonstrated a statistically significant increase in skin tumors after 16--18 weeks of promotion; however, by 23 weeks of promotion, the difference was not statistically significant. The study was designed to provide definitive evidence to confirm or refute a copromotional role of ELF magnetic field exposure on DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis in SENCAR mice. This study was modeled after the study of Stuchly et al., (1992), including the animal model and exposure conditions. However, three different promoting doses of TPA, within the linear dose response range for induction of skin tumors, were utilized.

  7. Chronically indwelling venous cannula and automatic blood sampling system for use with nonhuman primates exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Mikiten, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    An automated blood sampling system was developed for use with tethered baboons (Papio cynocephalus) during concurrent exposure to 60 Hz 30 kV/m electric fields and 0.1 mT (1.0 G) magnetic fields. The system was controlled by a FORTH-based microcomputer, which operated a pump, a fraction collector, and two pinch valves. A swivel mechanism at the end of the tether allowed the baboons to move freely in their cages. The hardware and software were designed for fail-safe operation. Heparinized saline was infused at a rate of 0.5 ml/min until a sample cycle was initiated. Then, blood was drawn from the animal into a storage tube at a rate of 12.5 ml/min, a sample of undiluted blood was taken from the end of the storage tube near the baboon, and the blood remaining in the storage tube was then flushed back into the animal. Use of the storage tube prevented the peristaltic pump rollers from pressing on tubing containing blood, and return of the blood diluted with saline limited the blood wasted per sample to less than 0.5 ml. The system functioned reliably in three experiments, collecting samples as scheduled 97% of the time. Although it was initially designed for and used successfully with primates in an electric and magnetic field environment, this type of system could be employed in many areas of biomedical research or medical treatment.

  8. Initial studies on the effects of combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure on the immune system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, K.K.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In a pilot immunology experiment, peripheral blood samples from six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) housed as a social group were collected during week 5 of preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods that were each 6 weeks in duration. The subjects were exposed to vertical 6 kV/m and horizontal 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) fields for 12 h per day. Lymphocytes collected during the exposure period displayed statistically significant (P < .05) reductions in CD3{sup +} and CD4{sup +} counts, interleukin 2 receptor expression, and proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen. A second experiment was conducted using samples from seven subjects exposed to 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) and eight sham-exposed subjects. Statistically significant Period {times} Group interactions occurred for total white blood cell count and CD4{sup +} to CD8{sup +} ratio, but the pattern of results was not suggestive of an exposure-related effect. Although components of the nonhuman primate immune system appear to be affected by 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure in one of two experiments, additional experiments are required to evaluate this possibility.

  9. The effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (50–60 Hz) exposure on spontaneous apoptosis: The results of a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mansourian, Mahsa; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper is a meta-analysis of the published data from in vitro studies to evaluate whether spontaneous apoptosis might be influenced by extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). Materials and Methods: A comprehensive scientific literature search in electronic databases was conducted and studies covering the period 2000–2010 were selected. Then, published studies involving the desired topic were retrieved. The inclusion criteria were percentage of apoptosis in the cells exposed to 50–60 Hz ELF-MFs. The statistical analysis was performed by comprehensive meta-analysis version 2. Results: The summary measure of association (95% confidence interval) for all 18 effect estimated from 8 studies was 1.18 (1.15, 1.20). Heterogeneity among studies was found. There was no evidence of publication bias for the association between exposure to MF and apoptosis risk. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provided conclusive data that ELF-MFs can increase apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Furthermore, there is a possibly individual intensity and time range with maximum created effect according to window effect. PMID:27656610

  10. The effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (50–60 Hz) exposure on spontaneous apoptosis: The results of a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mansourian, Mahsa; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper is a meta-analysis of the published data from in vitro studies to evaluate whether spontaneous apoptosis might be influenced by extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). Materials and Methods: A comprehensive scientific literature search in electronic databases was conducted and studies covering the period 2000–2010 were selected. Then, published studies involving the desired topic were retrieved. The inclusion criteria were percentage of apoptosis in the cells exposed to 50–60 Hz ELF-MFs. The statistical analysis was performed by comprehensive meta-analysis version 2. Results: The summary measure of association (95% confidence interval) for all 18 effect estimated from 8 studies was 1.18 (1.15, 1.20). Heterogeneity among studies was found. There was no evidence of publication bias for the association between exposure to MF and apoptosis risk. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provided conclusive data that ELF-MFs can increase apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Furthermore, there is a possibly individual intensity and time range with maximum created effect according to window effect.

  11. Melatonin rhythm onset in the adult siberian hamster: influence of photoperiod but not 60-Hz magnetic field exposure on melatonin content in the pineal gland and in circulation.

    PubMed

    Yellon, S M; Truong, H N

    1998-02-01

    To determine the relationship between pineal melatonin production and its appearance in circulation, the rising phase of the pineal and serum melatonin rhythm was studied in the adult Siberian hamster. Melatonin concentrations increased in the pineal gland and in serum at 1.50 and 1.75 h, respectively, relative to lights off in long days (16 h of light/day) and at 2.00 and 2.75 h, respectively, in short days (10 h of light/day). Thus, a photoperiod-dependent melatonin rise in circulation lagged production by the pineal gland by 0.50 h--a delay of 0.75 h in short-day hamsters versus 0.25 h in long-day hamsters. Following initiation of this rise, concentrations that were typical of the nighttime peak were achieved within 2 h of melatonin rhythm onset, regardless of photoperiod. To determine whether clock control of the rising phase of the melatonin rhythm, in the absence of photoperiod cues, may be disrupted by perturbations in the ambient magnetic field, hamsters in constant darkness were acutely exposed to a 1-Gauss, 60-Hz magnetic field for 15 min or were daily exposed to this treatment for 14 or 21 days. Neither the melatonin rise in pineal content or circulation during subjective night was affected by acute or chronic magnetic field exposures; testes regression similarly occurred in sham and daily magnetic field-exposed hamsters in constant darkness. These findings indicate that magnetic field exposures are unlikely to serve as a zeitgeber for the circadian mechanism that controls onset of the melatonin rhythm; rather, photoperiod is a predominant cue that may differentially regulate the rising phase of melatonin production in the pineal gland and concentration in circulation.

  12. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 40, Operant behavior: Experiments 3, 4, and 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This report covers a series of three experiments (Experiments III, IV, and IVA) on the effect of combined 60-Hz E/MF on operant behavior. These experiments were a continuation of previous investigations of 60-Hz electric field exposure on baboons.

  13. Initial exposure to 30 kV/m or 60 kV/m 60 Hz electric fields produces temporary cessation of operant behavior of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In two separate experiments, the authors examined the effects of a 60 Hz electric field (EF) on performance of an operant schedule consisting of two signaled components: fixed-ratio (FR30) and differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL20). In each experiment, 12 naive baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were assigned randomly to either an EF-exposed experimental group or a sham-exposed control group. A homogeneous vertical EF of 30 kV/m was used in one experiment; 60 kV/m was used in the other. The experimental design for both experiments included 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods. The planned analyses indicated no evidence of statistically significant (P < .05) effects of EF exposure. However, exploratory analyses comparing performance during the last week of preexposure and the first week of exposure revealed statistically significant acute effects (work stoppage): The mean response rates of the EF-exposed groups were greatly reduced on day 1 of exposure but were normal by the end of day 2 of EF exposure. The authors hypothesize that introduction of a highly unusual stimulus, the EF, temporarily interfered with normal operant behavior to produce a primary work stoppage. Supplementary cross-over experiments added at the end of each main experiment indicated that work stoppage occurred again when formerly EF-exposed subjects served as sham-exposed controls, while other subjects received their first EF exposure. Presumably, reoccurrence of other stimuli correlated with initial exposure to the EF became sufficient to subsequently cause secondary work stoppage in the absence of direct EF exposure. The primary and secondary work-stoppage effects were reproducible.

  14. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  15. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    This volume contains detailed experimental data to accompany quarterly report, dated July 14, 1992, by this group entitled ``Investigation of Effects of 60-Hz Electric Fields on Operant and Social Behavior and on the Neuroendocrine System of Nonhuman Primates.`` This volume is a collection of Appendices which are entitled: Appendix A- Field Mapping Data Forms, Appendix B- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix C- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix D- Sham Area (West Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix E- Memoranda Concerning Field Onset During Experiment IV and the Crossover Experiment, Appendix F- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix G- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix H- Sham Area (west Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix I- Compiled Data and Anovas for Experiment III Social Data, Appendix J -Written Comments Provided by Statistician Dr. Robert Mason, and Appendix K- Reference Text Provided by Dr. Coelho.

  16. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Social behavior portions of Experiments III and IV: Quarterly report No. 39

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A cohort of sixteen male baboons were assigned to electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure and sham-exposure. The social behavior subjects were simultaneously exposed to 60 Hz E/MF. Ten behavioral categories were measured. Each behavioral category was comprised of multiple molecular behaviors that could be objectively identified and counted. Six of the behavior categories were ``social``, in that interactions between subjected were involved. The remaining four were ``non-social`` and pertained to individual behaviors such as movements or postural stances.

  17. Intracerebroventricular injection of mu- and delta-opiate receptor antagonists block 60 Hz magnetic field-induced decreases in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Lai, H; Carino, M

    1998-01-01

    In previous research, we have found that acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field decreased cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat as measured by sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake activity. We concluded that the effect was mediated by endogenous opioids inside the brain because it could be blocked by pretreatment of rats before magnetic field exposure with the opiate antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral antagonist naloxone methiodide. In the present study, the involvement of opiate receptor subtypes was investigated. Rats were pretreated by intracerebroventricular injection of the mu-opiate receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine, or the delta-opiate receptor antagonist, naltrindole, before exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field (2 mT, 1 hour). It was found that the effects of magnetic field on high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were blocked by the drug treatments. These data indicate that both mu- and delta-opiate receptors in the brain are involved in the magnetic field-induced decreases in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat.

  18. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Draft final report, October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    A series of pioneering electric and magnetic field experiments were completed using nonhuman primates and a unique, well-engineered, and reliable exposure facility. Effects of operant behavior, social behavior, and serum melatonin concentration were examined using 60 Hz field combinations of other 6 W/m and 0.6 G or 30 W/m and 1.0 G. Observations noted in the course of this study include: Combines electric and magnetic field exposure does not have any important effect on short-term memory; the transitory increases in social behavior observed in previous electric fields did not occur; combined electric and magnetic field exposure might lead to reduced behavioral frequency in baboon social groups; three experiments clearly establish that one set of exposure conditions does not produce molatonin suppression in nonhuman primates; and a small pilot experiment suggests that a different exposure protocol might result in melatonin suppression.

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates. Annual report, August 5, 1984-October 25, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Operant behavioral methods have been used to assess the aversiveness of intense electric fields. One aspect of the aversiveness of a stimulus is the ability to act as a negative reinforcer. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus whose response contingent termination maintains behavior. Baboons were trained to perform an operant task to obtain food rewards, determined that the addition of an intense electric field did not disrupt performance, measured the background level of responding in the absence of any primary reinforcers, assessed the ability of electric field termination to maintain operant responding, and verified that the electric field could serve as a discriminative stimulus.

  20. Long-term effects of 60-Hz electric vs. magnetic fields on IL-1 and other immune parameters in sheep: Phase 4 study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hefeneider, S.H.; McCoy, S.L.; Hausman, F.A.

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of exposure to long-term low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from an environmental 500-kV transmission line on immune function in sheep. The primary hypothesis tested was that the reduction in IL-1 activity observed in two previous short-term studies (9 months) was due to exposure to EMF from this transmission line. The secondary hypothesis was that long-term exposure (27 months) would impact immune function and animal health. To characterize the components of the EMF environment responsible for the previously observed reduction in IL-1 activity, the experiment was designed not only to examine the effect of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, but also to examine the magnetic field component alone. This was done by constructing a third pen (MF) which was shielded with wire to effectively eliminate the electric field while not significantly affecting the magnitude of the magnetic field.

  1. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on nueroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Final report, October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1993-01-22

    This series of experiments, using a well-characterized exposure facility and employing a variety of control procedures to study behavior and the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates, does not provide any evidence that exposure to power-frequency electric fields, or electric and magnetic fields in combination, for 12 hours per day for six weeks produces any deleterious effects in young-adult males. The primate experiments summarized here confirm the general conclusion indicated by experiments with rodents; although biological and behavioral changes can occur, there are no clear results establishing the occurrence of adverse effects in experiments involving relatively short-term exposure to environmentally-relevant electric or magnetic fields. Given the general agreement of the primate and rodent results, conclusions from the laboratory animal studies therefore presumably generalize well to humans.

  2. Long-term effects of 60-Hz electric vs. magnetic fields on IL-1 and other immune parameters in sheep: Phase 5 study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hefeneider, S.H.; McCoy, S.L.; Hausman, F.A.

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of exposure to long-term low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500-kV transmission line on immune function in sheep. The primary hypothesis was that the reduction in IL-1 activity observed in two previous short-term studies (9 months) was due to EMF exposure from this transmission line. The secondary hypothesis was that long-term exposure (27 months) would impact immune function and animal health. To characterize the components of EMF responsible for the previously observed reduction in IL-1 activity, the experiment was designed not only to examine the effect of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, but also to examine the magnetic field component alone.

  3. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates. Technical status report, June 8-August 2, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-02

    Progress made at calibrating the electric field distribution within and around cages used for behavorial testing of baboons is described. It is concluded that all of the parts of the ''system'' are rather constant in their readings. The only component which seems to show appreciable variability is the 4 cm probe. Although the optically coupled 4 cm spherical dipole probe usually performs well, it is becoming apparent that sometimes it can produce misleading results. Although we do not yet understand the situation completely, it appears as though there are at least two variables affecting the probe, battery voltage and humidity. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  5. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Results from this program are used to estimate consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Electric and magnetic field measurements for Experiment IIIA (Confirmatory), Experiment IV and Social Behavior portion of Experiment III are presented. The systems for the production and monitoring of the fields performed satisfactorily during Experiment IIIA and during all but the last part of Experiment IV. In Experiment III, two-way repeated analyses of variance revealed statistically significant Group (Exposed and Sham Exposed) and Period (Baseline. Exposure, and Post-Exposure) main effects. Two significant Period by Group interactions were also found. Seven of the ten behavioral categories showed a main effect of Period. Two-sample t-test comparisons of the two groups for each period indicated that performance rates in two behavioral categories (Stereotypy and Posture) were significantly lower in the Exposure Group. In general, the Exposed subjects exhibited a trend of progressively lower performance rates across the three periods. Specific accomplishments reported in this document were: measurement of electric and magnetic fields for Experiments IIIA and IV, completed analysis of the Social Behavioral data from Experiment III, and a detailed discussion of statistical methods employed on the Social Behavioral portion of Experiment III, and hematology data were collected and recorded for Operant and Social Behavioral subjects for Experiment IV.

  6. Involvement of protein kinase C in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and the inhibitory effects of exposure to 60-hz magnetic fields in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis

    SciTech Connect

    Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.P. )

    1990-02-26

    One of the more consistent and dramatic effects of exposure to magnetic fields is the attenuation of morphine-induced analgesia. Results of previous studies have implicated alterations in calcium channel functioning and Ca{sup ++} flux in the mediation of these effects. It is generally accepted that Ca{sup ++}-activated-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (Protein kinase C; PKC) plays an important role in relaying trans-membrane signaling in diverse Ca{sup ++} dependent cellular processes. In experiment 1 we observed that morphine-induced analgesia in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, as measured by the latency of an avoidance behavior to a warmed surface, was reduced by the PKC activator, SC-9, and was enhanced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9. In contrast, HA-10004, a potent inhibitor of other protein kinases, but only a very weak inhibitor of PKC, had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. In experiment 2 exposure of snails for 30 minutes to a 1.0 gauss (rms) 60-Hz magnetic field reduced morphine-induced analgesia. This inhibitory effect of the magnetic field was reduced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9, and was augmented by the PKC activator SC-9. These results suggest that: (i) PKC is involved in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and, (ii) the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields involve PKC.

  7. 60 HZ beam motion reduction at NSLS UV storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    A significant reduction in 60 hz beam motion has been achieved in the UV storage ring. From the wide band harmonic beam motion signal, 60 hz signal is extracted by tuned bandpass filter. This signal is processed by the phase and amplitude adjustment circuits and then, it is fed into the harmonic orbit generation circuits. Several harmonics, near the tune, were canceled by employing one circuit for each harmonic. The design and description of this experiment is given in this paper. The results showing reduction in beam motion at 60 hz are also provided.

  8. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  9. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV. Quarterly report No. 38

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  10. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report, Scan and activity data for experiments 4 and 4A, [July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1992-11-02

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon surrogate for the human. Baboon social groups were scanned and electronically monitored during Experiments IV and IVA. The social scan, form that the technicians used to identify baboon locations and proximity to other baboons: was used to gain a simple snapshot of the position of the baboons in their cage. The scans were taken hourly every morning and evening for a total of eight scans per side per day. This report covers in detail the scan and activity data-gathering process. A set of appendices is attached which include printouts of the data sets and adjunct material pertinent to interpreting the data. The supporting material is comprised of calendars and listings of major events that occurred during the scan and activity data collection.

  11. [Electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Sobiczewska, Elzbieta; Szmigielski, Stanisław

    2009-01-01

    The development of industry, particularly of new technologies in communication systems, gives rise to the number and diversty of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in the environment. These sources, including power-frequent, radiofrequent and microwaves, make human life richer, safer and easier. But at the same time, there is growing concern about possible health risks connected with EMF exposure. An increasing number of persons have recently reported on a variety of health problems induced, in their opinion, by exposure to EMF. It is important to note that EMF levels to which these individuals are exposed are generally well below the recommended exposure limits and are certainly far below those known to produce any adverse effects. These persons call themselves "electromagnetic hypersensitivity individuals" And complain about experiencing various types of non-specific symptoms, including dermatological, neurological and vegetative. In the present paper, the problem of electromagnetic hypersensitivity phenomenon is discussed based on the recently published literature.

  12. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  13. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  14. Electromagnetic fields and cells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R; Chizmadzhev, Y; Shirley-Henderson, A

    1993-04-01

    There is strong public interest in the possibility of health effects associated with exposure to extremely low frequency (elf) electromagnetic (EM) fields. Epidemiological studies suggest a probable, but controversial, link between exposure to elf EM fields and increased incidence of some cancers in both children and adults. There are hundreds of scientific studies that have tested the effects of elf EM fields on cells and whole animals. A growing number of reports show that exposure to elf EM fields can produce a large array of effects on cells. Of interest is an increase in specific transcripts in cultured cells exposed to EM fields. The interaction mechanism with cells, however, remains elusive. Evidence is presented for a model based on cell surface interactions with EM fields.

  15. Photonic electromagnetic field sensor apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliard, Donald P.; Mensa, Dean L.

    1993-07-01

    An electromagnetic field sensor apparatus which measures the field strength and phase of an incident electromagnetic field as well as the angle of arrival of an incident electromagnetic field is presented. The electromagnetic field sensor apparatus comprises a Luneberg lens which focuses an incoming planar electromagnetic wave entering on one side of the Luneberg lens onto a point on the opposite side of the lens. A photonic sensor is positioned on the Luneberg lens at the point upon which the electromagnetic wave is focused. A light source is located along an optical path which passes through the photonic sensor for transmitting polarized light through the sensor. The photonic sensor modulates the polarized light passing therethrough when the photonic sensor detects the incident electromagnetic wave.

  16. Photonic electromagnetic field sensor apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliard, Donald P.; Mensa, Dean L.

    1993-09-01

    An electromagnetic field sensor apparatus which measures the amplitude, phase, frequency and polarization of an incoming electromagnetic field as well as the angle of arrival of an incident electromagnetic field is introduced. A Luneberg lens focuses an incoming electromagnetic wave entering on one side of the Luneberg lens onto a point on the opposite side of the lens. A pair of photonic sensor which may be electro-optic modulators or Pockel cells are positioned on the Luneberg lens at the point upon which the incident electromagnetic wave is focused. The sensing axis of one of the electro-optic modulators is perpendicular to the sensing axis of the other electro-optic modulator. Polarized light is provided to each photonic sensor along an optical path which passes through the sensor. Each photonic sensor modulates the polarized light passing therethrough when the photonic sensor detects the incident electromagnetic wave.

  17. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  18. Further studies of 60 Hz exposure effects on human function

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1990-10-09

    Public concern has been expressed about possible health risks arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated power distribution systems. This project is addressing this concern through a laboratory research program designed to evaluate the effects of brief exposure to known field conditions on multiple measures of human function. In previous research, we found that exposure had statistically significant effects on physiological measures of cardiac and brain activity, and on performance measures of reaction time and performance accuracy. Effects were seen more clearly under intermittent exposure conditions, and at certain levels of electric and magnetic field strength. In this continuation effort, we are performing a series of exploratory studies, to be followed by a confirmatory experiment, to determine if the above physiological effects differ as a function of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields separately and combined, time of day, and rate of intermittent exposure. Further studies will explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. The information developed in this project will be of value in risk assessment activities, and in basic research aimed at identifying specific factors involved in the interaction of power line fields with the human system. In this reporting period our goals were to: (a) continue performance of the probe studies; (b) participate in a site visit at MRI; (c) request 1991 research continuation funding; and (d) submit an abstract of project findings for presentation at the 1990 DOE Contractors Review Meeting.

  19. Self-dual electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the utility of self-dual fields in electrodynamics. Stable configurations of free electromagnetic fields can be represented as superpositions of standing waves, each possessing zero Poynting vector and zero orbital angular momentum. The standing waves are themselves superpositions of self-dual and anti-self-dual solutions. The idea of self-duality provides additional insights into the geometrical and spectral properties of stable electromagnetic configurations, such as those responsible for the formation of ball lightning.

  20. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with distance from it. Conductors such as metal shield them very effectively. Other materials, such as building ... with distance from the source. Most building materials shield electric fields to some extent. Magnetic fields arise ...

  1. String theory in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Yuri M.; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2003-02-01

    A review of various aspects of superstrings in background electromagnetic fields is presented. Topics covered include the Born-Infeld action, spectrum of open strings in background gauge fields, the Schwinger mechanism, finite-temperature formalism and Hagedorn behaviour in external fields, Debye screening, D-brane scattering, thermodynamics of D-branes, and noncommutative field and string theories on D-branes. The electric field instabilities are emphasized throughout and contrasted with the case of magnetic fields. A new derivation of the velocity-dependent potential between moving D-branes is presented, as is a new result for the velocity corrections to the one-loop thermal effective potential.

  2. Explanations, Education, and Electromagnetic Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Explaining complex scientific and environmental subjects in the mass media is difficult to do, particularly under such constraints as short deadlines and lack of space or time. When a scientific controversy and human health risk are involved, this becomes an even harder task to accomplish. The subject of electromagnetic fields (EMF) involves…

  3. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, S M

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  4. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  5. Electromagnetic field in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Torok, Peter

    1998-09-01

    A linearly polarized plane wave traversing an optically transparent system rarely maintains its linear polarization. In this work we discuss two aspects of this phenomenon. First, we consider the effect of a high aperture lens on polarization. This case is of utmost importance in confocal and near field microscopy and, in general, focusing. Second, the role of the polarization in hologram reconstruction is discussed.

  6. Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Saunders, T

    2003-11-01

    Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may

  7. Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Saunders, T

    2003-11-01

    Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may

  8. Distinct Epidermal Keratinocytes Respond to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Differently

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Ying; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Shu, Wun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsu, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models. PMID:25409520

  9. Distinct epidermal keratinocytes respond to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields differently.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Ying; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Shu, Wun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.

  10. Nerves in a human body exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    King, R W

    1999-12-01

    Following a summarizing introduction in which the background research is reviewed and referenced, a detailed description is given of the properties of the elongated cell that constitutes a nerve axon. The functioning of the cell membrane is reviewed with reference to the transmission of a frequency-modulated signal. The need for successive regeneration by means of action potentials is described. Propagation within both myelinated and unmyelinated membranes is discussed. Currents and electric fields induced in the organs of the human body by external electric and magnetic fields are introduced and their determination reviewed. The interaction between these currents and electric fields and those involved in the propagation of a signal along a nerve axon is analyzed. It is shown that incident 60-Hz electric fields near high-voltage transmission lines do not induce large enough currents and fields in a nerve axon in the leg to disrupt a propagating signal. Scaling with respect to frequency and size is discussed. Surface sensations due to exposure to electric fields in the 5-15-kV/m range are analyzed. It is concluded that exposure to the electromagnetic field of a 60-Hz high-voltage transmission line or a 10-30-kHz high-power transmitting antenna should have no observable effect on the normal functioning of nerves. PMID:10612900

  11. A comparison of 60 Hz uniform magnetic and electric induction in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Trevor W.; Caputa, Kris; Stuchly, Maria A.

    1997-12-01

    High-resolution computations of induced fields are used to assess equivalent source levels for human exposure to uniform low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. These results pertain to 60 Hz foot-to-head electric excitation of the body in three positions with respect to a ground plane, and to magnetic excitation by three orthogonal source orientations. All computations are based on an anatomically derived human body model composed of 1736 873 cubic voxels with 3.6 mm edges. The data for magnetic excitation are computed using a scalar potential finite difference (SPFD) method, while those for electric excitation are computed using a hybrid method based on the SPFD method coupled with a quasistatic finite difference time domain code. The data are analysed in two ways, using an induced current density threshold of . Firstly, the various field strengths required to produce a whole-body average current density magnitude equal to the threshold are derived for each configuration, and the associated current density levels in various organs and tissues are presented. It is found that the average current density magnitude values in at least one tissue group can be up to 3 (5) times greater than the whole-body average under electric (magnetic) excitation, and that the associated maximum values can be up to 46 (28) times greater than the whole-body average under electric (magnetic) excitation, for at least one source/body configuration. Secondly, the data are analysed from the opposite point of view, in which the source levels required to induce average or maximum induced current density magnitudes at the threshold level in specific tissue groups are determined. Evaluations such as the present one should prove useful in the development of protection standards, and are also expected to aid in the understanding of results from various animal and tissue culture studies.

  12. Electromagnetic fields and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Knave, B

    2001-09-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the biological effects and possible health outcomes of weak, low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Epidemiological studies on magnetic fields and cancer, reproduction and neurobehavioural reactions have been presented. More recently, neurological, degenerative and heart diseases have also been reported to be related to such electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, the increased use of mobile phones worldwide has focussed interest on the possible effects of radiofrequency fields of higher frequencies. In this paper, a summary is given on electromagnetic fields and health outcomes and what policy is appropriate--"no restriction to exposure", "prudent avoidance" or "expensive interventions"? The results of research studies have not been unambiguous; studies indicating these fields as being a health hazard have been published and so were studies indicating no risk at all. In "positive" studies, different types of effects have been reported despite the use of the same study design, e.g., in epidemiological cancer studies. There are uncertainties as to exposure characteristics, e.g., magnetic field frequency and exposure intermittence, and not much is known about possible confounding or effect-modifying factors. The few animal cancer studies reported have not given much help in risk assessment; and in spite of a large number of experimental cell studies, no plausible and understandable mechanisms have been presented by which a carcinogenic effect could be explained. Exposure to electromagnetic fields occurs everywhere: in the home, at work, in school, etc. Wherever there are electric wires, electric motors and electronic equipment, electromagnetic fields are created. This is one of the reasons why exposure assessment is difficult. For epidemiologists, the problems is not on the effect side as registers of diseases exist in many countries today. The problem is that epidemiologists do not know the relevant

  13. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; Stevens, R.G.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequently (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animal and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  14. Improvement of both dystonia and tics with 60 Hz pallidal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hwynn, Nelson; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron L; Limotai, Natlada; Zeilman, Pamela; Malaty, Irene A; Foote, Kelly D; Morishita, Takashi; Okun, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been utilized in both dystonia and in medication refractory Tourette syndrome. We present an interesting case of a patient with a mixture of disabling dystonia and Tourette syndrome whose coexistent dystonia and tics were successfully treated with 60 Hz-stimulation of the globus pallidus region.

