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Sample records for 60hz frame rate

  1. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  2. Behavioral and prenatal effects of 60-Hz fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Purpose was to determine possible neural, behavioral, and reproductive effects of low-intensity 60-Hz electric fields on mammals (rats) exposed in-utero. The tests used shortly after birth included negative geotaxis, the acoustic startle response, surface righting, in-air righting, cliff avoidance, emotionality, and swimming endurance. Variations between the exposed and control groups are discussed. 9 tables. (DLC)

  3. EFFECTS OF 60-HZ FIELDS ON HUMAN HEALTH PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specific results of research on the effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields have often been contradictory and difficult to replicate. The study reported here used quantitative exercise testing techniques to evaluate whether increases in metabolism, caused by mod...

  4. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  5. Residential 60-Hz magnetic fields and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Robert Stephen

    1998-06-01

    The basic question addressed by this research is: How well can data from a single measurement visit estimate longer-term ambient residential 60-Hz magnetic field levels? We undertook repeat 60-Hz magnetic field measurements every two months for one year, plus one additional visit for 14 days of measurement. The study sample consisted of 51 single-family homes, 24 in Minneapolis-St. Paul and 27 in Detroit. Homes were selected by random-digit dialing; each was home to a child eligible to serve a control subject in the National Cancer Institute-Children's Cancer Group Electromagnetic Fields and Radon Study. Trained survey interviewers obtained all measurement data, using an expanded measurement protocol from the main study: (1) spot 60-Hz magnetic field measurements at the centers of three rooms and at the front door; (2) 24- hour (or 14 day) 60-Hz magnetic field measurement in the subject child's bedroom; and (3) geomagnetic field at the centers of two rooms and on the child's bed. The data set available for analysis consists of 349 out of 357 (97.8%) possible sets of spot measurements and 1060 out of 1071 (99.0%) possible days of 24-hour and two-week measurements. A Long-Term Estimate, Child's Bedroom, or LTECB, the geometric mean of the 24-hour measurement geometric means, was used as the reference for analysis. The LTECB was analyzed for house-level main effects and for repeated-measures (temporal) main effects. House-level main effects account for only 41% of the variability in the LTECB. The statistically significant main effects are study area, wire code and population density. A clear trend of increasing LTECB with population density is evident. The seasonal effect is small, but statistically significant. There is no evidence for a day-of-week effect, but a statistically significant diurnal effect is present. Correlation coefficients relating the LTECB to any of three primary single-visit measurement and exposure metric surrogates are >.9. However, when

  6. Endocrinological effects of strong 60-Hz electric fields on rats

    SciTech Connect

    Free, M.J.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.; Cheng, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields without spark discharges, ozone, or significant levels or other secondary variables. No effects were discharges, ozone, or significant levels of other secondary variables. No effects were observed on body weights or plasma hormone levels after 30 days of exposure at an effective field strength of 68 kV/m. After 120 days of exposure (effective field strength = 64 kV/m), effects were inconsistent, with signficant reductions in body weight and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone occurring in one replicate experiment but not in the other. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced after 120 days of exposure in one experiment, with a similar but not statistically significant reduction in a replicate experiment. Weanling rats, exposed or sham-exposed in electric fields with an effective field strength of 80 kV/m from 20 to 56 days of age, exhibited identical or closely similar growth trends in body and organ weights. Hormone levels in exposed and sham-exposed groups were also similar. However, there was an apparent phase shift between the two groups in the cyclic variations of concentrations of hormones at different stages of development, particularly with respect to follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone. We concluded that 60-Hz electric fields may bring about subtle changes in the endocrine system of rats, and that these changes may be related to alterations in episodic rhythms.

  7. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  8. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  9. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  10. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates. Project technical status report, November 23, 1985-January 17, 1986. [Papio cynocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-24

    The objective was to investigate, using baboons (superspecies Papio cynocephalus) as surrogates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. This program consists of four major projects. The first will evaluate the potential aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses. The second project will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields. The third will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR) and differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL). The fourth will investigate the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups.

  11. Comparison of cardiac and 60 Hz magnetically induced electric fields measured in anesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Creim, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields interact with an animal by inducing internal electric fields, which are in addition to the normal endogenous fields present in living animals. Male rats weighing about 560 g each were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Small incisions were made in the ventral body wall at the chest and upper abdomen to position a miniature probe for measuring internal electric fields. The calibration constant for the probe size was 5.7 mm, with a flat response from at least 12 Hz to 20 kHz. A cardiac signal, similar to the normal electrocardiogram with a heart rate of about 250 bpm, was readily obtained at the chest. Upon analysis of its spectrum, the cardiac field detected by the probe had a broad maximum at 32--95 Hz. When the rates were exposed to a 1 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field, a spike appeared in the spectrum at 60 Hz. The peak-to-peak magnitudes of electric fields associated with normal heart function were comparable to fields induced by a 1 mT magnetic field at 60 Hz for those positions measured on the body surface. Within the body, or in different directions relative to the applied field, the induced fields were reduced. The cardiac field increased near the heart, becoming much larger than the induced field. Thus, the cardiac electric field, together with the other endogenous fields, combine with induced electric fields and help to provide reference levels for the induced-field dosimetry of ELF magnetic field exposures of living animals.

  12. Tracking in high-frame-rate imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Shun-Li; Li, Pai-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Speckle tracking has been used for motion estimation in ultrasound imaging. Unlike conventional Doppler techniques, which are angle-dependent, speckle tracking can be utilized to estimate velocity vectors. However, the accuracy of speckle-tracking methods is limited by speckle decorrelation, which is related to the displacement between two consecutive images, and, hence, combining high-frame-rate imaging and speckle tracking could potentially increase the accuracy of motion estimation. However, the lack of transmit focusing may also affect the tracking results and the high computational requirement may be problematic. This study therefore assessed the performance of high-frame-rate speckle tracking and compared it with conventional focusing. The effects of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bulk motion, and velocity gradients were investigated in both experiments and simulations. The results show that high-frame-rate speckle tracking can achieve high accuracy if the SNR is sufficiently high. In addition, its computational complexity is acceptable because smaller search windows can be used due to the displacements between frames generally being smaller during high-frame-rate imaging. Speckle decor-relation resulting from velocity gradients within a sample volume is also not as significant during high-frame-rate imaging. PMID:20690428

  13. Detection thresholds for 60 Hz electric fields by nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    Because responses of animals to detection of the presence of an electric field (EF) are a possible mechanism for production of biological effects, it is important to know what EF intensities are detectable. Operant methods were used to train six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) to perform a psychophysical task involving detection of EF presence. During the response phase of a trial, a subject responded on one push button to report the presence of the EF and on a different push button to report the absence of the EF. Correct reports of EF presence or absence produced delivery of food rewards. The subjects became proficient at performing this psychophysical detection task; during 35 days of testing, false alarm rates averaged 9%. The average EF detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means among subjects was 5--15 kV/m. Two special test procedures confirmed that the subjects were responding directly to EF presence or absence and not to artifacts that might be associated with EF generation. The EF detection threshold of nonhuman primates is similar to thresholds reported for rats and humans.

  14. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    An overall description of this research program is presented. The objectives are to investigate using nonhuman primates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high-intensity, 60 Hz, electric fields. 6 tabs.

  15. Deficits in high- (>60 Hz) gamma-band oscillations during visual processing in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grützner, Christine; Wibral, Michael; Sun, Limin; Rivolta, Davide; Singer, Wolf; Maurer, Konrad; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Current theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have focused on abnormal temporal coordination of neural activity. Oscillations in the gamma-band range (>25 Hz) are of particular interest as they establish synchronization with great precision in local cortical networks. However, the contribution of high gamma (>60 Hz) oscillations toward the pathophysiology is less established. To address this issue, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data from 16 medicated patients with chronic schizophrenia and 16 controls during the perception of Mooney faces. MEG data were analysed in the 25–150 Hz frequency range. Patients showed elevated reaction times and reduced detection rates during the perception of upright Mooney faces while responses to inverted stimuli were intact. Impaired processing of Mooney faces in schizophrenia patients was accompanied by a pronounced reduction in spectral power between 60–120 Hz (effect size: d = 1.26) which was correlated with disorganized symptoms (r = −0.72). Our findings demonstrate that deficits in high gamma-band oscillations as measured by MEG are a sensitive marker for aberrant cortical functioning in schizophrenia, suggesting an important aspect of the pathophysiology of the disorder. PMID:23532620

  16. Nonhuman primates will not respond to turn off strong 60 Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    Using a set of six baboons (Papio cynocephalus), the authors conducted a series of seven experiments designed to evaluate the potentially aversive character of a 60 Hz electric field (EF). Initially, the subjects were trained, using food rewards as the reinforcer, to respond only when a cue light was illuminated. Next, an EF was presented along with the cue light; responses produced delivery of a food pellet and turned off both the cue light and the EF. Then, stimulus and reward conditions were varied. The authors determined that (1) presence of a strong EF does not affect operant responding for food rewards, (2) subjects will not respond at normal rates when the only reinforcer is termination of a strong EF, (3) presence of a strong EF can serve as a discriminative stimulus, (4) presence of a strong EF does not affect extinction of an appetite-motivated task, and (5) presentation of an EF can become a secondary reinforcer. The pattern of results was consistent across all experiments, suggesting that an EF of as much as 65 kV/m is not aversive to nonhuman primates. Separately, the authors demonstrated that the average EF detection threshold for baboons is 12 kV/m. Thus, EF exposure at intensities well above the detection threshold and at species-scaled EF strengths greater than those found environmentally does not appear to be aversive.

  17. Large Granular Lymphocytic (LGL) Leukemia in Rats Exposed to Intermittent 60 Hz Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E.); Morris, James E.); Miller, Douglas L.); Ebi, K L.; Sasser, Lyle B.)

    2001-04-01

    An animal model for large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia in male Fischer 344 rats utilized to determine whether magnetic field exposure can be shown to influence the progression of leukemia. We previously reported that exposure to continuous 60 Hz 1 mT magnetic fields did not significantly alter the clinical progression of LGL leukemia in young male rats following inspection of spleen cells from donor leukemic rats. Results presented here extend those studies with the objectives to (1) replicate the previous study of continuous 60-Hz magnetic field exposures but using fewer LGL cells in the inoculum, and (2) determine if intermittent 60-Hz magnetic fields can alter the clinical progression of leukemia.

  18. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  19. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  20. High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agronskaia, A. V.; Tertoolen, L.; Gerritsen, H. C.

    2003-07-01

    A fast time-domain based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope is presented that can operate at frame rates of hundreds of frames per second. A beam splitter in the detection path of a wide-field fluorescence microscope divides the fluorescence in two parts. One part is optically delayed with respect to the other. Both parts are viewed with a single time-gated intensified CCD camera with a gate width of 5 ns. The fluorescence lifetime image is obtained from the ratio of these two images. The fluorescence lifetime resolution of the FLIM microscope is verified both with dye solutions and fluorescent latex beads. The fluorescence lifetimes obtained from the reference specimens are in good agreement with values obtained from time correlated single photon counting measurements on the same specimens. The acquisition speed of the FLIM system is evaluated with a measurement of the calcium fluxes in neonatal rat myocytes stained with the calcium probe Oregon Green 488-Bapta. Fluorescence lifetime images of the calcium fluxes related to the beating of the myocytes are acquired with frame rates of up to 100 Hz.

  1. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  2. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  4. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development, growth, and behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize an avian model to determine the effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development. A specially designed incubator allowed simultaneous incubation of control eggs and eggs exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Two series of experimental voltages were utilized for this study. In Series 1, the subject eggs were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kV/m fields and, in Series 2, eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 kV/m. Data were collected on mortality, malformation, and growth (weight) of 7- and 14-day-old embryos after continuous exposure to electric fields. Eggs were also incubated, exposed to electric fields, and hatched in order to collect data on chick weights at one day and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after hatching. Behavior tests on newly hatched chicks that had been exposed to electric fields during development were also performed. The results indicated no consistent effect of 60-Hz electric fields, varying from 0.1 to 100 kV/m, on mortality, malformations, weights, bone growth (metatarsal length), or behavior of embryos or chicks. This study strongly suggests that within the scope of this project, there is no consistent direct effect of 60 Hz electric fields on the health and well-being of avian embryos. A dose-response analysis was also utilized in which all the data in each series, for each age of the embryos, were simultaneously evaluated in a statistical model. This analysis demonstrated that there is no significant dose-response of electric fields on 7- and 14-day-old embryo and 1-day-old chick weights. 24 refs., 21 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Harmonics of 60 Hz in power systems caused by geomagnetic disturbances. [Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Oguti, T.; Watanabe, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Kokubun, S.; Horita, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous VLF/ULF observations carried out near Winnipeg, Manitoba show that geomagnetic disturbances control the behavior of harmonics of 60 Hz man-made electric power. The harmonics of 60 Hz detected by the VLF receiver are at multiples of 180 Hz, indicating that they originated from a 3 phase ac power system. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions, only odd harmonics of 70 Hz were detected. In disturbed conditions, both odd and even harmonics were excited. The strength of each harmonic changed concurrently with geomagnetic pulsation (ULF) activity. These findings seem to indicate that a portion of telluric currents shunted into the power line system through the neutrals of the Y-connected transformers give rise to a dc bias to the transformer core materials and that it distorts their hysteresis loops, activating harmonics of 60 Hz power. A mathematical proof is given that a hysteresis loop having a point of symmetry generates odd harmonics only, whereas loops lacking in point-symmetry generally give rise to both odd and even harmonics. A general formula was obtained to calculate the strength of each harmonic based on the shape of the hysteresis loop.

  6. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Hirasaki, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short-term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 microT static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can observed during short-term MF exposure. PMID:15515039

  7. Effects of exposure to a 60-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Easley, S.P.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors found in a previously reported study that exposure to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field had significant effects on the social behavior of baboons. However, it was not established whether or not the effects were related specifically to the 30-kV/m intensity of the field. A new experiment was conducted to determine whether or not exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 60 kV/m would produce like changes in the baboons' social behavior. They exposed one group of eight male baboons to an electric field 12 hours a day, 7 days a week, for 6 weeks. A second group of eight animals was maintained under sham-exposure (control) conditions. Rates of performing on each of six categories of social behavior and on four categories of nonsocial behavior were used as criteria for comparing exposed with unexposed subjects and for within-group comparisons during three six-week experimental periods: Pre-Exposure, Exposure, and Post-Exposure. The results indicate that (1) during the exposure period, exposed animals exhibited statistically significant differences from controls in means of performance rates based on several behavioral categories; (2) across all three periods, within-group comparisons revealed that behaviors of exposed baboons were significantly affected by exposure to the electric field; (3) changes in performance levels probably reflect a stress response to the electric field; and (4) the means of response rates of animals exposed at 60 kV/m were higher, but not double, those of animals exposed at 30 kV/m. As in the 30-kV/m experiment, animals exposed at 60 kV/m exhibited significant differences in performances of Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. Mean rates of performing these categories were 122% (Passive Affinity), 48% (Tension), and 40% (Stereotypy) higher in the exposed group than in the control group during exposure to the 60-kV/m field.

  8. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

  9. Effects of a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field on the social behavior of baboons: A crossover experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Easley, S.P.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Using a crossover experimental design, we evaluated our earlier findings that exposure to a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field for 12 hours per day, 7 days per week for 6 weeks produced significant changes in the performance rates of social behaviors among young adult male baboons. In the crossover experiment, the former control group was exposed to a 30 kV/m, 60 Hz electric field for 3 weeks. Only an extremely small, incidental magnetic field was generated by the exposure apparatus. We found that electric-field exposure again produced increases in the performance rates that index Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. These findings, combined with results from our other electric-field experiments, indicate that exposure to strong electric fields, in the absence of associated magnetic fields, consistently produces effects that are expressed as increases in rates of performance of social behaviors in young adult male baboons.

  10. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  11. Effects of 60 Hz electrical fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.

    1988-04-06

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort involving the United State Department of Energy, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Japan's Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry. Since August of 1984, four major research projects were successfully completed. 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of chronic 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammary tumorigenesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    Female rats were administered a single dosage of 7 or 10 mg of DMBA intragastrically between 50 and 55 days of age and palpated weekly for mammary tumors in two experiments. Rats were either exposed to a 40 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or sham-exposed in utero through 18 or 23 weeks of age. There was no difference between electric field exposed and sham-exposed in incidence of first tumor. When the results of the two experiments were combined, the electric field exposed groups had significantly more tumors per tumor-bearing animal than the sham-groups. These results may have implications for the role of electric power use in the etiology and promotion of breast cancer. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on central cholinergic systems of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1993-03-15

    The authors studied the effects of an acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field on sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in the brain of the rat. Decreases in uptake were observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after the animals were exposed to a magnetic field at flux densities [>=] 0.75 mT. These effects of the magnetic field were blocked by pretreating the animals with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide. These data indicate that the magnetic-field-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain were mediated by endogenous opioids in the central nervous systems.

  14. Chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field: effects on neuromuscular function in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, R.A.; Laszewski, B.L.; Carr, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Neuromuscular function in adult male rats was studied following 30 days of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 100 kV/m (unperturbed field strength). Isometric force transducters were attached to the tendons of the plantaris (predominantly fast twitch), and soleus (predominantly slow twitch) muscles in the urethan-anesthetized rat. Square-wave stimuli were delivered to the distal stump of the transected sciatic nerve. Several measurements were used to characterize neuromuscular function, including twitch characteristics, chronaxie, tetanic and posttetanic potentiation, and fatigue and recovery. The results from three independent series of experiments are reported. Only recovery from fatigue in slow-twitch muscles was consistently and significantly affected (enhanced) by electric-field exposure. This effect does not appear to be mediated by field-induced changes in either neuromuscular transmission, or in the contractile mechanism itself. It is suggested that the effect may be mediated secondary to an effect on mechanisms regulating muscle blood flow or metabolism.

  15. Using Temporal Fill Factor to Reduce Frame Reconstruction Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Balram, Nikhil; Gille, Jennifer; Luszcz, Jeffery

    1997-01-01

    The newer active matrix display technologies such as TFT-LCD, DMD, PDP maintain their pixel values through the entire frame time, presenting a 100% temporal fill factor, in contrast to the duty cycle produced by the phosphor impulse response of the CRT. This sample-and-hold characteristic can be exploited to lower the displayed frame rate without affecting visual quality. The lower frame rate results in significantly lower transmission bandwidth, power, and cost.

  16. Effects of exposure to 30 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that exposure to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field produces significant change (stress) in the social behavior of adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis). One group of eight baboons was exposed to an electric field (12 hours per day, 7 days per week for 6 weeks) while a second group of eight baboons was maintained in a sham-exposure (control) condition. Exposed subjects and control subjects were compared over three, six-week experimental periods (pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure). Performance rates of six categories of social behaviors (passive affinity, active affinity, approach, tension, threat, and attack) and four categories of nonsocial behaviors (forage, manipulate, posture, and stereotypy) were used to compare the two groups. The results of our study indicate that (1) there were no significant differences between the two groups during the pre-exposure or post-exposure periods; (2) during the exposure period, experimental and control groups exhibited statistically significant differences in the mean performance rates of three behavior categories; (3) within-group comparisons across periods indicate that the experimentally exposed group exhibited statistically significant changes in passive affinity, tension, and stereotypy; and (4) changes in behavior performance among the exposed subjects reflect a stress response to the electric field.