  15. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life.

  16. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life. PMID:1837859

  17. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W. . Chemical Sciences Dept.); Stevens, R.G. ); Anderson, L.E. . Life Sciences Center)

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on that which seems to be the central scientific issue emerging from current ELF research in epidemiology and in the laboratory; namely, can ELF electromagnetic fields interact with biological systems in such a way as to increase cancer risk The authors examine how cancer risk might be related to two reproducible biological effects of ELF exposure: effects on the pineal gland and circadian biology, and effects on calcium homeostasis in cells. Because they are concerned with the possible biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies are only briefly reviewed.

  18. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field measurements at the Hylaty station and methodology of signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulak, Andrzej; Kubisz, Jerzy; Klucjasz, Slawomir; Michalec, Adam; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Nieckarz, Zenon; Ostrowski, Michal; Zieba, Stanislaw

    2014-06-01

    We present the Hylaty geophysical station, a high-sensitivity and low-noise facility for extremely low frequency (ELF, 0.03-300 Hz) electromagnetic field measurements, which enables a variety of geophysical and climatological research related to atmospheric, ionospheric, magnetospheric, and space weather physics. The first systematic observations of ELF electromagnetic fields at the Jagiellonian University were undertaken in 1994. At the beginning the measurements were carried out sporadically, during expeditions to sparsely populated areas of the Bieszczady Mountains in the southeast of Poland. In 2004, an automatic Hylaty ELF station was built there, in a very low electromagnetic noise environment, which enabled continuous recording of the magnetic field components of the ELF electromagnetic field in the frequency range below 60 Hz. In 2013, after 8 years of successful operation, the station was upgraded by extending its frequency range up to 300 Hz. In this paper we show the station's technical setup, and how it has changed over the years. We discuss the design of ELF equipment, including antennas, receivers, the time control circuit, and power supply, as well as antenna and receiver calibration. We also discuss the methodology we developed for observations of the Schumann resonance and wideband observations of ELF field pulses. We provide examples of various kinds of signals recorded at the station.

  19. Harmonics of 60 Hz in power systems caused by geomagnetic disturbances. [Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Oguti, T.; Watanabe, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Kokubun, S.; Horita, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous VLF/ULF observations carried out near Winnipeg, Manitoba show that geomagnetic disturbances control the behavior of harmonics of 60 Hz man-made electric power. The harmonics of 60 Hz detected by the VLF receiver are at multiples of 180 Hz, indicating that they originated from a 3 phase ac power system. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions, only odd harmonics of 70 Hz were detected. In disturbed conditions, both odd and even harmonics were excited. The strength of each harmonic changed concurrently with geomagnetic pulsation (ULF) activity. These findings seem to indicate that a portion of telluric currents shunted into the power line system through the neutrals of the Y-connected transformers give rise to a dc bias to the transformer core materials and that it distorts their hysteresis loops, activating harmonics of 60 Hz power. A mathematical proof is given that a hysteresis loop having a point of symmetry generates odd harmonics only, whereas loops lacking in point-symmetry generally give rise to both odd and even harmonics. A general formula was obtained to calculate the strength of each harmonic based on the shape of the hysteresis loop.

  20. Exposure of human cells to electromagnetic fields. Final report, 1 January 1988-31 December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1990-02-27

    This study addressed the following basic question: How does extremely low-level non-ionizing radiation affect human cells, and if there are cellular responses that can be directly related to signal parameters such as frequency, amplitude and time of exposure. The focus of these studies was to identify transcriptional changes in human cultured cells, HL60, which result from exposure of these cells to defined extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (elf EMFS). Our experiments show a pronounced measurable response observed as transcript increase, with associated changes in protein synthesis. The major findings relative to transcriptional changes are fourfold: (1) transcript changes in human cells correlate with previous findings of transcriptional and translational changes in Drosophila salivary gland cells; (2) the frequency of the signal in the amplitude (with resulting changes in E- and B-fields) in log increments from 0.5 to 500 uV at 60 Hz gives both amplitude and time-dependent windows, and (4) genes not usually expressed in HL-60 are unaffected by exposure to elf EMFs. Changes in the overall protein synthetic pattern have also been observed following exposure of HL60 cells to 60 Hz signals.

  1. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  2. Electromagnetic field and brain development.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Suleyman; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Türkmen, Aysın Pınar; Yurt, Kıymet Kübra; Aydın, Işınsu; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Davis, Devra

    2016-09-01

    Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices. As cell phones are held close to the head during talking and often stored next to the reproductive organs, studies are mostly focused on the brain. In fact, more research is especially needed to investigate electromagnetic field (EMF)'s effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system.

  3. Electromagnetic field and brain development.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Suleyman; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Türkmen, Aysın Pınar; Yurt, Kıymet Kübra; Aydın, Işınsu; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Davis, Devra

    2016-09-01

    Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices. As cell phones are held close to the head during talking and often stored next to the reproductive organs, studies are mostly focused on the brain. In fact, more research is especially needed to investigate electromagnetic field (EMF)'s effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system. PMID:26686296

  4. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on the heart: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The use of electrical devices has gradually increased throughout the last century, and scientists have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by such devices may have harmful effects on living creatures. This work represents a systematic review of collective scholarly literature examining the effects of EMFs on the heart. Although most works describing effects of EMF exposure have been carried out using city electric frequencies (50-60 Hz), a consensus has not been reached about whether long- or short-term exposure to 50-60 Hz EMF negatively affects the heart. Studies have indicated that EMFs produced at cell-phone frequencies cause no-effect on the heart. Differences between results of studies may be due to a compensatory response developed by the body over time. At greater EMF strengths or shorter exposures, the ability of the body to develop compensation mechanisms is reduced and the potential for heart-related effects increases. It is noteworthy that diseases of heart tissues such as myocardial ischemia can also be successfully treated using EMF. Despite the substantial volume of data that has been collected on heart-related effects of EMFs, additional studies are needed at the cellular and molecular level to fully clarify the subject. Until the effects of EMF on heart tissue are more fully explored, electronic devices generating EMFs should be approached with caution.

  5. Induction heating and operator exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Stuchly, M A; Lecuyer, D W

    1985-11-01

    Alternating magnetic fields are used in industry for induction heating of metals and semiconductors. Relatively high power, typically of a few to a few hundred of kW is used, and a frequency of operation ranges from 60 Hz to a few tens of MHz. A survey of the magnetic field strengths to which the operators are exposed has shown that these exposures are, in many instances, high compared with recommended exposure limits.

  6. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Adey, W R

    1993-04-01

    Life on earth has evolved in a sea of natural electromagnetic (EM) fields. Over the past century, this natural environment has sharply changed with introduction of a vast and growing spectrum of man-made EM fields. From models based on equilibrium thermodynamics and thermal effects, these fields were initially considered too weak to interact with biomolecular systems, and thus incapable of influencing physiological functions. Laboratory studies have tested a spectrum of EM fields for bioeffects at cell and molecular levels, focusing on exposures at athermal levels. A clear emergent conclusion is that many observed interactions are not based on tissue heating. Modulation of cell surface chemical events by weak EM fields indicates a major amplification of initial weak triggers associated with binding of hormones, antibodies, and neurotransmitters to their specific binding sites. Calcium ions play a key role in this amplification. These studies support new concepts of communication between cells across the barriers of cell membranes; and point with increasing certainty to an essential physical organization in living matter, at a far finer level than the structural and functional image defined in the chemistry of molecules. New collaborations between physical and biological scientists define common goals, seeking solutions to the physical nature of matter through a strong focus on biological matter. The evidence indicates mediation by highly nonlinear, nonequilibrium processes at critical steps in signal coupling across cell membranes. There is increasing evidence that these events relate to quantum states and resonant responses in biomolecular systems, and not to equilibrium thermodynamics associated with thermal energy exchanges and tissue heating.

  7. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  8. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

    1993-03-16

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  9. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Casada, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  10. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  11. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 55 figs.

  12. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-02-10

    An apparatus and method for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume is disclosed. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 39 figs.

  13. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 26 figs.

  14. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James Terry

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  15. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially cancelling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  16. [Health effects of electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.

  17. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  18. Why arguments based on photon energy may be highly misleading for power line frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Vistnes, A I; Gjötterud, K

    2001-04-01

    When evaluating possible mechanisms by which low frequency electromagnetic fields may have a biological effect, arguments based on photon energy have often been used in a misleading way. For visible light the concept of photons has proved to be very useful in explaining experimental findings. However, the concept of photons cannot be used without major modifications in describing phenomena related to near field problems at power frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields. For this regime, the photon description is very complex. A very high number of highly coherent photons must be used in a quantum electrodynamic description of low frequency electromagnetic field phenomena. Thus, one-photon interaction descriptions must be replaced by multiple-photon interaction formalism. However, at low frequencies, a classical electromagnetic field description is far more useful than quantum electrodynamics. There is in principle no difference in how much energy an electron can pick up from a low frequency electric field as compared to from a high frequency photon. Thus, the total gain in energy is not limited to the energy carried by a single photon, which is E = hv, where h is Planck's constant and (v) is the frequency of the radiation. However, the time scale of the primary event in a mechanism of action is very different for ionizing radiation compared to power line frequency fields. The advice is to consider the time scale given by the inverse of the frequency of the fields, rather than photon energy, when one use physics as a guidance in evaluating possible mechanisms for biological effects from low frequency electromagnetic fields.

  19. Final Report. Supplementary comparison of 50/60 Hz energy SIM.EM-S7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, R.; Campos, S.; Castruita, A.; Nelson, T.; Ribeiro, A. M.; So, E.; Spaggiari, A.; Slomovitz, D.; Izquierdo, D.; Postigo, H.; Díaz, H.; Sanchez, H.; Gonzalez, J.; Ramos, R.; Zipaquira, A.

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, a key comparison of energy standards at 50/60 Hz was conducted in the SIM region. The comparison included measurements of active and reactive energy at three frequencies, aiming at providing support to high accuracy measurement needs of reactive energy. This work presents the results of the SIM.EM-S7 supplementary comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Expanding use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapies.

    PubMed

    Markov, Marko S

    2007-01-01

    Various types of magnetic and electromagnetic fields are now in successful use in modern medicine. Electromagnetic therapy carries the promise to heal numerous health problems, even where conventional medicine has failed. Today, magnetotherapy provides a non invasive, safe, and easy method to directly treat the site of injury, the source of pain and inflammation, and a variety of diseases and pathologies. Millions of people worldwide have received help in treatment of the musculoskeletal system, as well as for pain relief. Pulsed electromagnetic fields are one important modality in magnetotherapy. Recent technological innovations, implementing advancements in computer technologies, offer excellent state-of-the-art therapy. PMID:17886012

  1. Interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Barde, Ravindra; Mishra, Ashutosh; Phadke, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic field interact in biological tissues. It is actually one of the important challenges for the electromagnetic field for the recent years. The experimental techniques are use in Broad-band Dielectric Measurement (BDM) with LCR meters. The authors used Bones and scales of Fish taken from Narmada River (Rajghat Dist. Barwani) as biological tissues. Experimental work carried out done in inter-university consortium (IUC) Indore. The major difficulties that appear are related to the material properties, to the effect of the electromagnetic problem and to the thermal model of the biological tissues.

  2. Relativistic diffusive motion in thermal electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss relativistic dynamics in a random electromagnetic field which can be considered as a high temperature limit of the quantum electromagnetic field in a heat bath (cavity) moving with a uniform velocity w. We derive a diffusion approximation for the particle’s dynamics generalizing the diffusion of Schay and Dudley. It is shown that the Jüttner distribution is the equilibrium state of the diffusion.

  3. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  4. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  5. Erythrocyte rouleau formation under polarized electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián, José Luis; San Martín, Sagrario Muñoz; Sancho, Miguel; Miranda, José Miguel; Álvarez, Gabriel

    2005-09-01

    We study the influence of an external electromagnetic field of 1.8GHz in the formation or disaggregation of long rouleau of identical erythrocyte cells. In particular we calculate the variation of the transmembrane potential of an individual erythrocyte illuminated by the external field due to the presence of the neighboring erythrocytes in the rouleau, and compare the total electric energy of isolated cells with the total electric energy of the rouleau. We show that the polarization of the external electromagnetic field plays a fundamental role in the total energy variation of the cell system, and consequently in the formation or disaggregation of rouleau.

  6. Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Final report, March 1979-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, W.R.; Bawin, S.M.; Byus, C.V.; Cain, C.D.; Lin-Liu, S.; Luben, R.A.; Lyle, D.B.; Sagan, P.M.; Sheppard, A.R.; Stell, M.A.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides an overview of this research program focused on basic research in nervous system responses to electric fields at 60 Hz. The emphasis in this project was to determine the fundamental mechanisms underlying some phenomena of electric field interactions in neural systems. The five studies of the initial program were tests of behavioral responses in the rat based upon the hypothesis that electric field detection might follow psychophysical rules known from prior research with light, sound and other stimuli; tests of electrophysiological responses to ''normal'' forms of stimulation in rat brain tissue exposed in vitro to electric fields, based on the hypothesis that the excitability of brain tissue might be affected by fields in the extracellular environment; tests of electrophysiological responses of spontaneously active pacemaker neurons of the Aplysia abdominal ganglion, based on the hypothesis that electric field interactions at the cell membrane might affect the balance among the several membrane-related processes that govern pacemaker activity; studies of mechanisms of low frequency electromagnetic field interactions with bone cells in the context of field therapy of ununited fractures; and manipulation of cell surface receptor proteins in studies of their mobility during EM field exposure.

  7. Laboratory Studies of the Short-term Responses of Freshwater Fish to Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Cada, Glenn F; Fortner, Allison M; Schweizer, Peter E; Riemer, Kristina P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies are being proposed as an environmentally preferred means of generating electricity from river and tidal currents. Among the potential issues that must be investigated in order to resolve environmental concerns are the effects on aquatic organisms of electromagnetic fields created by underwater generators and transmission cables. The behavioral responses of common freshwater fishes to static and variable electromagnetic fields (EMF) that may be emitted by hydrokinetic projects were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Various fish species were exposed to either static (DC) EMF fields created by a permanent bar magnet or variable (AC) EMF fields created by a switched electromagnet for 48 h, fish locations were recorded with a digital imaging system, and changes in activity level and distribution relative to the magnet position were quantified at 5-min intervals. Experiments with fathead minnows, redear sunfish, striped bass, lake sturgeon, and channel catfish produced mixed results. Except for fathead minnows there was no effect on activity level. Only redear sunfish and channel catfish exhibited a change in distribution relative to the position of the magnet with an apparent attraction to the EMF source. In separate experiments, rapid behavioral responses of paddlefish and lake sturgeon to onset of the AC field were recorded with high-speed video. Paddlefish did not react to a variable, 60-Hz magnetic field like that which would be emitted by an AC generator or cable, but lake sturgeon consistently responded to the variable, AC-generated magnetic field with a variety of altered swimming behaviors. These results will be useful for determining under what circumstances cables or generators need to be positioned to minimize interactions with sensitive species.

  8. Electromagnetic fields in bone repair and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kenneth J.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Donahue, Henry J.

    1995-01-01

    The treatment of delayed union of bone fractures has served for the past 20 years as the principal testing ground for determining whether nonionizing electromagnetic fields can have any substantial, long-term effects in clinical medicine. Recent double-blinded clinical trials have confirmed the significance of the reported effects on bone healing and have led to the suggestion that electromagnetic fields may also be useful in the treatment of other orthopedic problems such as fresh fractures, stabilization of prosthetic implants, or even the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. However, the design of appropriate treatment regimens for these new applications would be greatly facilitated if it were understood how the biological cells within bone tissue sense these low-frequency, and remarkably low level, electromagnetic fields. Here we address the engineering and physical science aspects of this problem. We review the characteristics of clinically used electromagnetic fields and discuss which components of these fields may actually be responsible for altering the activity of the bone cells. We then consider several physical mechanisms which have been proposed to explain how the cells within the bone or fracture tissue detect this field component.

  9. Electromagnetic field interactions with biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, A.H. )

    1993-02-01

    This is a report on Symposia organized by the International Society for Bioelectricity and presented at the 1992 FASEB Meeting. The presentations summarized here were intended to provide a sampling of new and fruitful lines of research. The theme topics for the Symposia were cancer, neural function, cell signaling, pineal gland function, and immune system interactions. Living organisms are complex electrochemical systems that evolved over billions of years in a world with a relatively simple weak magnetic field and with few electromagnetic energy emitters. As is characteristic of living organisms, they interacted with and adapted to this environment of electric and magnetic fields. In recent years there has been a massive introduction of equipment that emits electromagnetic fields in an enormous range of new frequencies, modulations, and intensities. As living organisms have only recently found themselves immersed in this new and virtually ubiquitous environment, they have not had the opportunity to adapt to it. This gives biologists the opportunity to use these electromagnetic fields as probes to study the functioning of living systems. This is a significant opportunity, as new approaches to studying living systems so often provide the means to make great leaps in science. In recent years, a diversity of biologists have carried out experiments using electromagnetic fields to study the function of living cells and systems. This approach is now becoming quite fruitful and is yielding data that are advancing our knowledge in diverse areas of biology. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: reported effects on the circadian production of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J

    1993-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of melatonin production (high melatonin levels at night and low during the day) in the mammalian pineal gland is modified by visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e., light, and reportedly by extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields as well as by static magnetic field exposure. Both light and non-visible electromagnetic field exposure at night depress the conversion of serotonin (5HT) to melatonin within the pineal gland. Several reports over the last decade showed that the chronic exposure of rats to a 60 Hz electric field, over a range of field strengths, severely attenuated the nighttime rise in pineal melatonin production; however, more recent studies have not confirmed this initial observation. Sinusoidal magnetic field exposure also has been shown to interfere with the nocturnal melatonin forming ability of the pineal gland although the number of studies using these field exposures is small. On the other hand, static magnetic fields have been repeatedly shown to perturb the circadian melatonin rhythm. The field strengths in these studies were almost always in the geomagnetic range (0.2 to 0.7 Gauss or 20 to 70 mu tesla) and most often the experimental animals were subjected either to a partial rotation or to a total inversion of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field. These experiments showed that several parameters in the indole cascade in the pineal gland are modified by these field exposures; thus, pineal cyclic AMP levels, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity (the rate limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin production), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activity (the melatonin forming enzyme), and pineal and blood melatonin concentrations were depressed in various studies. Likewise, increases in pineal levels of 5HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also seen in these glands; these increases are consistent with a depressed melatonin synthesis. The mechanisms whereby non

  11. Electromagnetic field parameters and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, A. R.; Jones, R. A.; Stell, M. E.; Adey, W. R.; Bawin, S.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effects of the electric and magnetic components of a Loran-C type waveform on three biological systems. Neurochemical assays of brain neurotransmitter substances indicate field-related changes in the levels of norepinephrine in the hippocampus and in the number and affinities of the opiate receptors in the cortex. Behavioral data showed that rats trained in an operant conditioning task did not reliably detect any electric field strength used. Biochemical data demonstrated that the Loran-C field did not modify basal ornithine decarboxylase activity in primary bone cells.

  12. Generalized electromagnetic fields in a chiral medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, P. S.; Singh, Jivan; Negi, O. P. S.

    2007-09-01

    The time-dependent Dirac-Maxwell's equations in the presence of electric and magnetic sources are reformulated in a chiral medium, and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in a unique, simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium has also been discussed in a compact, simple and consistent manner.

  13. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  14. LEM—electromagnetic fields measurement laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annino, A.; Falciglia, F.; Musumeci, F.; Oliveri, M.; Privitera, G.; Triglia, A.

    2000-04-01

    The widespread presence of electromagnetic waves and the relative problems regarding them have favored the constitution of the LEM at the DMFCI in Catania University, where competence has been developing in this sector for about 10 years. Full operativeness has been reached as far as the electromagnetic field measurements in anthropized environments are concerned. Other research will be undertaken as soon as further funds are available. Some problems connected with the perfecting of measurements instruments and the results of emission measurements of cellular telephones are presented.

  15. Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2011-08-01

    We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Jüttner equilibrium at the inverse temperature β-1 = mc2. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).

  16. Electromagnetic wave scattering by an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannikov, S. S.

    1995-08-01

    The quantum electrodynamics of bilocal fields is used to calculate the triangular Feynman diagrams describing the elastic scattering of a classical electromagnetic wave by an external Coulomb field. The total contribution of the diagrams is nonzero because of the violation of both the Furry theorem (CP or T symmetries) and the Ward identities. The cross section for this scattering process is found for low and high energies. A comparison with Compton scattering and Euler—Heisenberg scattering is given.

  17. Visualization of circuit card electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwillinger, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Circuit boards are used in nearly every electrical appliance. Most board failures cause differing currents in the circuit board traces and components. This causes the circuit board to radiate a differing electromagnetic field. Imaging this radiated field, which is equivalent to measuring the field, could be used for error detection. Using estimates of the fields radiated by a low power digital circuit board, properties of known materials, and available equipment, we determined how well the following technologies could be used to visualize circuit board electromagnetic fields (prioritized by promise): electrooptical techniques, magnetooptical techniques, piezoelectric techniques, thermal techniques, and electrodynamic force technique. We have determined that sensors using the electrooptical effect (Pockels effect) appear to be sufficiently sensitive for use in a circuit board imaging system. Sensors utilizing the magnetooptical effect may also be adequate for this purpose, when using research materials. These sensors appear to be capable of achieving direct broadband measurements. We also reviewed existing electromagnetic field sensors. Only one of the sensors (recently patented) was specifically designed for circuit board measurements.

  18. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Map of Timisoara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefu, N.; Solyom, I.; Arama, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many electromagnetic field (EMF) sources nowadays acting simultaneously, especially in urban areas, making the theoretical estimation of electromagnetic power at ground level very difficult. This paper reports on EMF maps built with measurements collected in Timisoara, at various radiofrequencies. A grid of 15×15 squares was built (approximate resolution 400m x 400m) and measurements of the average and maximum values of the electric field E, magnetic field H and total power density S at 0.9, 1.8 and 2.4 GHz were collected in every node of the grid. Positions of the nodes in terms of latitude and longitude were also collected. Maps were built presenting the spatial distribution of the measured quantities over Timisoara. Potential influences of EMF on public health are discussed.

  19. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-04-15

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  20. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwolińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  1. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    PubMed

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  2. Hamiltonian dynamics of the parametrized electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2016-06-01

    We study the Hamiltonian formulation for a parametrized electromagnetic field with the purpose of clarifying the interplay between parametrization and gauge symmetries. We use a geometric approach which is tailor-made for theories where embeddings are part of the dynamical variables. Our point of view is global and coordinate free. The most important result of the paper is the identification of sectors in the primary constraint submanifold in the phase space of the model where the number of independent components of the Hamiltonian vector fields that define the dynamics changes. This explains the non-trivial behavior of the system and some of its pathologies.

  3. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  4. Electromagnetic-field exposure and cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, H D; Chattopadhyay, S K

    1988-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields are a ubiquitous part of man's environment. Natural sources of energy have been present, and possibly have contributed to the processes of the evolution of living forms. In very recent time, however, exploitation of the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum, has added variables in intensity, frequency, modulation frequency, and alterations in contributions of electrical and magnetic components. Biological impact has been little studied and poorly defined. Animal carcinogenesis studies and human epidemiological data indicate that exposure to nonionizing radiation can play a role in cancer causation. Numerous effects at the physiological and biochemical level have been reported; many are of such a nature that a relationship to the causation of neoplastic transformation can rationally be hypothesized. Many bioeffects of electromagnetic fields can be adequately and economically explained in terms of heat effects alone. However, observations of frequency-, pulse form or modulation-, and intensity-specificity as well as effects opposite to that known for temperature-rise, imply direct interaction of radiant energy with biomolecules. The possibility of such direct interaction has been shown in quantum mechanical models.

  5. Bianchi class B spacetimes with electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kei

    2012-02-01

    We carry out a thorough analysis on a class of cosmological space-times which admit three spacelike Killing vectors of Bianchi class B and contain electromagnetic fields. Using dynamical system analysis, we show that a family of electro-vacuum plane-wave solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations is the stable attractor for expanding universes. Phase dynamics are investigated in detail for particular symmetric models. We integrate the system exactly for some special cases to confirm the qualitative features. Some of the obtained solutions have not been presented previously to the best of our knowledge. Finally, based on those analyses, we discuss the relation between those homogeneous models and perturbations of open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes. We argue that the electro-vacuum plane-wave modes correspond to a certain long-wavelength limit of electromagnetic perturbations.

  6. Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, Felix; Gies, Holger; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt

    2015-10-01

    Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of nonlinear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generation of FEL/high-field laser facilities.

  7. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  8. Electromagnetic fields on a quantum scale. I.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A

    2002-10-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electro-magnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a non-local eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electro-magnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron non-locality and the standing electro-magnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of non-relativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.

  9. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  10. Biomarkers of induced electromagnetic field and cancer.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2007-01-01

    The present article delineates the epidemiological and experimental studies of electromagnetic field which affects various tissues of human body. These affects lead to cell proliferation, which may lead to cancer formation. Certain biomarkers have been identified which are one way or the other responsible for tumor promotion or co-promotion. These are (i) melatonin, a hormone secreted by pineal gland, (ii) Ca2+, which is essential in the regulation of the resting membrane potential and in the sequence of events in synaptic excitation and neurotransmitter, release are affected by electromagnetic field, (iii) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, considered as a useful biological marker; over expression of ODC can cause cell transformation and enhancement of tumor promotion. (iv) protein kinase is an enzyme, which transfers phosphate groups from ATP to hydroxyl groups in the amino acid chains of acceptor proteins, and (v) Na+-K+ ATPase, which transports sodium and potassium ions across the membrane has a critical role in living cells. The various possible mechanisms depending upon non equilibrium thermodynamics, co-operativism, stochastic and resonance are discussed as possible models of signal transduction in cytosol, thereby controlling the transcription phenomena. Finally a mechanism comprising the extremely low frequency and radio frequency (RF)/microwave (MW) modulated field is compared.

  11. Translation operator for finite dmensional electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.Q. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Computation of electromagnetic fields in particular applications is usually accompanied by the adhoc assumption that the field contains a finite number of degrees of freedom. Herein, this assumption is made at the outset. It is shown that if an annular region between two closed surfaces contains no sources or sinks and is isotropic, lossless and homogeneous, a unique translation operator can be defined algebraically. Conservation of energy defines the translation operator T to within an arbitrary unitary transformation. The conditions of causality, unitarity and energy conservation are shown to uniquely determine T. Both scalar and vector fields are treated. In both of these cases, frequency and time domain transforms are computed. The transform T is compared with the analagous one as derived from the time domain Stratton-Chu Formulation. The application to a radiation condition boundary constraint on finite difference and finite element computations is discussed.

  12. Myocardial function improved by electromagnetic field induction of stress protein hsp70.

    PubMed

    George, Isaac; Geddis, Matthew S; Lill, Zachary; Lin, Hana; Gomez, Teodoro; Blank, Martin; Oz, Mehmet C; Goodman, Reba

    2008-09-01

    Studies on myocardial function have shown that hsp70, stimulated by an increase in temperature, leads to improved survival following ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) also induce the stress protein hsp70, but without elevating temperature. We have examined the hemodynamic changes in concert with EMF pre-conditioning and the induction of hsp70 to determine whether improved myocardial function occurs following I-R injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were exposed to EMF (60 Hz, 8 microT) for 30 min prior to I-R. Ischemia was then induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Blood and heart tissue levels for hsp70 were determined by Western blot and RNA transcription by rtPCR. Significant upregulation of the HSP70 gene and increased hsp70 levels were measured in response to EMF pre-exposures. Invasive hemodynamics, as measured using a volume conductance catheter, demonstrated significant recovery of systolic contractile function after 30 min of reperfusion following EMF exposure. Additionally, isovolemic relaxation, a measure of ventricular diastolic function, was markedly improved in EMF-treated animals. In conclusion, non-invasive EMF induction of hsp70 preserved myocardial function and has the potential to improve tolerance to ischemic injury.

  13. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic field on structure and function of different kinds of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sul, Ah Ram; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2006-12-31

    This study investigated that whether a 2 mT, 60 Hz, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (EMF) alters the structure and function of cells. This research compared the effects of EMF on four kinds of cell lines: hFOB 1.19 (fetal osteoblast), T/G HA-VSMC (aortic vascular smooth muscle cell), RPMI 7666 (B lymphoblast), and HCN-2 (cortical neuronal cell). Over 14 days, cells were exposed to EMF for 1, 3, or 6 hours per day (hrs/d). The results pointed to a cell type-specific reaction to EMF exposure. In addition, the cellular responses were dependent on duration of EMF exposure. In the present study, cell proliferation was the trait most sensitive to EMF. EMF treatment promoted growth of hFOB 1.19 and HCN-2 compared with control cells at 7 and 14 days of incubation. When the exposure time was 3 hrs/d, EMF enhanced the proliferation of RPMI 7666 but inhibited that of T/G HA- VSMC. On the other hand, the effects of EMF on cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, and actin distribution were unclear. Furthermore, we hardly found any correlation between EMF exposure and gap junctional intercellular communication in hFOB 1.19. This study revealed that EMF might serve as a potential tool for manipulating cell proliferation.

  14. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields. PMID:26444190

  15. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  16. Ankle variability is amplified in older adults due to lower EMG power from 30-60 Hz.

    PubMed

    Kwon, MinHyuk; Baweja, Harsimran S; Christou, Evangelos A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neuromuscular mechanisms of the involved muscles that contribute to the greater positional variability at the ankle joint in older adults compared with young adults. Eleven young adults (25.6±4.9 years) and nine older adults (76.9±5.9 years) were asked to accurately match and maintain a horizontal target line with 5° dorsiflexion of their ankle for 20 s. The loads were 5 and 15% of the one repetition maximum load (1 RM). The visual gain was kept constant at 1° for all trials. Positional variability was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of the detrended position signal. The neural activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles was quantified as the normalized EMG amplitude, power spectrum density (PSD; EMG oscillations) and coactivation of the two muscles. As expected, positional variability was greater in older adults (older: 0.11±0.06° vs. young: 0.04±0.02°; p=.003). The only significant neural difference occurred for the PSD of the tibialis anterior muscle, where young adults exhibited significantly greater power than older adults from 30-60 Hz. The amplified positional variability of ankle joint in older adults was associated with lower power from 30-60 Hz oscillations in the tibialis anterior muscle (r(2)=.3, p=.01). These results provide novel evidence that older adults exhibit greater positional variability with the ankle joint relative to young adults likely due to their inability to activate the tibialis anterior muscle from 30-60 Hz.

  17. Ankle variability is amplified in older adults due to lower EMG power from 30-60 Hz.

    PubMed

    Kwon, MinHyuk; Baweja, Harsimran S; Christou, Evangelos A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neuromuscular mechanisms of the involved muscles that contribute to the greater positional variability at the ankle joint in older adults compared with young adults. Eleven young adults (25.6±4.9 years) and nine older adults (76.9±5.9 years) were asked to accurately match and maintain a horizontal target line with 5° dorsiflexion of their ankle for 20 s. The loads were 5 and 15% of the one repetition maximum load (1 RM). The visual gain was kept constant at 1° for all trials. Positional variability was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of the detrended position signal. The neural activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles was quantified as the normalized EMG amplitude, power spectrum density (PSD; EMG oscillations) and coactivation of the two muscles. As expected, positional variability was greater in older adults (older: 0.11±0.06° vs. young: 0.04±0.02°; p=.003). The only significant neural difference occurred for the PSD of the tibialis anterior muscle, where young adults exhibited significantly greater power than older adults from 30-60 Hz. The amplified positional variability of ankle joint in older adults was associated with lower power from 30-60 Hz oscillations in the tibialis anterior muscle (r(2)=.3, p=.01). These results provide novel evidence that older adults exhibit greater positional variability with the ankle joint relative to young adults likely due to their inability to activate the tibialis anterior muscle from 30-60 Hz. PMID:23089330

  18. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  19. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  20. Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-09-01

    The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.

  1. Truesdell invariance in relativistic electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walwadkar, B. B.; Virkar, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The Truesdell derivative of a contravariant tensor fieldX ab is defined with respect to a null congruencel a analogous to the Truesdell stress rate in classical continuum mechanics. The dynamical consequences of the Truesdell invariance with respect to a timelike vectoru a of the stress-energy tensor characterizing a charged perfect fluid with null conductivity are the conservation of pressure (p), charged density (e) an expansion-free flow, constancy of the Maxwell scalars, and vanishing spin coefficientsα+¯β = ¯σ - λ = τ = 0 (assuming freedom conditionsk = λ = ɛ ψ + ¯γ = 0). The electromagnetic energy momentum tensor for the special subcases of Ruse-Synge classification for typesA andB are described in terms of the spin coefficients introduced by Newman-Penrose.

  2. Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Morachkovsky, Oleg; Naumenko, Konstantin; Lavinsky, Denis

    2015-12-01

    Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies under the action of electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Governing equations for non-stationary electromagnetic field propagation and elastic-plastic deformation are presented. The variational principle of minimum of the total energy is applied to formulate the numerical solution procedure by the finite element method. With the proposed method, distributions of vector characteristics of the electromagnetic field and tensor characteristics of the deformation process are illustrated for the inductor-workpiece system within a realistic electromagnetic forming process.

  3. Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Morachkovsky, Oleg; Naumenko, Konstantin; Lavinsky, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies under the action of electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Governing equations for non-stationary electromagnetic field propagation and elastic-plastic deformation are presented. The variational principle of minimum of the total energy is applied to formulate the numerical solution procedure by the finite element method. With the proposed method, distributions of vector characteristics of the electromagnetic field and tensor characteristics of the deformation process are illustrated for the inductor-workpiece system within a realistic electromagnetic forming process.

  4. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204) and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.

  5. Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields

    SciTech Connect

    W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

    2012-04-01

    Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

  6. Sensing network for electromagnetic fields generated by seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2014-06-01

    The sensors network is becoming prolific and play now increasingly more important role in acquiring and processing information. Cyber-Physical Systems are focusing on investigation of integrated systems that includes sensing, networking, and computations. The physics of the seismic measurement and electromagnetic field measurement requires special consideration how to design electromagnetic field measurement networks for both research and detection earthquakes and explosions along with the seismic measurement networks. In addition, the electromagnetic sensor network itself could be designed and deployed, as a research tool with great deal of flexibility, the placement of the measuring nodes must be design based on systematic analysis of the seismic-electromagnetic interaction. In this article, we review the observations of the co-seismic electromagnetic field generated by earthquakes and man-made sources such as vibrations and explosions. The theoretical investigation allows the distribution of sensor nodes to be optimized and could be used to support existing geological networks. The placement of sensor nodes have to be determined based on physics of electromagnetic field distribution above the ground level. The results of theoretical investigations of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena are considered in Section I. First, we compare the relative contribution of various types of mechano-electromagnetic mechanisms and then analyze in detail the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by piezomagnetic and electrokinetic effects.

  7. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficklen, Carter B.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF) completed at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars Program. This project was performed to determine levels of electromagnetic fields, determine the significance of the levels present, and determine a plan to reduce electromagnetic field exposure, if necessary. This report also describes the properties of electromagnetic fields and their interaction with humans. The results of three major occupational epidemiological studies is presented to determine risks posed to humans by EMF exposure. The data for this report came from peer-reviewed journal articles and government publications pertaining to the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  8. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    PubMed

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  9. Overview on the standardization in the field of electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Georges

    1989-04-01

    Standardization in the domain of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is discussed, with specific reference to the standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission, the Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques, and the Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique. EMC fields considered include radiocommunications, telecommunications, biological effects, and data transmission. Standards are presented for such electromagnetic disturbances as low-frequency, high-frequency, conduction, and radiation phenomena.

  10. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. > Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. > Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. > Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. > Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  11. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  12. Neuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2−, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  13. On Projecting Discretized Electromagnetic Fields with Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Candel, Arno; Kabel, Andrea; Li, Zenghai; /SLAC

    2008-08-13

    A new method for projecting discretized electromagnetic fields on one unstructured grid to another grid is presented in this paper. Two examples are used for studying the errors of different projection methods. The analysis shows that the new method is very effective on balancing both the error of the electric field and that of the magnetic field (or curl of the electric field).

  14. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  15. Probing the electromagnetic field distribution within a metallic nanodisk.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Prieto, Patricia; Anguita, José; González, María U; García-Martín, José M; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles, Gaspar

    2011-12-01

    A Co nanolayer is used as a local probe to evaluate the vertical inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic (EM) field within a resonant metallic nanodisk. Taking advantage of the direct relation between the magneto-optical activity and the electromagnetic field intensity in the Co layer, it is shown that the nonuniform EM distribution within the nanodisk under plasmon resonant conditions has maximum values close to the upper and lower flat faces, and a minimum value in the middle.

  16. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzurli, Francesco; Lechner, Kurt

    2014-10-15

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Liénard–Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular δ-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is (a) linear, (b) accelerated unbounded, (c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a δ-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a regular principal-part type distribution diverging on the same singularity-string. - Highlights: • First exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for massless charges in arbitrary motion. • Explicit expressions of electromagnetic fields and potentials. • Derivations are rigorous and based on distribution theory. • The form of the field depends heavily on whether the motion is bounded or unbounded. • The electromagnetic field contains unexpected Dirac-delta-function contributions.

  17. Induced electromagnetic field by seismic waves in Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Xiaofei; Hu, Hengshan; Wen, Jian; Tang, Ji; Fang, Guoqing

    2014-07-01

    Studied in this article are the properties of the electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by an earthquake due to the motional induction effect, which arises from the motion of the conducting crust across the Earth's magnetic field. By solving the governing equations that couple the elastodynamic equations with Maxwell equations, we derive the seismoelectromagnetic wavefields excited by a single-point force and a double-couple source in a full space. Two types of EM disturbances can be generated, i.e., the coseismic EM field accompanying the seismic wave and the independently propagating EM wave which arrives much earlier than the seismic wave. Simulation of an Mw6.1 earthquake shows that at a receiving location where the seismic acceleration is on the order of 0.1 m/s2, the coseismic electric and magnetic fields are on the orders of 1 μV/m and 0.1 nT, respectively, agreeing with the EM data observed in 2008 Mw6.1 Qingchuan earthquake, China, and indicating that the motional induction effect is effective enough to generate observable EM signal. We also simulated the EM signals observed by Haines et al. which were called the Lorentz fields and cannot be explained by the electrokinetic effect. The result shows that the EM wave generated by a horizontal force can explain the data well, suggesting that the motional induction effect is responsible for the Lorentz fields. The motional induction effect is compared with the electrokinetic effect, showing the overall conclusion that the former dominates the mechanoelectric conversion under low-frequency and high-conductivity conditions while the latter dominates under high-frequency and low-conductivity conditions.

  18. Comments about the electromagnetic field in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, L.; Skokov, V.

    2014-09-01

    In this article we discuss the properties of electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion collisions and consequences for observables. We address quantitatively the issue of the magnetic field lifetime in a collision including the electric and chiral magnetic conductivities. We show that for reasonable parameters, the magnetic field created by spectators in a collision is not modified by the presence of matter.

  19. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields as a source of universe acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    A model of nonlinear electromagnetic fields with a dimensional parameter β is proposed. From PVLAS experiment the bound on the parameter β was obtained. Electromagnetic fields are coupled with the gravitation field and we show that the universe accelerates due to nonlinear electromagnetic fields. The magnetic universe is considered and the stochastic magnetic field is a background. After inflation the universe decelerates and approaches to the radiation era. The range of the scale factor, when the causality of the model and a classical stability take place, was obtained. The spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index were estimated which are in approximate agreement with the Planck, WMAP, and BICEP2 data.

  20. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Burdanova, M. G.

    2016-03-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion-polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field.

  1. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  2. Analytical model for electromagnetic cascades in rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    Electromagnetic cascades attract a lot of attention as an important quantum electrodynamics effect that will reveal itself in various electromagnetic field configurations at ultrahigh intensities. We study cascade dynamics in rotating electric field analytically and numerically. The kinetic equations for the electron-positron plasma and gamma-quanta are formulated. The scaling laws are derived and analyzed. For the cascades arising far above the threshold the dependence of the cascade parameters on the field frequency is derived. The spectra of high-energy cascade particles are calculated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  3. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces for Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, D.-A.; Merkl, F.

    2016-08-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (J Math Mech 14:315-322, 1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (J Math Phys 18(4):720-737, 1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spatial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential {A_μ} are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general {A_μ}, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of {A_μ} w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  4. Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Winters, W.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. Studies about the effects of 50- to 100-Hz electromagnetic fields on various species of animal embryos (fish, chick, fly, sea urchin, rat, and mouse) indicate that early stages of embryonic development are responsive to fluctuating magnetic fields. Chick, sea urchin, and mouse embryos are responsive to magnetic field intensities of 10-100 mG. Results from studies on sea urchin embryos indicate that exposure to conditions of rotating 60-Hz magnetic fields, e.g., similar to those in our environment, interferes with cell proliferation at the morula stage in a manner dependent on field intensity. The cleavage stages, prior to the 64-cell stage, were not delayed by this rotating 60-Hz magnetic field suggesting that the ionic surges, DNA replication, and translational events essential for early cleavage stages were not significantly altered. Studies of histone synthesis in early sea urchin embryos indicated that the rotating 60-Hz magnetic field decreased zygotic expression of early histone genes at the morula stage and suggests that this decrease in early histone production was limiting to cell proliferation. Whether these comparative observations from animal development studies will be paralleled by results from studies of human embryogenesis, as suggested by some epidemiology studies, has yet to be established. 38 refs.

  5. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  6. [Effect of electromagnetic fields on movement of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Zel'nichenko, A T; Koval'chuk, V S; Posudin, Iu I

    1988-01-01

    Relationships between the motor activity and orientation of microorganisms and parameters of the electromagnetic field and of the microorganisms themselves were investigated. It has been shown that the type of microorganism and field amplitude produces the strongest influence on the behaviour of microorganisms in the fields. Theoretical relationships of the value of rotating moment and the field parameters, microorganism and environment were obtained. The results of the experiments well agree with the theory. PMID:3224110

  7. Macroscopic vacuum effects in an inhomogeneous and nonstationary electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Nikitina, N.S.

    1983-04-01

    Macroscopic effects of vacuum polarization by a strong nonuniform and nonstationary fields, which are kinematically forbidden in the case of a uniform magnetic field, are considered. Calculations are perfomed for the deflection of a light beam in the field of a magnetic dipole, for the production of photon pairs by an inclined rotator, and for doubling and modulation of the frequency in scattering of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by the magnetic field of an inclined rotator.

  8. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  9. Integral equations for the electromagnetic field in dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostowski, Jan; Załuska-Kotur, Magdalena A.

    2016-09-01

    We study static the electric field and electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. In contrast to the standard approach, we use, formulate and solve integral equations for the field. We discuss the case of an electrostatic field of a point charge placed inside a dielectric; the integral equation approach allows us to find and interpret the dielectric constant in terms of molecular polarizability. Next we discuss propagation of electromagnetic waves using the same integral equation approach. We derive the dispersion relation and find the reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary between the vacuum and the dielectric. The present approach supplements the standard approach based on macroscopic Maxwell equations and contributes to better a understanding of some electromagnetic effects.

  10. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on food sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the involvement of the immune system in the etiology of food sensitivity, and because pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is associated with beneficial immunologic changes, it was hypothesized that pulsed electromagnetic fields may have a beneficial effect on food sensitivity. A small pilot study was carried out in patients suffering from food sensitivity, with the antigen leukocyte antibody test being employed to index the degree of food sensitivity in terms of the number of foods to which each patient reacted. It was found that a 1-week course of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, consisting of one hour's treatment per day, resulted in a reduction in the mean number of reactive foods of 10.75 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these results, a larger study is warranted.

  11. Electromagnetic instabilities attributed to a cross-field ion drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Wong, H. K.; Wu, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Instabilities due to a cross-field ion flow are reexamined by including the electromagnetic response of the ions, which has been ignored in existing discussions. It is found that this effect can lead to significant enhancement of the growth rate. Among the new results, a purely growing, electromagnetic unstable mode with a wave vector k parallel to the ambient magnetic field is found. The plasma configuration under consideration is similar to that used in the discussion of the well-known modified-two-stream instability. This instability has a growth rate faster than the ion cyclotron frequency, and is not susceptible to high-plasma-beta stabilization.

  12. Near-field thermal electromagnetic transport: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalatpour, Sheila; DeSutter, John; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    A general near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism that is independent of the size, shape and number of heat sources is derived. The formalism is based on fluctuational electrodynamics, where fluctuating currents due to thermal agitation are added to Maxwell's curl equations, and is thus valid for heat sources in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a volume integral formulation, it is shown that the proposed formalism is a generalization of the classical electromagnetic scattering framework in which thermal emission is implicitly assumed to be negligible. The near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism is afterwards applied to a problem involving three spheres with size comparable to the wavelength, where all multipolar interactions are taken into account. Using the thermal discrete dipole approximation, it is shown that depending on the dielectric function, the presence of a third sphere slightly affects the spatial distribution of power absorbed compared to the two-sphere case. A transient analysis shows that despite a non-uniform spatial distribution of power absorbed, the sphere temperature remains spatially uniform at any instant due to the fact that the thermal resistance by conduction is much smaller than the resistance by radiation. The formalism proposed in this paper is general, and could be used as a starting point for adapting solution methods employed in traditional electromagnetic scattering problems to near-field thermal electromagnetic transport.

  13. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities.

    PubMed

    Tell, R A; Hooper, H C; Sias, G G; Mezei, G; Hung, P; Kavet, R

    2015-01-01

    The southwest region of the United States is expected to experience an expansion of commercial solar photovoltaic generation facilities over the next 25 years. A solar facility converts direct current generated by the solar panels to three-phase 60-Hz power that is fed to the grid. This conversion involves sequential processing of the direct current through an inverter that produces low-voltage three-phase power, which is stepped up to distribution voltage (∼12 kV) through a transformer. This study characterized magnetic and electric fields between the frequencies of 0 Hz and 3 GHz at two facilities operated by the Southern California Edison Company in Porterville, CA and San Bernardino, CA. Static magnetic fields were very small compared to exposure limits established by IEEE and ICNIRP. The highest 60-Hz magnetic fields were measured adjacent to transformers and inverters, and radiofrequency fields from 5-100 kHz were associated with the inverters. The fields measured complied in every case with IEEE controlled and ICNIRP occupational exposure limits. In all cases, electric fields were negligible compared to IEEE and ICNIRP limits across the spectrum measured and when compared to the FCC limits (≥0.3 MHz).

  14. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities.

    PubMed

    Tell, R A; Hooper, H C; Sias, G G; Mezei, G; Hung, P; Kavet, R

    2015-01-01

    The southwest region of the United States is expected to experience an expansion of commercial solar photovoltaic generation facilities over the next 25 years. A solar facility converts direct current generated by the solar panels to three-phase 60-Hz power that is fed to the grid. This conversion involves sequential processing of the direct current through an inverter that produces low-voltage three-phase power, which is stepped up to distribution voltage (∼12 kV) through a transformer. This study characterized magnetic and electric fields between the frequencies of 0 Hz and 3 GHz at two facilities operated by the Southern California Edison Company in Porterville, CA and San Bernardino, CA. Static magnetic fields were very small compared to exposure limits established by IEEE and ICNIRP. The highest 60-Hz magnetic fields were measured adjacent to transformers and inverters, and radiofrequency fields from 5-100 kHz were associated with the inverters. The fields measured complied in every case with IEEE controlled and ICNIRP occupational exposure limits. In all cases, electric fields were negligible compared to IEEE and ICNIRP limits across the spectrum measured and when compared to the FCC limits (≥0.3 MHz). PMID:26023811

  15. CRC handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, C.; Postow, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the current knowledge about the effects of electromagnetic fields on living matter. The three-part format covers dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of biological materials; effects of direct current and low frequency fields; and effects of radio frequency (including microwave) fields. The parts are designed to be consulted independently or in sequence, depending upon the needs of the reader. Useful appendixes on measurement units and safety standards are also included.

  16. CRC handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Postow, E. )

    1986-01-01

    This book presents current knowledge about the effects of electromagnetic fields on living matter. The three-part format covers: dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of biological materials; effects of direct current and low frequency fields; and effects of radio frequency (including microwave) fields. The parts are designed to be consulted independently or in sequence, depending upon the needs of the reader. Useful appendixes on measurement units and safety standards are also included.

  17. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.H.; Xie, G.Q.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The travel times corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter [alpha] for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography. 13 figures.

  18. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  19. A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M.; Beige, Almut

    2016-01-01

    The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field.

  20. What Message Should Health Educators Give regarding Electromagnetic Fields?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) causing a number of medical conditions and common symptoms remains a concern and presents somewhat of a quandary to health educators in view of conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship of a number of EMF sources to reported symptoms in an attempt to,…

  1. Higher-dimensional Vaidya metric with an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Bhui, B.; Banerjee, A.

    1990-09-01

    An exterior solution is obtained for a charged radiating sphere in higher dimensions. The solution reduces to an earlier one obtained by Krori and Barua [J. Phys. A 7, 2125 (1974)] when the space-time dimension is four, and to one obtained by Iyer and Vishveshwara [J. Phys. 32, 749 (1989)] when the electromagnetic field is switched off.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the chemiluminescence (CL) of murine peritoneal exudate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caren, L.D. )

    1992-02-26

    Stimulated PEC generate microbicidal free oxygen radicals which are potentially mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. The effects of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on oxygen radical production were measured in this study. A Helmholtz coil and parallel plate electrodes were utilized to provide uniform field characteristics. Effects were studied at combined field frequencies of 60, 600, and 6,000 Hz. Thioglycollate-elicited PEC were exposed to EMF or placed in a far corner of the lab (controls). Following the addition of zymosan, luminol-enhanced CL was measured. No differences in CL were found for exposures to 60 Hz for 18 hr; 600 Hz for 10 hr; or 6,000 Hz for 0.75 hr. PEC exposed to 6,000 Hz for 11 hr showed a 25% increase in CL over control PEC. At 600 and 6,000 Hz, the temperature of the air and a dish of saline in the EMF apparatus was 26C, vs. 25C where the controls were kept. At 60 Hz, there was no temperature difference. These preliminary experiments indicate that under these conditions, EMF fields do not have a significant effect on this immune function.

  3. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  4. Spectrally isomorphic Dirac systems: Graphene in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubský, Vít

    2015-02-01

    We construct the new one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonians that are spectrally isomorphic (not isospectral) with the known exactly solvable models. Explicit formulas for their spectra and eigenstates are provided. The operators are utilized for the description of Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field. We discuss explicit, physically relevant, examples of spectrally isomorphic systems with both nonperiodic and periodic electromagnetic barriers. In the latter case, spectrally isomorphic two- and three-gap systems associated with the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur hierarchy are considered.

  5. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis. PMID:26444202

  6. Electromagnetic hydrophone with tomographic system for absolute velocity field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Gilles, Bruno; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2012-06-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  7. Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.

    2011-09-15

    We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of nonrelativistic charged particles. Using nuclear {beta} decay as an example, we study the weak- and strong-field limits, as well as the field-induced {beta} decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear {beta} decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total {beta}-decay rates are unobservably small.

  8. On the longitudinal polarization of non-paraxial electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Herrero, R.; Mejías, P. M.; Manjavacas, A.

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the angular plane-wave spectrum of the electromagnetic field, the general form is given for the freely-propagating beams, exact solution of the Maxwell equations, that closely approach (in an algebraic sense) to a purely-longitudinal vectorial distribution at some transverse plane. In the rotationally symmetric case, such a field is written as the combination of radial and longitudinal components, whose propagation can be analysed independently. Several illustrative examples are also considered.

  9. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Semiconductor Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1996-01-01

    This proposed two-year research project was to involve development of an analytical model, a numerical algorithm for its integration, and a software for the analysis of a solidification process under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in microgravity. Due to the complexity of the analytical model that was developed and its boundary conditions, only a preliminary version of the numerical algorithm was developed while the development of the software package was not completed.

  10. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzurli, Francesco; Lechner, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Liénard-Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular δ-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is (a) linear, (b) accelerated unbounded, (c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a δ-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a regular principal-part type distribution diverging on the same singularity-string.

  11. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  12. Electromagnetic biaxial vector scanner using radial magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Han, Aleum; Cho, Ah Ran; Ju, Suna; Ahn, Si-Hong; Bu, Jong-Uk; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2016-07-11

    We present an electromagnetic biaxial vector-graphic scanning micromirror. In contrast to conventional electromagnetic actuators using linear magnetic field, proposed device utilizes a radial magnetic field and uniquely designed current paths to enable the 2 degree-of-freedom scanning motion. As the radial field is generated by concentrically assembled magnets placed under the scanner die, large driving torque can be generated without the aid of hermetic packaging and relatively small device volume can be achieved. Mechanical half scan angle of 6.43° and 4.20° have been achieved at DC current of 250mA and 350mA for horizontal and vertical scans, respectively. Forced actuation along both scan axes has been realized by feedback control. PMID:27410851

  13. Laser photon merging in an electromagnetic field inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Shaisultanov, Rashid

    2014-08-01

    We study the effect of laser photon merging, or equivalently high harmonic generation, in the quantum vacuum subject to inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. Such a process is facilitated by the effective nonlinear couplings arising from charged particle-antiparticle fluctuations in the quantum vacuum subject to strong electromagnetic fields. We derive explicit results for general kinematic and polarization configurations involving optical photons. Concentrating on merged photons in reflected channels which are preferable in experiments for reasons of noise suppression, we demonstrate that photon merging is typically dominated by the competing nonlinear process of quantum reflection, though appropriate polarization and signal filtering could specifically search for the merging process. As a byproduct, we devise a novel systematic expansion of the photon polarization tensor in plane wave fields.