  17. Comparison of the coupling of grounded and ungrounded humans to vertical 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kaune, W.T.; Kistler, L.M.; Miller, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    Total induced currents and average induced axial current densities have been published in the literature for human models exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. The results of these studies have been quite useful, but they deal with a somewhat idealized exposure situation that ignores the insulating effects of most types of footwear. This paper describes a new laboratory technique for studying the relationship between grounded and ungrounded exposure of humans. A conducting model of the body 40-cm-tall man was electrically divided into seven segments. Wires connected to the conducting surfaces of these segments were routed horizontally through shielded cable to remote, battery-powered electronics. The ''common'' potential of the electronics was biased to the electric-field-induced potential of the model, allowing us to accurately measure the current induced in each body segment of the model. The method was tested by measuring the current induced in the upper hemisphere of a ungrounded sphere: agreement between theory and measurement was excellent. Measurements were made with the human model located at 15 positions, ranging from touching ground to remote from ground (i.e., in free space). The ratios of free-space to grounded currents crossing horizontal sections through the body were: neck, 0.58; chest, 0.40; abdomen, 0.39; thigh, 0.36; ankle, 0.17.

  18. Mitigation of 50-60 Hz power line interference in geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of ELF/VLF radio data has broad applications for ionospheric and magnetospheric phenomena, lightning activity, long-range communications, and geophysical prospecting. However, recordings of ELF/VLF data on the ground are adversely affected by the presence of electromagnetic fields from 50-60 Hz power lines, whose harmonics can extend to many kilohertz and interfere with the detection of natural and man-made signals. Removal of this interference is complicated by the time-varying fundamental frequency of power lines and strongly varying characteristics across different power grids. We discuss two methods for isolation and then subtraction of this interference, by an adaptive filtering technique and with least squares matrix analysis. Methods for estimating the time-varying frequency are also discussed. A few variants of these techniques are applied both to simulated data and then to real data. It is found that least squares isolation gives superior results, although the adaptive filter is potentially more effective for poorly behaved power line interference with rapidly changing fundamental frequencies as well as being computationally more efficient.

  19. Biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small and large laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Rats and mice were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields up to 330 kV/m for durations as long as four months. No significant effects were found in the following major areas: metabolic status and growth; organ and tissue morphology; brain morphology; cardiovascular function; serum chemistry; reproduction; prenatal growth and development; teratology; bone growth; peripheral nerve function; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; susceptibility to viral infection; cell and membrane function; illness/malaise; and cytogenetics. Statistically significant effects of electric field exposures were observed in the following areas: bone fracture repair; neonatal development; neuromuscular function; endocrinology; hematology; neurochemistry; urine volume and chemistry; sympathetic nervous system; behavior. It is likely that many of the effects observed are secondary to chronic stimulation of the animal by the field. Our research efforts have shifted to an in-depth investigation of nervous system functions, with emphasis in behavior, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and dosimetry. Current and future research in these areas will focus on: relationship of effects to field strength and duration of exposure; recovery from observed effects; fundamental understanding of observed effects; fundamental understanding of interaction of field with animal (dosimetry); and biological significance of observed effects. (ERB)

  20. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Numerical calculation and measurement of 60-Hz current densities induced in an upright grounded cylinder.

    PubMed

    Kaune, W T; McCreary, F A

    1985-01-01

    Power-frequency electric fields are strongly perturbed in the vicinity of human beings and experimental animals. As a consequence, the extrapolation of biological data from laboratory animals to human-exposure situations cannot use the unperturbed exposure field strength as a common exposure parameter. Rather, comparisons between species must be based on the actual electric fields at the outer surfaces of and inside the bodies of the subjects. Experimental data have been published on surface and internal fields for a few exposure situations, but it is not feasible to characterize experimentally more than a small fraction of the diverse types of exposures which occur in the laboratory and in the field. A predictive numerical model is needed, one whose predictions have been verified in situations where experimental data are available, and one whose results can be used with confidence in new exposure situations. This paper describes a numerical technique which can be used to develop such a model, and it carries out this development for a test case, that of a homogeneous right-circular cylinder resting upright on-end on a ground plane and exposed to a vertical, uniform, 60-Hz electric field. The accuracy of the model is tested by comparing short-circuit currents and induced current densities predicted by it to measured values: Agreement is good. PMID:3836665

  2. Rodent cell transformation and immediate early gene expression following 60-Hz magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E K; Zhang, X F; Harrison, G H; McCready, W A; Shi, Z M; Han, L H; Abraham, J M; Ampey, L L; Meltzer, S J; Jacobs, M C; Davis, C C

    1996-01-01

    Some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to power frequency magnetic fields (MFs) may be associated with an elevated risk of human cancer, but the experimental database remains limited and controversial. We investigated the hypothesis that 60-Hz MF action at the cellular level produces changes in gene expression that can result in neoplastic transformation. Twenty-four hour 200 microT continuous MF exposure produced negative results in two standard transformation systems (Syrian hamster embryo cells and C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts) with or without postexposure to a chemical promoter. This prompted a reexamination of previously reported MF-induced changes in gene expression in human HL60 cells. Extensive testing using both coded and uncoded analyses was negative for an MF effect. Using the same exposure conditions as in the transformation studies, no MF-induced changes in ornithine decarboxylase expression were observed in C3H/10T1/2 cells, casting doubt on a promotional role of MF for the tested cells and experimental conditions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D Figure 5. E Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 6. C Figure 6. D Figure 6. E Figure 7. Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 8. C Figure 9. Figure 10. A Figure 10. B PMID:8959408

  3. Rate control algorithm based on frame complexity estimation for MVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2010-07-01

    Rate control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient rate control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, which reasonably allocate bit-rate among views based on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for rate bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and rate control according to coding parameters.

  4. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  5. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields and harmonic frequencies in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B M; Polen, M; Gauger, J R; Mallett, E; Kearns, M B; Bryan, T L; McCormick, D L

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz MFs (third harmonic), alone or in combination with 60 Hz MFs, induces birth defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of sperm-positive dams (> or =20/group) were exposed for 18.5 h per day from gestation days 6 through 19 to (1) ambient MFs only (<0.0001 mT; sham controls); (2) 60 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; (3) 180 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; or (4) 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs (10% third harmonic; total field strength = 0.2 mT). Litter size, litter weight, percentage live births, sex ratio, and number of resorption sites were determined for each dam, and gross external, visceral, cephalic and skeletal examinations were performed on all fetuses. MF exposure had no significant effects on litter size, litter weight, or fetal development. With the exception of common rib variants, the incidence of fetal anomalies was comparable in all groups. A small increase in the incidence of rib variants was seen in the group exposed to 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs; however, the incidence of rib variants in this group was similar to that in historical controls from our laboratory. These data extend the existing database on developmental toxicity of MFs by demonstrating that exposure to 180 Hz MFs, either alone or superimposed on an underlying 60 Hz signal, does not induce biologically significant developmental toxicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to power-frequency MFs is an important risk factor for fetal development. PMID:10790286

  6. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies. PMID:26977342

  7. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies. PMID:26977342

  8. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  9. Exposure of baboons to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields does not produce work stoppage or affect operant performance on a match-to-sample task

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors examined the effects of combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure on performance of delayed match-to-sample (MTS) procedure involving the flash rate of a light as the stimulus. Six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) fully acquired the task; four others functioned accurately only when cued. All ten subjects were assigned to EMF-exposed or sham-exposed groups of five and were used to test for a work-stoppage effect that was previously observed with initial exposure to electric fields (EF) of 30 or 60 kV/m. Here, the authors report the results of two experiments, each consisting of 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods. They found no evidence of work stoppage with fields of 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or with 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G). In neither experiment was there evidence of an adverse effect of 60 Hz EMF exposure on MTS performance.

  10. Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of cancer?

    PubMed

    Jackson, J D

    1992-04-15

    The putative causal relation between ambient low-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (necessarily present in living and working environments because of our ever increasing use of electrical devices) and cancer, especially leukemia, can be tested on the large scale by examining historical data on the growth of the generation and consumption of electric power since 1900 and corresponding data on cancer death and incidence rates. The United States per capita generation and residential consumption of electric power have grown roughly exponentially since 1900; total per capita generation has increased by a factor of 10 since 1940, and per capita residential consumption has increased by a factor of 20 in the same period. The ubiquitous stray fields from power distribution lines and internal and external wiring in buildings have grown in the same proportions. In contrast to the explosive increase in the generation and use of electricity, the age-adjusted cancer death rate for the population as a whole shows only a slight rise since 1900. When respiratory cancers (largely caused by tobacco use) are subtracted, the remaining death rate has actually fallen since 1940. That the death rate may have fallen because of better diagnosis and treatment, despite a rising incidence rate, is not substantiated, especially for leukemia, including childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate has been constant or declining slightly for the past 25 yr. The absence of any appreciable change in the national cancer incidence rates during a period in which residential use of electric power has increased dramatically shows that the associated stray 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields pose no significant hazard to the average individual. PMID:1565645

  11. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Turko, B.T.

    1998-09-01

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  12. Variable frame rate analysis for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of variable frame rate (VFR) analysis in automatic speech recognition (ASR). First, we review VFR technique and analyze its behavior. It is experimentally shown that VFR improves ASR performance for signals with low signal-to-noise ratios since it generates improved acoustic models and substantially reduces insertion and substitution errors although it may increase deletion errors. It is also underlined that the match between the average frame rate and the number of hidden Markov model states is critical in implementing VFR. Secondly, we analyze an effective VFR method that uses a cumulative, weighted cepstral-distance criterion for frame selection and present a revision for it. Lastly, the revised VFR method is combined with spectral- and cepstral-domain enhancement methods including the minimum statistics noise estimation (MSNE) based spectral subtraction and the cepstral mean subtraction, variance normalization and ARMA filtering (MVA) process. Experiments on the Aurora 2 database justify that VFR is highly complementary to the enhancement methods. Enhancement of speech both facilitates the frame selection in VFR and provides de-noised speech for recognition.

  13. Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Luo, Shengnian; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.

    2012-05-02

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  14. Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N.

    2012-10-15

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  15. Driving techniques for high frame rate CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weiqiang; Jin, Longxu; Xiong, Jingwu

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a high-frame rate CCD camera capable of operating at 100 frames/s. This camera utilizes Kodak KAI-0340, an interline transfer CCD with 640(vertical)×480(horizontal) pixels. Two output ports are used to read out CCD data and pixel rates approaching 30 MHz. Because of its reduced effective opacity of vertical charge transfer registers, interline transfer CCD can cause undesired image artifacts, such as random white spots and smear generated in the registers. To increase frame rate, a kind of speed-up structure has been incorporated inside KAI-0340, then it is vulnerable to a vertical stripe effect. The phenomena which mentioned above may severely impair the image quality. To solve these problems, some electronic methods of eliminating these artifacts are adopted. Special clocking mode can dump the unwanted charge quickly, then the fast readout of the images, cleared of smear, follows immediately. Amplifier is used to sense and correct delay mismatch between the dual phase vertical clock pulses, the transition edges become close to coincident, so vertical stripes disappear. Results obtained with the CCD camera are shown.

  16. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  17. Clinical progression of transplanted large granular lymphocytic leukemia in Fischer 334 rats exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James E. ); Sasser, Lyle B. ); Miller, Douglas L. ); Dagle, Gerald E.; Rafferty, C N.; Ebi, K L.; Anderson, Larry E. )

    1999-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to determine if 60 Hz magnetic fields could alter the clinical progression of leukemia in an animal model. Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia cells from spleens of leukemic rats were transplanted into young male Fischer rats, producing signs of leukemia in about 2-3 months. The animals were injected with 2.2 x 107 LGL leukemia cells at the initiation of the study and assigned to 4 treatment groups 108/group) as follows: (1) 10 G linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields, (2) sham exposed null energized unit with residual 20 mG fields, (3) ambient controls < 1 mG, and (4) positive controls (a single 5 Gy whole body exposure to 60Co 4 days prior to initiation of exposure). The magnetic fields were activated 20h/day, 7 days/week. Eighteen Rats (18 from each treatment group) were bled, killed, and evaluated at a5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of exposure. Hematological endpoints, changes in spleen growth, and LGL cell infiltration into the spleen and liver were measured to evaluate the leukemia progression. Significant differences were not detected between the magnetic field exposed groups and the ambient control group, although the clinical progress of leukemia was enhanced in the positive control animals. These data indicate that exposure to sinusoidal, linearly polarized 60 Hz, 10 G magnetic fields did not significantly alter the clinical progression of LGL leukemia. Furthermore, the data are in general agreement with previous results of a companion repeated-bleeding study.

  18. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a potential hybrid imaging modality which is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, they are not suitable for clinical applications owing to their high cost, large size. Also, their low pulse repetition rate (PRR) of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in real-time PAT. So, there is a growing need for an imaging system capable of real-time imaging for various clinical applications. In this work, we are using a nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to obtain the photoacoustic imaging. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with energy of ~1.4 mJ per pulse. So far, the reported frame rate for photoacoustic imaging is only a few hundred Hertz. We have demonstrated up to 7000 frames per second framerate in photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of fast moving obje ct. Phantom experiments were performed to test the fast imaging capability and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be used for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  19. Constraints of thermal noise on the effects of weak 60-Hz magnetic fields acting on biological magnetite.

    PubMed Central

    Adair, R K

    1994-01-01

    Previous calculations of limits imposed by thermal noise on the effects of weak 60-Hz magnetic fields on biological magnetite are generalized and extended to consider multiple signals, the possibility of anomalously large magnetosome structures, and the possibility of anomalously small cytoplasm viscosities. The results indicate that the energies transmitted to the magnetite elements by fields less than 5 microT, characteristic of the electric power distribution system, will be much less than thermal noise energies. Hence, the effects of such weak fields will be masked by that noise and cannot be expected to affect biology or, therefore, the health of populations. PMID:8159681

  20. High frame-rate, large field wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Avicola, K.; Salmon, J.T.; Brase, J.; Waltjen, K.; Presta, R. ); Balch, K.S. )

    1992-03-01

    A two-stage intensified 192 {times} 239 pixel imager developed by Eastman Kodak for motion analysis was used to construct a 1 kHz frame-rate Hartmann wavefront sensor. The sensor uses a monolithic array of lenslets with a focal length that is adjusted by an index fluid between the convex surface and an optical flat. The accuracy of the calculated centroid position, which is related to wavefront measurement accuracy, was obtained as a function of spot power and spot size. The sensor was then dynamically tested at a 1 kHz frame-rate with a 9 {times} 9 lenslet array and a fast steering mirror, which swept a plane wavefront across the wavefront sensor. An 8 cm diameter subaperture will provide a return signal (589 nm) level of about 1000 photons/ms using the AVLIS 1 kW laser (stretched pulse) as guide star source, which is sufficient to yield a wavefront measurement of better than {gamma}/10 rms. If an area of 6 {times} 6 pixels per Hartmann spot were allocated, this wavefront sensor could support a 32 {times} 32, or 1024, element deformable mirror.

  1. Design and construction of a high frame rate imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Waugaman, John L.; Liu, Anjun; Lu, Jian-Yu

    2002-05-01

    A new high frame rate imaging method has been developed recently [Jian-yu Lu, ``2D and 3D high frame rate imaging with limited diffraction beams,'' IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 839-856 (1997)]. This method may have a clinical application for imaging of fast moving objects such as human hearts, velocity vector imaging, and low-speckle imaging. To implement the method, an imaging system has been designed. The system consists of one main printed circuit board (PCB) and 16 channel boards (each channel board contains 8 channels), in addition to a set-top box for connections to a personal computer (PC), a front panel board for user control and message display, and a power control and distribution board. The main board contains a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and controls all channels (each channel has also an FPGA). We will report the analog and digital circuit design and simulations, multiplayer PCB designs with commercial software (Protel 99), PCB signal integrity testing and system RFI/EMI shielding, and the assembly and construction of the entire system. [Work supported in part by Grant 5RO1 HL60301 from NIH.

  2. Frame rate free image velocimetry for microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Keinan, Eliezer; Ezra, Elishai; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Here, we introduce Streamline Image Velocimetry, a method to derive fluid velocity fields in fully developed laminar flow from long-exposure images of streamlines. Streamlines confine streamtubes, in which the volumetric flow is constant for incompressible fluid. Using an explicit analytical solution as a boundary condition, velocity fields and emerging properties such as shear force and pressure can be quantified throughout. Numerical and experimental validations show a high correlation between anticipated and measured results, with R2 > 0.91. We report spatial resolution of 2 μm in a flow rate of 0.15 m/s, resolution that can only be achieved with 75 kHz frame rate in traditional particle tracking velocimetry. PMID:24023394

  3. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    A series of pioneering electric and magnetic field experiments were completed using nonhuman primates and a unique, well-engineered, and reliable exposure facility. Effects of operant behavior, social behavior, and serum melatonin concentration were examined using 60 Hz field combinations of other 6 W/m and 0.6 G or 30 W/m and 1.0 G. Observations noted in the course of this study include: Combines electric and magnetic field exposure does not have any important effect on short-term memory; the transitory increases in social behavior observed in previous electric fields did not occur; combined electric and magnetic field exposure might lead to reduced behavioral frequency in baboon social groups; three experiments clearly establish that one set of exposure conditions does not produce molatonin suppression in nonhuman primates; and a small pilot experiment suggests that a different exposure protocol might result in melatonin suppression.

  4. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Abraham O.; Alcocer-González, Juan M.; Heredia-Rojas, J. Antonio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E.; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A.; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) results in a number of important biological changes, including modification of genetic expression. We have investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal EMFs at a magnetic flux density of 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labelled as pEMF (EMF plasmid). This gene construct contains the specific sequences for the induction of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) expression by EMFs, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was electrotransferred into quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice that were later exposed to EMFs. Increased luciferase expression was observed in mice exposed to EMFs 2 h daily for 7 days compared with controls (P<0.05). These data along with other reports in the literature suggest that EMFs can have far-reaching effects on the genome. PMID:23124775

  5. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high strength 60 HZ electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, 12 May 1984-3 August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-15

    Progress is reported in the construction of a test facility for studying the effects of high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields on baboons. Effects to be studied include operant out social behaviors. (ACR)

  6. Reproduction, growth, and development of rats during chronic exposure to multiple field strengths of 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rommereim, D.N.; Rommereim, R.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Buschbom, R.L.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1990-04-01

    A study with multiple exposure groups and large group sizes was performed to establish whether exposure to 60-Hz electric fields would result in reproductive and developmental toxicity. A response model was developed from previous results and tested in groups of rats exposed to electric fields at various field strengths. Female rats were mated, and sperm-positive animals randomly distributed among four groups: sham-exposed or exposed to 10, 65, or 130 kV/m, 60-Hz vertical electric fields. Animals were exposed for 19 hr/day throughout the experiment. During gestation, exposure to the higher field strengths resulted in slightly depressed weight gains of dams. Offspring were born in the field and remained with their dams through the suckling period. Numbers of pups per litter and pup mortality did not differ among the exposure groups. Dams exposed at 65 kV/m lost slightly more weight through the lactation period than the control group. Male pups exposed to higher field strengths gained slightly less weight from 4 to 21 days of age than did sham-exposed animals. At weaning, two F1 females per litter (randomly selected) continued on the same exposure regimen were mated at 11 weeks of age to unexposed males, and euthanized at 20 days of gestation. Uterine contents were evaluated, and all live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. Fertility and gestational weight gain of F1 females were not affected by exposure, nor was prenatal viability or fetal body weight. No significant increase in the incidence of litters with malformations was observed. Although no developmental toxicity was detected, exposures produced physical changes in the dams, evidenced as a rust-colored deposit on the muzzle and ears (chromodacryorrhea) that increased in incidence and severity at 65 and 130 kV/m.