  14. Biological effects and exposure criteria for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report, which begins with a discussion of fundamental studies at the molecular level, presents a review of the subject matter covered in NCRP Report No. 67 on mechanisms of interaction of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RFEM) fields with tissue. The discussion continues to progressively larger scales of interaction, beginning with macromolecular and cellular effects, chromosomal and mutagenic effects, and carcinogenic effects. The scope of the subject matter is then expanded to include systemic effects such as those on reproduction, growth, and development, hematopoiesis and immunology, endocrinology and autonomic nervous function, cardiovascular effects and cerebrovascular effects. The interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system and special senses is also discussed. Also included are epidemiological studies, a discussion of thermoregulation, and a history of therapeutic applications of RFEM fields. The report concludes with human exposure criteria and rationale.

  15. Electromagnetic fields mediate efficient cell reprogramming into a pluripotent state.

    PubMed

    Baek, Soonbong; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Soochan; Lengner, Christopher; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil

    2014-10-28

    Life on Earth is constantly exposed to natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and it is generally accepted that EMFs may exert a variety of effects on biological systems. Particularly, extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EL-EMFs) affect biological processes such as cell development and differentiation; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which EMFs influence these processes remain unclear. Here we show that EMF exposure induces epigenetic changes that promote efficient somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. These epigenetic changes resulted from EMF-induced activation of the histone lysine methyltransferase Mll2. Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming. Therefore, our results reveal that EMF directly regulates dynamic epigenetic changes through Mll2, providing an efficient tool for epigenetic reprogramming including the acquisition of pluripotency. PMID:25248035

  16. [Problems of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic fields produced by teletransmitting objects].

    PubMed

    Karachev, I I

    1989-10-01

    Maximum allowable electromagnetic field levels produced by teletransmitting stations and differentiated by frequency have been described. The prospects of further studies on the improvement of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic fields have been set forth.

  17. Electromagnetic fields in the exterior of an oscillating relativistic star - II. Electromagnetic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.

    2016-07-01

    An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.

  18. Studies of exposure of rabbits to electromagnetic pulsed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Nickless, F.; Liu, L.M.; Hoffman, R.

    1980-01-01

    Dutch rabbits were acutely exposed to electromagnetic pulsed (EMP) fields (pulse duration 0.4 mus, field strengths of 1--2 kV/cm and pulse repetition rates in the range of 10 to 38 Hz) for periods of up to two hours. The dependent variables investigated were pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and serum chemistry (including serum triglycerides, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes, and sodium and potassium). Core temperature measured immediately pre-exposure and postexposure revealed no exposure-related alterations. Over the range of field strengths and pulse durations investigated no consistent, statistically significant alterations were found in the end-points investigated.

  19. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  20. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves. PMID:26718608

  1. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitan

    2008-08-11

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  2. Immunorehabilitating effect of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields in immunocompromised animals.

    PubMed

    Pershin, S B; Bobkova, A S; Derevnina, N A; Sidorov, V D

    2013-06-01

    We observed immunorehabilitation effects of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields (microwaves) in immunocompromised animals. It was shown that microwave irradiation of the thyroid gland area could abolish actinomycin D- and colchicine-induced immunosuppression and did not affect immunosuppression caused by 5-fluorouracil. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal profile of the organism during microwave exposure can stimulate the processes of transcription and mitotic activity of lymphoid cells.

  3. Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.

  4. Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Valle, L.; Uruchurtu, E.; Medel, A.; García-Mayen, F.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2003-09-01

    Healing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with inflammatory response, which promotes healing and scar formation. Activation of a local inflammatory response in patients with sequel of AMI could have an important role to enhance angiogenesis and regeneration of hibernating myocardial tissue. Chronic arterial leg ulcers have a similar etiology, and healing has been promoted by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF). We report the evolution of three AMI patients with sequel of AMI that were exposed to ELF.

  5. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Osteoporosis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowei, Yang; Liming, Wang; Guan, Z. C.; Yaou, Zhang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the preventive effects and long term effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), generated by circular coils and pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulators, on osteoporosis in bilaterally ovariectomized rats. In preventive experiment, thirty three-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three different groups: sham (SHAM), ovariectomy (OVX), PEMFs stimulation (PEMFs). All rats were subjected to bilaterally ovariectomy except those in SHAM group. The PEMFs group was exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields with frequency 15 Hz, peak magnetic induction density 2.2mT and exposure time 2 hours per day. The bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebra and left femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at eighth week, twelfth week and sixteenth week after surgery. In long term effects experiment, forty four rats were randomly divided into sham (14 rats, SHAM), ovariectomy group (10 rats, OVX), 15Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 15Hz) and 30Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 30Hz) at twenty-sixth week after surgery. Rats in PEMFs groups were stimulated sixteen weeks. In preventive experiment, the Corrected BMD of vertebra and femur was significantly higher than that of OVX group after 16 weeks (P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively). In long term effects experiment, the vertebral BMD of 15Hz PEMFs group and 30Hz PEMFs group was significantly higher than that of OVX groups (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively). The experimental results demonstrated that extremely low intensity, low frequency, single pulsed electromagnetic fields significantly slowed down the loss of corrected vertebral and femoral BMD in bilaterally ovariectomized rats and suggest that PEMFs may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  7. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Stupka, Anton

    2013-03-15

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  8. [Electromagnetic fields: damage to health due to the nocebo effect].

    PubMed

    Bonneux, L

    2007-04-28

    Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing as the growing demand for electricity and advancing technology have created many artificial sources. Over the course of the past decade, numerous sources of electromagnetic fields have become the focus of health scares, most recently mobile phones and their base stations. The predictable reaction to these health scares has been 'more research'. This comment argues that studies of the possible hazards of low-level electromagnetic fields waste scarce financial resources. Many studies have convincingly excluded detectable tangible health hazards. Bayesian logic predicts that the likelihood of false-positive results will be great in studies lacking a prior hypothesis and using non-specific health states as outcomes. The health hazards due to the maintenance of environmental scares by false-positive studies have been neglected. The nocebo hypothesis states that expectations of sickness cause sickness in the expectant individual. Maintaining anxiety by fostering doubts in gullible populations about the quality ofthe environment they live in may cause serious mental illness. Anxiety caused by health scares is an increasing public health problem, which should be addressed in its own right. PMID:17520846

  9. Offshore windmills and the effects of electromagnetic fields on fish.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Marcus C; Sigray, Peter; Westerberg, Håkan

    2007-12-01

    With the large scale developments of offshore windpower the number of underwater electric cables is increasing with various technologies applied. A wind farm is associated with different types of cables used for intraturbine, array-to-transformer, and transformer-to-shore transmissions. As the electric currents in submarine cables induce electromagnetic fields there is a concern of how they may influence fishes. Studies have shown that there are fish species that are magneto-sensitive using geomagnetic field information for the purpose of orientation. This implies that if the geomagnetic field is locally altered it could influence spatial patterns in fish. There are also physiological aspects to consider, especially for species that are less inclined to move as the exposure could be persistent in a particular area. Even though studies have shown that magnetic fields could affect fish, there is at present limited evidence that fish are influenced by the electromagnetic fields that underwater cables from windmills generate. Studies on European eel in the Baltic Sea have indicated some minor effects. In this article we give an overview on the type of submarine cables that are used for electric transmissions in the sea. We also describe the character of the magnetic fields they induce. The effects of magnetic fields on fish are reviewed and how this may relate to the cables used for offshore wind power is discussed.

  10. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  11. Mechanism for action of electromagnetic fields on cells.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Karabarbounis, Andreas; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2002-10-18

    A biophysical model for the action of oscillating electric fields on cells, presented by us before [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 272(3) (2000) 634-640], is extended now to include oscillating magnetic fields as well, extended to include the most active biological conditions, and also to explain why pulsed electromagnetic fields can be more active biologically than continuous ones. According to the present theory, the low frequency fields are the most bioactive ones. The basic mechanism is the forced-vibration of all the free ions on the surface of a cell's plasma membrane, caused by an external oscillating field. We have shown that this coherent vibration of electric charge is able to irregularly gate electrosensitive channels on the plasma membrane and thus cause disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance and function [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 272(3) (2000) 634-640]. It seems that this simple idea can be easily extended now and looks very likely to be able to give a realistic basis for the explanation of a wide range of electromagnetic field bioeffects.

  12. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185961

  13. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  14. Electro-Magnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Donald E.

    2006-03-21

    It is becoming widely recognized that a majority of baryons in the cosmos are in the plasma state. But, fundamental disagreements about the properties and behavior of electro-magnetic fields in these plasmas exist between the science of modern astronomy and the experimentally verified laws of electrical engineering and physics. Some astronomers claim that magnetic fields can be open-ended - that they begin on or beneath the Sun's surface and extend outward to infinity. Astrophysicists have claimed that galactic magnetic fields begin and end on molecular clouds. Electrical engineers, most physicists, and the pioneers in electromagnetic field theory disagree - magnetic fields have no beginning or end. Since these two viewpoints are mutually exclusive, both cannot be correct; one must be completely false. Many astrophysicists claim that magnetic fields are 'frozen into' electric plasma. We also examine the basis for this claim. It has been shown to be incorrect in the laboratory. The hypothetical 'magnetic merging' mechanism is also reviewed in light of both theoretical and experimental investigations. The cause of large-scale filamentation in the cosmos is also simply revealed by experimental results obtained in plasma laboratories.

  15. The Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Simulated Biostructures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuchen

    In this thesis we analyze integral equation formulations of electromagnetic scattering problems, show their relation to Maxwell equation formulations of scattering problems, and use them to predict via computer computation the response of simulated biological structures to electromagnetic radiation. Chapter I provides an overview of the problem. In the second chapter we describe scattering bodies and ambient electromagnetic fields and associated subgroups of the real orthogonal group for which one can greatly reduce the computational complexity of an electromagnetic interaction problem using symmetry groups. The results of computer calculations implementing the theory are provided. In Chapter III we show that every solution in a prescribed function space of the integral equation is a solution of Maxwell's equations, and satisfies the standard regularity conditions and the Silver-Muller radiation conditions. The methods of proof require Sobolev embedding theorems and addition theorem representations of dyadic Green's functions. We then show that in the same function space there is only one solution of the Maxwell equation formulation of the problem. This uses a novel energy relation for electromagnetic interactions which could perhaps be applied to other transmission problems. In chapter IV we investigate by computer calculation the potential ability of the blood to remove heat from irradiated tissue. The thermal response of models of cylinders of muscle equivalent material to normally incident transverse -magnetic or transverse-electric plane waves is predicted by computer calculation. These calculations are carried out when the scattering body is a solid cylinder of muscle equivalent material and when the scattering body is a two layer structure consisting on an inner column of blood at normal body temperature electromagnetically coupled to a surrounding layer of muscle equivalent material. Appendix A contains a listing of the computer programs developed as a part

  16. Further studies of 60-Hz exposure effects on human function. Final report summary, July 3, 1989--September 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1994-03-29

    The objective of the exploratory study was to determine whether the electric or magnetic field, presented separately in an intermittent fashion, would produce the same pattern of heart rate increases and decreases seen in the original intermittent exposure study. In addition, time of day and baseline heart rate were explored in an attempt to clarify design issues that arose from previous studies. Twenty-four healthy young men 21 to 35 years of age participated in the study. Half were exposed to a 9-kV/m electric field, and half to a 200-mG magnetic field. Within each of these groups, half were exposed in the morning and half in the afternoon.

  17. Electromagnetic field properties in the vicinity of a massive wormhole

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    It is proved that not only massless but also traversable massive wormholes can have electromagnetic 'hair.' An analysis is also presented of the passage from a traversable wormhole to the limit of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, with the corresponding disappearance of 'hair.' A general method is developed for solving stationary axisymmetric Maxwell's equations in the field of a massive, spherically symmetric wormhole. As a particular example of application of the method, a solution is found to the axisymmetric magnetostatic problem for a current loop in the field of the Bronnikov-Ellis-Morris-Thorne wormhole.

  18. Time-Domain Computation Of Electromagnetic Fields In MMICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Faiza S.; Rascoe, Daniel L.

    1995-01-01

    Maxwell's equations solved on three-dimensional, conformed orthogonal grids by finite-difference techniques. Method of computing frequency-dependent electrical parameters of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) involves time-domain computation of propagation of electromagnetic field in response to excitation by single pulse at input terminal, followed by computation of Fourier transforms to obtain frequency-domain response from time-domain response. Parameters computed include electric and magnetic fields, voltages, currents, impedances, scattering parameters, and effective dielectric constants. Powerful and efficient means for analyzing performance of even complicated MMIC.

  19. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices. PMID:27607498

  20. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.

  1. Topological thermal Casimir effect for spinor and electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, H. F.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2015-12-01

    We obtain the thermal corrections to the Casimir energy for the neutrino and electromagnetic fields in Einstein and closed Friedmann universes containing a static, infinitely straight and thin cosmic string. The Casimir free energy is also obtained as well as their low and high temperature limits. It is shown that the vacuum energies associated with these fields, in the background considered, are given simply by the vacuum energies in the absence of the cosmic string multiplied by a factor that codifies the presence of this topological defect.

  2. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.

  3. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations. PMID:26598938

  4. Master equation for an oscillator coupled to the electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.W. |; Lewis, J.T.; OConnell, R.F. |

    1996-12-01

    The macroscopic description of a quantum oscillator with linear passive dissipation is formulated in terms of a master equation for the reduced density matrix. The procedure used is based on the asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics, which enables one to obtain an expression for the general term in the weak coupling expansion. For the special example of a charged oscillator interacting with the electromagnetic field, an explicit form of the master equation through third order in this expansion is obtained. This form differs from that generally obtained using the rotating wave approximation in that there is no electromagnetic (Lamb) shift and that an explicit expression is given for the decay rate. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. [Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensities for electric and magnetic frequencies of 60 Hz and the European Union recommendations for electrical power engineering].

    PubMed

    Groszko, Marian

    2003-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields of 50 Hz from electric power devices affect not only workers, but also the general population, as these devices are also located in populated areas, hence the duality of regulations on maximum admissible intensities. This paper presents these regulations and discusses in detail the changes of 2001. Based on the Polish regulations, hygienic evaluation of electric power devices has been attempted. The Polish regulations on the 50 Hz electromagnetic fields were compared with relevant international regulations of CENELEC and the European Union recommendations. Our maximum admissible intensities have been found to conform with the international standards.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Force on matter in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Vyacheslav P.; Rukhadze, Anri A.

    2009-09-01

    This article, in essence, is a continuation of the work by V L Ginzburg and V A Ugarov (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 118 175 (1976) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 19 94 (1976)]). It is shown that the results given in § 75 of the book Electrodynamics of Continuous Media by L D Landau and E M Lifshitz (Moscow: Nauka, 1982, in Russian) and in § 105 of the book Fundamentals of the Theory of Electricity by I E Tamm (Moscow: Nauka, 1989, in Russian) unambiguously follow only from the Maxwell equations of macroscopic electrodynamics, the corresponding constitutive equations, and the equations of motion of a substance (the hydrodynamic equations). These results are as follows: (1) the force acting on a unit volume of a motionless substance is given by the sum of the Helmholtz force and the Abraham force; (2) the momentum density of an electromagnetic field is the Umov-Poynting vector divided by c2, and (3) the stress tensor related to the field coincides in its form with the sum of the stress tensor of the electrostatic field and the stress tensor of the magnetostatic field. Thus, it is proved that the symmetric form of the Abraham tensor stands for the energy-momentum tensor of an electromagnetic field in a motionless medium.

  7. Cardiac torsion and electromagnetic fields: the cardiac bioinformation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Katharine O; Schwartz, Gary E

    2005-01-01

    Although in physiology the heart is often referred to as a simple piston pump, there are in fact two additional features that are integral to cardiac physiology and function. First, the heart as it contracts in systole, also rotates and produces torsion due to the structure of the myocardium. Second, the heart produces a significant electromagnetic field with each contraction due to the coordinated depolarization of myocytes producing a current flow. Unlike the electrocardiogram, the magnetic field is not limited to volume conduction and extends outside the body. The therapeutic potential for interaction of this cardioelectromagnetic field both within and outside the body is largely unexplored. It is our hypothesis that the heart functions as a generator of bioinformation that is central to normative functioning of body. The source of this bioinformation is based on: (1) vortex blood flow in the left ventricle; (2) a cardiac electromagnetic field and both; (3) heart sounds; and (4) pulse pressure which produce frequency and amplitude information. Thus, there is a multidimensional role for the heart in physiology and biopsychosocial dynamics. Recognition of these cardiac properties may result in significant implications for new therapies for cardiovascular disease based on increasing cardiac energy efficiency (coherence) and bioinformation from the cardioelectromagnetic field. Research studies to test this hypothesis are suggested.

  8. INCREASED VOLUNTARY DRIVE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN COMMON OSCILLATIONS FROM 13 TO 60 HZ OF INTERFERENCE BUT NOT RECTIFIED ELECTROMYOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    NETO, OSMAR P.; BAWEJA, HARSIMRAN S.; CHRISTOU, EVANGELOS A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of interference and rectified electromyography (EMG) to detect changes in the beta (13–30-HZ) and Piper (30–60-HZ) bands when voluntary force is increased. Twenty adults exerted a constant force abduction of the index finger at 15% and 50% of maximum. The common oscillations at various frequency bands (0–500 HZ) were estimated from the first dorsal interosseous muscle using cross wavelets of interference and rectified EMG. For the interference EMG signals, normalized power significantly (P < 0.01) increased with force in the beta (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 15.5 ± 2.1%) and Piper (13.6 ± 0.9 vs. 21 ± 1.7%) bands. For rectified EMG signals, however, the beta and Piper bands remained unchanged (P > 0.4). Although rectified EMG is used in many clinical studies to identify changes in the oscillatory drive to the muscle, our findings suggest that only interference EMG can accurately capture the increase in oscillatory drive from 13 to 60 HZ with voluntary force. PMID:20589885

  9. A wireless batteryless in vivo EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with 60 Hz suppression technique for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaimanonart, Nattapon; Young, Darrin J

    2009-01-01

    A wireless, batteryless, and implantable EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with adaptive RF powering for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring is designed, implemented, and in vivo characterized. A packaged microsystem, exhibiting a total size of 9 mm x 7 mm x 3 mm with a weight of 400 mg including a pair of stainless-steel EKG electrodes, is implanted in a mouse abdomen for real-time monitoring. A low power 2 mm x 2 mm ASIC, consisting of an EKG amplifier, a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT)-based temperature sensor, an RF power sensing circuit, an RF-DC power converter, an 8-bit ADC, digital control circuitry, and a 433 MHz FSK transmitter, is powered by an adaptively controlled external RF energy source at 4 MHz to ensure a stable 2V supply with 156microA current driving capability for the overall microsystem. An electrical model for analyzing 60 Hz interference based on 2-electrode and 3-electrode configurations is proposed and compared with in vivo evaluation results. Due to the small laboratory animal chest area, a 60 Hz suppression technique by employing input termination resistors is chosen for two-EKG-electrode implant configuration.

  10. Increased voluntary drive is associated with changes in common oscillations from 13 to 60 Hz of interference but not rectified electromyography.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar P; Baweja, Harsimran S; Christou, Evangelos A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of interference and rectified electromyography (EMG) to detect changes in the beta (13-30-HZ) and Piper (30-60-HZ) bands when voluntary force is increased. Twenty adults exerted a constant force abduction of the index finger at 15% and 50% of maximum. The common oscillations at various frequency bands (0-500 HZ) were estimated from the first dorsal interosseous muscle using cross wavelets of interference and rectified EMG. For the interference EMG signals, normalized power significantly (P < 0.01) increased with force in the beta (9.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 15.5 +/- 2.1%) and Piper (13.6 +/- 0.9 vs. 21 +/- 1.7%) bands. For rectified EMG signals, however, the beta and Piper bands remained unchanged (P > 0.4). Although rectified EMG is used in many clinical studies to identify changes in the oscillatory drive to the muscle, our findings suggest that only interference EMG can accurately capture the increase in oscillatory drive from 13 to 60 HZ with voluntary force.

  11. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  12. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed. PMID:24280284

  13. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Delettrez, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature and density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.

  14. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature andmore » density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.« less

  15. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.

  16. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation in extended electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2011-01-15

    In this work we consider an extended electromagnetic theory in which the scalar state which is usually eliminated by means of the Lorenz condition is allowed to propagate. This state has been shown to generate a small cosmological constant in the context of standard inflationary cosmology. Here we show that the usual Lorenz gauge-breaking term now plays the role of an effective electromagnetic current. Such a current is generated during inflation from quantum fluctuations and gives rise to a stochastic effective charge density distribution. Because of the high electric conductivity of the cosmic plasma after inflation, the electric charge density generates currents which give rise to both vorticity and magnetic fields on sub-Hubble scales. Present upper limits on vorticity coming from temperature anisotropies of the CMB are translated into lower limits on the present value of cosmic magnetic fields. We find that, for a nearly scale invariant vorticity spectrum, magnetic fields B{sub {lambda}>}10{sup -12} G are typically generated with coherence lengths ranging from subgalactic scales up to the present Hubble radius. Those fields could act as seeds for a galactic dynamo or even account for observations just by collapse and differential rotation of the protogalactic cloud.

  17. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-07-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted. PMID:27648194

  18. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted.

  19. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-07-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted.

  20. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted. PMID:27648194

  1. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  2. An Optimization of Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, in our research we have focused on the use of normal human neuronal progenitor (NHNP) cells because of their importance in human nervous system regeneration, development and maintenance, but we have developed 2-D and 3-D bioreactors that can accommodate any cell line. In this Project, we will include the use of tissues important for physiological regeneration: Human osteoblasts or chondrocytes, and vascular cells. Our initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling using extremely low-level electromagnetic fields (5 microtesla at 10Hz; 6mA). The low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying electromagnetic fields exert a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) in a 3D bioreactor. We have replicated our preliminary results many, many times, have analyzed the gene expression using gene arrays (followed by Luminex analysis for protein production), and have monitored cell proliferation, orientation, morphology, and glucose metabolism, and we are confident that we have a stable and reliable model to study the control of high-level cellular processes by application of low-amplitude, time varying electromagnetic fields (TVEMF) (1, 2). In additional studies at the University of Michigan, we have been able to generate functional in vitro engineered mammalian skeletal muscle, and have employed nerve-muscle co-culture techniques to promote axonal sprouting. We believe that nearly all tissues, in particular, neural, are susceptible to the influences of low-level TVEMF.

  3. [Biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields: introduction].

    PubMed

    Pira, E

    2003-01-01

    A widespread agreement on the presence, if any, of an association between non deterministic effects and exposure to electromagnetic fields (ELF and RF-MW) has not been reached yet. Some critical points of the pooled analyses of data that lead to the conclusion of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) are examined. While waiting for more well planned scientific studies, it seems important for scientific experts to give the most sober interpretation of current data, considering the widespread and growing attention of the general population for this subject.

  4. Bray-Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction in the radiofrequency electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanisavljev, Dragomir R.; Velikić, Zoran; Veselinović, Dragan S.; Jacić, Nevena V.; Milenković, Maja C.

    2014-09-01

    Oscillatory Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) reaction is capacitively coupled with the electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 60-110 MHz. Because of the specific reaction dynamics characterized by several characteristic parameters (induction period, period between chemical oscillations and their amplitude) it served as a good model system for the investigation of the effects of radiofrequent (RF) radiation. RF power of up to 0.2 W did not produce observable changes of the BL reaction parameters in the limit of the experiment reproductivity. Results indicate that, under the given experimental conditions, both dissipative and reactive properties of the solution are not considerably coupled with the RF electrical field.

  5. Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.

  6. Healing of Chronic Wounds through Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Trigos, I.; García-Cantú, R.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Serrano, G.

    2002-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) were configured to interact with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These ELF were applied in the arm to five patients with chronic wounds resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Wound healing began in all patients during the first two weeks after ELF exposure permiting their previously unresponsive chronic wounds to function as internal controls. All lesions were cured or healed >70% in less than four months. Systemic effects were explained by ELF activation of PBMC and their transportation through the blood to the affected site. This therapy is effective in selected patients with chronic wounds.

  7. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers’ exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers’ body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards. PMID:26323781

  8. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-07-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes.

  9. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes. PMID:27464989

  10. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes. PMID:27464989

  11. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Duran, Patricia V; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A; Elias-Viñas, David; Verdugo-Diaz, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h) of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT) or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure). Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026). The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation. PMID:18021407

  12. Weak scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhisong

    This dissertation encompasses several studies relating to the theory of weak potential scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random, wide-sense statistically stationary fields from various types of deterministic or random linear media. The proposed theory is largely based on the first Born approximation for potential scattering and on the angular spectrum representation of fields. The main focus of the scalar counterpart of the theory is made on calculation of the second-order statistics of scattered light fields in cases when the scattering medium consists of several types of discrete particles with deterministic or random potentials. It is shown that the knowledge of the correlation properties for the particles of the same and different types, described with the newly introduced pair-scattering matrix, is crucial for determining the spectral and coherence states of the scattered radiation. The approach based on the pair-scattering matrix is then used for solving an inverse problem of determining the location of an "alien" particle within the scattering collection of "normal" particles, from several measurements of the spectral density of scattered light. Weak scalar scattering of light from a particulate medium in the presence of optical turbulence existing between the scattering centers is then approached using the combination of the Born's theory for treating the light interaction with discrete particles and the Rytov's theory for light propagation in extended turbulent medium. It is demonstrated how the statistics of scattered radiation depend on scattering potentials of particles and the power spectra of the refractive index fluctuations of turbulence. This theory is of utmost importance for applications involving atmospheric and oceanic light transmission. The second part of the dissertation includes the theoretical procedure developed for predicting the second-order statistics of the electromagnetic random fields, such as polarization and linear momentum

  13. Basics of quantum field theory of electromagnetic interaction processes in single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The content of this work is the study of electromagnetic interaction in single-layer graphene by means of the perturbation theory. The interaction of electromagnetic field with Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene has a peculiarity: Dirac fermions in graphene interact not only with the electromagnetic wave propagating within the graphene sheet, but also with electromagnetic field propagating from a location outside the graphene sheet and illuminating this sheet. The interaction Hamiltonian of the system comprising electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions fields contains the limits at graphene plane of electromagnetic field vector and scalar potentials which can be shortly called boundary electromagnetic field. The study of S-matrix requires knowing the limits at graphene plane of 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field which also can be shortly called boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field. As the first example of the application of perturbation theory, the second order terms in the perturbative expansions of boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field as well as of 2-point Green functions of Dirac fermion fields are explicitly derived. Further extension of the application of perturbation theory is also discussed.

  14. Computation of transient electromagnetic fields radiated by transmission line: An exact model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.S.; Darcherif, A.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    A novel time domain analytical method for predicting electromagnetic field transients resulting from power line switching operations is presented in this paper. This method, which is directly derived from electromagnetic field theory of a power transmission line, allows the field transients to be accurately and efficiently calculated. It will be shown that conventional numerical methods for computing transmission line transient electromagnetic fields are in fact degenerative approximate models for this analytical method.

  15. Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

  16. Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields and Geodesics in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Stephen

    Photons mediate electromagnetic radiation such that electric and magnetic particles obey the principle of least action from the applied fields. Elastic and inelastic collisions arise after summation of Lagrangian geodesics. In the case of reacting tritium and deuterium, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and alpha particles. Within fusion tokamaks, alpha particle energies determine if a self sustaining reaction--or ignition--will proceed. If particle mean free path is confined by electric and magnetic fields, then fusion occurs at higher frequencies. If temperature is increased and particle velocity is increased, then collision frequency increases. Modeling the nucleons as polarizable quark dielectric liquid drops increases differentiation between scattering events and fusion. When the cross section of two reactant liquid drops is coincident, fusion occurs. If cross sections do not overlap sufficiently, Coulomb scattering occurs. One strives for understanding of geometric approaches to solving for reactants' cross sections and fusion collision frequency in order to determine power output per particle and critical density of reactants.

  17. Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaut, L. R.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin-It\\hato and Fokker-Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general not separable, as a result of nonstationarity. A general solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in integral form, together with explicit closed-form solutions for several asymptotic cases. The findings extend known results on statistics and distributions of quasi-stationary ideal random fields (pure diffusions), which are retrieved as special cases. A summary of selected results in this paper appeared in [1].

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation. PMID:27634482

  19. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  20. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2-3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100-250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation. PMID:27634482

  1. Electromagnetic fields and the induction of DNA strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J; Martínez-Morillo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified the extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as "possible carcinogenic" based on the reported effects. The purpose of this work is to review and compare the recent findings related to the induction of DNA strand breaks (DNA-SB) by magnetic field (MF) exposure. We found 29 studies (genotoxic and epigenetic) about the induction of DNA-SB by MF. 50% showed effect of MF and 50% showed no DNA-SB. Nevertheless, considering only genotoxic or only epigenetic studies, 37.5% and 69.2% found induction of DNA-SB by MF, respectively. In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms.

  2. Electromagnetic field limits set by the V-Curve.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hudson, Howard Gerald

    2014-07-01

    When emitters of electromagnetic energy are operated in the vicinity of sensitive components, the electric field at the component location must be kept below a certain level in order to prevent the component from being damaged, or in the case of electro-explosive devices, initiating. The V-Curve is a convenient way to set the electric field limit because it requires minimal information about the problem configuration. In this report we will discuss the basis for the V-Curve. We also consider deviations from the original V-Curve resulting from inductive versus capacitive antennas, increases in directivity gain for long antennas, decreases in input impedance when operating in a bounded region, and mismatches dictated by transmission line losses. In addition, we consider mitigating effects resulting from limited antenna sizes.

  3. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  4. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  5. Electromagnetic plasma wave emissions from the auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The most important types of auroral radio emissions are reviewed, both from a historical perspective as well as considering the latest results. Particular emphasis is placed on four types of electromagnetic emissions which are directly associated with the plasma on the auroral field lines. These emissions are (1) auroral hiss, (2) saucers, (3) ELF noise bands, and (4) auroral kilometric radiation. Ray tracing and radio direction finding measurements indicate that both the auroral hiss and auroral kilometric radiation are generated along the auroral field lines relatively close to the earth, at radial distances from about 2.5 to 5 R sub e. For the auroral hiss the favored mechanism appears to be amplified Cerenkov radiation. For the auroral kilometric radiation several mechanisms have been proposed, usually involving the intermediate generation of electrostatic waves by the precipitating electrons.

  6. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  7. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: The epidemiologic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, M.N. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk.

  8. Adaptive framework for uncertainty analysis in electromagnetic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Javier; Alonso, Alonso A; de la Rosa, Ramón; Carrera, Albano

    2015-04-01

    Misinterpretation of uncertainty in the measurement of the electromagnetic field (EMF) strength may lead to an underestimation of exposure risk or an overestimation of required measurements. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has internationally been adopted as a de facto standard for uncertainty assessment. However, analyses under such an approach commonly assume unrealistic static models or neglect relevant prior information, resulting in non-robust uncertainties. This study proposes a principled and systematic framework for uncertainty analysis that fuses information from current measurements and prior knowledge. Such a framework dynamically adapts to data by exploiting a likelihood function based on kernel mixtures and incorporates flexible choices of prior information by applying importance sampling. The validity of the proposed techniques is assessed from measurements performed with a broadband radiation meter and an isotropic field probe. The developed framework significantly outperforms GUM approach, achieving a reduction of 28% in measurement uncertainty.

  9. Very Broadband Rayleigh-Wave Dispersion (0.06 - 60 Hz) and Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Under Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Bilek, S. L.; Patton, H. J.; Abbott, R. E.; Stead, R.; Pancha, A.; White, R.

    2009-12-01

    Earth structure plays an important role in the generation of seismic waves for all sources. Nowhere is this more evident than at near-surface depths where man-made sources, such as explosions, are conducted. For example, short-period Rayleigh waves (Rg) are excited and propagate in the upper 2 km of Earth's crust. The importance of Rg in the generation of S waves from explosion sources through near-source scattering depends greatly on the shear-wave velocity structure at very shallow depths. Using three distinct datasets, we present a very broadband Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curve for the Yucca Flat (YF) region of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first dataset consists of waveforms of historic NTS explosions recorded on regional seismic networks and will provide information for the lowest frequencies (0.06-0.3 Hz). The second dataset is comprised of waveforms from a non-nuclear explosion on YF recorded at near-local distances and will be used for mid-range frequencies (0.2-1.5 Hz). The third dataset contains high-frequency waveforms recorded from refraction microtremor surveys on YF. This dataset provides information between 1.5 and 60 Hz. Initial results from the high frequency dataset indicate velocities range from 0.45-0.9 km/s at 1.5 Hz and 0.25-0.45 km/s at 60 Hz. The broadband nature of the dispersion curve will allow us to invert for the shear-wave velocity structure to 10 km depth, with focus on shallow depths where nuclear tests were conducted in the YF region. The velocity model will be used by researchers as a tool to aid the development of new explosion source models that incorporate shear wave generation. The new model can also be used to help improve regional distance yield estimation and source discrimination for small events.

  10. Cell membrane thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Allen L.; Deminsky, Maxim; Bogdan Neculaes, V.; Chashihin, V.; Knizhnik, Andrey; Potapkin, Boris

    2013-06-01

    While electromagnetic fields induce structural changes in cell membranes, particularly electroporation, much remains to be understood about membrane level temperature gradients. For instance, microwaves induce cell membrane temperature gradients (∇T) and bioeffects with little bulk temperature change. Recent calculations suggest that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) may also induce such gradients that may additionally impact the electroporation threshold. Here, we analytically and numerically calculate the induced ∇T as a function of pulse duration and pulse repetition rate. We relate ∇T to the thermally induced cell membrane electric field (Em) by assuming the membrane behaves as a thermoelectric such that Em ˜ ∇T. Focusing initially on applying nsPEFs to a uniform membrane, we show that reducing pulse duration and increasing pulse repetition rate (or using higher frequency for alternating current (AC) fields) maximizes the magnitude and duration of ∇T and, concomitantly, Em. The maximum ∇T initially occurs at the interface between the cell membrane and extracellular fluid before becoming uniform across the membrane, potentially enabling initial molecular penetration and subsequent transport across the membrane. These results, which are equally applicable to AC fields, motivate further studies to elucidate thermoelectric behavior in a model membrane system and the coupling of the Em induced by ∇T with that created directly by the applied field.

  11. Simultaneous Electromagnetic Tracking and Calibration for Dynamic Field Distortion Compensation.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are highly susceptible to field distortion. The interference can cause measurement errors up to a few centimeters in clinical environments, which limits the reliability of these systems. Unless corrected for, this measurement error imperils the success of clinical procedures. It is therefore fundamental to dynamically calibrate EM tracking systems and compensate for measurement error caused by field distorting objects commonly present in clinical environments. We propose to combine a motion model with observations of redundant EM sensors and compensate for field distortions in real time. We employ a simultaneous localization and mapping technique to accurately estimate the pose of the tracked instrument while creating the field distortion map. We conducted experiments with six degrees-of-freedom motions in the presence of field distorting objects in research and clinical environments. We applied our approach to improve the EM tracking accuracy and compared our results to a conventional sensor fusion technique. Using our approach, the maximum tracking error was reduced by 67% for position measurements and by 64% for orientation measurements. Currently, clinical applications of EM trackers are hampered by the adverse distortion effects. Our approach introduces a novel method for dynamic field distortion compensation, independent from preoperative calibrations or external tracking devices, and enables reliable EM navigation for potential applications. PMID:26595908

  12. A. A. Ukhtomskii's dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Yu. A.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a “placebo” or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  13. A. A. Ukhtomskii`s dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodov, Yu.A.

    1994-07-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a {open_quotes}placebo{close_quotes} or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  14. Probing intergalactic magnetic fields with simulations of electromagnetic cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Saveliev, Andrey; Sigl, Günter; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-10-01

    We determine the effect of intergalactic magnetic fields on the distribution of high-energy gamma rays by performing three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the development of gamma-ray-induced electromagnetic cascades in the magnetized intergalactic medium. We employ the so-called "Large Sphere Observer" method to efficiently simulate blazar gamma ray halos. We study magnetic fields with a Batchelor spectrum and with maximal left- and right-handed helicities. We also consider the case of sources whose jets are tilted with respect to the line of sight. We verify the formation of extended gamma ray halos around the source direction, and observe spiral-like patterns if the magnetic field is helical. We apply the Q -statistics to the simulated halos to extract their spiral nature and also propose an alternative method, the S -statistics. Both methods provide a quantitative way to infer the helicity of the intervening magnetic fields from the morphology of individual blazar halos for magnetic field strengths B ≳10-15 G and magnetic coherence lengths Lc≳100 Mpc . We show that the S -statistics has a better performance than the Q -statistics when assessing magnetic helicity from the simulated halos.

  15. Mechanisms of biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: an overview.

    PubMed

    Erwin, D N

    1988-11-01

    Manmade sources of electromagnetic (EM) fields, and therefore human exposures to them, continue to increase. Public concerns stem from the effects reported in the literature, the visibility of the sources, and somewhat from confusion between EM fields and ionizing radiation. Protecting humans from the real hazards and allaying groundless fears requires a self-consistent body of scientific data concerning effects of the fields, levels of exposures which cause those effects, and which effects are deleterious (or beneficial or neutral). With that knowledge, appropriate guidelines for safety can be devised, while preserving the beneficial uses of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) energy for military or civilian purposes. The task is monumental because of the large and growing number of biological endpoints and the infinite array of RFR exposure conditions under which those endpoints might be examined. The only way to reach this goal is to understand the mechanisms by which EM fields interact with tissues. As in other fields of science, a mechanistic understanding of RFR effects will enable scientists to generalize from a selected few experiments to derive the "laws" of RFR bioeffects. This article gives an overview of present knowledge of those mechanisms and the part that the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine has played in expanding that knowledge.

  16. Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O; Sage, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases. Some uncertainty remains as to the mechanism(s) responsible for these biological effects, and as to which components of the fields are of greatest importance. Nevertheless, regardless of whether the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Inaction is not compatible with the Precautionary Principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration. Because of ubiquitous exposure, the rapidly expanding development of new EMF technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers, the failure to take immediate action risks epidemics of potentially fatal diseases in the future. PMID:18763539

  17. Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O; Sage, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases. Some uncertainty remains as to the mechanism(s) responsible for these biological effects, and as to which components of the fields are of greatest importance. Nevertheless, regardless of whether the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Inaction is not compatible with the Precautionary Principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration. Because of ubiquitous exposure, the rapidly expanding development of new EMF technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers, the failure to take immediate action risks epidemics of potentially fatal diseases in the future.

  18. [Methods of dosimetry in evaluation of electromagnetic fields' biological action].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental dosimetry can be used for adequate evaluation of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In view of the tough electromagnetic environment in aircraft, pilots' safety is of particular topicality. The dosimetric evaluation is made from the quantitative characteristics of the EMF interaction with bio-objects depending on EM energy absorption in a unit of tissue volume or mass calculated as a specific absorbed rate (SAR) and measured in W/kg. Theoretical dosimetry employs a number of computational methods to determine EM energy, as well as the augmented method of boundary conditions, iterative augmented method of boundary conditions, moments method, generalized multipolar method, finite-element method, time domain finite-difference method, and hybrid methods combining several decision plans modeling the design philosophy of navigation, radiolocation and human systems. Because of difficulties with the experimental SAR estimate, theoretical dosimetry is regarded as the first step in analysis of the in-aircraft conditions of exposure and possible bio-effects.

  19. Electromagnetic Form Factors of Hadrons in Quantum Field Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2008-10-13

    In this talk, recent results are presented of calculations of electromagnetic form factors of hadrons in the framework of two quantum field theories (QFT), (a) Dual-Large N{sub c} QCD (Dual-QCD{sub {infinity}}) for the pion, proton, and {delta}(1236), and (b) the Kroll-Lee-Zumino (KLZ) fully renormalizable Abelian QFT for the pion form factor. Both theories provide a QFT platform to improve on naive (tree-level) Vector Meson Dominance (VMD). Dual-QCD{sub {infinity}} provides a tree-level improvement by incorporating an infinite number of zero-width resonances, which can be subsequently shifted from the real axis to account for the time-like behaviour of the form factors. The renormalizable KLZ model provides a QFT improvement of VMD in the framework of perturbation theory. Due to the relative mildness of the {rho}{pi}{pi} coupling, and the size of loop suppression factors, the perturbative expansion is well defined in spite of this being a strong coupling theory. Both approaches lead to considerable improvements of VMD predictions for electromagnetic form factors, in excellent agreement with data.

  20. Effectiveness of noise in blocking electromagnetic effects on enzyme activity in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Martin, A H; Moses, G C

    1995-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure of the chick embryo to a 60 Hz, 4 microT split sine wave for the first 72 hours of development causes a significant reduction in the activity of the ectoenzyme 5'-nucleotidase. This reduced activity persisted, throughout the embryonic period, despite further incubation in a field free environment. We also showed that the reduction in 5'NT activity can be localized in the developing brain to the Cerebellum. The present study reveals that superimposition of an electromagnetic noise, of similar amplitude and frequency, can mitigate the effect of the field on 5'NT activity.

  1. Using strong electromagnetic fields to control x-ray processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.; Buth, C.; Dunford, R. W.; Ho, P.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Peterson, E. R.; Rohringer, N.; Santra, R.; Southworth, S. H.

    2010-06-01

    Exploration of a new ultrafast-ultrasmall frontier in atomic and molecular physics has begun. Not only is is possible to control outer-shell electron dynamics with intense ultrafast optical lasers, but now control of inner-shell processes has become possible by combining intense infrared/optical lasers with tunable sources of X-ray radiation. This marriage of strong-field laser and X-ray physics has led to the discovery of methods to control reversibly resonant X-ray absorption in atoms and molecules on ultrafast timescales. Using a strong optical dressing field, resonant X-ray absorption in atoms can be markedly suppressed, yielding an example of electromagnetically induced transparency for x rays. Resonant X-ray absorption can also be controlled in molecules using strong non-resonant, polarized laser fields to align the framework of a molecule, and therefore its unoccupied molecular orbitals to which resonant absorption occurs. At higher laser intensities, ultrafast field ionization produces an irreversible change in X-ray absorption. Finally, the advent of X-ray free electron lasers enables first exploration of non-linear X-ray processes.

  2. The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Murat; Ozberk, Berra; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2016-09-01

    In the modern world, people are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as part of their daily lives; the important question is "What is the effect of EMFs on human health?" Most previous studies are epidemiological, and we still do not have concrete evidence of EMF pathophysiology. Several factors may lead to chemical, morphological, and electrical alterations in the nervous system in a direct or indirect way. It is reported that non-ionizing EMFs have effects on animals and cells. The changes they bring about in organic systems may cause oxidative stress, which is essential for the neurophysiological process; it is associated with increased oxidization in species, or a reduction in antioxidant defense systems. Severe oxidative stress can cause imbalances in reactive oxygen species, which may trigger neurodegeneration. This review aims to detail these changes. Special attention is paid to the current data regarding EMFs' effects on neurological disease and associated symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbances, and fatigue.

  3. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    PubMed

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  4. Electromagnetic field and human health: Revisiting the issue

    SciTech Connect

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Iyyuni, G.

    1995-12-31

    In spite of major research efforts across the globe since this publication`s last article on the subject, the relationship between extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and human health continues to elude scientists. However, there have been methodological refinements and sharpening of focus in investigating the link between specific health conditions and exposure to EMFs. Recently published scientific studies generally express more confidence in their findings, and more clearly identify limitations to interpreting the findings. However, a definitive answer to the EMF-health effects puzzle is yet to be found. As before, public utility commissions (PUCs) and other public agencies cannot find any clear helpful guidance on how to address the pertinent public health issue.

  5. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic fields and waves using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.; Schroeder, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    The various formulations of Maxwell's equations are reviewed with emphasis on those formulations which most readily form analogies with Navier's equations. Analogies involving scalar and vector potentials and electric and magnetic field components are presented. Formulations allowing for media with dielectric and conducting properties are emphasized. It is demonstrated that many problems in electromagnetism can be solved using the NASTRAN finite element code. Several fundamental problems involving time harmonic solutions of Maxwell's equations with known analytic solutions are solved using NASTRAN to demonstrate convergence and mesh requirements. Mesh requirements are studied as a function of frequency, conductivity, and dielectric properties. Applications in both low frequency and high frequency are highlighted. The low frequency problems demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving media inhomogeneity and unbounded domains. The high frequency applications demonstrate the ability to handle problems with large boundary to wavelength ratios.

  6. Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Artacho-Cordón; del Mar, Salinas-Asensio María; Irene, Calvente; Sandra, Ríos-Arrabal; Josefa, León; Elisa, Román-Marinetto; Nicolás, Olea; Isabel, Núñez María

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

  7. The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Murat; Ozberk, Berra; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2016-09-01

    In the modern world, people are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as part of their daily lives; the important question is "What is the effect of EMFs on human health?" Most previous studies are epidemiological, and we still do not have concrete evidence of EMF pathophysiology. Several factors may lead to chemical, morphological, and electrical alterations in the nervous system in a direct or indirect way. It is reported that non-ionizing EMFs have effects on animals and cells. The changes they bring about in organic systems may cause oxidative stress, which is essential for the neurophysiological process; it is associated with increased oxidization in species, or a reduction in antioxidant defense systems. Severe oxidative stress can cause imbalances in reactive oxygen species, which may trigger neurodegeneration. This review aims to detail these changes. Special attention is paid to the current data regarding EMFs' effects on neurological disease and associated symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. PMID:27083321

  8. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields prevent chemotherapy induced myelotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Edoardo; Corsetti, Maria Teresa; Sukkar, Samir; Poggi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Side effects of chemo-radiotherapy reduce the quality and also the survivability of patients. The consequent fatigue and infections, related to myelodepression, act to reduce the dose-intensity of the protocol. Late side effects of chemo-radiotherapy include secondary tumours, acute myeloid leukemias and cardiotoxicity. Side effects of chemotherapy are related to oxidative stress produced by the treatment. Oxidative stress also reduces the efficacy of the treatment. Antioxidative treatment with natural (dietetic) or chemical agents has been reported to reduce the toxicity of chemo-radiotherapy and improve the efficacy of treatment. We here report our experience with SEQEX, an electromedical device that generates Extremely Low Frequency ElectroMagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) to produce endogenic cyclotronic ionic resonance, to reduce myelotoxicity consequent to ABVD protocol in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. Electromagnetic field energy density in homogeneous negative index materials.

    PubMed

    Shivanand; Webb, Kevin J

    2012-05-01

    An exact separation of both electric and magnetic energies into stored and lost energies is shown to be possible in the special case when the wave impedance is independent of frequency. A general expression for the electromagnetic energy density in such a dispersive medium having a negative refractive index is shown to be accurate in comparison with numerical results. Using an example metamaterial response that provides a negative refractive index, it is shown that negative time-averaged stored energy can occur. The physical meaning of this negative energy is explained as the energy temporarily borrowed by the field from the material. This observation for negative index materials is of interest when approaching properties for a perfect lens. In the broader context, the observation of negative stored energy is of consequence in the study of dispersive materials. PMID:22712096

  10. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), Part I: Effects on field medical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vandre, R.H.; Klebers, J.; Tesche, F.M.; Blanchard, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation has the potential to cover an area as large as the continental United States with damaging levels of EMP radiation. In this study, two of seven items of medical equipment were damaged by an EMP simulator. Computer circuit analysis of 17 different items showed that 11 of the 17 items would be damaged by current surges on the power cords, while two would be damaged by current surges on external leads. This research showed that a field commander can expect approximately 65% of his electronic medical equipment to be damaged by a single nuclear detonation as far as 2,200 km away.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic fields on osteoporosis: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Hua; Yang, Yong; Song, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as a safe, effective and noninvasive treatment have been researched and used for many years in orthopedics, and the common use clinically is to promote fracture healing. The effects of EMFs on osteoporosis have not been well concerned. The balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity as well as the balance between osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells plays an important role in the process of osteoporosis. A number of recent reports suggest that EMFs have a positive impact on the balances. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of EMFs in the treatment of osteoporosis from basic research to clinical study and introduce the possible mechanism. In addition, we presented future perspectives of application of EMFs for osteoporosis. PMID:27356174

  12. Radiation pressure and the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2004-11-01

    We derive the force of the electromagnetic radiation on material objects by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electrodynamics. The derivation is straightforward in the case of solid metals and solid dielectrics, where the mass density and the optical constants of the media are assumed to remain unchanged under internal and external pressures, and where material flow and deformation can be ignored. For metallic mirrors, we separate the contribution to the radiation pressure of the electrical charge density from that of the current density of the conduction electrons. In the case of dielectric media, we examine the forces experienced by bound charges and currents, and determine the contribution of each to the radiation pressure. These analyses reveal the existence of a lateral radiation pressure inside the dielectric media, one that is exerted at and around the edges of a finite-diameter light beam. The lateral pressure turns out to be compressive for s-polarized light and expansive for p-polarized light. Along the way, we derive an expression for the momentum density of the light field inside dielectric media, one that has equal contributions from the traditional Minkowski and Abraham forms. This new expression for the momentum density, which contains both electromagnetic and mechanical terms, is used to explain the behavior of light pulses and individual photons upon entering and exiting a dielectric slab. In all the cases considered, the net forces and torques experienced by material bodies are consistent with the relevant conservation laws. Our method of calculating the radiation pressure can be used in conjunction with numerical simulations to yield the distribution of fields and forces in diverse systems of practical interest.

  13. Electromagnetic field and cylindrical compact objects in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem ul Haq

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the role of different fluid parameters particularly electromagnetic field and f(R) corrections on the evolution of cylindrical compact object. We have explored the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and dynamical equations. An expression for the mass function has been found in comparison with the Misner-Sharp formalism in modified gravity, after which different mass-radius diagrams are drawn. The coupled dynamical transport equation have been formulated to discuss the role of thermoinertial effects on the inertial mass density of the cylindrical relativistic interior. Finally, we have presented a framework, according to which all possible solutions of the metric f(R)-Maxwell field equations coupled with static fluid can be written through set of scalar functions. It is found that modified gravity induced by Lagrangians f(R) = αR2, f(R) = αR2 - βR and f(R)=α R^2-β R/1+γ R are likely to host more massive cylindrical compact objects with smaller radii as compared to general relativity.

  14. Effects of microwave and radio frequency electromagnetic fields on lichens.

    PubMed

    Urech, M; Eicher, B; Siegenthaler, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields on lichens were investigated. Field experiments of long duration (1-3 years) were combined with laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations. Samples of the lichen species Parmelia tiliacea and Hypogymnia physodes were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz; 0.2, 5, and 50 mW/cm2; and control). Both species showed a substantially reduced growth rate at 50 mW/cm2. A differentiation between thermal and nonthermal effects was not possible. Temperature measurements on lichens exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz, 50 mW/cm2) showed a substantial increase in the surface temperature and an accelerated drying process. The thermal effect of microwave on lichens was verified. The exposure of lichens of both species was repeated near a short-wave broadcast transmitter (9.5 MHz, amplitude modulated; maximum field strength 235 V/m, 332 mA/m). No visible effects on the exposed lichens were detected. At this frequency, no thermal effects were expected, and the experimental results support this hypothesis. Theoretical estimates based on climatic data and literature showed that the growth reductions in the initial experiments could very likely have been caused by drying of the lichens from the heating with microwaves. The results of the other experiments support the hypothesis that the response of the lichens exposed to microwaves was mainly due to thermal effects and that there is a low probability of nonthermal effects.

  15. Do the standard expressions for the electromagnetic field momentum need any modifications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate here the question raised in the literature about the correct expression for the electromagnetic field momentum, especially when static or stationary fields are involved. For this, we examine a couple of simple but intriguing cases. First, we consider a system configuration in which electromagnetic field momentum is present even though the system is stationary. We trace the electromagnetic momentum to be present in the form of a continuous transport of electromagnetic energy from one part of the system to another, without causing any net change in the energy of the system. In a second case, we show that the electromagnetic momentum is zero irrespective of whether the charged system is static or in motion, even though the electromagnetic energy is present throughout. We demonstrate that the conventional formulation of electromagnetic field momentum describes the systems consistently without any real contradictions. Here, we also make exposition of a curiosity where electromagnetic energy decreases when the charged system gains velocity. Then we discuss the more general question that has been raised: Are the conventional formulas for energy-momentum of electromagnetic fields valid for all cases? Specifically, in the case of so-called "bound fields," do we need to change to some modified definitions? We show that in all cases it is only the conventional formulas that lead to results consistent with the rest of physics, including the special theory of relativity, and that any proposed modifications are thus superfluous.

  16. The non-ionizing electromagnetic field: Derivation of valid biological exposure metrics from Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2003-03-01

    Standards for protecting health from exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation treat the power density (magnitude of Poynting vector) as the biological exposure metric. For a static electric or magnetic field, the presumed metric is field strength. Scientifically valid expressions for such exposure metrics have been derived theoretically [1]. Three regimes exist for which different expressions are obtained: high frequencies (where electric and magnetic fields are tightly coupled), low frequencies (where these fields are separable), and static fields (where time derivatives are zero). Unexpected results are obtained: * There are two exposure metrics: one for thermal, another for athermal effects. * In general, these two metrics are different. Only for a plane wave is the same metric (power density) valid for both effects. * Exposure metrics used today for static fields are invalid! These findings also apply in the ionizing portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. [1] Wireless Phones and Health II: State of the Science. G. Carlo, ed. NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; Chapter 4.