  7. BIGEL analysis of gene expression in HL60 cells exposed to X rays or 60 Hz magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Zhang, X. F.; Han, L. H.; Harrison, G. H.; Davis, C. C.; Zhou, X. J.; Ioffe, V.; McCready, W. A.; Abraham, J. M.; Meltzer, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    We screened a panel of 1,920 randomly selected cDNAs to discover genes that are differentially expressed in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields (2 mT) or X rays (5 Gy) compared to unexposed cells. Identification of these clones was accomplished using our two-gel cDNA library screening method (BIGEL). Eighteen cDNAs differentially expressed in X-irradiated compared to control HL60 cells were recovered from a panel of 1,920 clones. Differential expression in experimental compared to control cells was confirmed independently by Northern blotting of paired total RNA samples hybridized to each of the 18 clone-specific cDNA probes. DNA sequencing revealed that 15 of the 18 cDNA clones produced matches with the database for genes related to cell growth, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, oxidative stress or apoptosis (including MYC, neuroleukin, copper zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase, TC4 RAS-like protein, peptide elongation factor 1alpha, BNIP3, GATA3, NF45, cytochrome c oxidase II and triosephosphate isomerase mRNAs). In contrast, BIGEL analysis of the same 1,920 cDNAs revealed no differences greater than 1.5-fold in expression levels in magnetic-field compared to sham-exposed cells. Magnetic-field-exposed and control samples were analyzed further for the presence of mRNA encoding X-ray-responsive genes by hybridization of the 18 specific cDNA probes to RNA from exposed and control HL60 cells. Our results suggest that differential gene expression is induced in approximately 1% of a random pool of cDNAs by ionizing radiation but not by 60 Hz magnetic fields under the present experimental conditions.

  8. Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hao

    2015-10-01

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are widely used in mobile-phone and cameras. Hence, it is attractive if these image sensors can be used as the visible light communication (VLC) receivers (Rxs). However, using these CMOS image sensors are challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a VLC link using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate of the CMOS image sensor. We first discuss and analyze the features of using CMOS image sensor as VLC Rx, including the rolling shutter effect, overlapping of exposure time of each row of pixels, frame-to-frame processing time gap, and also the image sensor "blooming" effect. Then, we describe the procedure of synchronization and demodulation. This includes file format conversion, grayscale conversion, column matrix selection avoiding blooming, polynomial fitting for threshold location. Finally, the evaluation of bit-error-rate (BER) is performed satisfying the forward error correction (FEC) limit. PMID:26480122

  9. GPU accelerated processing of astronomical high frame-rate videosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Švihlík, Jan; Krasula, Lukáš; Fliegel, Karel; Páta, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical instruments located around the world are producing an incredibly large amount of possibly interesting scientific data. Astronomical research is expanding into large and highly sensitive telescopes. Total volume of data rates per night of operations also increases with the quality and resolution of state-of-the-art CCD/CMOS detectors. Since many of the ground-based astronomical experiments are placed in remote locations with limited access to the Internet, it is necessary to solve the problem of the data storage. It mostly means that current data acquistion, processing and analyses algorithm require review. Decision about importance of the data has to be taken in very short time. This work deals with GPU accelerated processing of high frame-rate astronomical video-sequences, mostly originating from experiment MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser), an instrument primarily focused to observing of faint meteoric events with a high time resolution. The instrument with price bellow 2000 euro consists of image intensifier and gigabite ethernet camera running at 61 fps. With resolution better than VGA the system produces up to 2TB of scientifically valuable video data per night. Main goal of the paper is not to optimize any GPU algorithm, but to propose and evaluate parallel GPU algorithms able to process huge amount of video-sequences in order to delete all uninteresting data.

  10. Effects of a 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Up to 3000 μT on Human Brain Activation as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Brown, Samantha; Roberston, John; Thomas, Alex W.

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the human nervous system and associated motor and cognitive processes have been reported to be modulated by extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) time-varying Magnetic Fields (MF). Due do their worldwide prevalence; power-line frequencies (60 Hz in North America) are of particular interest. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, the potential effects of 60 Hz MF still need to be elucidated, and the underlying mechanisms to be understood. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to characterize potential changes in functional brain activation following human exposure to a 60 Hz MF through motor and cognitive tasks. First, pilot results acquired in a first set of subjects (N=9) were used to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using fMRI to detect subtle changes in functional brain activation with 60 Hz MF exposure at 1800 μT. Second, a full study involving a larger cohort of subjects tested brain activation during 1) a finger tapping task (N=20), and 2) a mental rotation task (N=21); before and after a one-hour, 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure. The results indicate significant changes in task-induced functional brain activation as a consequence of MF exposure. However, no impact on task performance was found. These results illustrate the potential of using fMRI to identify MF-induced changes in functional brain activation, suggesting that a one-hour 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure can modulate activity in specific brain regions after the end of the exposure period (i.e., residual effects). We discuss the possibility that MF exposure at 60 Hz, 3000 μT may be capable of modulating cortical excitability via a modulation of synaptic plasticity processes. PMID:26214312

  11. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Results from this program are used to estimate consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Electric and magnetic field measurements for Experiment IIIA (Confirmatory), Experiment IV and Social Behavior portion of Experiment III are presented. The systems for the production and monitoring of the fields performed satisfactorily during Experiment IIIA and during all but the last part of Experiment IV. In Experiment III, two-way repeated analyses of variance revealed statistically significant Group (Exposed and Sham Exposed) and Period (Baseline. Exposure, and Post-Exposure) main effects. Two significant Period by Group interactions were also found. Seven of the ten behavioral categories showed a main effect of Period. Two-sample t-test comparisons of the two groups for each period indicated that performance rates in two behavioral categories (Stereotypy and Posture) were significantly lower in the Exposure Group. In general, the Exposed subjects exhibited a trend of progressively lower performance rates across the three periods. Specific accomplishments reported in this document were: measurement of electric and magnetic fields for Experiments IIIA and IV, completed analysis of the Social Behavioral data from Experiment III, and a detailed discussion of statistical methods employed on the Social Behavioral portion of Experiment III, and hematology data were collected and recorded for Operant and Social Behavioral subjects for Experiment IV.

  12. Chronically indwelling venous cannula and automatic blood sampling system for use with nonhuman primates exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Mikiten, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    An automated blood sampling system was developed for use with tethered baboons (Papio cynocephalus) during concurrent exposure to 60 Hz 30 kV/m electric fields and 0.1 mT (1.0 G) magnetic fields. The system was controlled by a FORTH-based microcomputer, which operated a pump, a fraction collector, and two pinch valves. A swivel mechanism at the end of the tether allowed the baboons to move freely in their cages. The hardware and software were designed for fail-safe operation. Heparinized saline was infused at a rate of 0.5 ml/min until a sample cycle was initiated. Then, blood was drawn from the animal into a storage tube at a rate of 12.5 ml/min, a sample of undiluted blood was taken from the end of the storage tube near the baboon, and the blood remaining in the storage tube was then flushed back into the animal. Use of the storage tube prevented the peristaltic pump rollers from pressing on tubing containing blood, and return of the blood diluted with saline limited the blood wasted per sample to less than 0.5 ml. The system functioned reliably in three experiments, collecting samples as scheduled 97% of the time. Although it was initially designed for and used successfully with primates in an electric and magnetic field environment, this type of system could be employed in many areas of biomedical research or medical treatment.

  13. Effects of frame rate and image resolution on pulse rate measured using multiple camera imaging photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.

    2015-03-01

    Non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography uses cameras to facilitate measurements including pulse rate, pulse rate variability, respiration rate, and blood perfusion by measuring characteristic changes in light absorption at the skin's surface resulting from changes in blood volume in the superficial microvasculature. Several factors may affect the accuracy of the physiological measurement including imager frame rate, resolution, compression, lighting conditions, image background, participant skin tone, and participant motion. Before this method can gain wider use outside basic research settings, its constraints and capabilities must be well understood. Recently, we presented a novel approach utilizing a synchronized, nine-camera, semicircular array backed by measurement of an electrocardiogram and fingertip reflectance photoplethysmogram. Twenty-five individuals participated in six, five-minute, controlled head motion artifact trials in front of a black and dynamic color backdrop. Increasing the input channel space for blind source separation using the camera array was effective in mitigating error from head motion artifact. Herein we present the effects of lower frame rates at 60 and 30 (reduced from 120) frames per second and reduced image resolution at 329x246 pixels (one-quarter of the original 658x492 pixel resolution) using bilinear and zero-order downsampling. This is the first time these factors have been examined for a multiple imager array and align well with previous findings utilizing a single imager. Examining windowed pulse rates, there is little observable difference in mean absolute error or error distributions resulting from reduced frame rates or image resolution, thus lowering requirements for systems measuring pulse rate over sufficient length time windows.

  14. Characterization of an infrared detector for high frame rate thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruehmann, R. K.; Crump, D. A.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    The use of a commercially available photodetector based infrared thermography system, operating in the 2-5 µm range, for high frame rate imaging of temperature evolutions in solid materials is investigated. Infrared photodetectors provide a very fast and precise means of obtaining temperature evolutions over a wide range of science and engineering applications. A typical indium antimonide detector will have a thermal resolution of around 4 mK for room temperature measurements, with a noise threshold around 15 to 20 mK. However the precision of the measurement is dependent on the integration time (akin to exposure time in conventional photography). For temperature evolutions that occur at a moderate rate the integration time can be relatively long, enabling a large signal to noise ratio. A matter of increasing importance in engineering is the behaviour of materials at high strain rates, such as those experienced in impact, shock and ballistic loading. The rapid strain evolution in the material is usually accompanied by a temperature change. The temperature change will affect the material constitutive properties and hence it is important to capture both the temperature and the strain evolutions to provide a proper constitutive law for the material behaviour. The present paper concentrates on the capture of the temperature evolutions, which occur at such rates that rule out the use of contact sensors such as thermocouples and electrical resistance thermometers, as their response times are too slow. Furthermore it is desirable to have an indication of the temperature distribution over a test specimen, hence the full-field approach of IRT is investigated. The paper explores the many hitherto unaddressed challenges of IRT when employed at high speed. Firstly the images must be captured at high speeds, which means reduced integration times and hence a reduction in the signal to noise ratio. Furthermore, to achieve the high image capture rates the detector array must be

  15. [Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of epidemiologic evidence in 2000].

    PubMed

    Lagorio, S; Salvan, A

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla (microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and leukemia were observed among children living in homes with "high or very high current configuration", as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published since then, characterised by improved--although still not optimal--methods of exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of ELF-EMF. Such "negative" experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation of the "positive" epidemiological studies. PMID:11758279

  16. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham O; Alcocer-González, Juan M; Antonio Heredia-Rojas, J; Balderas-Candanosa, Isaías; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2009-03-01

    We have evaluated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields (MF) at 8 and 8 microT on expression of the luciferase gene contained in a gene construct labelled as Electromagnetic Field-plasmid (pEMF). The vector included the hsp70 promotor containing the 3 nCTCTn sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by magnetic fields, as well as the reporter of the luciferase gene. We also replicated the study of Lin et al. [Lin H, Blank M, Rossol-Haseroth K, Goodman R. Regulating genes with electromagnetic response elements. J Cell Biochem 2001;81(1):143-48]. The pEMF plasmid was transfected into HeLa and BMK16 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). An increased luciferase expression was found in both the cells exposed to MF and TS compared with their control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined effect of MF and TS was also analyzed. A synergistic effect between two factors was observed for this co-exposure condition in terms of luciferase gene expression. PMID:18957326

  17. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 1. Overview and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Over a three-year period, three generations of female miniature swine and their offspring were exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field. Such a field approximates the 12-kV/m field that a human would experience under a 765-kV line. After swine exposures varying from 6 to 36 months, project personnel analyzed a wide range of biological parameters including growth, blood cell and serum biochemistry, blood immunoglobulin levels, behavior, peripheral nerve function, cell-mediated immunity, cytogenetics, and reproduction and development. There were no significant differences in health effects between the exposed and sham-exposed swine, except in the area of fetal development. The first breeding produced no significant difference between exposed and control offspring. When those offspring were bred after 18 months of exposure, the fetuses of exposed sows had an increased incidence of morphological malformations and lower body weight than fetuses from control sows. The live-born had lower body weights and increased birth defects. Several factors suggest that electric fields per se may not have caused these reproductive changes. For example, similar types of malformations occurred in control pigs. Also, in second-generation sows, the incidence of fetal malformations was similar for both exposed and control groups. It is possible that other factors such as housing, inbreeding, disease, or treatment of disease may have produced the observed effects. 64 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. A 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure facility for nonhuman primates: Design and operational data during experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Cory, W.E.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    A unique exposure facility was designed and constructed to generate large-scale vertical electric fields (EF) of up to 65 kV/m and horizontal magnetic fields (MF) of up to 100 {micro}T (1G), so that the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of 60 Hz EF or combined electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure could be examined using nonhuman primates as subjects. Facility design and operational problems and their solutions are presented, and representative operational data from four sets of experiments are provided. A specially designed, optically isolated, 4 cm spherical-dipole EF probe and a commercially available MF probe were used to map the EF and MF within the fiberglass animal cages. In addition, amplifiers, signal conditioners, and A/D converters provided EF, MF, and transformer signals to a microcomputer at 15 min intervals. The apparatus produced homogeneous, stable E/MF at the desired intensities, and the fiberglass cages did not produce appreciable distortion or attenuation. Levels of recognized EF artifacts such as corona and ozone were negligible. The facility worked as intended, providing a well-characterized and artifact-controlled environment for experiments with baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

  19. Electric fields induced in chicken eggs by 60-Hz magnetic fields and the dosimetric importance of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Chicken eggs are convenient models for observing the effects of inhomogeneities and variations, such as those found in biological membranes and in cellular conductivities, on the distribution of internal electric fields as induced by exposure to magnetic fields. The vitelline membrane separates the yolk, which has a conductivity of 0.26 S/m, from the white, which has a conductivity of 0.85 S/m. A miniaturized probe with 2.4-mm resolution was used to measure induced fields in eggs placed in a uniform, 1-mT magnetic field at 60 Hz. The E fields induced in eggs with homogenized contents agreed with expectations based on simple theory. Results were similar to intact eggs unless the probe moved the yolk off-center, which greatly perturbed the induced fields. A more reproducible arrangement, which consisted of saline-agar filled dishes with a hole cut for test samples, was developed to enhance definition of electrical parameters. With this test system, the vitelline membrane was found to be responsible for most of the perturbation of the induced field, because it electrically isolates the yolk from the surrounding white. From a theoretical viewpoint, this dosimetry for the macroscopic egg yolk is analogous to the interaction of fields with microscopic cells. These findings may have important implications for research on biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields, especially for studies of avian embryonic development.

  20. Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Digiovanni, John; Johnston, D A.; Rupp, Tim; Sasser, Lyle B. ); Anderson, Larry E. ); Morris, James E. ); Miller, Douglas L. ); Kavet, R; Walborg, Earl R.

    1999-04-20

    It has been proposed that extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields may enhance tumorigenesis through a co-promotional mechanism. This hypothesis has been further tested using the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis, i.e. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion of skin carcinogenesis in mice initiated by a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Experimentation utilized three different doses of TPA within its dose-response range (0.85, 1.70 or 3.40 nmol) and examined the following early biomarkers of tumor promotion after 1, 2 and 5 weeks of promotion: increases in epidermal thickness and the labeling index of epidermal cells, induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and down regulation of epidermal protein kinase C activity. Mice exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field having a flux density of 2 mT for 6 hr per day for 5 days per week were compared to mice exposed to an ambient magnetic field. Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects, indicative of co-promotion by the magnetic field, were demonstrated.

  1. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This report covers a series of three experiments (Experiments III, IV, and IVA) on the effect of combined 60-Hz E/MF on operant behavior. These experiments were a continuation of previous investigations of 60-Hz electric field exposure on baboons.

  2. High frame rate photoacoustic computed tomography using coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Masataka; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kondo, Kengo; Namita, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PACT) records signals from a wide range of angles to achieve uniform, highresolution images. A high-power laser is generally used for PACT, but the long acquisition time with a single probe is a problem due to the low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF). For PACT, this degrades image resolution and contrast because it is hard to scan with a small step interval. Moreover, in vivo measurement requires a fast image acquisition system to avoid motion artifacts. The problem can be resolved by using a high PRF laser, which provides only weak energy. Averaging measured signals many times can mitigate the low signal-to-noise issue, but the PRF is restricted by the acoustic time of flight, so this is a new source of measurement time increase. Here, we present the coded-excitation approach, which we previously proposed for linear scanning, to increase the PACT frame rate. Coded excitation irradiates temporally encoded pulses and enhances the signal amplitude through decoding. The PRF is thus not restricted to acoustic time of flight. Consequently, acquisition time can be shortened by increasing PRF, and the SNR increases for the same measurement time. To validate the proposed idea, we conducted experiments using a high PRF laser with a revolving motor and compared the performance of coded excitation to that of averaging. Results demonstrated that the contamination of a signal acquired from different angles was negligible, and that the scanning pitch was remarkably improved because the start point of decoding can be set in any code in the periodic sequence.

  3. Power line emission 50/60 Hz and Schumann resonances observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Denys; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-04-01

    The overhead power lines are the sources of intense wideband electromagnetic (EM) emission, especially in ELF-VLF range, because of significant length (up to a few thousand kilometers) and strong 50/60 Hz currents with noticeable distortion. The radiation efficiency of the power line emission (PLE) increases with the harmonic order, so they are well observed by ground-based EM sensors. However their observations by low orbiting satellites (LEO) are very rare, particularly at basic harmonic 50/60 Hz, because of the ionospheric plasma opacity in ELF band. The Schumann resonance (SR) is the narrow-band EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The first five eigenmodes of the SR are 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz and, thus, SR harmonics are also strongly absorbed by the Earth ionosphere. The published numerical simulations show that the penetration depth of such an ELF emission into the Earth's ionosphere is limited to 50-70 km for electric field and 120-240 km for magnetic field. From this follows, that PLE and SR can hardly ever be detected by LEO satellites, i.e. above the F-layer of ionosphere. In spite of this fact, these emissions were recently observed with use of the electric field antennas placed on the satellites C/NOFS (USA) and Chibis-M (Russia). Microsatellite Chibis-M was launched on January 24, 2012, at 23:18:30 UTC from the cargo ship "Progress M-13M" to circular orbit with altitude ~500 km and inclination ~52° . Chibis-M mass is about 40 kg where one third is a scientific instrumentation. The dimensions of the microsatellite case are 0.26x0.26x0.54 m with the outside mounted solar panels, service and scientific instrumentation. The main scientific objective of Chibis-M is the theoretical model verification for the atmospheric gamma-ray bursts. It requires the study of the accompanying EM processes such as the plasma waves produced by the lightning discharges in the VLF band. Chibis-M decayed on 15

  4. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    PubMed

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science. PMID:8860733

  6. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  7. Power line harmonic radiation observed by the DEMETER spacecraft at 50/60 Hz and low harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, O.