  17. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  18. [Medical and biologic research of electromagnetic fields in radiofrequencies range. Results and prospects].

    PubMed

    Kaliada, T V; Vishnevskiĭ, A M; Gorodetskiĭ, B N; Plekhanov, V P; Kuznetsov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The authors present research findings on the problem of technology-related electromagnetic fields as an occupational risk factor of workers health disturbances, and on the issue of prevention measures development against this adverse physical factor effects. Prospects for further research development in the field of electromagnetic safety are discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic field generation by ATP-induced reverse electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Steele, Richard H

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanism to explain low-level light emission in biology. A biological analog of the electrical circuitry, modeled on the parallel plate capacitor, traversed by a helical structure, required to generate electromagnetic radiation in the optical spectral range, is described. The charge carrier required for the emissions is determined to be an accelerating electron driven by an ATP-induced reverse electron transfer. The radial velocity component, the emission trajectory, of the moving charges traversing helical protein structures in a cyclotron-type mechanism is proposed to be imposed by the ferromagnetic field components of the iron in the iron-sulfur proteins. The redox systems NADH, riboflavin, and chlorophyll were examined with their long-wavelength absorption maxima determining the energetic parameters for the calculations. Potentials calculated from the axial velocity components for the riboflavin and NADH systems were found to equal the standard redox potentials of these systems as measured electrochemically and enzymatically. The mechanics for the three systems determined the magnetic moments, the angular momenta, and the orbital magnetic fluxes to be adiabatic invariant parameters. The De Broglie dual wave-particle equation, the fundamental equation of wave mechanics, and the key idea of quantum mechanics, establishes the wavelengths for accelerating electrons which, divided into a given radial velocity, gives its respective emission frequency. Electrons propelled through helical structures, traversed by biologically available electric and magnetic fields, make accessible to the internal environment the optical spectral frequency range that the solar spectrum provides to the external environment.

  20. Error sources affecting thermocouple thermometry in RF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, D P; Brezovich, I A

    1982-03-01

    Thermocouple thermometry errors in radiofrequency (typically 13, 56 MHZ) electromagnetic fields such as are encountered in hyperthermia are described. RF currents capacitatively or inductively coupled into the thermocouple-detector circuit produce errors which are a combination of interference, i.e., 'pick-up' error, and genuine rf induced temperature changes at the junction of the thermocouple. The former can be eliminated by adequate filtering and shielding; the latter is due to (a) junction current heating in which the generally unequal resistances of the thermocouple wires cause a net current flow from the higher to the lower resistance wire across the junction, (b) heating in the surrounding resistive material (tissue in hyperthermia), and (c) eddy current heating of the thermocouple wires in the oscillating magnetic field. Low frequency theories are used to estimate these errors under given operating conditions and relevant experiments demonstrating these effects and precautions necessary to minimize the errors are described. It is shown that at 13.56 MHz and voltage levels below 100 V rms these errors do not exceed 0.1 degrees C if the precautions are observed and thermocouples with adequate insulation (e.g., Bailey IT-18) are used. Results of this study are being currently used in our clinical work with good success.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D. E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am; Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Auzinsh, M.

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  2. Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yeh, Cheng-Peng; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel simple micromixer based on stable water suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (i.e. ferrofluids). The micromixer chip is built using standard microfabrication and simple soft lithography, and the design can be incorporated as a subsystem into any chemical microreactor or a miniaturized biological sensor. An electromagnet driven by an AC power source is used to induce transient interactive flows between a ferrofluid and Rhodamine B. The alternative magnetic field causes the ferrofluid to expand significantly and uniformly toward Rhodamine B, associated with a great number of extremely fine fingering structures on the interface in the upstream and downstream regions of the microchannel. These pronounced fingering patterns, which have not been observed by other active mixing methods utilizing only magnetic force, increase the mixing interfacial length dramatically. Along with the dominant diffusion effects occurring around the circumferential regions of the fine finger structures, the mixing efficiency increases significantly. The miscible fingering instabilities are observed and applied in the microfluidics for the first time. This work is carried with a view to developing functionalized ferrofluids that can be used as sensitive pathogen detectors and the present experimental results demonstrate that the proposed micromixer has excellent mixing capabilities. The mixing efficiency can be as high as 95% within 2.0 s and a distance of 3.0 mm from the inlet of the mixing channel, when the applied peak magnetic field is higher than 29.2 Oe and frequency ranges from 45 to 300 Hz. PMID:19921677

  3. Study finds no cancer link to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sahl, J.; Kelsh, M.; Greenland, S.

    1993-05-01

    The Southern California Edison Company reports a study of their personnel which looks for an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and deaths due to cancer (emphasis on leukemia, brain cancer and lymphoma). A total of 36,221 employees who had been employed by the company for at least one year were included in the study. The results appear to weaken the argument that EMF is the cause of cancer in the company work environment. The study is said to be an improvement over previous studies in that all personnel from a well-defined work environment were included, complete work histories were included, actual measurements of magnetic fields were performed, and state-of-the-art methods of analysis were used. The relevance of these results to the non-Edison work environment or community exposures is uncertain and to childhood cancers is still more uncertain. The company plans to update these data and perform additional analyses as part of its policy to study and evaluate the occupational implications of EMF.

  4. Equations of motion for a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic pump field and an axial electrostatic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiddleston, H. R.; Segall, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion for a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic pump field and a static axial electric field are derived using a Hamiltonian formalism. Equations governing the energy transfer between the electron beam and each of the electromagnetic fields are given, and the phase shift for each of the electromagnetic fields is derived from a linearized Maxwell wave equation. The relation between the static axial electric field and the resonant phase is given. Laser gain and the fraction of the electron energy converted to photon energy are determined using a simplified resonant particle model. These results are compared to those of a more exact particle simulation code.

  5. Influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, M.; Brodin, G.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2010-07-15

    The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the QED effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered due to the QED effects. The consequences of our results are discussed.

  6. Biological effects of ELF (extremely-low-frequency) electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1989-10-01

    Studies have been conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Two areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, and (2) experiments on cancer development in animals. In behavioral experiments, preliminary data suggest that short term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies were conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Finally, using a chemically-induced mammary tumor model, experiments were conducted in which rats, chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields, showed an enhancement in the number of tumors per tumor bearing animal.

  7. Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies, and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF). Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of cell phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of society, especially among children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of convincing evidence of adverse biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent studies demonstrate elevations in rates of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their cell phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing will result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing cancer. PMID:20429163

  8. Pentoxifylline and electromagnetic field improved bone fracture healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Yusuf; Gunes, Nedim; Guner, Mehmet Dervis; Akpolat, Veysi; Celik, Mustafa Salih; Guner, Rezzan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX), electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and a mixture of both materials on bone fracture healing in a rat model. Materials and methods Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A, femur fracture model with no treatment; Group B, femur fracture model treated with PTX 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection; Group C, femur fracture model treated with EMF 1.5±0.2 Mt/50 Hz/6 hours/day; and Group D, femur fracture model treated with PTX 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection and EMF 1.5±0.2 Mt/50 Hz/6 hours/day. Results Bone fracture healing was significantly better in Group B and Group C compared to Group A (P<0.05), but Group D did not show better bone fracture healing than Group A (P>0.05). Conclusion It can be concluded that both a specific EMF and PTX had a positive effect on bone fracture healing but when used in combination, may not be beneficial. PMID:26388687

  9. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  10. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided.

  11. [Curative effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lin; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Yuanchao; He, Chengqi

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects and optimal treatment frequency of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). A comparison was performed with the cyclical alendronate and a course of PEMFs in the treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis on bone mineral density (BMD), pain intensity and balance function. There was no significant difference between the two groups on mean percentage changes from baseline of BMD within 24 weeks after random treatments (P > or = 0.05). However, at the ends of 48 weeks and 72 weeks, the BMD of the PEMFs group were significantly lower than that of the alendronate group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between the two groups with regard to treatment effects on Visual Analogue Scale score, the Timed Up & Go Test and Berg Balance Scale score. Compared with cyclical alendronate, a course of PEMFs was as effective as alendronate in treating PMO for at least 24 weeks. So its optimal treatment frequency for PMO may be one course per six months.

  12. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Third-generation human mesenchymal stem cells were irradiated with different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields, including 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Hz, with a field intensity of 1.1 mT, for 30 minutes per day for 21 days. Changes in human mesenchymal stem cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression were also determined to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.Different effects were observed on human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast induction following exposure to different pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies. Levels of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation increased when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 5 hz to 50 hz, but the effect was weaker when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 50 Hz to 150 hz. The most significant effect on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed at of 50 hz.The results of the current study show that pulsed electromagnetic field frequency is an important factor with regard to the induction of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, a pulsed electromagnetic field frequency of 50 Hz was the most effective at inducing human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

  13. Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Stam, Rianne

    2010-10-01

    The mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells, linked by tight junctions, and the adjoining pericytes and extracellular matrix. It helps maintain a highly stable extracellular environment necessary for accurate synaptic transmission and protects nervous tissue from injury. An increase in its normally low permeability for hydrophilic and charged molecules could potentially be detrimental. Methods to assess the permeability of the BBB include histological staining for marker molecules in brain sections and measurement of the concentration of marker molecules in blood and brain tissue. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Exposure to levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) that increase brain temperature by more than 1°C can reversibly increase the permeability of the BBB for macromolecules. The balance of experimental evidence does not support an effect of 'non-thermal' radiofrequency fields with microwave and mobile phone frequencies on BBB permeability. Evidence for an effect of the EMF generated by magnetic resonance imaging on permeability is conflicting and conclusions are hampered by potential confounders and simultaneous exposure to different types and frequencies of EMF. The literature on effects of low frequency EMF, which do not cause tissue heating, is sparse and does not yet permit any conclusions on permeability changes. Studies on the potential effect of EMF exposure on permeability of the BBB in humans are virtually absent. Future permeability studies should focus on low frequency effects and effects in humans. Care should be taken to avoid the methodological limitations of earlier studies and to determine the pathophysiological relevance of any changes found.

  14. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Pinto, I; Bogi, A; Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D; Buonocore, G

    2012-01-01

    Portable computers are often used at tight contact with the body and therefore are called "laptop." The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. The authors evaluated 5 commonly used laptop of different brands. They measured EMF exposure produced and, using validated computerized models, the authors exploited the data of one of the laptop computers (LTCs) to estimate the magnetic flux exposure of the user and of the fetus in the womb, when the laptop is used at close contact with the woman's womb. In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8-6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation) and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult's body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects. Laptop is paradoxically an improper site for the use of a LTC, which consequently should be renamed to not induce customers towards an improper use.

  15. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P < 0.01 level. Accelerated healing was also observed under the influence of the pulsed electromagnetic field (P < 0.05). In the group of animals exposed to LLLT, the healing of the skin defect was faster than in the control group. The statistical significance was at the P < 0.05 level. Different types of electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  16. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury.

  17. Vector-based plane-wave spectrum method for the propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Shi, S; Prather, D W

    1999-11-01

    We present a vector-based plane-wave spectrum (VPWS) method for efficient propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields. In comparison with electromagnetic propagation integrals, the VPWS method significantly reduces time of propagation. Numerical results that illustrate the utility of this method are presented.

  18. On the uncertainty estimation of electromagnetic field measurements using field sensors: a general approach.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, D; Miaoudakis, A; Katsidis, C; Zacharopoulos, V; Xenos, T

    2009-02-01

    One of the most common and popular practices on measuring the non-ionising electric and/or magnetic field strength employs field meters and the appropriate electric and/or magnetic field strength sensors. These measurements have to meet several requirements proposed by specific guidelines or standards. On the other hand, performing non-ionising exposure assessment using real measurement data can be a very difficult task due to instrumentation limits and uncertainties. In addition, each measuring technique, practice and recommendation has its own drawbacks. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the overall uncertainty for such measurements, including uncertainty estimation of spatial average values of electric or magnetic field strengths, is proposed. Estimating and reporting measurement uncertainty are of great importance, especially when the measured values are very close to the established limits of human exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields.

  19. Exact solution to the Landau-Lifshitz equation in a constant electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Yurij

    2013-09-01

    We are interested in the motion of a classical charge acted upon an external constant electromagnetic field where the back reaction of the particle's own field is taken into account. The Landau-Lifshitz approximation to the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation is solved exactly and in closed form. It is shown that the ultrarelativistic limit of the Landau-Lifshitz equation for a radiating charge is the equation for eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the external electromagnetic field tensor.

  20. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields: a content analysis of British newspaper reports.

    PubMed

    Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged

  1. Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields: A Content Analysis of British Newspaper Reports

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged

  2. Impact of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Candida Albicans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malíková, Ivona; Janoušek, Ladislav; Fantova, Vladyslava; Jíra, Jaroslav; Kříha, Vítĕzslav

    2015-03-01

    Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on growth of selected microorganism is studied in the article. The diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cell was chosen for this research. The theory of ion parametric resonance was taken as the base for studying the influence of electromagnetic field on biological structures. We tested the hypothesis, whether it is possible to observe the change in growth properties of Candida albicans with an AC electromagnetic field tuned to resonance with calcium ions cyclotron frequency.

  3. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  4. More on the covariant retarded Green's function for the electromagnetic field in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Yen Cheong; Nicholas, Jack R.

    2009-11-15

    In a recent paper 2 it was shown in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in certain gauges for electromagnetism and linearized gravity can be used to reproduce field configurations correctly in spite of the spacelike nature of past infinity in de Sitter spacetime. In this paper we extend the work of Ref. 2 concerning the electromagnetic field and show that the covariant retarded Green's function with an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter reproduces the electromagnetic field from two opposite charges at antipodal points of de Sitter spacetime.

  5. Effect of electromagnetic field on the polymerization of microtubules extracted from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-zarchi

    2012-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are ubiquitous eukaryotic proteinaceous filaments showing a hollow cylindrical structure. MTs are composed of α-β-tubulin heterodimers arranged in linear protofilaments. MTs have a significant electric dipolar moment along their axes, which makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. Tubulin heterodimers were purified from rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules adsorbed under and without electromagnetic fields with 500 Hz frequency. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 500 Hz frequency to increase the polymerization of MTs. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

  6. Electromagnetic field quantization in an anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial temporal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amooshahi, M.; Kheirandish, F.

    2008-07-01

    By modeling a linear, anisotropic and inhomogeneous magnetodielectric medium with two independent sets of harmonic oscillators, the electromagnetic field is quantized in such a medium. The electric and magnetic polarizations of the medium are expressed as linear combinations of the ladder operators of the harmonic oscillators modeling the magnetodielectric medium. Maxwell and the constitutive equations of the medium are obtained as the Heisenberg equations of the total system. The electric and magnetic susceptibility tensors of the medium are obtained in terms of the tensors coupling the medium with the electromagnetic field. The explicit forms of the electromagnetic field operators are obtained for a translationally invariant medium.

  7. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  8. Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Girgert, Rainer; Schimming, Hartmut; Körner, Wolfgang; Gründker, Carsten; Hanf, Volker

    2005-11-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in western societies has been rising ever since the Second World War. Besides the exposure to a multitude of new chemical compounds, electromagnetic field exposure has been linked to breast cancer through a radiation-mediated anti-melatonin pathway. We investigated, whether low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure interferes with the anti-estrogenic activity of tamoxifen. Two different clones of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were exposed to highly homogeneous 50Hz electromagnetic fields and IC(50) values were calculated from dose-response curves of tamoxifen at various field intensities. An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2muT was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment.

  9. Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Girgert, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.girgert@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schimming, Hartmut; Koerner, Wolfgang; Gruendker, Carsten; Hanf, Volker

    2005-11-04

    The incidence of breast cancer in western societies has been rising ever since the Second World War. Besides the exposure to a multitude of new chemical compounds, electromagnetic field exposure has been linked to breast cancer through a radiation-mediated anti-melatonin pathway. We investigated, whether low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure interferes with the anti-estrogenic activity of tamoxifen. Two different clones of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were exposed to highly homogeneous 50 Hz electromagnetic fields and IC{sub 50} values were calculated from dose-response curves of tamoxifen at various field intensities. An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2 {mu}T was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment.

  10. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  11. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Shu, Wun-Yi; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2) was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.

  12. Implementation of general background electromagnetic fields on a periodic hypercubic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2015-10-01

    Nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, once implemented in lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations of hadronic systems, provide a means to constrain a large class of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and nuclei, from their higher electromagnetic moments and charge radii to their electromagnetic form factors. We show how nonuniform fields can be constructed on a periodic hypercubic lattice under certain conditions and determine the precise form of the background U (1 ) gauge links that must be imposed on the quantum chromodynamics gauge-field configurations to maintain periodicity. Once supplemented by a set of quantization conditions on the background-field parameters, this construction guarantees that no nonuniformity occurs in the hadronic correlation functions across the boundary of the lattice. The special cases of uniform electric and magnetic fields, a nonuniform electric field that varies linearly in one spatial coordinate (relevant to the determination of quadruple moment and charge radii), nonuniform electric and magnetic fields with given temporal and spatial dependences (relevant to the determination of nucleon spin polarizabilities) and plane-wave electromagnetic fields (relevant to the determination of electromagnetic form factors) are discussed explicitly.

  13. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    PubMed

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  14. Modeling microwave electromagnetic field absorption in muscle tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbacq, D.; Clerjon, S.; Damez, J. L.; Zolla, F.

    2002-07-01

    Absorption of electromagnetic energy in human tissues is an important issue with respect to the safety of low-level exposure. Simulation is a way to a better understanding of electromagnetic dosimetry. This letter presents a comparison between results obtained from a numerical simulation and experimental data of absorbed energy by a muscle. Simulation was done using a bidimensional double-scale homogenization scheme leading to the effective permittivity tensor. Experimental measurements were performed at 10 GHz on bovine muscle, 30 hours after slaughter, thanks to the open-ended rectangular waveguide method. Results show a good agreement between measurements and simulated data.

  15. Risks perception of electromagnetic fields in Taiwan: the influence of psychopathology and the degree of sensitivity to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Lin, Yi-Ping; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the perceived health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and factors associated with risk perception in non-Western countries. Psychological conditions and risk perception have been postulated as factors that facilitate the attribution of health complaints to environmental factors. This study investigated people's perceived risks of EMFs and other environmental sources, as well as the relationships between risk perception, psychopathology, and the degree of self-reported sensitivity to EMFs. A total of 1,251 adults selected from a nationwide telephone interviewing system database responded to a telephone survey about the relationships between environmental sources and human health. The interview included questions assessing participants' psychiatric conditions and the presence and degree of sensitivity to EMFs. One hundred and seventy participants were self-identified as having sensitivity to EMFs, and 141 met the criteria for psychiatric conditions without EMF sensitivity. More than half of the survey respondents considered power lines and mobile phone base stations to affect people's health to a big extent. Higher sensitivity to EMFs, psychopathology, being female, being married, more years of education, and having a catastrophic illness had positive associations with perceived risks of EMF-related environmental sources as well as for all environmental sources combined. We observed no moderating effect of psychopathology on the association between degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. Thus, psychopathology had influence on general people's risk perception without having influence on the relationship between people's degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. The plausible explanations are discussed in the text.

  16. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in the near-field region of a moving scattering object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. H.

    1990-07-01

    The problem of scattering of electromagnetic fields by perfectly conducting, moving objects is solved with the Lorentz transformation and the plane wave formulation. Apart from the physical optics approximation, the solution is exact. The result is subsequently applied to the special case of monostatic reflection by an object that moves slowly with respect to the velocity of light. The result can be used to predict the time dependent reflection from an aircraft that passes the antenna of a proximity fuze, and the optimum fuze algorithm can be selected.

  17. Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Kang, Jo A; Rhie, Jong-Won; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:23306704

  18. Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Kang, Jo A; Rhie, Jong-Won; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-18

    Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  20. Theory of the time reversal cavity for electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carminati, R; Pierrat, R; de Rosny, J; Fink, M

    2007-11-01

    We derive a general expression of the electric dyadic Green function in a time-reversal cavity, based on vector diffraction theory in the frequency domain. Our theory gives a rigorous framework to time-reversal experiments using electromagnetic waves and suggests a methodology to design structures generating subwavelength focusing after time reversal.

  1. Interaction of molecules with electromagnetic fields. II. The multipole operators and dynamics of molecules with moving nuclei in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuo-Ho Tom; Hirschfelder, Joseph O.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    1981-09-01

    This paper presents a thorough unified treatment of the electric and magnetic multipole operators and the dynamics of a moving molecular system of electrons and nuclei in the presence of an arbitrary (semiclassical) electromagnetic field. The multipole operators are expressed in terms of rjc, the position of each of the particles j relative to the center of mass rc, the velocities ?jc and ?c, and the spins sj. Two levels of precision of the multipole operators and dynamics are considered: The ''nonrelativistic'' approximation including all terms which vary as 1/c (where c is the velocity of light) suffices for most practical applications. The multipole moments are determined by the Lorentz force on the molecule. Also, the multipole operators are related to the electric and magnetic polarization operators Popc and Mopc, respectively, as well as to the effective charge and effective current on the molecule. The Lagrangian is then determined by rearranging the ''Newtonian'' equations of motion into the Lagrangian form. In both the Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian, terms involving Popc and Mopc couple the external fields to the molecular dynamics. The Hamiltonian is also derived in the ''quantum mechanical fashion'' by making a Power-Zienau-Woolley type transformation of the usual ''minimal coupling'' Hamiltonian. The new coordinates are rc and a set of (N-1) linearly independent combinations of the rjc. In the determination of the electric and magnetic properties of molecules, there are significant advantages in considering moving nuclei and center of mass coordinates rather than assuming clamped nuclei. In order to explain a few very sensitive types of experimental properties, it is necessary to use the semirelativistic approximation which is accurate through all of the α4mc2 or 1/c2 terms and includes all of the fine-structural effects with the exception of the Lamb shift. The electric and magnetic multipole moments were derived in terms of the Kracjik and Foldy

  2. Electromagnetic field expressions in the wavenumber domain from both the horizontal and vertical electric dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuguo; Li, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present wavenumber domain (WD) electromagnetic field expressions at any depth in a layered conductivity earth due to both the horizontal and vertical electric dipoles, which can be buried anywhere within the layered earth. In modeling controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) responses for a 2D conductivity structure with a 3D source, it is very common to separate electromagnetic fields into a primary field and a secondary field to avoid the source singularity. This secondary field scheme requires WD background fields at any depth for a layered conductivity structure. To obtain primary electromagnetic fields in the WD, one can calculate quasi-analytical primary fields in the space domain (SD) and then transform them into the WD. However, this SD method is not a very efficient method of calculation. With the use of Schelkunoff potentials, we derive the quasi-analytic expressions for the electromagnetic fields in the WD, i.e. the WD method. Numerical tests indicate that the WD method can give results with the same accuracy as the SD method, and furthermore, the WD method is much faster than the SD method.

  3. [Constant low-frequency electrical and electromagnetic fields (biological action and hygienic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B I; Karpov, V N

    1982-01-01

    The literature data are used to analyze the hygienic situation when man is exposed to constant electrical and low frequency electromagnetic radiations. The spectral characteristics and intensities of electrical fields near and on the surface of the Earth generated by natural sources of electromagnetic radiations (electrical quasi-static fields, atmospheric electricity, thunderstorm charges, electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and galaxies) are given. They can be employed to determine man's adaptive capabilities to the frequencies described during acute and chronic irradiation. The mechanisms of biological effects of the exposures are discussed. The methods for calculating the safety levels based on the USSR radiation safety standards and the "competing frequencies" procedure proposed can be applied to the design of electrotechnical devices and evaluation of integral hazard of constant electrical and electromagnetic fields of low frequencies.

  4. Static electric and electromagnetic low-frequency fields (biological effects and hygienic assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, B.I.; Karpov, V.N.

    1982-11-01

    The literature data are used to analyze the hygienic situation when man is exposed to constant electrical and low frequency electromagnetic radiations. The spectral characteristics and intensities of electrical fields near and on the surface of the earth generated by natural sources of electromagnetic radiations (electrical quasi-static fields, atmospheric electricity, thunderstorm charges, electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun and galaxies) are given. They can be employed to determine man's adaptive capabilities to the frequencies described during acute and chronic irradiation. The mechanisms of biological effects of the exposures are discussed. The methods for calculating the safety levels based on the USSR radiation safety standards and the competing frequencies procedure proposed can be applied to the design of electrotechnical devices and evaluation of integral hazard of constant electrical and electromagnetic fields of low frequencies.

  5. Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Background Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions. Results An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen. Conclusion Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at

  6. Exposure of biological preparations to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields under low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Jean Francois; le Bail, Jean-Luc; Bardet, Michel; Tabony, James

    2010-11-01

    There is interest as to whether the electromagnetic fields used in mobile radiotelephony might affect biological processes. Other weak fields such as gravity intervene in a number of physical and biological processes. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the macroscopic self-organization of microtubules, a major cellular component, is triggered by gravity. We wished to investigate whether self-organization might also be affected by radiotelephone electromagnetic fields. Detecting a possible effect requires removing the obscuring effects triggered by gravity. A simple manner of doing this is by rotating the sample about the horizontal. However, if the external field does not also rotate with the sample, its possible effect might also be averaged down by rotation. Here, we describe an apparatus in which both the sample and an applied radiofrequency electromagnetic field (1.8 GHz) are stationary with respect to one another while undergoing horizontal rotation. The electromagnetic field profile within the apparatus has been measured and the apparatus tested by reproducing the in vitro behavior of microtubule preparations under conditions of weightlessness. Specific adsorption rates of electromagnetic energy within a sample are measured from the initial temperature rise the incident field causes. The apparatus can be readily adapted to expose samples to various other external fields and factors under conditions of weightlessness.

  7. Exposure of biological preparations to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields under low gravity.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Jean Francois; le Bail, Jean-Luc; Bardet, Michel; Tabony, James

    2010-11-01

    There is interest as to whether the electromagnetic fields used in mobile radiotelephony might affect biological processes. Other weak fields such as gravity intervene in a number of physical and biological processes. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the macroscopic self-organization of microtubules, a major cellular component, is triggered by gravity. We wished to investigate whether self-organization might also be affected by radiotelephone electromagnetic fields. Detecting a possible effect requires removing the obscuring effects triggered by gravity. A simple manner of doing this is by rotating the sample about the horizontal. However, if the external field does not also rotate with the sample, its possible effect might also be averaged down by rotation. Here, we describe an apparatus in which both the sample and an applied radiofrequency electromagnetic field (1.8 GHz) are stationary with respect to one another while undergoing horizontal rotation. The electromagnetic field profile within the apparatus has been measured and the apparatus tested by reproducing the in vitro behavior of microtubule preparations under conditions of weightlessness. Specific adsorption rates of electromagnetic energy within a sample are measured from the initial temperature rise the incident field causes. The apparatus can be readily adapted to expose samples to various other external fields and factors under conditions of weightlessness.

  8. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  9. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Zak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms-two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  10. Influence of magnetic fields on calcium salts crystal formation: an explanation of the 'pulsed electromagnetic field' technique for bone healing.

    PubMed

    Madroñero, A

    1990-09-01

    In the search for a mechanism by means of which a magnetic field deparalyses non-unions and enhances bone tissue formation, the influence of continuous magnetic fields on the formation of calcium phosphate crystal seeds has been investigated. From this perspective, an explanation is given of a working mode in conventional equipment for pulsed electromagnetic field treatment; this is compared with multifunction equipment.

  11. Electromagnetic Near Field Measurements of Two Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Goettee, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-03

    The reactors employed, Godiva IV and WSMR Fast Burst Reactor, are described first. Then the point reactor kinetics model, electromagnetic potential, and the measurement of kinetics quantities are successively discussed. In summary, reactor power produces measurable electric energy. The electric signal mimics power curve for prompt burst operations - features in logarithmic derivatives match. The electric signature should be dependent on the power and not the derivative; therefore, steady-state modes should be measurable.

  12. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions—a pedagogical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains which are not invariant under P and CP transformations. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay between the electromagnetic field and triangle anomaly leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena in these P- and CP-odd domains known as anomalous transports. The purpose of this article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transport phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Simple and effective monitoring of the electromagnetic field in the smart cities arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares-Pena, Francisco J.; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Iodice, Antonio; Salas-Sánchez, Aarón A.

    2016-08-01

    A simple and economical method for monitoring the electromagnetic field intensity in built-up areas is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the field level over a limited number of points at street level in the city and their transmission to an operative control center, where the field values all over the city are correctly interpolated in real time. Citizens might obtain these values at their sites, via Internet, or by connecting with a dedicated call center. Numerical evaluations of the electromagnetic field intensity via the new developed model and confirming experimental results are finally presented.

  14. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions-a pedagogical review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains which are not invariant under P and CP transformations. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay between the electromagnetic field and triangle anomaly leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena in these P- and CP-odd domains known as anomalous transports. The purpose of this article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transport phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  15. Theory of weak scattering of stochastic electromagnetic fields from deterministic and random media

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga

    2010-09-15

    The theory of scattering of scalar stochastic fields from deterministic and random media is generalized to the electromagnetic domain under the first-order Born approximation. The analysis allows for determining the changes in spectrum, coherence, and polarization of electromagnetic fields produced on their propagation from the source to the scattering volume, interaction with the scatterer, and propagation from the scatterer to the far field. An example of scattering of a field produced by a {delta}-correlated partially polarized source and scattered from a {delta}-correlated medium is provided.

  16. Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Kärst, Uwe; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic fields are non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz. Potential applications of these electromagnetic fields include the whole body scanners, which currently apply millimeter waves just below the terahertz range, but future scanners will use higher frequencies in the terahertz range. These and other applications will bring along human exposure to these fields. Up to now, only a limited number of investigations on biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have been performed. Therefore, research is strongly needed to enable reliable risk assessment.Cells were exposed for 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h with different power intensities ranging from 0.04 mW/cm(2) to 2 mW/cm(2), representing levels below, at, and above current safety limits. Genomic damage on the chromosomal level was measured as micronucleus formation. DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were quantified with the comet assay. No DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites were observed as a consequence of exposure to terahertz electromagnetic fields in the comet assay. The fields did not cause chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleus induction.

  17. Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields (0.106 THz) Do Not Induce Manifest Genomic Damage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Kärst, Uwe; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic fields are non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz. Potential applications of these electromagnetic fields include the whole body scanners, which currently apply millimeter waves just below the terahertz range, but future scanners will use higher frequencies in the terahertz range. These and other applications will bring along human exposure to these fields. Up to now, only a limited number of investigations on biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have been performed. Therefore, research is strongly needed to enable reliable risk assessment. Cells were exposed for 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h with different power intensities ranging from 0.04 mW/cm2 to 2 mW/cm2, representing levels below, at, and above current safety limits. Genomic damage on the chromosomal level was measured as micronucleus formation. DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were quantified with the comet assay. No DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites were observed as a consequence of exposure to terahertz electromagnetic fields in the comet assay. The fields did not cause chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleus induction. PMID:23029508

  18. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis for lipid bilayer membranes exposed to RF fields.

    PubMed

    Eibert, T F; Alaydrus, M; Wilczewski, F; Hansen, V W

    1999-08-01

    Experiments with pulsed radio frequency fields have shown influence on the low-frequency behavior of lipid bilayer membranes. In this paper, we present an electromagnetic and thermal analysis of the used exposure device to clarify whether the observed effects have a thermal cause and to determine the fields at the lipid bilayer. In order to model the very thin lipid bilayer (about 5 nm) accurately, the electromagnetic analysis is broken into several steps employing the finite difference time domain technique and a finite element/boundary element hybrid approach. Based on the obtained power loss due to the electromagnetic fields, the temperature change is calculated using the finite element method for the solution of the heat conduction equation. Both, the electromagnetic and the thermal analysis are performed for a variety of material parameters of the exposure device. The electromagnetic analysis shows that the exposure device is capable of producing voltages on the order of 1 mV across the lipid bilayer. The combined electromagnetic and thermal calculations reveal that the temperature oscillations due to the pulsed radio frequency fields are too small to directly influence the low-frequency behavior of the lipid bilayer.

  19. Localized electromagnetic and weak gravitational fields in the source-free space.

    PubMed

    Borzdov, G N

    2001-03-01

    Localized electromagnetic and weak gravitational time-harmonic fields in the source-free space are treated using expansions in plane waves. The presented solutions describe fields having a very small (about several wavelengths) and clearly defined core region with maximum intensity of field oscillations. In a given Lorentz frame L, a set of the obtained exact time-harmonic solutions of the free-space homogeneous Maxwell equations consists of three subsets (storms, whirls, and tornados), for which time average energy flux is identically zero at all points, azimuthal and spiral, respectively. In any other Lorentz frame L', they will be observed as a kind of electromagnetic missile moving without dispersing at speed Velectromagnetic storms, whirls, tornados, and weak gravitational fields with similar properties are also presented. The properties of these fields are illustrated in graphic form. PMID:11308787

  20. Determining Green's Functions for Coupled Elastic Waves and Electromagnetic Fields in a Homogeneous Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slob, E. C.; Grobbe, N.

    2014-12-01

    The theory of coupled elastic waves and electromagnetic fields in porous media exists for two decades. Several modeling codes have been developed and some field work has been carried out with mixed success. Modeling the so-called electroseismic and seismo-electromagnetic wavefields is tricky because of the strong elastic fields generated by mechanical sources and strong electromagnetic fields generated by electromagnetic sources, while the coupled fields have relatively small amplitudes. A second difficulty is the fact that the elastic field is essentially a wavefield, while the electromagnetic field is a diffusive field. The slow P-wave is usually also a diffusive field depending on the frequency bandwidth of the data. On the other hand, for porous soils and rocks, laboratory measurements have been carried out to experimentally validate the current theoretical model and to some extent this has been successful. To be able to understand measured data it is crucially important that we have good control on the accuracy of modeled data. Today we don't have this control, which makes it hard to judge the quality of the modeled data and trust the experimental validation of the theory. It is therefore important that exact solutions are found to validate modeling codes in simple configurations. These modeling codes can then numerically validate the theory by matching the results obtained in laboratory or field experiments. The simplest configuration is the homogeneous space and we show exact solutions for the governing equations for point sources and point receivers. These Green's functions are obtained for any type of point source and any type of receiver. We reduce the coupled equations to two scalar equations for the electric field and the particle velocity vectors. Solutions for longitudinal and transverse waves are obtained separately and these are combined to obtain the Green's functions for the electric field and the particle velocity, from which the solutions for

  1. [Immunotropic effects of electromagnetic fields in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, M P; Stankiewicz, W; Sobiczewska, E; Szmigielski, S

    2001-11-01

    On the grounds of reviewed literature and the results of own experiments, the authors present current views on the possible immunotropic influence of low energy electromagnetic fields, in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies. They conclude, that a more systematic and multidisciplinary investigations should be undertaken, comprising the wide spectrum of immune homeostatic tasks, including defensive, immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative capabilities of immune system exposed to rapid environmental spread of different electromagnetic emitters.

  2. [Influence of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on DNA Molecules in Water Solutions].

    PubMed

    Tekutskaya, E E; Barishev, M G; Ilchenko, G P

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the amplicons of hepatitis virus DNA (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus) are capable of inducing radiation after an exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 3 to 30 Hz and the field strength, 24-40 A/m, registered by means of a chemiluminescence method. The most effect of the electromagnetic field on water solutions of the amplicons of hepatitis virus DNA occurs at the frequency of 9 Hz, the change in the hydration shell of DNA amplicons is observed. It is suggested that the change in the hydration shell of DNA amplicons exposed to the low-frequency electromagnetic field leads to restoration of hydrogen bonding, stitchings formation and DNA repair as a whole. PMID:26841502

  3. Electromagnetic field and the chiral magnetic effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2015-06-01

    Time evolution of an electromagnetic field created in heavy-ion collisions strongly depends on the electromagnetic response of the quark-gluon plasma, which can be described by the Ohmic and chiral conductivities. The latter is intimately related to the chiral magnetic effect. I argue that a solution to the classical Maxwell equations at finite chiral conductivity is unstable due to the soft modes k <σχ that grow exponentially with time. In the kinematical region relevant for the relativistic heavy-ion collisions, I derive analytical expressions for the magnetic field of a point charge. I show that finite chiral conductivity causes oscillations of magnetic field at early times.

  4. Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2015-08-01

    The electromagnetic field in the electron "bubble" regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption.

  5. The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas in an electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Haining; Du, Jiulin

    2014-11-15

    The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas of the plasma in an electromagnetic field is studied. We exactly obtained an expression of the q-parameter based on Boltzmann kinetic theories for plasmas, where Coulombian interactions and Lorentz forces play dominant roles. We show that the q-parameter different from unity is related by an equation to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the q-parameter depends on the overall bulk velocity. Thus the q-parameter for the electron gas in an electromagnetic field represents the nonequilibrium nature or nonisothermal configurations of the plasma with electromagnetic interactions. - Highlights: • An expression of the q-parameter is obtained for nonequilibrium plasma with electromagnetic interactions. • The q-parameter is related to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the plasma. • The q-parameter represents the nonequilibrium nature of the complex plasma with electromagnetic interactions.

  6. Electroweak phase transition nucleation with the MSSM and electromagnetic field creation

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, Ernest M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.; Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2010-04-15

    Using EW-MSSM field theory, so the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) is first order, we derive the equations of motion (e.o.m.) for the gauge fields. With an isospin ansatz we derive e.o.m. for the electrically charged W fields uncoupled from all other fields. These and the lepton currents serve as the current for the Maxwell-like e.o.m. for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field arising during EWPT bubble nucleation without leptons is found. We then calculate the electron current contribution, which is seen to be quite large. This provides the basis for determining the magnetic field created by EWPT bubble collisions, which could seed galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields.

  7. Exact Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Finite Wire with Constant Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Aquino, N.

    2008-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of calculating the electromagnetic fields produced by a finite wire with a constant current, by using two methods: retarded potentials and Jefimenko's formalism. One result in this particular case is that the usual Biot-Savart law of magnetostatics gives the correct magnetic field of the problem. We also show…

  8. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Morin, Brian G.

    1998-01-01

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors.

  9. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, A.J.; Morin, B.G.

    1998-10-13

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors. 21 figs.

  10. Lossy chaotic electromagnetic reverberation chambers: Universal statistical behavior of the vectorial field.

    PubMed

    Gros, J-B; Kuhl, U; Legrand, O; Mortessagne, F

    2016-03-01

    The effective Hamiltonian formalism is extended to vectorial electromagnetic waves in order to describe statistical properties of the field in reverberation chambers. The latter are commonly used in electromagnetic compatibility tests. As a first step, the distribution of wave intensities in chaotic systems with varying opening in the weak coupling limit for scalar quantum waves is derived by means of random matrix theory. In this limit the only parameters are the modal overlap and the number of open channels. Using the extended effective Hamiltonian, we describe the intensity statistics of the vectorial electromagnetic eigenmodes of lossy reverberation chambers. Finally, the typical quantity of interest in such chambers, namely, the distribution of the electromagnetic response, is discussed. By determining the distribution of the phase rigidity, describing the coupling to the environment, using random matrix numerical data, we find good agreement between the theoretical prediction and numerical calculations of the response. PMID:27078293

  11. Matter coupling to strong electromagnetic fields in two-level quantum systems with broken inversion symmetry.

    PubMed

    Kibis, O V; Slepyan, G Ya; Maksimenko, S A; Hoffmann, A

    2009-01-16

    We demonstrate theoretically the parametric oscillator behavior of a two-level quantum system with broken inversion symmetry exposed to a strong electromagnetic field. A multitude of resonance frequencies and additional harmonics in the scattered light spectrum as well as an altered Rabi frequency are predicted to be inherent to such systems. In particular, dipole radiation at the Rabi frequency appears to be possible. Since the Rabi frequency is controlled by the strength of the coupling electromagnetic field, the effect can serve for the frequency-tuned parametric amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves. Manifestation of the effect is discussed for III-nitride quantum dots with strong built-in electric field breaking the inversion symmetry. Terahertz emission from arrays of such quantum dots is shown to be experimentally observable. PMID:19257272

  12. Growth stimulation of biological cells and tissue by electromagnetic fields and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides systems for growing two or three dimensional mammalian cells within a culture medium facilitated by an electromagnetic field, and preferably, a time varying electromagnetic field. The cells and culture medium are contained within a fixed or rotating culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from at least one electrode. In one embodiment, the electrode is spaced from the vessel. The invention further provides methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in the claimed system. In one embodiment, neuronal cells are grown within longitudinally extending tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time varying electrical current is conducted, the conductive channels being positioned within a culture medium.

  13. [Improvement of light-cured indirect inlays durability by means of electromagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Nidzel'skiĭ, M Ia; Korotetskaia-Zinkevich, V L

    2014-01-01

    The main strength characteristics of light-cured resins used for replacement of dental hard tissues defects are destructive stress by compression, microhardness, resistance to abrasion, impact and water absorption. The study focuses on some strength features of composite materials for inlays processed by electromagnetic field. Four sample series of light cured resin (Charisma, Heraus Kulzer, Germany) were used to assess strength features changes in various curing methods: 10 control samples were polymerized by conventional light-curing device, while 30 were additionally processed by electromagnetic field of various intensity (60, 80 and 100 Oe, 10 samples for each group). The obtained results confirm the positive effects of electromagnetic field on strength features of light-cured resins which improves the quality of inlays.

  14. Matter coupling to strong electromagnetic fields in two-level quantum systems with broken inversion symmetry.

    PubMed

    Kibis, O V; Slepyan, G Ya; Maksimenko, S A; Hoffmann, A

    2009-01-16

    We demonstrate theoretically the parametric oscillator behavior of a two-level quantum system with broken inversion symmetry exposed to a strong electromagnetic field. A multitude of resonance frequencies and additional harmonics in the scattered light spectrum as well as an altered Rabi frequency are predicted to be inherent to such systems. In particular, dipole radiation at the Rabi frequency appears to be possible. Since the Rabi frequency is controlled by the strength of the coupling electromagnetic field, the effect can serve for the frequency-tuned parametric amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves. Manifestation of the effect is discussed for III-nitride quantum dots with strong built-in electric field breaking the inversion symmetry. Terahertz emission from arrays of such quantum dots is shown to be experimentally observable.

  15. Separation of particles, suspended in a conducting liquid, with the help of an alternating electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The author studies MHD flow at low Reynolds numbers past a spherical particle with conductivity ..cap alpha../sub 1/ greater than or equal to0, moving in a viscous fluid at rest with conductivity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ not = ..cap alpha../sub 1/, filling the interior space of a long solenoid fed by an alternating current. It is shown that aside from the electromagnetic force calculated from the analog of Archimedes' principle, and from the Lorentz force arising from the interaction of eddy currents flowing in th particle with the magnetic field, the particle is also subjected to an electromagnetic propulsive force. A formula relating the local characteristics of the electromagnetic field with the velocity of the particle put into motion by the field but neglecting inertial effects is obtained.

  16. The effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on human sleep.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Sarah P; Wood, Andrew W; Barton, Julie M; Croft, Rodney J; Thompson, Bruce; Stough, Con

    2005-11-28

    Previous research has suggested that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields increases electroencephalogram spectral power in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Other sleep parameters have also been affected following exposure. We examined whether aspects of sleep architecture show sensitivity to electromagnetic fields emitted by digital mobile phone handsets. Fifty participants were exposed to electromagnetic fields for 30 min prior to sleep. Results showed a decrease in rapid eye movement sleep latency and increased electroencephalogram spectral power in the 11.5-12.25 Hz frequency range during the initial part of sleep following exposure. These results are evidence that mobile phone exposure prior to sleep may promote rapid eye movement sleep and modify the sleep electroencephalogram in the first non-rapid eye movement sleep period. PMID:16272890

  17. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malarić, Krešimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed.

  18. Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    I reviewmore » the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~ m π 2 at RHIC and ~ 10 m π 2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J / ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.« less

  19. Localization from near-source quasi-static electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    A wide range of research has been published on the problem of estimating the parameters of electromagnetic and acoustical sources from measurements of signals measured at an array of sensors. In the quasi-static electromagnetic cases examined here, the signal variation from a point source is relatively slow with respect to the signal propagation and the spacing of the array of sensors. As such, the location of the point sources can only be determined from the spatial diversity of the received signal across the array. The inverse source localization problem is complicated by unknown model order and strong local minima. The nonlinear optimization problem is posed for solving for the parameters of the quasi-static source model. The transient nature of the sources can be exploited to allow subspace approaches to separate out the signal portion of the spatial correlation matrix. Decomposition techniques are examined for improved processing, and an adaptation of MUtiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) is presented for solving the source localization problem. Recent results on calculating the Cramer-Rao error lower bounds are extended to the multidimensional problem here. This thesis focuses on the problem of source localization in magnetoencephalography (MEG), with a secondary application to thunderstorm source localization. Comparisons are also made between MEG and its electrical equivalent, electroencephalography (EEG). The error lower bounds are examined in detail for several MEG and EEG configurations, as well as localizing thunderstorm cells over Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center. Time-eigenspectrum is introduced as a parsing technique for improving the performance of the optimization problem.

  20. A study on the discrete image method for calculation of transient electromagnetic fields in geological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Xin; Pan, He-Ping; Luo, Miao

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a study on the numerical calculation and response analysis of a transient electromagnetic field generated by a ground source in geological media. One solution method, the traditional discrete image method, involves complex operation, and its digital filtering algorithm requires a large number of calculations. To solve these problems, we proposed an improved discrete image method, where the following are realized: the real number of the electromagnetic field solution based on the Gaver-Stehfest algorithm for approximate inversion, the exponential approximation of the objective kernel function using the Prony method, the transient electromagnetic field according to discrete image theory, and closed-form solution of the approximate coefficients. To verify the method, we tentatively calculated the transient electromagnetic field in a homogeneous model and compared it with the results obtained from the Hankel transform digital filtering method. The results show that the method has considerable accuracy and good applicability. We then used this method to calculate the transient electromagnetic field generated by a ground magnetic dipole source in a typical geoelectric model and analyzed the horizontal component response of the induced magnetic field obtained from the "ground excitation-stratum measurement" method. We reached the conclusion that the horizontal component response of a transient field is related to the geoelectric structure, observation time, spatial location, and others. The horizontal component response of the induced magnetic field reflects the eddy current field distribution and its vertical gradient variation. During the detection of abnormal objects, positions with a zero or comparatively large offset were selected for the drillhole measurements or a comparatively long observation delay was adopted to reduce the influence of the ambient field on the survey results. The discrete image method and forward calculation results in this paper

  1. Influence of electromagnetic field intensity on the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization in circulating water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liang, Yandong; Chen, Si

    2016-09-01

    In this study, changes in the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization was determined through conductivity titration by altering electromagnetic field parameters applied to the circulating water system. The critical conductivity value and metastable zone curves of CaCO3 crystallization were determined under different solution concentrations and electromagnetic field intensities. Experimental results indicate that the effect of the electromagnetic field intensity on the critical conductivity value intensifies with the increase of solution concentration. Moreover, the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization increases with the increase of electromagnetic field intensity within 200 Gs, thereby prolonging the induction period of nucleation.

  2. [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].

    PubMed

    Guibelalde del Castillo, E

    2013-12-01

    The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields.

  3. Electromagnetic and gravitational responses of two-dimensional noninteracting electrons in a background magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanov, Alexander G.; Gromov, Andrey

    2014-07-01

    We compute electromagnetic, gravitational, and mixed linear response functions of two-dimensional free fermions in an external quantizing magnetic field at an integer filling factor. The results are presented in the form of the effective action and as an expansion of currents and stresses in wave vectors and frequencies of the probing electromagnetic and metric fields. In addition to the well-studied U (1) Chern-Simons and Wen-Zee terms we find a gravitational Chern-Simons term that controls the correction to the Hall viscosity due to the background curvature. We relate the coefficient in front of the term with the chiral central charge.

  4. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers.

    PubMed

    Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. PMID:19864331

  5. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Martínez-Mata, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2004-09-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I is a disease that rapidly progress to death in early infancy. A case report of a child with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease Type I that recovered at three years of age after two years exposure to electromagnetic fields (ELF) is presented. The child is now eleven years old and with the exception of slightly abnormal gait, the muscle mass of tights and gluteus, high, weight and his everyday activities correspond to those of a normal child his age. Hypothetical explanations for the effects of the electromagnetic fields are discussed.

  6. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Masoumeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Simbar, Masoumeh; Seyed Mosaavi, Hassan; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life is affected by electromagnetic field exposure in each person everyday life. However, this is extremely controversial issue. Objective: Investigation of the associations between electromagnetic field exposure and miscarriage among women of Tehran. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of Tehran city in Iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. Women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. Reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. The measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, Narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses. Results: A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. However, this association was not confirmed by Wald test. Conclusion: This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. This issue may be due to small sample size in this study. PMID:27326421

  7. Skyrmions coupled to the electromagnetic field via the gauged Wess-Zumino term

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtani, Munehisa; Ohta, Koichi

    2004-11-01

    In soliton models expressed in terms of the nonlinear chiral field, the electric current has an anomalous gauge-field contribution as the baryon current does. We study the spin polarized Skyrmions coupled with the electromagnetic field via the gauged Wess-Zumino term and calculate configurations of the Skyrmion and the gauge field with boundary conditions to ensure the physical charge number for baryons. Although the electromagnetic field via the gauged Wess-Zumino term affects physical quantities in small amounts, we find that the magnetic field forms a dipole structure owing to a circular electric current around the spin-quantization axis of the soliton. This is understood on an analogy with the Meissner effect in the super conductor. The electric-charge distributions turn out to have characteristic structures depending on the total charge, which suggests the intrinsic deformation of baryons due to orbital motions of the constituents.

  8. DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

  9. Possible action mechanism of the electromagnetic fields in the liver cancer development: A mathematical proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-García, Mónica Noemí; Godina-Nava, Juan José

    2012-02-08

    Currently it is known that electromagnetic field exposure can induce biological changes, although the precise effects and action mechanism of the interaction between the electromagnetic field and biological systems are not well understood. In this work we propose a possible action mechanism, concerning the effect that the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure has on the early stage of liver cancer development. The model is developed studying the phenomena called oxidative stress that it appears after it is applied a carcinogenic agent used to induce hepatic cancer chemically in an experimental animal model. This physical-chemical process involves the movement of magnetic field dependent free charged particles, called free radicals. We will consider the use of the radical pairs theory as a framework, in which we will describe the spin density operator evolution by implementing the stochastic Liouville equation with hyperfine interaction. This describes how the selectivity of the interaction between spin states of the free radicals with the applied electromagnetic field, influences the development of pre-neoplastic lesions in the liver. AIP Publishing is retracting this article due to the substantial use of content in the Results and Conclusions section without proper citation of a previously published paper in Chemical Physics Letters 361 (2012) 219-225. This article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 15 October 2015.

  10. Microfabricated sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monberg, James; Henning, Albert K.

    1995-09-01

    Public awareness of the risks of exposure to electromagnetic radiation has grown over the past ten yeras. The effects of power lines on human and animal health have drawn particular attention. Some longitudinal studies of cancer rates near power lines show a significant correlation, while others show a null result. The studies have suffered from inadequate sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in vivo. In this work, we describe the design, construction, and testing of electrically passive, microfabricated single-pole antennas and coils. These sensors will be used in vivo to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on animals. Our testing to date has been limited to in vitro studies of the magnetic field probes. Magnetic field pickup coils were fabricated with up to 100 turns, over a length of up to 1000 micrometers . Measurements were carried out with the sensors in air, and in water of various saline concentrations. Magnetic fields were applied using a Helmholtz coil. Both dc and ac fields were applied. The results indicate that small-area measurements of electromagnetic fields in vitro can be made successfully, provided adequate shielding and amplification are used.

  11. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.

  12. Electromagnetic field of fractal distribution of charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2005-08-15

    Electric and magnetic fields of fractal distribution of charged particles are considered. The fractional integrals are used to describe fractal distribution. The fractional integrals are considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. Using the fractional generalization of integral Maxwell equation, the simple examples of the fields of homogeneous fractal distribution are considered. The electric dipole and quadrupole moments for fractal distribution are derived.

  13. Electromagnetic induction in New Zealand: analogue model and field results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Dosso, H. W.; Ingham, M.

    The behaviour of electric and magnetic variations over North Island (New Zealand) is studied with the aid of a laboratory analogue model. The source field frequencies used in the analogue modelling simulate naturally occurring geomagnetic variations of 5-120 min periods. In-phase and quadrature magnetic and electric fields for a selection of traverses for the modelled region of North Island are presented. Since North Island is of a relatively narrow cross-section, the field responses, even for inland locations, are expected to show strongly the effects of the surrounding ocean. The irregular coastlines, as well as the strait between North and South Islands, lead to coastal and inland field anomalies due to induced currents being deflected and channelled to produce localized current densities. The comparison of model results with field station measurements obtained earlier individually by Ingham and by Midha for sites in the northeastern, central, and southern (near Cook Strait) regions of North Island demonstrates the large role the ocean has in the observed field responses. Differences in the model and field results at some sites are expected and should reflect the effects of the local geology and the conductive substructure related to the complex tectonics of the region not simulated in the model.

  14. Guiding and collimating fast electron beam by the quasi-static electromagnetic field array

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; He, W. H.; Dong, K. G.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, T. K.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, Z. M.; Gu, Y. Q.; Cao, L. H.