    2015-10-01

    We present a low-altitude satellite survey of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR), i.e., electromagnetic waves radiated by electric power systems on the ground. We focus on frequencies corresponding to the first few harmonics of the base power system frequencies (50 Hz or 60 Hz, depending on the region). It is shown that the intensities of electromagnetic waves detected at these frequencies at an altitude of about 700 km are significantly enhanced above industrialized areas. The frequencies at which the wave intensities are increased are in excellent agreement with base power system frequencies just below the satellite location. We also investigate a possible presence of the weekend effect, i.e., if the situation is different during the weekends when the power consumption is lower than during the weekdays. Such an effect might be possibly present in the European region, but it is very weak. PLHR effects are less often detected in the summer, as the ionospheric absorption increases, and also, the radiation is obscured by lightning generated emissions. This difference is smaller in the U.S. region, in agreement with the monthly variations of the power consumption. The analysis of the measured frequency spectra reveals that although intensity increases at low odd harmonics of base power system frequencies are routinely detected, low even harmonics are generally absent. Finally, we verify the relation of PLHR intensities to the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) proxy. It is shown that the PLHR intensity is increased at the times of higher GIC proxy values during the night.

  8. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-strength 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 18 December 1982-18 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-20

    The objective of this contract is to use the baboon as a surrogate for the human in studies of the possible deleterious effects of exposure to high strength, 60 Hz electric fields. The specific aims of this contract are to (1) design and construct an exposure facility in which baboons can be exposed to an electric field up to 60 kV/m in intensity for experiments and (2) to develop computer models relating the fields and currents produced in both baboons and humans by exposure to high strength, 60 Hz electric fields.

  9. Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-strength 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly progress report, 11 October 1981-10 January 1982. [Research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to study the effects of high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields on baboon behavior to obtain information which will assist in the determination of the degree of risk of deleterious consequences for humans exposed to such fields. The generalization of results obtained with the baboon to predictions concerning humans will be aided by the development of computer models relating the surface electric field intensities and internal current densities produced in baboons and humans by exposure to high intensity, 60 Hz electric fields. Research plans are described.

  10. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  11. Adaptation of hidden Markov models for recognizing speech of reduced frame rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lee-Min; Jean, Fu-Rong

    2013-12-01

    The frame rate of the observation sequence in distributed speech recognition applications may be reduced to suit a resource-limited front-end device. In order to use models trained using full-frame-rate data in the recognition of reduced frame-rate (RFR) data, we propose a method for adapting the transition probabilities of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to match the frame rate of the observation. Experiments on the recognition of clean and noisy connected digits are conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate for the frame-rate mismatch between the training and the test data. Using our adapted model to recognize the RFR speech data, one can significantly reduce the computation time and achieve the same level of accuracy as that of a method, which restores the frame rate using data interpolation. PMID:23757520

  12. Initial exposure to 30 kV/m or 60 kV/m 60 Hz electric fields produces temporary cessation of operant behavior of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In two separate experiments, the authors examined the effects of a 60 Hz electric field (EF) on performance of an operant schedule consisting of two signaled components: fixed-ratio (FR30) and differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL20). In each experiment, 12 naive baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were assigned randomly to either an EF-exposed experimental group or a sham-exposed control group. A homogeneous vertical EF of 30 kV/m was used in one experiment; 60 kV/m was used in the other. The experimental design for both experiments included 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods. The planned analyses indicated no evidence of statistically significant (P < .05) effects of EF exposure. However, exploratory analyses comparing performance during the last week of preexposure and the first week of exposure revealed statistically significant acute effects (work stoppage): The mean response rates of the EF-exposed groups were greatly reduced on day 1 of exposure but were normal by the end of day 2 of EF exposure. The authors hypothesize that introduction of a highly unusual stimulus, the EF, temporarily interfered with normal operant behavior to produce a primary work stoppage. Supplementary cross-over experiments added at the end of each main experiment indicated that work stoppage occurred again when formerly EF-exposed subjects served as sham-exposed controls, while other subjects received their first EF exposure. Presumably, reoccurrence of other stimuli correlated with initial exposure to the EF became sufficient to subsequently cause secondary work stoppage in the absence of direct EF exposure. The primary and secondary work-stoppage effects were reproducible.

  13. Effects of 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure on the Pineal and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in the Siberian Hamster (Phodopus Sungorus)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Bary W.); Matt, Kathleen S.; Morris, James E.); Sasser, Lyle B.); Miller, Douglas L.); Anderson, Larry E.)

    1999-11-15

    Experiments using the dwarf Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus were carried out to determine possible neuroendocrine consequences of one-time and repeated exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields (MF). Animals were maintained in either a short-light (SL, 8 h light:16 h dar) or long-light (LL, 16 h light:8h dark) photoperiod.

  14. Frame rate up conversion via Bayesian motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Ma, Siwei; Gao, Wen

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a novel block-based motion compensated frame interpolation (MCI) algorithm is proposed to enhance the temporal resolution of video sequences. We formulated motion estimation into MAP framework, and solved it via Bayesian belief propagation. By effectively incorporating a priori knowledge of the motion field and optimizing the whole motion field synchronously, it could derive more accurate motion vectors than traditional methods. Finally, adaptive overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC) is used to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods in both objective and subjective quality.

  15. A study of video frame rate on the perception of moving imagery detail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which each frame of color moving video imagery is displayed was varied in small steps to determine what is the minimal acceptable frame rate for life scientists viewing white rats within a small enclosure. Two, twenty five second-long scenes (slow and fast animal motions) were evaluated by nine NASA principal investigators and animal care technicians. The mean minimum acceptable frame rate across these subjects was 3.9 fps both for the slow and fast moving animal scenes. The highest single trial frame rate averaged across all subjects for the slow and the fast scene was 6.2 and 4.8, respectively. Further research is called for in which frame rate, image size, and color/gray scale depth are covaried during the same observation period.

  16. The effects of frame rate and resolution on users playing first person shooter games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claypool, Mark; Claypool, Kajal; Damaa, Feissal

    2006-01-01

    The rates and resolutions for frames rendered in a computer game directly impact the player performance, influencing both the overall game playability and the game's enjoyability. Insights into the effects of frame rates and resolutions can guide users in their choice for game settings and new hardware purchases, and inform system designers in their development of new hardware, especially for embedded devices that often must make tradeoffs between resolution and frame rate. While there have been studies detailing the effects of frame rate and resolution on streaming video and other multimedia applications, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies quantifying the effects of frame rate and resolution on user performance for computer games. This paper presents results of a carefully designed user study that measures the impact of frame rate and frame resolution on user performance in a first person shooter game. Contrary to previous results for streaming video, frame rate has a marked impact on both player performance and game enjoyment while resolution has little impact on performance and some impact on enjoyment.

  17. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Activities this quarter extended those of the first project year: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine systems of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Activities this quarter extended those of the first project year which focused on two technical areas: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Frame rate of motion picture and its influence on speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Kaoru

    1996-03-01

    The preservation of QoS for multimedia traffic through a data network is a difficult problem. We focus our attention on video frame rate and study its influence on speech perception. When sound and picture are discrepant (e.g., acoustic `ba' combined with visual `ga'), subjects perceive a different sound (such as `da'). This phenomenon is known as the McGurk effect. In this paper, the influence of degraded video frame rate on speech perception was studied. It was shown that when frame rate decreases, correct hearing is improved for discrepant stimuli and is degraded for congruent (voice and picture are the same) stimuli. Furthermore, we studied the case where lip closure was always captured by the synchronization of sampling time and lip position. In this case, frame rate has little effect on mishearing for congruent stimuli. For discrepant stimuli, mishearing is decreased with degraded frame rate. These results indicate that stiff motion of lips resulting from low frame rate cannot give enough labial information for speech perception. In addition, the effect of delaying the picture to correct for low frame rate was studied. The results, however, were not as definitive as expected because of compound effects related to the synchronization of sound and picture.

  20. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1993-01-22

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission.

  1. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D

    1993-01-22

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission.

  2. From Laboratory to Practice: Neglected Issues in Implementing Frame-of-Reference Rate-Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Neil M. A.; Foti, Roseanne J.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected at two law enforcement agencies were used to address three specific issues concerning frame-of-reference rater training: (1) prototype-anchored rating system; (2) sensitivity and threshold analyses to identify idiosyncratic raters; and (3) areas of performance where supervisors and subordinates were likely to disagree on frame of…

  3. Reconstruction of high frame rate image sequences in biomechanical related areas.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica; Soares, Salviano; Barroso, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Regular video cameras shoot normally at 25/30 frames per second (fps). Actually there are available in the market equipments that allow us to acquire video at 1.000.000 fps. When we observe a video sequence it becomes noticeable that great part of the information remains unchanged regardless of the bit rate or frame rate used. One origin of discontinuity in video signals is directly related to movement. Several areas use high frame rate images to analyze and comprehend certain events or effects, biomechanical engineering is one of them. Biomechanics engineering studies the mechanics of a living body, especially the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure. Some examples are athlete assessment, were images are capture and then the acquired parameters are analyzed. This article describes a new methodology to decrease the space needed to store high frame rate image sequences in the specific case of biomechanical related areas. PMID:21095875

  4. The impact of cine EPID image acquisition frame rate on markerless soft-tissue tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Stephen Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor autotracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87 Hz with an amorphous silicon portal imager (AS1000, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The maximum frame rate of 12.87 Hz is imposed by the EPID. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for autotracking. The difference between the programmed and autotracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at 11 field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise are correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the autotracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29 Hz. Above 4.29 Hz, changes in errors were negligible withδ < 1.60 mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R = 0.94) and patient studies (R = 0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R −0.58 and −0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusions: Cine EPID

  5. The effects of framing and fear on ratings and impact of antimarijuana PSAs.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rick S; Cupp, Pamela K; Abadi, Melissa; Donohew, R Lewis; Gray, Carla; Gordon, Leonard; Grossl, A Bailey

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory experiment, funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, involved 243 U.S. undergraduate students and employed a 2 (gain-framed vs. loss-framed) × 2 (high vs. low threat) plus control group pretest-posttest experimental design to assess the combined effects of frame (gain vs. loss) and level of threat of public service announcements (PSAs) about marijuana on attitudes, beliefs, and intentions related to marijuana, as well as the relationship of message condition to ratings of PSAs. Results suggest that loss-framed messages may lead to greater perceived threat, as well as reactance, and gain-framed messages may lead to a greater reduction in positive attitudes toward marijuana than loss-framed messages. Finally, frame and threat may interact in a complex way. Further research is suggested to replicate these findings. A substantial body of carefully crafted and systematic research studies examining both content and features of messages increasingly informs mass media prevention efforts, including the development of public service announcements (PSAs). Although the significance of messages on commercial broadcast stations may be diminishing with the increasing role and impact of new media, many of the basic questions addressed by this research are likely to apply across media channels. Nonetheless, important questions about what makes a message effective in changing an individual's attitudes or behavior remain to be answered. In this paper, the authors focus on two theoretically derived strategies that offer possibilities for developing persuasive messages: framing and threat. PMID:24502372

  6. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integratedmore » into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.« less

  7. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.

  8. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A cohort of sixteen male baboons were assigned to electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure and sham-exposure. The social behavior subjects were simultaneously exposed to 60 Hz E/MF. Ten behavioral categories were measured. Each behavioral category was comprised of multiple molecular behaviors that could be objectively identified and counted. Six of the behavior categories were social'', in that interactions between subjected were involved. The remaining four were non-social'' and pertained to individual behaviors such as movements or postural stances.

  9. Further studies of 60-Hz exposure effects on human function. Final report summary, July 3, 1989--September 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1994-03-29

    The objective of the exploratory study was to determine whether the electric or magnetic field, presented separately in an intermittent fashion, would produce the same pattern of heart rate increases and decreases seen in the original intermittent exposure study. In addition, time of day and baseline heart rate were explored in an attempt to clarify design issues that arose from previous studies. Twenty-four healthy young men 21 to 35 years of age participated in the study. Half were exposed to a 9-kV/m electric field, and half to a 200-mG magnetic field. Within each of these groups, half were exposed in the morning and half in the afternoon.

  10. Effect of 60 Hz magnetic fields on the activation of hsp70 promoter in cultured INER-37 and RMA E7 cells.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham Octavio; Alcocer González, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that 50-60 Hz magnetic fields (MF) with flux densities ranging from microtesla to millitesla are able to induce heat shock factor or heat shock proteins in various cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal MF at 8 and 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labeled as electromagnetic field-plasmid (pEMF). This gene construct contains the specific sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by MF, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was transfected into INER-37 and RMA E7 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). Cells that received the MF or TS treatments and their controls were processed according to the luciferase assay system for evaluate luciferase activity. An increased luciferase gene expression was observed in INER-37 cells exposed to MF and TS compared with controls (p < 0.05), but MF exposure had no effect on the RMA E7 cell line. PMID:20835776

  11. Regularly scheduled, day-time, slow-onset 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure does not depress serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring of field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.

  12. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort. This annual report marks the completion of the first year of the four year research program. This project year has focused on two technical areas: the modification of the facility to include 60-Hz magnetic fields, and development of the capability for studies of neuroendocrine parameters by obtaining blood samples from baboons during electric and magnetic field exposure. Activities in the social behavior, operant behavior, and laboratory animal sciences during this project year have been in preparation for the start of Experiment 3. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly ramped E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.

  14. Effects of concurrent exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Rogers, W.R. |

    1995-12-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that 30 or 60 kV/m electric fields (EF) reliably produce temporary increases in the performance of three categories of baboon social behavior: Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. The experimental design included 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods with experimental and control groups, each with eight subjects. Here, the authors report two experiments that evaluated the effects of combined EF and magnetic fields (MF) on baboon social behavior. One experiment demonstrated that exposure to 6 kV/m EF and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) MF produced Period {times} Group interactions for Stereotypy and Attack, but the previously observed increases in Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy did not occur. A second experiment demonstrated that exposure to 30 kV/m EF and 100 {micro}T 1.0 G MF did not produce the same magnitude of increases in Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy observed previously with 30 kV/m EF alone. The exposed group exhibited decreased performance rates for several behavior categories during exposure with further declines during postexposure. The control group showed fewer downward trends across periods.

  15. 340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Marsh, Paul N.; Bolton, David R.; Middleton, Robert J. C.; Hunter, Robert I.; Speirs, Peter J.; Macfarlane, David G.; Cassidy, Scott L.; Smith, Graham M.

    2012-06-01

    We present a 340 GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10 Hz frame rate which enables the investigation of strategies for the detection of concealed threats in high risk public areas. The radar uses a wideband heterodyne scheme and fast-scanning optics to achieve moderate resolution volumetric data sets, over a limited field of view, of targets at moderate stand-off ranges. The high frame rate is achieved through the use of DDS chirp generation, fast galvanometer scanners and efficient processing which combines CPU multi-threading and GPU-based techniques, and is sufficiently fast to follow smoothly the natural motion of people.

  16. A novel read-out IC allowing microbolometers to operate with high frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian; Wang, LuXia; Que, LongCheng; Jiang, YaDong

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new Read_out IC (ROIC) that uses two shared capacitances for integral and sampling. At similar power consumption and chip area, this ROIC architecture achieves a higher frame rate compared with the conventional architecture. A 384×288 uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) based on the proposed circuit was implemented on silicon using a 0.5 μm CMOS technology. Measurements show the proposed architecture enables the frame rate increase of 6.8% using the same master clock.

  17. High frame-rate multichannel beam-scanning microscopy based on Lissajous trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shane Z.; Muir, Ryan D.; Newman, Justin A.; Carlsen, Mark S.; Sreehari, Suhas; Doerge, Chris; Begue, Nathan J.; Everly, R. Michael; Bouman, Charles A.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple beam-scanning optical design based on Lissajous trajectory imaging is described for achieving up to kHz frame-rate optical imaging on multiple simultaneous data acquisition channels. In brief, two fast-scan resonant mirrors direct the optical beam on a circuitous trajectory through the field of view, with the trajectory repeat-time given by the least common multiplier of the mirror periods. Dicing the raw time-domain data into sub-trajectories combined with model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) 3D in-painting algorithms allows for effective frame-rates much higher than the repeat time of the Lissajous trajectory. Since sub-trajectory and full-trajectory imaging are simply different methods of analyzing the same data, both high-frame rate images with relatively low resolution and low frame rate images with high resolution are simultaneously acquired. The optical hardware required to perform Lissajous imaging represents only a minor modification to established beam-scanning hardware, combined with additional control and data acquisition electronics. Preliminary studies based on laser transmittance imaging and polarization-dependent second harmonic generation microscopy support the viability of the approach both for detection of subtle changes in large signals and for trace-light detection of transient fluctuations. PMID:25321997

  18. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1992-11-02

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon surrogate for the human. Baboon social groups were scanned and electronically monitored during Experiments IV and IVA. The social scan, form that the technicians used to identify baboon locations and proximity to other baboons: was used to gain a simple snapshot of the position of the baboons in their cage. The scans were taken hourly every morning and evening for a total of eight scans per side per day. This report covers in detail the scan and activity data-gathering process. A set of appendices is attached which include printouts of the data sets and adjunct material pertinent to interpreting the data. The supporting material is comprised of calendars and listings of major events that occurred during the scan and activity data collection.

  19. (Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-03-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. The test facility is being modified to include combined electric and magnetic field capability. This will be accomplished by the installation of a magnetic field exposure system and modification of the electric field exposure equipment. The purpose of this document is to provide information on the design. 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    This volume contains detailed experimental data to accompany quarterly report, dated July 14, 1992, by this group entitled Investigation of Effects of 60-Hz Electric Fields on Operant and Social Behavior and on the Neuroendocrine System of Nonhuman Primates.'' This volume is a collection of Appendices which are entitled: Appendix A- Field Mapping Data Forms, Appendix B- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix C- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix D- Sham Area (West Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix E- Memoranda Concerning Field Onset During Experiment IV and the Crossover Experiment, Appendix F- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix G- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix H- Sham Area (west Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix I- Compiled Data and Anovas for Experiment III Social Data, Appendix J -Written Comments Provided by Statistician Dr. Robert Mason, and Appendix K- Reference Text Provided by Dr. Coelho.

  1. Electric field of the power terrestrial sources observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere in frequency range 1-60 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-07-01

    The power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz and the Schumann resonance (SR) harmonics were detected by the use of a compact electrical field sensor of length 0.42 m during microsatellite Chibis-M mission in years 2012-2014. The initial orbit of Chibis-M has altitude 500 km and inclination 52°. We present the space distribution of PLE and its connections with the possible overhead power lines. PLE has been recorded both in the shade and sunlit parts of the orbits as opposed to SR which have been recorded only in the nightside of the Earth. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere and increased value of SR Q factor have been also observed. These results should stimulate the ionosphere model refinement for ultralow frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation as well as a study on new possibility of the ionosphere diagnostics.

  2. Very Broadband Rayleigh-Wave Dispersion (0.06 - 60 Hz) and Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Under Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Bilek, S. L.; Patton, H. J.; Abbott, R. E.; Stead, R.; Pancha, A.; White, R.

    2009-12-01

    Earth structure plays an important role in the generation of seismic waves for all sources. Nowhere is this more evident than at near-surface depths where man-made sources, such as explosions, are conducted. For example, short-period Rayleigh waves (Rg) are excited and propagate in the upper 2 km of Earth's crust. The importance of Rg in the generation of S waves from explosion sources through near-source scattering depends greatly on the shear-wave velocity structure at very shallow depths. Using three distinct datasets, we present a very broadband Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curve for the Yucca Flat (YF) region of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first dataset consists of waveforms of historic NTS explosions recorded on regional seismic networks and will provide information for the lowest frequencies (0.06-0.3 Hz). The second dataset is comprised of waveforms from a non-nuclear explosion on YF recorded at near-local distances and will be used for mid-range frequencies (0.2-1.5 Hz). The third dataset contains high-frequency waveforms recorded from refraction microtremor surveys on YF. This dataset provides information between 1.5 and 60 Hz. Initial results from the high frequency dataset indicate velocities range from 0.45-0.9 km/s at 1.5 Hz and 0.25-0.45 km/s at 60 Hz. The broadband nature of the dispersion curve will allow us to invert for the shear-wave velocity structure to 10 km depth, with focus on shallow depths where nuclear tests were conducted in the YF region. The velocity model will be used by researchers as a tool to aid the development of new explosion source models that incorporate shear wave generation. The new model can also be used to help improve regional distance yield estimation and source discrimination for small events.

  3. Seismic Load Rating Procedure for Welded Steel Frames Oligo-cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Ratiu, Mircea D.; Moisidis, Nicolae T.

    2004-07-01

    A dynamic load rating approach for seismic qualification of cold-formed steel welded frames is presented. Allowable seismic loads are developed from cyclic and monotonic tests of standard cold-formed steel components commonly used for piping and electrical raceway supports. The method permits simplified qualification of all connections of frame components through a single load comparison. Test input consists of rotation/cycles-to-failure data and monotonic moment/rotation data. Cyclic data are statistically evaluated to determine an acceptable maximum seismic rotation for the connection. The allowable seismic load is determined from the corresponding static rotation. Application to seismic qualification procedures is discussed. (authors)

  4. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tong-Ding; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  5. The effects of scene content parameters, compression, and frame rate on the performance of analytics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifouti, A.; Triantaphillidou, S.; Larabi, M. C.; Doré, G.; Bilissi, E.; Psarrou, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation we study the effects of compression and frame rate reduction on the performance of four video analytics (VA) systems utilizing a low complexity scenario, such as the Sterile Zone (SZ). Additionally, we identify the most influential scene parameters affecting the performance of these systems. The SZ scenario is a scene consisting of a fence, not to be trespassed, and an area with grass. The VA system needs to alarm when there is an intruder (attack) entering the scene. The work includes testing of the systems with uncompressed and compressed (using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC at 25 and 5 frames per second) footage, consisting of quantified scene parameters. The scene parameters include descriptions of scene contrast, camera to subject distance, and attack portrayal. Additional footage, including only distractions (no attacks) is also investigated. Results have shown that every system has performed differently for each compression/frame rate level, whilst overall, compression has not adversely affected the performance of the systems. Frame rate reduction has decreased performance and scene parameters have influenced the behavior of the systems differently. Most false alarms were triggered with a distraction clip, including abrupt shadows through the fence. Findings could contribute to the improvement of VA systems.

  6. Videopanorama Frame Rate Requirements Derived from Visual Discrimination of Deceleration During Simulated Aircraft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnstenau, Norbert; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the required visual frame rate (FR) for minimizing prediction errors with out-the-window video displays at remote/virtual airport towers, thirteen active air traffic controllers viewed high dynamic fidelity simulations of landing aircraft and decided whether aircraft would stop as if to be able to make a turnoff or whether a runway excursion would be expected. The viewing conditions and simulation dynamics replicated visual rates and environments of transport aircraft landing at small commercial airports. The required frame rate was estimated using Bayes inference on prediction errors by linear FRextrapolation of event probabilities conditional on predictions (stop, no-stop). Furthermore estimates were obtained from exponential model fits to the parametric and non-parametric perceptual discriminabilities d' and A (average area under ROC-curves) as dependent on FR. Decision errors are biased towards preference of overshoot and appear due to illusionary increase in speed at low frames rates. Both Bayes and A - extrapolations yield a framerate requirement of 35 < FRmin < 40 Hz. When comparing with published results [12] on shooter game scores the model based d'(FR)-extrapolation exhibits the best agreement and indicates even higher FRmin > 40 Hz for minimizing decision errors. Definitive recommendations require further experiments with FR > 30 Hz.

  7. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using multiple wave-length LED array light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully imaged photoacoustic differences of light absorbance between two images acquired by different wave-length LED array light source. Compared to photoacoustic imaging system using conventional solid-state laser light source, LED light source can be driven at higher frequency pulses, so we were able to get the subtraction image at higher frame rate that calculated from two images which were captured at each wave-length LED light pulse timing. We developed LED array light source which is composed to have two different wave-length chips, so each wave-length light pulse can be controlled and emitted freely. Thus LED array light source can be composed as multiple selectable wavelength more than two, and a various combination of subtraction image may become available at high frame rate.

  8. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Results from this program are used to estimate consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Electric and magnetic field measurements for Experiment IIIA (Confirmatory), Experiment IV and Social Behavior portion of Experiment III are presented. The systems for the production and monitoring of the fields performed satisfactorily during Experiment IIIA and during all but the last part of Experiment IV. In Experiment III, two-way repeated analyses of variance revealed statistically significant Group (Exposed and Sham Exposed) and Period (Baseline. Exposure, and Post-Exposure) main effects. Two significant Period by Group interactions were also found. Seven of the ten behavioral categories showed a main effect of Period. Two-sample t-test comparisons of the two groups for each period indicated that performance rates in two behavioral categories (Stereotypy and Posture) were significantly lower in the Exposure Group. In general, the Exposed subjects exhibited a trend of progressively lower performance rates across the three periods. Specific accomplishments reported in this document were: measurement of electric and magnetic fields for Experiments IIIA and IV, completed analysis of the Social Behavioral data from Experiment III, and a detailed discussion of statistical methods employed on the Social Behavioral portion of Experiment III, and hematology data were collected and recorded for Operant and Social Behavioral subjects for Experiment IV.

  9. Motion measurement of SAR antenna based on high frame rate camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Cao, R.; Feng, H.; Xu, Z.

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is currently in the marine, agriculture, geology and other fields are widely used, while the SAR antenna is one of the most important subsystems. Performance of antenna has a significant impact on the SAR sensitivity, azimuth resolution, image blur degree and other parameter. To improve SAR resolution, SAR antenna is designed and fabricated according to flexible expandable style. However, the movement of flexible antenna will have a greater impact on accuracy of SAR systems, so the motion measurement of the flexible antenna is an urgent problem. This paper studied motion measurements method based on high frame rate camera, designed and completed a flexible antenna motion measurement experiment. In the experiment the main IMU and the sub IMU were placed at both ends of the cantilever, which is simulation of flexible antenna, the high frame rate camera was placed above the main IMU, and the imaging target was set on side of the sub IMU. When the cantilever motion occurs, IMU acquired spatial coordinates of cantilever movement in real-time, and high frame rate camera captured a series of target images, and then the images was input into JTC to obtain the cantilever motion coordinates. Through the contrast and analysis of measurement results, the measurement accuracy of flexible antenna motion is verified.

  10. Backscanning step and stare imaging system with high frame rate and wide coverage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chongshang; Ding, Yalin; Wang, Dejiang; Tian, Dapeng

    2015-06-01

    Step and stare imaging with staring arrays has become the main approach to realizing wide area coverage and high resolution imagery of potential targets. In this paper, a backscanning step and stare imaging system is described. Compared with traditional step and stare imaging systems, this system features a much higher frame rate by using a small-sized array. In order to meet the staring requirements, a fast steering mirror is employed to provide backscan motion to compensate for the image motion caused by the continuously scanning of the gimbal platform. According to the working principle, the control system is designed to step/stare the line of sight at a high frame rate with a high accuracy. Then a proof-of-concept backscanning step and stare imaging system is established with a CMOS camera. Finally, the modulation transfer function of the imaging system is measured by the slanted-edge method, and a quantitative analysis is made to evaluate the performance of image motion compensation. Experimental results confirm that both high frame rate and image quality improvement can be achieved by adopting this method. PMID:26192651

  11. Capsule endoscopy capture rate: Has 4 frames-per-second any impact over 2 frames-per-second?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Urien, Ignacio; Carretero, Cristina; Borobio, Erika; Borda, Ana; Estevez, Emilio; Galter, Sara; Gonzalez-Suarez, Begoña; Gonzalez, Benito; Lujan, Marisol; Martinez, Jose Luis; Martínez, Vanessa; Menchén, Pedro; Navajas, Javier; Pons, Vicente; Prieto, Cesar; Valle, Julio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the current capsule and a new prototype at 2 and 4 frames-per-second, respectively, in terms of clinical and therapeutic impact. METHODS: One hundred patients with an indication for capsule endoscopy were included in the study. All procedures were performed with the new device (SB24). After an exhaustive evaluation of the SB24 videos, they were then converted to “SB2-like” videos for their evaluation. Findings, frames per finding, and clinical and therapeutic impact derived from video visualization were analyzed. Kappa index for interobserver agreement and χ2 and Student’s t tests for qualitative/quantitative variables, respectively, were used. Values of P under 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Eighty-nine out of 100 cases included in the study were ultimately included in the analysis. The SB24 videos detected the anatomical landmarks (Z-line and duodenal papilla) and lesions in more patients than the “SB2-like” videos. On the other hand, the SB24 videos detected more frames per landmark/lesion than the “SB2-like” videos. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Both clinical and therapeutic impacts were similar between SB24 and “SB2-like” videos (K = 0.954). The time spent by readers was significantly higher for SB24 videos visualization (P < 0.05) than for “SB2-like” videos when all images captured by the capsule were considered. However, these differences become non-significant if we only take into account small bowel images (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: More frames-per-second detect more landmarks, lesions, and frames per landmark/lesion, but is time consuming and has a very low impact on clinical and therapeutic management. PMID:25339834

  12. The effect of 60-Hz magnetic fields on co-promotion of chemically induced skin tumors on SENCAR mice: a discussion of three studies.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, J R; Thansandote, A; Lecuyer, D; Goddard, M

    1997-01-01

    Three independent experiments involving a total of 288 SENCAR mice were used to study the effects of 60-Hz magnetic fields on the growth and development of skin tumors. Given the constraints imposed by the experimental design, the results did not support a role for magnetic fields as a tumor co-promoter. This negative finding could also be interpreted to mean that the SENCAR mouse skin tumor model was not sensitive enough to detect the action of a weak co-promoter. The two-stage (initiation/promotion) model was used to assess the genotoxic potential of magnetic fields because it had been widely used to evaluate chemical carcinogens. This model, however, lacks the sensitivity to detect all but the most potent direct-acting carcinogens, and the tumor response to the action of low doses of promoter results in large random fluctuations in tumor incidence, yield, and multiplicity. The need to limit tumor incidence in the sham is a necessary condition to ensure that a magnetic field-induced effect on tumorigenesis would have a reasonable chance of being detected. This requirement, and the variability in tumor development between and within experiments, increases the level of uncertainty in the system and makes a weak response to the magnetic field difficult to detect and interpret. PMID:9074887

  13. Initial studies on the effects of combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure on the immune system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, K.K.; Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In a pilot immunology experiment, peripheral blood samples from six baboons (Papio cynocephalus) housed as a social group were collected during week 5 of preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods that were each 6 weeks in duration. The subjects were exposed to vertical 6 kV/m and horizontal 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) fields for 12 h per day. Lymphocytes collected during the exposure period displayed statistically significant (P < .05) reductions in CD3{sup +} and CD4{sup +} counts, interleukin 2 receptor expression, and proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen. A second experiment was conducted using samples from seven subjects exposed to 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) and eight sham-exposed subjects. Statistically significant Period {times} Group interactions occurred for total white blood cell count and CD4{sup +} to CD8{sup +} ratio, but the pattern of results was not suggestive of an exposure-related effect. Although components of the nonhuman primate immune system appear to be affected by 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure in one of two experiments, additional experiments are required to evaluate this possibility.

  14. Evaluation of the possible copromoting effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field during chemically induced carcinogenesis in skin of SENCAR mice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Walborg, E.F.; Anderson, L.E.; Sasser, L.B.; Morris, J.E.; Miller, D.L. |

    1997-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields can enhance tumorigenesis through a copromotional mechanism. Equivocal support for this hypothesis was provided by experiments performed by Stuchly et al. using a mouse skin model; i.e. the induction of skin tumors in SENCAR mice exposed to a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by repetitive doses of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The mice were exposed to a 2 mT (60 Hz) magnetic field during the entire promotion phase of the experiment. The Stuchly study, which utilized single weekly doses of TPA, demonstrated a statistically significant increase in skin tumors after 16--18 weeks of promotion; however, by 23 weeks of promotion, the difference was not statistically significant. The study was designed to provide definitive evidence to confirm or refute a copromotional role of ELF magnetic field exposure on DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis in SENCAR mice. This study was modeled after the study of Stuchly et al., (1992), including the animal model and exposure conditions. However, three different promoting doses of TPA, within the linear dose response range for induction of skin tumors, were utilized.

  15. Technologies to develop a video camera with a frame rate higher than 100 Mfps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo Le, Cuong; Nguyen, H. D.; Dao, V. T. S.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Akino, T.; Nishi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Maruyama, H.

    2008-11-01

    A feasibility study is presented for an image sensor capable of image capturing at 100 Mega-frames per second (Mfps). The basic structure of the sensor is the backside-illuminated ISIS, the in-situ storage image sensor, with slanted linear CCD memories, which has already achieved 1 Mfps with very high sensitivity. There are many potential technical barriers to further increase the frame rate up to 100 Mfps, such as traveling time of electrons within a pixel, Resistive-Capacitive (RC) delay in driving voltage transfer, heat generation, heavy electro-magnetic noises, etc. For each of the barriers, a countermeasure is newly proposed and the technical and practical possibility is examined mainly by simulations. The new technical proposals include a special wafer with n and p double epitaxial layers with smoothly changing doping profiles, a design method with curves, the thunderbolt bus lines, and digitalnoiseless image capturing by the ISIS with solely sinusoidal driving voltages. It is confirmed that the integration of these technologies is very promising to realize a practical image sensor with the ultra-high frame rate.

  16. Frame rate upconversion using pyramid structure and dense motion vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Geon; Lee, Daeho

    2016-05-01

    We propose a frame rate upconversion (FRUC) method using pyramid structures (PS) and dense motion vector fields (MVFs). In FRUC processes, performance is dominantly dependent on motion compensation, thus motion vectors (MVs) must be precisely estimated. Variable sizes of blocks and large search ranges are needed to estimate the MVs of large objects and large movements; however, we use PS and dense MVFs to estimate MVs for various conditions. In the PS, we first estimate MVs on level 0, which is the most reduced image in the PS (L-1 times downsampling), and MVs on the high levels are estimated except for pixels having large corresponding MVs on the lower levels. Integration of MVFs for all levels is followed by a vector median filter to remove noises. Finally, a motion compensated frame is interpolated by weight-overlapped block motion compensation.

  17. A change detection approach to moving object detection in low frame-rate video

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Harvey, Neal R; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Moving object detection is of significant interest in temporal image analysis since it is a first step in many object identification and tracking applications. A key component in almost all moving object detection algorithms is a pixel-level classifier, where each pixel is predicted to be either part of a moving object or part of the background. In this paper we investigate a change detection approach to the pixel-level classification problem and evaluate its impact on moving object detection. The change detection approach that we investigate was previously applied to multi-and hyper-spectral datasets, where images were typically taken several days, or months apart. In this paper, we apply the approach to low-frame rate (1-2 frames per second) video datasets.

  18. High frame-rate resolution of cell division during Candida albicans filamentation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Darren D; Berman, Judith; Brand, Alexandra C

    2016-03-01

    The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR., while the migration pattern of sister nuclei differed between unbranched and branched hyphae. The presented movie challenges and extends previous concepts of C. albicans cell division. PMID:26854071

  19. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  20. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 40, Operant behavior: Experiments 3, 4, and 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This report covers a series of three experiments (Experiments III, IV, and IVA) on the effect of combined 60-Hz E/MF on operant behavior. These experiments were a continuation of previous investigations of 60-Hz electric field exposure on baboons.

  1. Mach-Zehnder interferometry at framing rates of 10. 5--21 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Houtman, H.; Legault, L.E.; Meyer, J.

    1987-03-15

    A simple beam splitter arrangement is used to divide a single ultrashort optical pulse into four beams of accurately known jitter-free delay. The 50-ps ruby laser beams are used in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce four interferograms in one shot of the CO/sub 2/-laser-irradiated plasma at an interframe delay of 95 ps. Fringe straightness of <1/10 wave error is attained in all four frames by overlapping reference and scene beams precisely on the film while relaxing the constraint of the high spatial coherence necessary in shearing and folding shear interferometry. Such high fringe quality is required to record properly the observed fractional fringe shifts in a plasma of electron density up to n/sub e/ = 5 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/. The four-frame interferogram, recorded on Polaroid-type 667 film, is available immediately after the shot is taken. Neither a streak camera for recording timing sequences nor wavelength filters for rejection of plasma light was required. Simple rearrangement of optical components allows framing rates of 10.5 or 21.0 GHz.

  2. Discovery of a Variable-Frequency, 50--60 HZ Quasi-Periodic Oscillation on the Normal Branch of GX 17+2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, R. A. D.; van der Klis, M.; Psaltis, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Kuulkers, E.; Dieters, S.; van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1996-09-01

    We report the discovery, with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, of a 50--60 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in GX 17+2. The QPO is seen when GX 17+2 is on the normal branch in the X-ray color-color diagram. Its frequency initially increases from 59 to 62 Hz as the source moves down the normal branch, but below the middle of the normal branch it decreases to ~50 Hz. Together with this frequency decrease, the QPO peak becomes much broader, from ~4 Hz in the upper part of the normal branch to ~15 Hz in the lower normal branch. The rms amplitude remains approximately constant between 1% and 2% along the entire normal branch. From a comparison of the properties of this QPO with those of QPOs previously observed along the normal branch in other Z sources, we conclude that it is most likely the horizontal-branch QPO (HBO). However, this QPO displays a number of unusual characteristics. The decrease in the QPO frequency along the lower normal branch is not in agreement with the predictions of the beat-frequency model for the HBO unless the mass flux through the inner disk decreases as the source moves down the lower normal branch. We tentatively suggest that the required decrease in the mass flux through the inner disk is caused by an unusually rapid increase in the mass flux in the radial inflow as GX 17+2 moves down the normal branch. Assuming that this explanation is correct, we can derive an upper bound on the dipole component of the star's magnetic field at the magnetic equator of 5 x 109 G for a 1.4 Msolar neutron star with a radius of 106 cm.

  3. High Frame Rate Super Resolution Imaging Based on Ultrasound Synthetic Aperture Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Ho, Yihsin; Okubo, Kan; Tagawa, Norio; Hirose, Yoshiyasu

    This study addresses the efficient extension of the Super resolution FM-Chirp correlation Method (SCM) to the framework of synthetic aperture imaging. The original SCM needs to transmit focused beams many times while changing frequency little by little toward each direction to extract the carrier phase information which is useful for super resolution imaging. This multiple transmitting and receiving increase the amount of processing and puts a strict limit on the frame rate. Therefore, we extend the SCM to the synthetic aperture version called the SA-SCM, and confirm its performance through simulations based on the finite element method.