    2014-10-15

    A guidance and collimation scheme for fast electron beam in a traverse periodic quasi-static electromagnetic field array is proposed with the semi-analytic method and the particle-in-cell simulation. The sheath electric fields on the surfaces of nanowires and the magnetic fields around the nanowires form a traverse periodic quasi-static electromagnetic field array. Therefore, most of the fast electrons are confined at the nanowire surfaces and transport forward. More importantly, due to the divergent property of the beams, the magnitudes of the generated fields decrease with the target depth. The lateral momenta of the electrons convert into the forward momenta through Lorenz force, and they cannot recover their initial values. Therefore, the fast electrons can be guided and collimated efficiently in the gaps between the nanowires. In our particle-in-cell simulations, the observed guiding efficiency exceeds 80% compared with the reference target.

  15. Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Wong, Liang Jie; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realize coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behavior. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.

  16. Electromagnetic field exposure assessment in Europe radiofrequency fields (10 MHz-6 GHz).

    PubMed

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Wiart, Joe; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Thuróczy, György

    2015-01-01

    Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment.

  17. Strings: A possible alternative explanation for the Unification of Gravitation Field and Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Susana

    Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters

  18. A Set of Computer Projects for an Electromagnetic Fields Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Ronald F.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are three computer projects: vector analysis, electric field intensities at various distances, and the Biot-Savart law. Programing suggestions and project results are provided. One month is suggested for each project. (MVL)

  19. On the electrodynamics of moving permanent dipoles in external electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-09-01

    The classical theory of electrodynamics is built upon Maxwell's equations and the concepts of electromagnetic field, force, energy and momentum, which are intimately tied together by Poynting's theorem and the Lorentz force law. Whereas Maxwell's macroscopic equations relate the electric and magnetic fields to their material sources (i.e., charge, current, polarization and magnetization), Poynting's theorem governs the flow of electromagnetic energy and its exchange between fields and material media, while the Lorentz law regulates the back-and-forth transfer of momentum between the media and the fields. The close association of momentum with energy thus demands that the Poynting theorem and the Lorentz law remain consistent with each other, while, at the same time, ensuring compliance with the conservation laws of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. This paper shows how a consistent application of the aforementioned laws of electrodynamics to moving permanent dipoles (both electric and magnetic) brings into play the rest-mass of the dipoles. The rest mass must vary in response to external electromagnetic fields if the overall energy of the system is to be conserved. The physical basis for the inferred variations of the rest-mass appears to be an interference between the internal fields of the dipoles and the externally applied fields. We use two different formulations of the classical theory in which energy and momentum relate differently to the fields, yet we find identical behavior for the restmass in both formulations.

  20. Effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic field on the alteration of ovarian follicles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Seyed Shahin; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Ainehchi, Nava; Alihemmati, Alireza; Khatooni, Azam Asghari; Khaki, Arash; Asghari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, there has been an increase in the attention paid to safety effects, environmental and society’s health, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this research was to determine the effect of EMF on the alteration of ovarian follicles. Methods In this experimental study at Tabriz Medical University in 2015, we did EMF exposures and assessed the alteration of rats’ ovarian follicles. Thirty three-month old rats were selected randomly from laboratory animals, and, after their ages and weights were determined, they were divided randomly into three groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without any treatment, and they were kept in normal conditions. The second group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for eight weeks (three weeks intrauterine and five weeks ectopic). The third group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for 13 weeks (three weeks intrauterine and ten weeks ectopic). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and cleared with Xylol and embedded in paraffin. After sectioning and staining, samples were studied by optic microscopy. Finally, SPSS version 17, were used for data analysis. Results EMF radiation increased the harmful effects on the formation of ovarian follicles and oocytes implantation. Studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on ovarian follicles have shown that the nuclei of the oocytes become smaller and change shape. There were significant, harmful changes in the groups affected by electromagnetic waves. Atresia of ovarian follicles was significantly significant in both study groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced

  1. [Effect of electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency on ATPase activity of actomyosin].

    PubMed

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Sheliuk, O V; Martyniuk, V S; Nuryshchenko, N Ie

    2012-01-01

    The Mg2+/Ca2+ and K(+)-ATPase actomyosin activity of rabbit skeletal muscle was evaluated by the Fiske-Subbarow method during a five-hour exposition of protein solutions in electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency of 8 Hz and 25 microT induction. The results of the study of the ATPase activity of actomyosin upon electromagnetic exposure have shown statistically significant changes that are characterized by a rather complex time dynamics. After 1, 2 and 4 hours of exposure of protein solutions the effect of ELF EMF exposure inhibits the ATPase activity compared to control samples, which are not exposed to the magnetic field. By the third and fifth hours of exposure to the electromagnetic field, there is a significant increase in the ATPase activity of actomyosin. It should be noted that a similar pattern of change in enzyme activity was universal, both for the environment by Mg2+ and Ca2+, and in the absence of these ions in the buffer. This can evidence for Ca(2+)-independent ways of the infuence of electromagnetic field (EMP) on biologic objects. In our opinion, the above effects are explained by EMP influence on the dynamic properties of actomyosin solutions, which are based on the processes of spontaneous dynamic formation of structure.

  2. [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V; Kuster, N

    2013-01-01

    The results of portable radio-station "Radiy-301" electromagnetic fields (EMF) emission measurement and specific absorption rate data evaluation has shown that workers' exposure EMF levels may elevate hygienic norms and hereupon can be health risk factor. Possible way of portable radio-station EMF dosimetry enhancement by means of domestic and international approaches harmonization is considered.

  3. Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Field on Healthy and Infected Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Trees with Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10 KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9 W for 5 days, each 5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313

  4. Meta-gated channel for the discrete control of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Zhang, Aofang; Wang, Jing; Gao, Dongxing; Lei, Zhenya; Hu, Bowei

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the meta-gate controlled wave propagation through multiple metallic plates with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures. Different from using gradient refractive-index meta-materials or phase-discontinuity meta-surfaces to produce the discrepancy between the incident angle and the refractive angle, our technique redirects electromagnetic fields by setting-up discrete transmission gateways between adjacent meta-gates and creates the perfect channels for the wave propagation. Electromagnetic fields can be assigned in the response of the driving frequency of meta-gates with extraordinary transmissions and propagate simply relying on their pre-set locations as illustrated by the meta-gate guided electromagnetic fields travelling in the paths of the Silk-Road and the contour line of Xi'an city where the Silk-Road starts. The meta-gate concept, offering the feasibility of the discrete control of electromagnetic fields with gating routes, may pave an alternative way for precisely transmitting of signals and efficiently sharing of resource in the communication.

  5. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Electromagnetic Fields of Ultralow Frequency on G-protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; García, M. N. Jiménez; Cadena, M. S. Reyes

    2008-08-01

    Based in several clinical achievements and mathematical simulation of the immune sytem, previously studied, permit us to establish that a possible Mechanism of Action of ultralow frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF) is on G-protein as it has been proposed in specialized literature.

  6. The Role of Angular Momentum in the Construction of Electromagnetic Multipolar Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Nora; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions…

  7. ALTERATIONS IN CALCIUM ION ACTIVITY BY ELF AND RF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Alterations in calcium ion activity by ELF and RF electromagnetic fields

    Introduction

    Calcium ions play many important roles in biological systems. For example, calcium ion activity can be used as an indicator of second-messenger signal-transduction processe...

  8. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Electromagnetic Fields of Ultralow Frequency on G-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Cadena, M. S. Reyes

    2008-08-11

    Based in several clinical achievements and mathematical simulation of the immune sytem, previously studied, permit us to establish that a possible Mechanism of Action of ultralow frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF) is on G-protein as it has been proposed in specialized literature.

  9. Quaternionic Analysis and Formulation of Generalized Electromagnetic fields in Chiral Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, P. S.; Singh, Jivan; Negi, O. P. S.

    2007-10-01

    The time dependent Dirac-Maxwell's Equations in presence of electric and magnetic sources are written in chiral media and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in unique simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in chiral media has also been developed in compact, simple and consistent manner.

  10. Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: A Fluid Medium in an Electromagnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a number of teaching paradoxes of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of energy and momentum for a fluid medium in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we consider a moving parallel plate charged capacitor, where the electric attraction of its plates is balanced by the…

  11. Electrical Engineers' Perceptions on Education--Electromagnetic Field Theory and Its Connection to Working Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallen, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n = 99 and n = 120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in…

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Electromagnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario J.-E.

    Spontaneous electromagnetic fields can be important to the dynamic evolution of a plasma by directing heat flow as well as providing additional pressures on the conducting fluids through the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic fields are predicted to affect fluid behavior during the core-collapse of supernovae through generation of fields due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In the coronae of stars, self-generated magnetic fields lead to filamentary structure in the hot plasma. Recent experiments by Gregori et al. investigated sources of protogalactic magnetic fields generated by laser-produced shock waves. In inertial confinement fusion experiments, self-generated electromagnetic fields can also play a role and have recently become of great interest to the community. Present day laser facilities provide a unique opportunity to study spontaneous field-generation in these extreme environments under controlled conditions. Instability-induced electromagnetic fields were investigated using a novel monoenergetic-proton radiography system. Fusion protons generated by an 'exploding-pusher' implosion were used to probe laser-irradiated plastic foils with various preimposed surface perturbations. Imaging protons are sensitive to electromagnetic fields and density modulations in the plasma through the Lorentz force and Coulomb collisions, respectively. Corresponding x-ray radiographs of these targets provided mass density distributions and Coulomb effects on protons were assessed using a Monte Carlo code written using the Geant4 framework. Proton fluence distributions were recorded on CR-39 detectors and Fourier analyzed to infer path-integrated field strengths. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth of preimposed surface perturbations generated magnetic fields by the RT-induced Biermann battery and were measured for the first time. Good data were obtained during linear growth and when compared to ideal calculations, demonstrated that field diffusion near the source played an important role

  13. Short-term evaluation of electromagnetic field pretreatment of adipose-derived stem cells to improve bone healing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Seol, Young-Joon; Rhie, Jong-Won; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    An electromagnetic field is an effective stimulation tool because it promotes bone defect healing, albeit in an unknown way. Although electromagnetic fields are used for treatment after surgery, many patients prefer cell-based tissue regeneration procedures that do not require daily treatments. This study addressed the effects of an electromagnetic field on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to investigate the feasibility of pretreatment to accelerate bone regeneration. After identifying a uniform electromagnetic field inside a solenoid coil, we observed that a 45 Hz electromagnetic field induced osteogenic marker expression via bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factor β, and Wnt signalling pathways based on microarray analyses. This electromagnetic field increased osteogenic gene expression, alkaline phosphate activity and nodule formation in vitro within 2 weeks, indicating that this pretreatment may provide osteogenic potential to ASCs on three-dimensional (3D) ceramic scaffolds. This pretreatment effect of an electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better bone regeneration in a mouse calvarial defect model over 4 weeks compared to that in the untreated group. This short-term evaluation showed that the electromagnetic field pretreatment may be a future therapeutic option for bone defect treatment.

  14. Vacuum properties of QCD in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Elizabeth

    The non-trivial vacuum properties of Quantum Chromodynamics can be affected by a constant external magnetic field. The chiral condensate and the magnetization of the vacuum are the two properties studied in this work. The chiral condensate, which is the order parameter for chiral symmetry breaking--one of the most important properties of QCD--is an optimal quantity to study at intermediate field strengths. Using both models and chiral perturbation theory, it can be shown that an electric field suppresses the chiral condensate whereas a magnetic field enhances it. Higher-order calculations in chiPT may have a substantial effect on the magnitude of the shift in the chiral condensate, but their exact effect is unknown due to the uncertainty in the parameters of the theory. The second parameter, the magnetization, is used at fields large enough for perturbative calculations to be valid; at these scales, there is large explicit chiral symmetry breaking and the chiral condensate cannot be used. The first-order magnetization shows a correction of the form B logB; the calculation to next order in perturbation theory shows a correction small enough that non-perturbative corrections dominate.

  15. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  16. Measurements and computations of electromagnetic fields in electric power substations

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.K. ); Dawalibi, F. )

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic fields generated by a typical distribution substation were measured and calculated based on a computer model which takes into account currents in the grounding systems, distribution feeder neutrals, overhead ground wires and induced currents in equipment structures and ground grid loops. Both measured and computer results indicate that magnetic fields are significantly influenced by ground currents, as well as induced currents in structures and ground system loops. All currents in the network modeled were computed, based on the measured currents impressed at the boundary points (ends of the conductor network). The agreement between the measured and computer values is good. Small differences were observed and are attributed mainly to uncertainties in the geometry of the network model and phase angles of some of the currents in the neutral conductors which were not measured in the field. Further measurements, including more accurate geometrical information and phase angles, are planned.

  17. Electromagnetic Near Field Measurements of Two Critical Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettee, Jeffrey; Goorley, Tim; Mayo, Douglas; Myers, William; Goda, Joetta; Sage, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary measurements of the fast metal nuclear reactors at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) and at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) within the past year characterize the very near field environment of these critical assemblies. Both reactors are fast, highly enriched uranium metal reactors and can be operated in a burst mode above prompt supercritical. Initial measurements of the electric and the magnetic fields within the reactor cell are consistent between the two facilities, and begin to describe the dependance on distance and polarization as might be assumed from initial Monte Carlo modelling of these facilities. The amplitude and time variation of the electric and magnetic fields are consistent with burst time scales. The polarization is consistent with the geometry of the source and with Compton scattering from fission gammas as the dominant ionization mechanism. An overview of the two fast neutron sources and the excursion dynamics, the experimental details, and summary of the modelling calculations will be provided as background.

  18. Electromagnetic fields radiated from electrostatic discharges: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Perry F.; Ondrejka, Arthur R.; Ma, Mark T.; Ladbury, John M.

    1988-02-01

    The fields radiated by electrostatic discharges (ESD) are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The ESD spark is modeled theoretically as an electrically short, time dependent, linear dipole situated above an infinite ground plane. Experimentally, sparks of varying voltages are generated by a commercially available simulator and used to excite a number of targets including: (1) the extended inner conductor of a coaxial cable mounted in a ground plane, (2) direct discharges to a ground plane, (3) indirect radiation from a large metal plate, (4) a metal chair over a a ground plane, and (5) a metal trash can. Results show that relatively low-voltage sparks (2 to 4 kV) excite the strongest radiated fields. This suggests that the spark fields can pose a significant interference threat to electronic equipment into the gigahertz range.

  19. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  20. Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Falugi, C.; Grattarola, M.; Prestipino, G.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic signals on the early development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have been studied. The duration and repetition of the pulses were similar to those used for bone healing in clinical practice. A sequence of pulses, applied for a time ranging from 2 to 4 h, accelerates the cleavages of sea urchin embryo cells. This effect can be quantitatively assessed by determining the time shifts induced by the applied electromagnetic field on the completion of the first and second cleavages in a population of fertilized eggs. The exposed embryos were allowed to develop up to the pluteus stage, showing no abnormalities.

  1. On the energy transfer between the electromagnetic field and nanomachines for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, G; Bucci, O M; Capozzoli, A

    2008-07-01

    The article presents a simple expression of the power transferred from the electromagnetic field (EMF) to a biological nanomachine (NM) embedded in a background medium (BM). The expression is useful to analyse the interaction mechanism and test the hypothesis on its nature. Furthermore, it should represent a helpful tool to design remotely controlled NMs for bio-medical applications and the relative electromagnetic control apparatuses. Finally, to show its practical usefulness, we used it to discuss the hypothesis on the energy transfer mechanism proposed in the literature to explain intriguing experimental phenomena referring to the remotely controlled dehybridization of DNA molecules attached to gold nanocrystals.

  2. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  3. Probing the spectral density of the surface electromagnetic fields through scattering of waveguide photons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The spectral density of the metal-surface electromagnetic fields will be strongly modified in the presence of a closely-spaced quantum emitter. In this work, we propose a feasible way to probe the changes of the spectral density through the scattering of the waveguide photon incident on the quantum emitter. The variances of the lineshape in the transmission spectra indicate the coherent interaction between the emitter and the pseudomode resulting from all the surface electromagnetic modes. We further investigate the quantum coherence between the emitter and the pseudomode of the metal-dielectric interface. PMID:26860197

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by high voltage transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, T.

    1984-06-01

    The potential impacts of higher transmission line voltages on people, animals, and plants were determined. The differences among various studies are reviewed. Although there are some obvious dangers posed by transmission line operation, construction, and maintenance, most of these concerns are addressed by safety measures taken by utility companies. The indirect effects of power transission is reported. Three major categories of field effects are covered: (1) corona effects due to the electric field at the conductor's surface; (2) indirect coupling effects, arising from induced currents in nearby conducting objects; and (3) direct coupling effects, caused by induced currents in organisms.

  5. The cavity electromagnetic field within the polarizable continuum model of solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipolo, Silvio; Corni, Stefano; Cammi, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Cavity field effects can be defined as the consequences of the solvent polarization induced by the probing electromagnetic field upon spectroscopies of molecules in solution, and enter in the definitions of solute response properties. The polarizable continuum model of solvation (PCM) has been extended in the past years to address the cavity-field issue through the definition of an effective dipole moment that couples to the external electromagnetic field. We present here a rigorous derivation of such cavity-field treatment within the PCM starting from the general radiation-matter Hamiltonian within inhomogeneous dielectrics and recasting the interaction term to a dipolar form within the long wavelength approximation. To this aim we generalize the Göppert-Mayer and Power-Zienau-Woolley gauge transformations, usually applied in vacuo, to the case of a cavity vector potential. Our derivation also allows extending the cavity-field correction in the long-wavelength limit to the velocity gauge through the definition of an effective linear momentum operator. Furthermore, this work sets the basis for the general PCM treatment of the electromagnetic cavity field, capable to describe the radiation-matter interaction in dielectric media beyond the long-wavelength limit, providing also a tool to investigate spectroscopic properties of more complex systems such as molecules close to large nanoparticles.

  6. The cavity electromagnetic field within the polarizable continuum model of solvation.

    PubMed

    Pipolo, Silvio; Corni, Stefano; Cammi, Roberto

    2014-04-28

    Cavity field effects can be defined as the consequences of the solvent polarization induced by the probing electromagnetic field upon spectroscopies of molecules in solution, and enter in the definitions of solute response properties. The polarizable continuum model of solvation (PCM) has been extended in the past years to address the cavity-field issue through the definition of an effective dipole moment that couples to the external electromagnetic field. We present here a rigorous derivation of such cavity-field treatment within the PCM starting from the general radiation-matter Hamiltonian within inhomogeneous dielectrics and recasting the interaction term to a dipolar form within the long wavelength approximation. To this aim we generalize the Göppert-Mayer and Power-Zienau-Woolley gauge transformations, usually applied in vacuo, to the case of a cavity vector potential. Our derivation also allows extending the cavity-field correction in the long-wavelength limit to the velocity gauge through the definition of an effective linear momentum operator. Furthermore, this work sets the basis for the general PCM treatment of the electromagnetic cavity field, capable to describe the radiation-matter interaction in dielectric media beyond the long-wavelength limit, providing also a tool to investigate spectroscopic properties of more complex systems such as molecules close to large nanoparticles. PMID:24784260

  7. The cavity electromagnetic field within the polarizable continuum model of solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Pipolo, Silvio; Corni, Stefano; Cammi, Roberto

    2014-04-28

    Cavity field effects can be defined as the consequences of the solvent polarization induced by the probing electromagnetic field upon spectroscopies of molecules in solution, and enter in the definitions of solute response properties. The polarizable continuum model of solvation (PCM) has been extended in the past years to address the cavity-field issue through the definition of an effective dipole moment that couples to the external electromagnetic field. We present here a rigorous derivation of such cavity-field treatment within the PCM starting from the general radiation-matter Hamiltonian within inhomogeneous dielectrics and recasting the interaction term to a dipolar form within the long wavelength approximation. To this aim we generalize the Göppert-Mayer and Power-Zienau-Woolley gauge transformations, usually applied in vacuo, to the case of a cavity vector potential. Our derivation also allows extending the cavity-field correction in the long-wavelength limit to the velocity gauge through the definition of an effective linear momentum operator. Furthermore, this work sets the basis for the general PCM treatment of the electromagnetic cavity field, capable to describe the radiation-matter interaction in dielectric media beyond the long-wavelength limit, providing also a tool to investigate spectroscopic properties of more complex systems such as molecules close to large nanoparticles.

  8. Conservation laws and symmetry transformations of the electromagnetic field with sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    In classical electrodynamics, the universal conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are expressed by well-known continuity equations for the densities of these quantities. In the presence of charges and currents source terms must be added. These terms describe the exchange of energy and (linear or angular) momentum between field and matter. Recently, other conserved quantities of the electromagnetic field have been introduced and discussed. Examples are the pseudoscalars chirality and helicity, which are related to the handedness of the field. Even though these quantities have no obvious definition for matter, their conservation laws can still be presented in the form of continuity equations with source terms added. We show that these terms shed light on the interaction of chiral light with matter. A different role of conserved quantities is that they generate symmetry transformations of the system. The spatial transformations translation and rotation of the radiation field are generated by differential operators acting on mode functions. These operators are identical in form to the operators for the momentum and angular momentum of a quantum particle with spin 1. Also, for the total helicity and spin angular momentum of the field such operators on mode functions can be identified. A quite different picture arises in a quantum description of the electromagnetic field. The operator nature of the conserved quantities then arises from the commutation rules of photon creation and annihilation operators. We analyze the relation between these two pictures of symmetry transformations of the electromagnetic field.

  9. Beta Decay in the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave and Experiments on Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, O.F.; Lobanov, A.E.

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the effect of an electromagnetic wave field on the beta-decay process are used to analyze the tritium-decay experimental data on the neutrino mass. It is shown that the electromagnetic wave can distort the beta spectrum, shifting the end point to the higher energy region. This phenomenon is purely classical and it is associated with the electron acceleration in the radiation field. Since strong magnetic fields exist in setups for precise measurement of the neutrino mass, the indicated field can appear owing to the synchrotron radiation mechanism. The phenomenon under consideration can explain the experimentally observed anomalies in the spectrum of the decay electrons; in particular, the effect of the 'negative square of the neutrino mass'.

  10. Propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.

    1993-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.

  11. Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Ivan; Krtouš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so-called Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.

  12. Calcium displacement caused by electromagnetic fields. Final report, 1 November 1982-31 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.D.; Jordan, C.A.

    1989-08-31

    This research effort was to determine theoretically a physical basis for the interaction of low-intensity externally applied electromagnetic fields with biological tissue. The primary aim of the investigation was to establish a molecular basis for the class of interactions commonly referred to as nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields with biological systems. In particular, the biological structure of interest was the plasma membrane since it had been either directly or indirectly implicated in numerous experimental studies. It was demonstrated how a membrane undergoing a phase transition could qualitatively account for the release and/or uptake of divalent calcium ions. A characterization of changes in the structure of the membrane/electrolyte interface due to field induced changes in enzymatic activity was demonstrated. The role of critical phenomena was shown analytically to be able to account for the unique sensitivity of biomembranes to weak external field perturbations, and describe alterations in the passive transport of sodium ions in rabbit erythrocytes.

  13. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  14. The Earth-Moon-Sun natural laboratory for testing of gravitational and electromagnetic fields coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Isakevich, Valiriy; Efimov, Vladislav; Zakirov, Alexander

    Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on VSU test ground, at Main Geophysical Observa-tory(St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. The distance spaced reception of electrical and magnetic fields will allow to analyze more widely the nature of the investigated interactions. Monitoring of electromagnetic fields in the ELF range is being realized. The work is connected with search of interconnection of the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary layer with the gravitational Compact Binaries wave fields. For analyzing Compact Binaries were taken with ELF of GW-radiation: J 0700+6418, J 1012+5307, J 1537+1155, J 1959+2048, J 2130+1210, J 1915+1606, J 1910+0004, J 1910+0004, J 1748-2446A.For analyz-ing the spectrum of the magnetic fields there was used the information of VSU station and the monitoring information of Japanese geomagnetic stations Kakioka and Mambetsu. The aim of such investigations is connected with displaying tide processes (the Moon tides) and gravita-tional wave influence of Compact Binaries in the electromagnetic fields.On the first stage of the investigations a correlative spectral analysis of the experimental data was being carried out. There was factually extracted the influence of the atmosphere lower layer electromagnetic field of the thermogravitational solar tides and a number of gravitational: M1, M2, N2. It was ob-tained that astrophysical sources GV-6, GV-3,GV-4, GV-8, GV-9 have the most probability of non-casual of events. The subsequent investigations are connected with search of main features accompanying such influences. They are signal modulations by diurnal and year's rotation of the Earth. Such modulations are peculiar to sources of non-terrestrial origin. We are planning an extraction of the radiation frequency change of the source because of energy loss for the radiation of GW. Such investigations turned out to be

  15. Representative electromagnetic field intensities near the Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Republic, Michigan ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields produced by ELF antennas and commercial power lines at Clam Lake, WI, and by commercial power lines at Republic, MI, have been measured at residences, businesses and forest recreational areas for the continuing assessment of the Navy's ELF Communications Program. The ELF fields from existing antennas at Clam Lake, and from power lines in both states are low. Introducing ELF antenna fields at Republic, MI in several years will not significantly change the electromagnetic environment there. The existing field intensities are interpreted and compared with independent expert, judgment, professional standards-setting and judicial and administrative law opinions regarding safe exposure of the public to ELF electromagnetic fields.

  16. Continuum resonance induced electromagnetic torque by a rotating plasma response to static resonant magnetic perturbation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Connor, J. W.; Cowley, S. C.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.

    2012-10-01

    A numerical study is carried out, based on a simple toroidal tokamak equilibrium, to demonstrate the radial re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque density, as a result of a rotating resistive plasma (linear) response to a static resonant magnetic perturbation field. The computed electromagnetic torque peaks at several radial locations even in the presence of a single rational surface, due to resonances between the rotating response, in the plasma frame, and both Alfvén and sound continuum waves. These peaks tend to merge together to form a rather global torque distribution, when the plasma resistivity is large. The continuum resonance induced net electromagnetic torque remains finite even in the limit of an ideal plasma.

  17. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  18. Anomalous lepton moment in a non-Abelian gauge model in an intense electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, I. A.; Peres-Fernandes, V. K.; Rodionov, V. N.; Khalilov, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of an external electromagnetic field on the magnitude of the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) of a lepton in the Weinberg model (1967) is investigated using the method of analytic continuation, previously applied to problems in quantum electrodynamics with an external field. The behavior of the AMM is studied as a function of the value of the dynamic parameter X=poH/mHo.

  19. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  20. Imaging Nanoscale Electromagnetic Near-Field Distributions Using Optical Forces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Mardy, Zahra; Burdett, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for mapping optical near-fields with nanometer resolution, limited only by the AFM probe geometry. By detecting the optical force between a gold coated AFM probe and its image dipole on a glass substrate, we profile the electric field distributions of tightly focused laser beams with different polarizations. The experimentally recorded focal force maps agree well with theoretical predictions based on a dipole-dipole interaction model. We experimentally estimate the aspect ratio of the apex of gold coated AFM probe using only optical forces. We also show that the optical force between a sharp gold coated AFM probe and a spherical gold nanoparticle of radius 15 nm, is indicative of the electric field distribution between the two interacting particles. Photo Induced Force Microscopy (PIFM) allows for background free, thermal noise limited mechanical imaging of optical phenomenon over wide range of wavelengths from Visible to RF with detection sensitivity limited only by AFM performance. PMID:26073331