  4. FPGA-based voltage and current dual drive system for high frame rate electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shadab; Manwaring, Preston; Borsic, Andrea; Halter, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to image the electrical property distribution of a tissue under test. An EIT system comprises complex hardware and software modules, which are typically designed for a specific application. Upgrading these modules is a time-consuming process, and requires rigorous testing to ensure proper functioning of new modules with the existing ones. To this end, we developed a modular and reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments' (NI) hardware and software modules, which offer inherent compatibility over generations of hardware and software revisions. The system can be configured to use up to 32-channels. This EIT system can be used to interchangeably apply current or voltage signal, and measure the tissue response in a semi-parallel fashion. A novel signal averaging algorithm, and 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) computation block was implemented on the FPGA. FFT output bins were classified as signal or noise. Signal bins constitute a tissue's response to a pure or mixed tone signal. Signal bins' data can be used for traditional applications, as well as synchronous frequency-difference imaging. Noise bins were used to compute noise power on the FPGA. Noise power represents a metric of signal quality, and can be used to ensure proper tissue-electrode contact. Allocation of these computationally expensive tasks to the FPGA reduced the required bandwidth between PC, and the FPGA for high frame rate EIT. In 16-channel configuration, with a signal-averaging factor of 8, the DAQ frame rate at 100 kHz exceeded 110 frames s (-1), and signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 90 dB across the spectrum. Reciprocity error was found to be for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Static imaging experiments were performed on a high-conductivity inclusion placed in a saline filled tank; the inclusion was clearly localized in the reconstructions obtained for both absolute current and voltage mode data. PMID:25376037

  5. Logic design and implementation of FPGA for a high frame rate ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anjun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jian-Yu

    2002-05-01

    Recently, a method has been developed for high frame rate medical imaging [Jian-yu Lu, ``2D and 3D high frame rate imaging with limited diffraction beams,'' IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(4), 839-856 (1997)]. To realize this method, a complicated system [multiple-channel simultaneous data acquisition, large memory in each channel for storing up to 16 seconds of data at 40 MHz and 12-bit resolution, time-variable-gain (TGC) control, Doppler imaging, harmonic imaging, as well as coded transmissions] is designed. Due to the complexity of the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) (Xilinx Spartn II) is used. In this presentation, the design and implementation of the FPGA for the system will be reported. This includes the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) controller and other system controllers, time sharing for auto-refresh of SDRAMs to reduce peak power, transmission and imaging modality selections, ECG data acquisition and synchronization, 160 MHz delay locked loop (DLL) for accurate timing, and data transfer via either a parallel port or a PCI bus for post image processing. [Work supported in part by Grant 5RO1 HL60301 from NIH.

  6. Influence of frame rate and image delay on virtual driving performance.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, S P; Du, L Q; Cobb, P N; Yager, E S; Jacobus, C J

    1997-01-01

    The control and navigation of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) by humans requires a thorough understanding of the limitations in human perception and performance. Images of the external world recorded by cameras mounted on the UGV are presented as a video display to the operator, who then remotely manipulates the vehicle using a standard control. Operator performance is directly proportional to the computational complexity associated with the processing of video data. This work studies the effects of frame rate and image delay (lag) on remote driving performance. Experiments were conducted with five subjects using a driving simulator with a 1 dof force feedback steering wheel control. After sufficient training on the simulator, subjects drove a virtual car on a standard track under varying settings of frame rate and lag. Performance was measured by the duration to complete the course. Comparison of performance both within and between subjects showed characteristic driving patterns at different settings. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to video data presentation for remote driving applications. PMID:9731360

  7. A high frame rate, 16 million pixels, radiation hard CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrini, N.; Turchetta, R.; Van Hoften, G.; Henderson, R.; McMullan, G.; Faruqi, A. R.

    2011-03-01

    CMOS sensors provide the possibility of designing detectors for a large variety of applications with all the benefits and flexibility of the widely used CMOS process. In this paper we describe a novel CMOS sensor designed for transmission electron microscopy. The overall design consists of a large 61 × 63 mm2 silicon area containing 16 million pixels arranged in a 4K × 4K array, with radiation hard geometry. All this is combined with a very fast readout, the possibility of region of interest (ROI) readout, pixel binning with consequent frame rate increase and a dynamic range close to 12 bits. The high frame rate has been achieved using 32 parallel analogue outputs each one operating at up to 20 MHz. Binning of pixels can be controlled externally and the flexibility of the design allows several possibilities, such as 2 × 2 or 4 × 4 binning. Other binning configurations where the number of rows and the number of columns are not equal, such as 2 × 1 or 2 × 4, are also possible. Having control of the CMOS design allowed us to optimise the pixel design, in particular with regard to its radiation hardness, and to make optimum choices in the design of other regions of the final sensor. An early prototype was also designed with a variety of geometries in order to optimise the readout structure and these are presented. The sensor was manufactured in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process.

  8. High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Saem; Jang, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghun; Dan-Chin-Yu, Alexey V.; Shishkov, Milen; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds. PMID:24466489

  9. High frame rate imaging using uncooled optical readout photomechanical IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Jack P.

    2007-04-01

    Agiltron has produced a 280x240 photomechanical sensor array with an optical readout incorporating visible light cameras for both MWIR and LWIR imaging at speeds up to 1,000 frames per second. The photomechanical sensor is essentially a transducer that converts the image-induced temperature change into a mechanical deflection actuated by a micro-cantilevered beam. This defection is measured by an optical readout and converted into an electronic image. The photomechanical sensor requires no external drive for operation and therefore creates no bottleneck for readout data rate. It operates uncooled at widely varying ambient temperature. The use of off-the-shelf high speed visible light sensors allows for high frame rate imaging with no need for custom electronics or ROIC. Results on detection of rapid occurrence events, such as gunfire and rocket travel, are reported. The influence of detector sensitivity and time constant on the experimental imaging is discussed. Analysis of the frequency response of the photomechanical sensor is presented.

  10. Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at a true kilohertz frame-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE) techniques have rapidly emerged as a noninvasive way to characterize the biomechanical properties of tissue. However, clinical applications of the majority of these techniques have been unfeasible due to the extended acquisition time because of multiple temporal OCT acquisitions (M-B mode). Moreover, multiple excitations, large datasets, and prolonged laser exposure prohibit their translation to the clinic, where patient discomfort and safety are critical criteria. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of noncontact true kilohertz frame-rate dynamic optical coherence elastography by directly imaging a focused air-pulse induced elastic wave with a home-built phase-sensitive OCE system. The OCE system was based on a 4X buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked swept source laser with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 MHz, and imaged the elastic wave propagation at a frame rate of ~7.3 kHz. Because the elastic wave directly imaged, only a single excitation was utilized for one line scan measurement. Rather than acquiring multiple temporal scans at successive spatial locations as with previous techniques, here, successive B-scans were acquired over the measurement region (B-M mode). Preliminary measurements were taken on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations, and the results showed good agreement with uniaxial mechanical compression testing. Then, the elasticity of an in situ porcine cornea in the whole eye-globe configuration at various intraocular pressures was measured. The results showed that this technique can acquire a depth-resolved elastogram in milliseconds. Furthermore, the ultra-fast acquisition ensured that the laser safety exposure limit for the cornea was not exceeded.

  11. Joint non-Gaussian denoising and superresolving of raw high frame rate videos.

    PubMed

    Jinli Suo; Yue Deng; Liheng Bian; Qionghai Dai

    2014-03-01

    High frame rate cameras capture sharp videos of highly dynamic scenes by trading off signal-noise-ratio and image resolution, so combinational super-resolving and denoising is crucial for enhancing high speed videos and extending their applications. The solution is nontrivial due to the fact that two deteriorations co-occur during capturing and noise is nonlinearly dependent on signal strength. To handle this problem, we propose conducting noise separation and super resolution under a unified optimization framework, which models both spatiotemporal priors of high quality videos and signal-dependent noise. Mathematically, we align the frames along temporal axis and pursue the solution under the following three criterion: 1) the sharp noise-free image stack is low rank with some missing pixels denoting occlusions; 2) the noise follows a given nonlinear noise model; and 3) the recovered sharp image can be reconstructed well with sparse coefficients and an over complete dictionary learned from high quality natural images. In computation aspects, we propose to obtain the final result by solving a convex optimization using the modern local linearization techniques. In the experiments, we validate the proposed approach in both synthetic and real captured data. PMID:24723520

  12. Image quality, tissue heating, and frame rate trade-offs in acoustic radiation force impulse imaging.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Richard R; Dahl, Jeremy J; Hsu, Stephen J; Palmeri, Mark L; Trahey, Gregg E

    2009-01-01

    The real-time application of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging requires both short acquisition times for a single ARFI image and repeated acquisition of these frames. Due to the high energy of pulses required to generate appreciable radiation force, however, repeated acquisitions could result in substantial transducer face and tissue heating. We describe and evaluate several novel beam sequencing schemes which, along with parallel-receive acquisition, are designed to reduce acquisition time and heating. These techniques reduce the total number of radiation force impulses needed to generate an image and minimize the time between successive impulses. We present qualitative and quantitative analyses of the trade-offs in image quality resulting from the acquisition schemes. Results indicate that these techniques yield a significant improvement in frame rate with only moderate decreases in image quality. Tissue and transducer face heating resulting from these schemes is assessed through finite element method modeling and thermocouple measurements. Results indicate that heating issues can be mitigated by employing ARFI acquisition sequences that utilize the highest track-to-excitation ratio possible. PMID:19213633

  13. Algorithm for Automatic Behavior Quantification of Laboratory Mice Using High-Frame-Rate Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic behavior quantification in laboratory mice to quantify several model behaviors. The algorithm can detect repetitive motions of the fore- or hind-limbs at several or dozens of hertz, which are too rapid for the naked eye, from high-frame-rate video images. Multiple repetitive motions can always be identified from periodic frame-differential image features in four segmented regions — the head, left side, right side, and tail. Even when a mouse changes its posture and orientation relative to the camera, these features can still be extracted from the shift- and orientation-invariant shape of the mouse silhouette by using the polar coordinate system and adjusting the angle coordinate according to the head and tail positions. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by analyzing long-term 240-fps videos of four laboratory mice for six typical model behaviors: moving, rearing, immobility, head grooming, left-side scratching, and right-side scratching. The time durations for the model behaviors determined by the algorithm have detection/correction ratios greater than 80% for all the model behaviors. This shows good quantification results for actual animal testing.

  14. Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

  15. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  16. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin. PMID:26487363

  17. Very high frame rate volumetric integration of depth images on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Kähler, Olaf; Adrian Prisacariu, Victor; Yuheng Ren, Carl; Sun, Xin; Torr, Philip; Murray, David

    2015-11-01

    Volumetric methods provide efficient, flexible and simple ways of integrating multiple depth images into a full 3D model. They provide dense and photorealistic 3D reconstructions, and parallelised implementations on GPUs achieve real-time performance on modern graphics hardware. To run such methods on mobile devices, providing users with freedom of movement and instantaneous reconstruction feedback, remains challenging however. In this paper we present a range of modifications to existing volumetric integration methods based on voxel block hashing, considerably improving their performance and making them applicable to tablet computer applications. We present (i) optimisations for the basic data structure, and its allocation and integration; (ii) a highly optimised raycasting pipeline; and (iii) extensions to the camera tracker to incorporate IMU data. In total, our system thus achieves frame rates up 47 Hz on a Nvidia Shield Tablet and 910 Hz on a Nvidia GTX Titan XGPU, or even beyond 1.1 kHz without visualisation. PMID:26439825

  18. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  19. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography. PMID:27150272

  20. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography. PMID:27150272

  1. SU-E-J-112: The Impact of Cine EPID Image Acquisition Frame Rate On Markerless Soft-Tissue Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, S; Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine EPID acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor auto-tracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87Hz on an AS1000 portal imager. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for auto-tracking. The difference between the programmed and auto-tracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at eleven field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise were correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the auto-tracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29Hz. Above 4.29Hz, changes in errors were negligible with δ<1.60mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R=0.94) and patient studies (R=0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R -0.58 and -0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusion: An image acquisition frame rate of at least 4.29Hz is recommended for cine EPID tracking. Motion blurring in images with frame rates below 4.39Hz can substantially reduce the

  2. Modeling fault diagnosis as the activation and use of a frame system. [for pilot problem-solving rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Giffin, Walter C.; Rockwell, Thomas H.; Thomas, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Twenty pilots with instrument flight ratings were asked to perform a fault-diagnosis task for which they had relevant domain knowledge. The pilots were asked to think out loud as they requested and interpreted information. Performances were then modeled as the activation and use of a frame system. Cognitive biases, memory distortions and losses, and failures to correctly diagnose the problem were studied in the context of this frame system model.

  3. High-Frame-Rate Echocardiography Using Coherent Compounding With Doppler-Based Motion-Compensation.

    PubMed

    Poree, Jonathan; Posada, Daniel; Hodzic, Amir; Tournoux, Francois; Cloutier, Guy; Garcia, Damien

    2016-07-01

    High-frame-rate ultrasonography based on coherent compounding of unfocused beams can potentially transform the assessment of cardiac function. As it requires successive waves to be combined coherently, this approach is sensitive to high-velocity tissue motion. We investigated coherent compounding of tilted diverging waves, emitted from a 2.5 MHz clinical phased array transducer. To cope with high myocardial velocities, a triangle transmit sequence of diverging waves is proposed, combined with tissue Doppler imaging to perform motion compensation (MoCo). The compound sequence with integrated MoCo was adjusted from simulations and was tested in vitro and in vivo. Realistic myocardial velocities were analyzed in an in vitro spinning disk with anechoic cysts. While a 8 dB decrease (no motion versus high motion) was observed without MoCo, the contrast-to-noise ratio of the cysts was preserved with the MoCo approach. With this method, we could provide high-quality in vivo B-mode cardiac images with tissue Doppler at 250 frames per second. Although the septum and the anterior mitral leaflet were poorly apparent without MoCo, they became well perceptible and well contrasted with MoCo. The septal and lateral mitral annulus velocities determined by tissue Doppler were concordant with those measured by pulsed-wave Doppler with a clinical scanner (r(2)=0.7,y=0.9 x+0.5,N=60) . To conclude, high-contrast echo cardiographic B-mode and tissue Doppler images can be obtained with diverging beams when motion compensation is integrated in the coherent compounding process. PMID:26863650

  4. Analysis of high frame rate readout circuit for near-infrared InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Huang, Songlei; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2013-09-01

    High frame rate imaging for applications such as meteorological forecast, motion target tracking require high-speed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). In order to achieve 10 KHz of frame rate, this paper analyzes the bandwidth of Capacitive-feedback Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) in ROIC which is the dominant bandwidth-limiting node when interfaced with large InGaAs detector pixel capacitance of about 10pF. A small-signal model is presented to study the relationship between integration capacitance, detector capacitance, transconductance and CTIA bandwidth. Calculation and simulation results show explicitly how the series resistance at the interface restricts the frame rate of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). In order to achieve low-noise performance at a high frame rate, this paper describes an optimal solution in ROIC design. A prototype ROIC chip (DL7) has been fabricated with 0.5-μm mixed signal CMOS process and interfaced with InGaAs detector arrays. Test results show that frame rate is above 10 KHz and ROIC noise is around 270 e-, near identical to the design value.

  5. Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Angelsen, C.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.; Carini, G. A.; Chollet, M.; Herrmann, S. C.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Song, S.; Weaver, M.; Zhu, D.; Meents, A.; Fischer, P.

    2013-11-01

    A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD — Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 μm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASIC's preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 105 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32 × 256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256 × 256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 104 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to < 1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.

  6. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

    1994-08-01

    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  7. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-Rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Villagomez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS and a flow rig before being tested in vivo. An 8-MHz linear array transducer is used with defocused beam emissions. In the simulations of a spinning disk phantom, a 360° uniform behavior on the angle estimation is observed with a median angle bias of 1.01° and a median angle SD of 1.8°. Similar results are obtained on a straight vessel for both simulations and measurements, where the obtained angle biases are below 1.5° with SDs around 1°. Estimated velocity magnitudes are also kept under 10% bias and 5% relative SD in both simulations and measurements. An in vivo measurement is performed on a carotid bifurcation of a healthy individual. A 3-s acquisition during three heart cycles is captured. A consistent and repetitive vortex is observed in the carotid bulb during systoles. PMID:27093598

  8. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  9. Object of interest extraction in low-frame-rate image sequences and application to mobile mapping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Here, we present a novel object of interest (OOI) extraction framework designed for low-frame-rate (LFR) image sequences, typically from mobile mapping systems (MMS). The proposed method integrates tracking and segmentation in a unified framework. We propose a novel object-shaped kernel-based scale-invariant mean shift algorithm to track the OOI through the LFR sequences and keep the temporal consistency. Then the well-known GrabCut approach for static image segmentation is generalized to the LFR sequences. We analyze the imaging geometry of the OOI in LFR sequences collected by the MMS and design a Kalman filter module to assist the proposed tracker. Extensive experimental results on real LFR sequences collected by VISAT™ MMS demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to the challenges such as low frame rate, fast scaling, and large inter-frame displacement of the OOI.

  10. How Fast Is Your Body Motion? Determining a Sufficient Frame Rate for an Optical Motion Tracking System Using Passive Markers.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ho; Godøy, Rolf Inge

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how to determine a sufficient frame (sampling) rate for an optical motion tracking system using passive reflective markers. When using passive markers for the optical motion tracking, avoiding identity confusion between the markers becomes a problem as the speed of motion increases, necessitating a higher frame rate to avoid a failure of the motion tracking caused by marker confusions and/or dropouts. Initially, one might believe that the Nyquist-Shannon sampling rate estimated from the assumed maximal temporal variation of a motion (i.e. a sampling rate at least twice that of the maximum motion frequency) could be the complete solution to the problem. However, this paper shows that also the spatial distance between the markers should be taken into account in determining the suitable frame rate of an optical motion tracking with passive markers. In this paper, a frame rate criterion for the optical tracking using passive markers is theoretically derived and also experimentally verified using a high-quality optical motion tracking system. Both the theoretical and the experimental results showed that the minimum frame rate is proportional to the ratio between the maximum speed of the motion and the minimum spacing between markers, and may also be predicted precisely if the proportional constant is known in advance. The inverse of the proportional constant is here defined as the tracking efficiency constant and it can be easily determined with some test measurements. Moreover, this newly defined constant can provide a new way of evaluating the tracking algorithm performance of an optical tracking system. PMID:26967900

  11. How Fast Is Your Body Motion? Determining a Sufficient Frame Rate for an Optical Motion Tracking System Using Passive Markers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Ho; Godøy, Rolf Inge

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how to determine a sufficient frame (sampling) rate for an optical motion tracking system using passive reflective markers. When using passive markers for the optical motion tracking, avoiding identity confusion between the markers becomes a problem as the speed of motion increases, necessitating a higher frame rate to avoid a failure of the motion tracking caused by marker confusions and/or dropouts. Initially, one might believe that the Nyquist-Shannon sampling rate estimated from the assumed maximal temporal variation of a motion (i.e. a sampling rate at least twice that of the maximum motion frequency) could be the complete solution to the problem. However, this paper shows that also the spatial distance between the markers should be taken into account in determining the suitable frame rate of an optical motion tracking with passive markers. In this paper, a frame rate criterion for the optical tracking using passive markers is theoretically derived and also experimentally verified using a high-quality optical motion tracking system. Both the theoretical and the experimental results showed that the minimum frame rate is proportional to the ratio between the maximum speed of the motion and the minimum spacing between markers, and may also be predicted precisely if the proportional constant is known in advance. The inverse of the proportional constant is here defined as the tracking efficiency constant and it can be easily determined with some test measurements. Moreover, this newly defined constant can provide a new way of evaluating the tracking algorithm performance of an optical tracking system. PMID:26967900

  12. Precise reconstruction of fast moving cardiac valve in high frame rate synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ikeda, Teiichiro; Ishihara, Chizue; Takano, Shinta; Masuzawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    To diagnose heart valve incompetence, i.e., one of the most serious cardiac dysfunctions, it is essential to obtain images of fast-moving valves at high spatial and temporal resolution. Ultrasound synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has the potential to achieve high spatial resolution by synthesizing multiple pre-beamformed images obtained with corresponding multiple transmissions. However, applying STA to fast-moving targets is difficult due to serious target deformation. We propose a high-frame-rate STA (fast STA) imaging method that uses a reduced number of transmission events needed for each image. Fast STA is expected to suppress deformation of moving targets; however, it may result in deteriorated spatial resolution. In this study, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate fast STA. We quantitatively evaluated the reduction in deformation and deterioration of spatial resolution with a model involving a radially moving valve at the maximum speed of 0.5 m/s. The simulated raw channel data of the valve phantom was processed with offline beamforming programs. We compared B-mode images obtained through single received-line in a transmission (SRT) method, STA, and fast STA. The results show that fast STA with four-times-reduced events is superior in reconstructing the original shape of the moving valve to other methods. The accuracy of valve location is 97 and 100% better than those with SRT and STA, respectively. The resolution deterioration was found to be below the annoyance threshold considering the improved performance of the shape reconstruction. The obtained results are promising for providing more precise diagnostic information on cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Higher-frame-rate ultrasound imaging with reduced cross-talk by combining a synthetic aperture and spatial coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Chizue; Ikeda, Teiichiro; Masuzawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    In recent clinical practice of ultrasound imaging, the importance of high-frame-rate imaging is growing. Simultaneous multiple transmission is one way to increase frame rate while maintaining a spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. However, this technique has an inherent issue in that "cross-talk artifacts" appear between the multiple transmitted pulses. In this study, a novel method providing higher-frame-rate ultrasound imaging with reduced cross-talk by combining a synthetic aperture and spatial coded excitation is proposed. In the proposed method, two coded transmission beams are simultaneously excited during beam steering in the lateral direction. Parallel receive beamforming is then performed in the region around individual transmission beams. Decoding is carried out by using two beamformed signals from a region where laterally neighboring transmission beams overlap. All decoded beamformed signals are then synthesized coherently. The proposed method was evaluated using a simulated phantom image under the assumption of imaging with a general sector probe. Results showed that the method achieved twice the frame rate while maintaining image resolution (105%) and reducing cross-talk artifacts from -37 dB to less than -57 dB.

  14. A 3mpixel ROIC with 10μm pixel pitch and 120Hz frame rate digital output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilan, Elad; Shiloah, Niv; Elkind, Shimon; Dobromislin, Roman; Freiman, Willie; Zviagintsev, Alex; Nevo, Itzik; Cohen, Oren; Khinich, Fanny; Adin, Amnon; Talmor, Ron; Milstain, Yaakov

    2013-02-01

    A 1920x1536 matrix ROIC (Readout IC) for 10x10 μm2 P-on-N InSb photodiode array is reported. The ROIC features several conversion gain options implemented at the pixel level. A 2-by-2 pixel binning feature is implemented at the pixel level as well, improving SNR and enabling higher frame rates by a factor of four. A new column ADC is designed for low noise and low power consumption, while reaching 95 kSps sampling rate. Since 3840 column ADCs are integrated on chip, the total conversion rate is over 360Mpxl/sec. The ROIC achieves 120 Hz frame rate at the full format, with power consumption of less than 400mW. A high speed digital video interface is developed to output the required data bandwidth at a reasonable pin count.

  15. Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda

    Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This

  16. The effect of frame rate on the ability of experienced gait analysts to identify characteristics of gait from closed circuit television footage.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Burrow, Gordon; Walker, Jeremy

    2014-03-01

    Forensic gait analysis is increasingly being used as part of criminal investigations. A major issue is the quality of the closed circuit television (CCTV) footage used, particularly the frame rate which can vary from 25 frames per second to one frame every 4s. To date, no study has investigated the effect of frame rate on forensic gait analysis. A single subject was fitted with an ankle foot orthosis and recorded walking at 25 frames per second. 3D motion data were also collected, providing an absolute assessment of the gait characteristics. The CCTV footage was then edited to produce a set of eight additional pieces of footage, at various frame rates. Practitioners with knowledge of forensic gait analysis were recruited and instructed to record their observations regarding the characteristics of the subject's gait from the footage. They were sequentially sent web links to the nine pieces of footage, lowest frame rate first, and a simple observation recording form, over a period of 8 months. A sample-based Pearson product-moment correlation analysis of the results demonstrated a significant positive relationship between frame rate and scores (r=0.868, p=0.002). The results of this study show that frame rate affects the ability of experienced practitioners to identify characteristics of gait captured on CCTV footage. Every effort should therefore be made to ensure that CCTV footage likely to be used in criminal proceedings is captured at as high a frame rate as possible. PMID:24630327

  17. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Social behavior portions of Experiments III and IV: Quarterly report No. 39

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A cohort of sixteen male baboons were assigned to electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure and sham-exposure. The social behavior subjects were simultaneously exposed to 60 Hz E/MF. Ten behavioral categories were measured. Each behavioral category was comprised of multiple molecular behaviors that could be objectively identified and counted. Six of the behavior categories were ``social``, in that interactions between subjected were involved. The remaining four were ``non-social`` and pertained to individual behaviors such as movements or postural stances.

  18. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another.

  19. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data.

    PubMed

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another. PMID:27036782

  20. Multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging using a high frame rate CMOS sensor with a field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shen; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; He, Diwei; Zhu, Yiqun; Morgan, Stephen P

    2015-10-15

    A system has been developed in which multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is implemented using a high frame rate CMOS imaging sensor chip. Processing is performed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The system allows different exposure times to be simulated by accumulating a number of short exposures. This has the advantage that the image acquisition time is limited by the maximum exposure time and that regulation of the illuminating light level is not required. This high frame rate camera has also been deployed to implement laser Doppler blood flow processing, enabling a direct comparison of multi-exposure laser speckle imaging and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to be carried out using the same experimental data. Results from a rotating diffuser indicate that both multi-exposure LSCI and LDI provide a linear response to changes in velocity. This cannot be obtained using single-exposure LSCI, unless an appropriate model is used for correcting the response. PMID:26469570

  1. High-frame rate four dimensional optoacoustic tomography enables visualization of cardiovascular dynamics and mouse heart perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Ford, Steven James; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging of mouse models of cardiac health and disease provides a major contribution to our fundamental understanding of the mammalian heart. However, imaging murine hearts presents significant challenges due to their small size and rapid heart rate. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of high-frame-rate, noninvasive optoacoustic imaging of the murine heart. The temporal resolution of 50 three-dimensional frames per second provides functional information at important phases of the cardiac cycle without the use of gating or other motion-reduction methods. Differentiation of the blood oxygenation state in the heart chambers was enabled by exploiting the wavelength dependence of optoacoustic signals. Real-time volumetric tracking of blood perfusion in the cardiac chambers was also evaluated using indocyanine green. Taken together, the newly-discovered capacities offer a unique tool set for in-vivo structural and functional imaging of the whole heart with high spatio-temporal resolution in all three dimensions. PMID:26130401

  2. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  3. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  4. Assessment of the spatial homogeneity of artery dimension parameters with high frame rate 2-D B-mode.

    PubMed

    Meinders, J M; Brands, P J; Willigers, J M; Kornet, L; Hoeks, A P

    2001-06-01

    To elicit vessel wall inhomogeneities in diameter and distension along an arterial segment, a 2-D vessel wall-tracking system based on fast B-mode has been developed. The frame rate of a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer (length 36 mm) is enhanced by increasing the pulse-repetition frequency to 10 kHz, decreasing the number of echo lines per frame from 128 to 64, or increasing the interspacing between echo lines with a factor of two or four. Dedicated software has been developed to extract for each echo-line the end-diastolic diameter from the B-mode image and the 2-D distension waveform from the underlying radiofrequency (RF) information. The method is validated in tubes with various focal lesion sizes. Straight segments of presumably homogeneous common carotid arteries have also been tested. The temporal and spatial SD of diameter or distension reveals inhomogeneities in time or space (i.e., inhomogeneities in artery characteristics). The method can be implemented in echo systems supporting high frame rates and real-time processing of radiofrequency data. PMID:11516538

  5. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-12-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  6. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-01-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  7. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Draft final report, October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    A series of pioneering electric and magnetic field experiments were completed using nonhuman primates and a unique, well-engineered, and reliable exposure facility. Effects of operant behavior, social behavior, and serum melatonin concentration were examined using 60 Hz field combinations of other 6 W/m and 0.6 G or 30 W/m and 1.0 G. Observations noted in the course of this study include: Combines electric and magnetic field exposure does not have any important effect on short-term memory; the transitory increases in social behavior observed in previous electric fields did not occur; combined electric and magnetic field exposure might lead to reduced behavioral frequency in baboon social groups; three experiments clearly establish that one set of exposure conditions does not produce molatonin suppression in nonhuman primates; and a small pilot experiment suggests that a different exposure protocol might result in melatonin suppression.

  8. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    This volume contains detailed experimental data to accompany quarterly report, dated July 14, 1992, by this group entitled ``Investigation of Effects of 60-Hz Electric Fields on Operant and Social Behavior and on the Neuroendocrine System of Nonhuman Primates.`` This volume is a collection of Appendices which are entitled: Appendix A- Field Mapping Data Forms, Appendix B- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix C- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix D- Sham Area (West Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix E- Memoranda Concerning Field Onset During Experiment IV and the Crossover Experiment, Appendix F- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix G- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix H- Sham Area (west Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix I- Compiled Data and Anovas for Experiment III Social Data, Appendix J -Written Comments Provided by Statistician Dr. Robert Mason, and Appendix K- Reference Text Provided by Dr. Coelho.

  9. Meteor wake in high frame-rate images--implications for the chemistry of ablated organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2004-01-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter may have been chemically altered into forms more ameanable for prebiotic chemistry in the wake of a meteor after ablation. We measured the rate of cooling of the plasma in the meteor wake from the intensity decay just behind a meteoroid by freezing its motion in high frame-rate 1000 frames/s video images, with an intensified camera that has a short phosphor decay time. Though the resulting cooling rate was found to be lower than theoretically predicted, our calculations indicated that there would have been insufficient collisions to break apart large organic compounds before most reactive radicals and electrons were lost from the air plasma. Organic molecules delivered from space to the early Earth via meteors might therefore have survived in a chemically altered form. In addition, we discovered that relatively small meteoroids generated far-ultraviolet emission that is absorbed in the immediate environment of the meteoroid, which may chemically alter the atmosphere over a much larger region than previously recognized.

  10. Mapping from frame-driven to frame-free event-driven vision systems by low-rate rate coding and coincidence processing--application to feedforward ConvNets.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrasco, José Antonio; Zhao, Bo; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, Begoña; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Chen, Shouchun; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2013-11-01

    Event-driven visual sensors have attracted interest from a number of different research communities. They provide visual information in quite a different way from conventional video systems consisting of sequences of still images rendered at a given "frame rate." Event-driven vision sensors take inspiration from biology. Each pixel sends out an event (spike) when it senses something meaningful is happening, without any notion of a frame. A special type of event-driven sensor is the so-called dynamic vision sensor (DVS) where each pixel computes relative changes of light or "temporal contrast." The sensor output consists of a continuous flow of pixel events that represent the moving objects in the scene. Pixel events become available with microsecond delays with respect to "reality." These events can be processed "as they flow" by a cascade of event (convolution) processors. As a result, input and output event flows are practically coincident in time, and objects can be recognized as soon as the sensor provides enough meaningful events. In this paper, we present a methodology for mapping from a properly trained neural network in a conventional frame-driven representation to an event-driven representation. The method is illustrated by studying event-driven convolutional neural networks (ConvNet) trained to recognize rotating human silhouettes or high speed poker card symbols. The event-driven ConvNet is fed with recordings obtained from a real DVS camera. The event-driven ConvNet is simulated with a dedicated event-driven simulator and consists of a number of event-driven processing modules, the characteristics of which are obtained from individually manufactured hardware modules. PMID:24051730

  11. Development of reprogrammable high frame-rate detector devices for laser communication pointing, acquisition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Terita; Conner, Kenneth; Covington, Richard; Ngo, Hung; Rink, Christine

    2008-02-01

    A Two Terminal Laser Communication Test Bed has been developed at The Aerospace Corporation. This paper presents the design and preliminary results of a reprogrammable detector within the Test Bed for use in pointing, acquisition, and tracking between a Satellite-to-Satellite Laser Communication link. The detector may be commanded by an emulated spacecraft Command & Data Handling subsystem to switch between full-array scanning and "small sized" N x M pixel Field of View (FOV) for high-rate laser tracking. The approach follows a parallel path to implement the signal processing algorithm on two different hardware resources: a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The focus of this effort is to present a methodology for testing and evaluating various techniques for advanced focal plane array (FPA) hardware, as well as sensor FPA control, image processing and laser beam X & Y position algorithms.

  12. High frame-rate TCSPC-FLIM using a novel SPAD-based image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersbach, M.; Trimananda, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Fishburn, M.; Stoppa, D.; Richardson, J.; Walker, R.; Henderson, R. K.; Charbon, E.

    2010-08-01

    Imaging techniques based on time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), rely on fast single-photon detectors as well as timing electronics in the form of time-to-digital or time-to-analog converters. Conventional systems rely on stand-alone or small arrays (up to 32) of detectors and external timing and memory modules. We recently developed a fully integrated image sensor containing 32×32 pixels and fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. The chip produces an overall data rate of 10Gb/s in terms of time-of-arrival measurements in each pixel. As opposed to conventional single detector FLIM systems, the present system can acquire a full image, albeit at low resolution, without the need of an optical scanning system. As a consequence the complexity of the optical setup is reduced and the acquisition speed is dramatically increased. We show the potential of this new technology by presenting high time resolution (119 ps) TCSPC-FLIM images of pollen grains with acquisition times as low as 69 ms. Furthermore, the low noise (~100 Hz) and high photon detection probability (up to 35%) ensure a good photon economy over the visible spectrum. We believe that this technology will open the way to fast TCSPC-FLIM recordings of transient signals in the bio- and life sciences, such as in neuron signaling.

  13. Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A H; Ditterich, J; Drüen, K; Schönfeld, U; Steineke, C

    2002-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional eye tracker is described and its performance evaluated. In contrast to previous devices based on conventional video standards, the present eye tracker is based on programmable CMOS image sensors, interfaced directly to digital processing circuitry to permit real-time image acquisition and processing. This architecture provides a number of important advantages, including image sampling rates of up to 400/sec measurement, direct pixel addressing for preprocessing and acquisition,and hard-disk storage of relevant image data. The reconfigurable digital processing circuitry also facilitates inline optmization of the front-end, time-critical processes. The primary acquisition algorithm for tracking the pupil and other eye features is designed around the generalized Hough transform. The tracker permits comprehensive measurement of eye movement (three degrees of freedom) and head movement (six degrees of freedom), and thus provides the basis for many types of vestibulo-oculomotor and visual research. The device has been qualified by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA for deployment on the International Space Station. It is foreseen that the device will be used together with appropriate stimulus generators as a general purpose facility for visual and vestibular experiments. Initial verification studies with an artificial eye demonstrate a measurement resolution of better than 0.1 degrees in all three components (i.e.,system noise for each of the components measured as 0.006 degrees H, 0.005 degrees V, and 0.016 degrees T. Over a range of +/-20 degrees eye rotation, linearity was found to be <0.5% (H), <0.5% (V), and <2.0% (T). A comparison with the scleral search coil technique yielded near equivalent values for the system noise and the thickness of Listing's plane. PMID:12564559

  14. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. PMID:24709611

  15. High-Frame-Rate Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Using Mismatched Coded Excitation Waveform Engineering: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Bahman; Zhang, Kaicheng; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Mismatched coded excitation (CE) can be employed to increase the frame rate of synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. The high autocorrelation and low cross correlation (CC) of transmitted signals enables the identification and separation of signal sources at the receiver. Thus, the method provides B-mode imaging with simultaneous transmission from several elements and capability of spatial decoding of the transmitted signals, which makes the imaging process equivalent to consecutive transmissions. Each transmission generates its own image and the combination of all the images results in an image with a high lateral resolution. In this paper, we introduce two different methods for generating multiple mismatched CEs with an identical frequency bandwidth and code length. Therefore, the proposed families of mismatched CEs are able to generate similar resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. The application of these methods is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, several techniques are suggested that can be used to reduce the CC between the mismatched codes. PMID:27101603

  16. Frame-rate analysis of arterial blood flow in human and rat using laser speckle image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Sato, Junki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Kyoso, Masaki; Funamizu, Hideki; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    In imaging of blood flow by means of a laser speckle technique, we have proposed so far an estimation parameter based on the spatial contrast of speckle patterns observed for the blood flow in skin tissue and a blood vessel. This parameter enable us to image a relative blood flow distribution from a single speckle pattern, thus, it analyzes the blood flow with a frame-rate of an imaging device used. In this study, we investigated availability of this parameter for detecting changes in arterial blood flow caused by medication and cold stimulation to the skin tissue. Experiments were conducted for an anesthetized rat and a human wrist to confirm the feasibility of the present parameter.

  17. Stand-Alone Front-End System for High-Frequency, High-Frame-Rate Coded Excitation Ultrasonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 Vpp. The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single-element lightweight (<0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measurement showed that the −6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 µm and lateral resolution was 120 µm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation. PMID:23443698

  18. A High-Frequency High Frame Rate Duplex Ultrasound Linear Array Imaging System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lequan; Xu, Xiaochen; Hu, Changhong; Sun, Lei; Yen, Jesse T.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency (HF) ultrasound imaging has been shown to be useful for non-invasively imaging anatomical structures of the eye and small animals in biological and pharmaceutical research, achieving superior spatial resolution. Cardiovascular research utilizing mice requires not only real-time B-scan imaging, but also ultrasound Doppler to evaluate both anatomy and blood flow of the mouse heart. This paper reports the development of a high frequency ultrasound duplex imaging system capable of both B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurements, using a 64-element linear array. The system included a HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, a 32-channel HF B-mode imaging module, a PC with a 200 MS/s 14-bit A/D card, and real-time LabView software. A 50dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a depth of penetration of larger than 12 mm were achieved using a 35 MHz linear array with 50 μm pitch. The two-way beam widths were determined to be 165 μm to 260 μm and the clutter energy to total energy ratio (CTR) were 9.1 dB to 12 dB, when the array was electronically focused at different focal points at depths from 4.8 mm to 9.6 mm. The system is capable of acquiring real-time B-mode images at a rate greater than 400 frames per second (fps) for a 4.8 × 13 mm field of view, using a 30 MHz 64-element linear array with 100 μm pitch. Sample in vivo cardiac high frame rate images and duplex images of mouse hearts are shown to assess its current imaging capability and performance for small animals. PMID:20639149

  19. Overlapping reading frames in closely related human papillomaviruses result in modular rates of selection within E2.

    PubMed

    Narechania, Apurva; Terai, Masanori; Burk, Robert D

    2005-05-01

    A core group of four open reading frames (ORFs) is present in all known papillomaviruses (PVs): the E1 and E2 replication/transcription proteins and the L1 and L2 structural proteins. Because they are involved in processes that are essential to PV propagation, the sequences of these proteins are well-conserved. However, sequencing of novel subtypes for human papillomaviruses (HPV) 54 (AE9) and 82 (AE2/IS39), coupled to analysis of four other closely related genital HPV pairs, indicated that E2 has a higher dN/dS ratio than E1, L1 or L2. The elevated ratio is not homogeneous across the length of the ORF, but instead varies with respect to E2's three domains. The E2 hinge region is of particular interest, because its hypervariability (dN/dS>1) differs markedly from the two domains that it joins: the transcription-activation domain and the DNA-binding domain. Deciphering whether the hinge region's high rate of non-synonymous change is the result of positive Darwinian selection or relaxed constraint depends on the evolutionary behaviour of E4, an ORF that overlaps E2. The E2 hinge region is contained within E4 and non-synonymous changes in the hinge are associated with a disproportionate amount of synonymous change in E4, a case of simultaneous positive and purifying selection in overlapping reading frames. Modular rates of selection among E2 domains are a likely consequence of the presence of an embedded E4. E4 appears to be positioned in a part of the HPV genome that can tolerate non-synonymous change and purifying selection of E4 may be indicative of its functional importance. PMID:15831941

  20. Involvement of protein kinase C in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and the inhibitory effects of exposure to 60-hz magnetic fields in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis

    SciTech Connect

    Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.P. )

    1990-02-26

    One of the more consistent and dramatic effects of exposure to magnetic fields is the attenuation of morphine-induced analgesia. Results of previous studies have implicated alterations in calcium channel functioning and Ca{sup ++} flux in the mediation of these effects. It is generally accepted that Ca{sup ++}-activated-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (Protein kinase C; PKC) plays an important role in relaying trans-membrane signaling in diverse Ca{sup ++} dependent cellular processes. In experiment 1 we observed that morphine-induced analgesia in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, as measured by the latency of an avoidance behavior to a warmed surface, was reduced by the PKC activator, SC-9, and was enhanced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9. In contrast, HA-10004, a potent inhibitor of other protein kinases, but only a very weak inhibitor of PKC, had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. In experiment 2 exposure of snails for 30 minutes to a 1.0 gauss (rms) 60-Hz magnetic field reduced morphine-induced analgesia. This inhibitory effect of the magnetic field was reduced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9, and was augmented by the PKC activator SC-9. These results suggest that: (i) PKC is involved in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and, (ii) the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields involve PKC.

  1. Mapping from Frame-Driven to Frame-Free Event-Driven Vision Systems by Low-Rate Rate-Coding and Coincidence Processing. Application to Feed Forward ConvNets.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carrasco, J A; Zhao, B; Serrano, C; Acha, B; Serrano-Gotarredona, T; Chen, S; Linares-Barranco, B

    2013-04-10

    Event-driven visual sensors have attracted interest from a number of different research communities. They provide visual information in quite a different way from conventional video systems consisting of sequences of still images rendered at “frame rate”. Event-driven vision sensors take inspiration from biology. A special type of Event-driven sensor is the so called Dynamic-Vision-Sensor (DVS) where each pixel computes relative changes of light, or “temporal contrast”. Pixel events become available with micro second delays with respect to “reality”. These events can be processed “as they flow” by a cascade of event (convolution) processors. As a result, input and output event flows are practically coincident, and objects can be recognized as soon as the sensor provides enough meaningful events. In this paper we present a methodology for mapping from a properly trained neural network in a conventional Frame-driven representation, to an Event-driven representation. The method is illustrated by studying Event-driven Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNet) trained to recognize rotating human silhouettes or high speed poker card symbols. The Event-driven ConvNet is fed with recordings obtained from a real DVS camera. The Event-driven ConvNet is simulated with a dedicated Event-driven simulator, and consists of a number of Event-driven processing modules the characteristics of which are obtained from individually manufactured hardware modules. PMID:23589589

  2. Effect of scanline orientation on ventricular flow propagation: assessment using high frame-rate color Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, N. L.; Castro, P. L.; Drinko, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Color M-mode echocardiography has recently been utilized to describe diastolic flow propagation velocity (Vp) in the left ventricle. While increasing temporal resolution from 15 to 200 Hz, this M-mode technique requires the user to select a single scanline, potentially limiting quantification of Vp due to the complex three-dimensional inflow pattern. We previously performed computational fluid dynamics simulations to demonstrate the insignificance of the scanline orientation, however geometric complexity was limited. The purpose of this study was to utilize high frame-rate 2D color Doppler images to investigate the importance of scanline selection in patients for the quantification of Vp. 2D color Doppler images were digitally acquired at 50 frames/s in 6 subjects from the apical 4-chamber window (System 5, GE/Vingmed, Milwaukee, WI). Vp was determined for a set of scanlines positioned through 5 locations across the mitral annulus (from the anterior to posterior mitral annulus). An analysis of variance was performed to examine the differences in Vp as a function of scanline position. Vp was not effected by scanline position in sampled locations from the center of the mitral valve towards the posterior annulus. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend to slower propagation velocities on the anterior side of the valve (60.8 +/- 16.7 vs. 54.4 +/- 13.6 cm/s). This study clinically validates our previous numerical experiment showing that Vp is insensitive to small perturbations of the scanline through the mitral valve. However, further investigation is necessary to examine the impact of ventricular geometry in pathologies including dilated cardiomyopathy.

  3. Marker-less multi-frame motion tracking and compensation in PET-brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Mukherjee, J. M.; Johnson, K.; Olivier, P.; Song, X.; Shao, L.; King, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    In PET brain imaging, patient motion can contribute significantly to the degradation of image quality potentially leading to diagnostic and therapeutic problems. To mitigate the image artifacts resulting from patient motion, motion must be detected and tracked then provided to a motion correction algorithm. Existing techniques to track patient motion fall into one of two categories: 1) image-derived approaches and 2) external motion tracking (EMT). Typical EMT requires patients to have markers in a known pattern on a rigid too attached to their head, which are then tracked by expensive and bulky motion tracking camera systems or stereo cameras. This has made marker-based EMT unattractive for routine clinical application. Our main contributions are the development of a marker-less motion tracking system that uses lowcost, small depth-sensing cameras which can be installed in the bore of the imaging system. Our motion tracking system does not require anything to be attached to the patient and can track the rigid transformation (6-degrees of freedom) of the patient's head at a rate 60 Hz. We show that our method can not only be used in with Multi-frame Acquisition (MAF) PET motion correction, but precise timing can be employed to determine only the necessary frames needed for correction. This can speeds up reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessary subdivision of frames.

  4. Physical evaluation of a high-frame-rate extended dynamic range flat panel detector for real-time cone beam computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Chawla, Amarpreet; Samei, Ehsan

    2005-04-01

    The use of flat panel detectors in computed tomography (CT) systems can improve resolution, reduce system cost, and add operational flexibility by combining fluoroscopy and radiography applications within CT systems. However, some prior studies have suggested that flat panel detectors would not perform well in CT applications due to their lack of high dynamic range, lag artifacts, and inadequate frame rate. The purpose of this study was to perform a physical evaluation of a prototype flat panel detector capable of high frame rates and extended dynamic range. The flat panel detector used had a pixel size of 194 microns and a matrix size of 2048x1536. The detector could be configured for several combinations of frame rate and matrix size up to 750 frames per second for a 512x16 matrix size with 4x4 binning. The evaluation was performed in terms of the MTF and DQE as a function of frame rate and exposure at the IEC RQA5 (~75 kVp, 21 mm Al) beam quality. The image lag was evaluated in terms of temporal-frequency dependent transfer function. Offset shift were also evaluated. Preliminary results indicate 0.1 MTF at 0.92 cycles/mm and DQE(0) of approximately 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.22 at 0.144, 0.065, 0.035, and 0.008 mR per frame exposures. The temporal MTF exhibited a low-frequency drop and a value of 0.5 at the Nyquist frequency. Offset shift was negligible. Considering high frame rate capabilities of the new detector, the results suggest that the detector has potential for use in real-time CT applications including CT angiography.

  5. Pulse Inversion Chirp Coded Tissue Harmonic Imaging (PI-CTHI) of Zebrafish Heart Using High Frame Rate Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Huang, Ying; Chen, Ruimin; Lee, Jungwoo; Cummins, Thomas M.; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a pulse inversion chirp coded tissue harmonic imaging (PI-CTHI) method for visualizing small animal hearts that provides fine spatial resolution at a high frame rate without sacrificing the echo signal to noise ratio (eSNR). A 40 MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single element transducer is employed to evaluate the performance of PI-CTHI by scanning tungsten wire targets, spherical anechoic voids, and zebrafish hearts. The wire phantom results show that PI-CTHI improves the eSNR by 4 dB from that of conventional pulse inversion tissue harmonic imaging (PI-THI), while still maintaining a spatial resolution of 88 and 110 μm in the axial and lateral directions, respectively. The range side lobe level of PI-CTHI is 11 dB lower than that of band-pass filtered CTHI (or F-CTHI). In the anechoic sphere phantom study, the contrast-to-noise ratio of PI-CTHI is found to be 2.7, indicating a 34% enhancement over conventional PI-THI. Due to such improved eSNR and contrast resolution, blood clots in zebrafish hearts can be readily visualized throughout heart regeneration after 20% of the ventricle is removed. Disappearance of the clots in the early stages of the regeneration has been observed for 7 days without sacrificing the fish. PMID:22930467

  6. Ultra-scale vehicle tracking in low spatial-resolution and low frame-rate overhead video

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2009-05-20

    Overhead persistent surveillance systems are becoming more capable at acquiring wide-field image sequences for long time-spans. The need to exploit this data is becoming ever greater. The ability to track a single vehicle of interest or to track all the observable vehicles, which may number in the thousands, over large, cluttered regions while they persist in the imagery either in real-time or quickly on-demand is very desirable. With this ability we can begin to answer a number of interesting questions such as, what are normal traffic patterns in a particular region or where did that truck come from? There are many challenges associated with processing this type of data, some of which we will address in the paper. Wide-field image sequences are very large with many thousands of pixels on a side and are characterized by lower resolutions (e.g. worse than 0.5 meters/pixel) and lower frame rates (e.g. a few Hz or less). The objects in the scenery can vary in size, density, and contrast with respect to the background. At the same time the background scenery provides a number of clutter sources both man-made and natural. We describe our current implementation of an ultrascale capable multiple-vehicle tracking algorithm for overhead persistent surveillance imagery as well as discuss the tracking and timing performance of the currently implemented algorithm which is aimed at utilizing grayscale electrooptical image sequences alone for the track segment generation.

  7. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases.

    PubMed

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2015-09-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered "center-stage" in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as "variable". This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by "cord-compression" hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called "early" rather than "variable". Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on time relationship to

  8. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases

    PubMed Central

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered “center-stage” in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as “variable”. This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by “cord-compression” hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called “early” rather than “variable”. Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on

  9. Frequency offset dependence of adiabatic rotating frame relaxation rate constants: relevance to MRS investigations of metabolite dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Silvia; Liimatainen, Timo; Garwood, Michael; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Deelchand, Dinesh; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the frequency-offset dependence of the rotating frame longitudinal (R(1ρ)) and transverse (R(2ρ)) relaxation rate constants when using hyperbolic-secant adiabatic full passage pulses or continuous-wave spin-lock irradiation. Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed to validate theoretical predictions of the dominant relaxation mechanisms existing during adiabatic full passage pulses when using different settings of the frequency offset relative to the carrier. In addition, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of total creatine and N-acetylaspartate were measured in vivo from the human brain at 4 T. When the continuous-wave pulse power was limited to safe specific absorption rates for humans, simulations revealed a strong dependence of R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values on the frequency offset for both dipolar interactions and anisochronous exchange mechanisms. By contrast, theoretical and experimental results showed adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values to be practically invariant within the large subregion of the bandwidth of the hyperbolic-secant pulse where complete inversion was achieved. However, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of the methyl protons of total creatine (at 3.03 ppm) were almost doubled when compared with those of the methyl protons of N-acetylaspartate (at 2.01 ppm) in spite of the fact that these resonances were in the flat region of the inversion band of the adiabatic full passage pulses. We conclude that differences in adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of human brain metabolites are not a result of their chemical shifts, but instead reflect differences in dynamics. PMID:21264976

  10. Frequency offset dependence of adiabatic rotating frame relaxation rate constants: relevance to MRS investigations of metabolite dynamics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Silvia; Liimatainen, Timo; Garwood, Michael; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Deelchand, Dinesh; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the frequency-offset dependence of the rotating frame longitudinal (R1ρ) and transverse (R2ρ) relaxation rate constants when using hyperbolic-secant adiabatic full passage pulses or continuous-wave spin-lock irradiation. Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed to validate theoretical predictions of the dominant relaxation mechanisms existing during adiabatic full passage pulses when using different settings of the frequency offset relative to the carrier. In addition, adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of total creatine and N-acetylaspartate were measured in vivo from the human brain at 4 T. When the continuous-wave pulse power was limited to safe specific absorption rates for humans, simulations revealed a strong dependence of R1ρ and R2ρ values on the frequency offset for both dipolar interactions and anisochronous exchange mechanisms. By contrast, theoretical and experimental results showed adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values to be practically invariant within the large subregion of the bandwidth of the hyperbolic-secant pulse where complete inversion was achieved. However, adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of the methyl protons of total creatine (at 3.03 ppm) were almost doubled when compared with those of the methyl protons of N-acetylaspartate (at 2.01 ppm) in spite of the fact that these resonances were in the flat region of the inversion band of the adiabatic full passage pulses. We conclude that differences in adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of human brain metabolites are not a result of their chemical shifts, but instead reflect differences in dynamics. PMID:21264976

  11. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  12. Applying high frame-rate digital radiography and dual-energy distributed-sources for advanced tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travish, Gil; Rangel, Felix J.; Evans, Mark A.; Schmiedehausen, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Conventional radiography uses a single point x-ray source with a fan or cone beam to visualize various areas of the human body. An imager records the transmitted photons—historically film and now increasingly digital radiography (DR) flat panel detectors—followed by optional image post-processing. Some post-processing techniques of particular interest are tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction. Tomosynthesis adds the ability to recreate quasi-3D images from a series of 2D projections. These exposures are typically taken along an arc or other path; and, tomosynthesis reconstruction is used to form a three-dimensional representation of the area of interest. Dual-energy radiography adds the ability to enhance or "eliminate" structures based on their different attenuation of well-separated end-point energies in two exposures. These advanced capabilities come at a high cost in terms of complexity, imaging time, capital equipment, space, and potentially reduced image quality due to motion blur if acquired sequentially. Recently, the prospect of creating x-ray sources, which are composed of arrays of micro-emitters, has been put forward. These arrays offer a flat-panel geometry and may afford advantages in fabrication methodology, size and cost. They also facilitate the use of the dual energy technology. Here we examine the possibility of using such an array of x-ray sources combined with high frame-rate (~kHz) DR detectors to produce advanced medical images without the need for moving gantries or other complex motion systems. Combining the advantages of dual energy imaging with the ability to determine the relative depth location of anatomical structures or pathological findings from imaging procedures should prove to be a powerful diagnostic tool. We also present use cases that would benefit from the capabilities of this modality.

  13. Low-noise, fast frame-rate InGaAs 320 x 256 FPA for hyperspectral applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Jan; Van Bogget, Urbain; Van Horebeek, Guido; Bentell, Jonas; Verbeke, Peet; Colin, Thierry

    2009-05-01

    InGaAs is the material of preference for uncooled imaging in the [0.9-1.7 μm] SWIR range, as it can be manufactured on low cost InP substrates in a mainstream technology for optical telecommunications. By removing the substrate the spectral range can be extended to the [0.6 - 1.7 μm] range. In this way low cost, room temperature operated FPAs cameras for imaging and hyperspectral applications can be developed. The FPA is built around a low power CTIA stage with 3 S&H capacitors in the 20*20 um2 unit cell. This approach results in a synchronous shutter operation, which will support both ITR and IWR operation. In IWR mode the integration dead time is limited to max. 10 μsec. The CDS operation yields in a high sensitivity combined with a low noise: This presentation will focus on the development of a 20 μm pitch 320*256 device, with the following main characteristics: 20 μV/e-sensitivity and < 60 e-noise. The 4 low-power, differential outputs are enabling to drive an output load of > 30 pF at 40 Msamples/sec each, resulting in a > 1700 Hz frame rate, while at the same time the overall nominal power dissipation is < 200 mW. The ROIC is realized in a 0.35 um technology and the outputs are designed to drive directly a 3.3 V, 1.5 V VCM differential AD convertor. The circuit also supports a NDR operating mode to further reduce the noise of the FPA. A small from factor camera with Cameralink output is built around this FPA.

  14. High-frame-rate low-latency hardware-in-the-loop image generation: an illustration of the particle method and DIME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantle, Allan J.; Devlin, Malachy; Lord, Eric; Chamberlain, Richard

    2000-07-01

    New computing architectures based on the DIME standard have been previously introduced which allow for processing of high frame rate imaging systems which may also need low latency capability, a common requirement for HWIL systems. This paper is presented in two sections: To achieve future realism in image generation systems for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing a significant increase in processing power is required, but additionally a suitable architecture is essential to provide low latency response on the data flow. Nallatech previously introduced DIME as a novel platform for HWIL systems which is capable of handling sub-frame latencies and greater than 100 Hz frame rates. We will demonstrate the system operating on traditional complex imaging problems, such as large convolution masks of 13 X 13 and also on new image generation techniques such as the particle method which is being developed by Matra British Aerospace Dynamics UK (MBDUK). MBDUK are proceeding on upgrading existing HWIL image generation systems for real-time particle models, to higher frame rates and increased complexity. Using Nallatech's latest DIME based architectures, models containing thousands of individual particles can be created at frame rates over 100 Hz and a resolution of 1024 X 1024 oversampled 4 times. This is possible because particle models exhibit high levels of parallelism ideal for exploiting the architecture of an FPGA. This paper will demonstrate the versatility of these particle models to create highly realistic signatures in terms of spatial dynamics and IR signature. Particle models are ideal for simulating dynamic objects such as flares, exhaust plumes, fires and explosions.

  15. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  16. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  17. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm2. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/-0.28 LSB and 0.29/-0.20 LSB, respectively.

  18. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report, Scan and activity data for experiments 4 and 4A, [July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.

    1992-11-02

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon surrogate for the human. Baboon social groups were scanned and electronically monitored during Experiments IV and IVA. The social scan, form that the technicians used to identify baboon locations and proximity to other baboons: was used to gain a simple snapshot of the position of the baboons in their cage. The scans were taken hourly every morning and evening for a total of eight scans per side per day. This report covers in detail the scan and activity data-gathering process. A set of appendices is attached which include printouts of the data sets and adjunct material pertinent to interpreting the data. The supporting material is comprised of calendars and listings of major events that occurred during the scan and activity data collection.

  19. High frame rate and high line density ultrasound imaging for local pulse wave velocity estimation using motion matching: A feasibility study on vessel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fubing; He, Qiong; Huang, Chengwu; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method to visualize the propagation of pulse wave and to quantitatively estimate regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arteries within the imaging field of view (FOV). To guarantee the reliability of PWV measurement, high frame rate imaging is required, which can be achieved by reducing the line density of ultrasound imaging or transmitting plane wave at the expense of spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a composite, full-view imaging method using motion matching was proposed with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data of 4 sub-sectors, each with 34 beams, including a common beam, were acquired successively to achieve a frame rate of ∼507 Hz at an imaging depth of 35 mm. The acceleration profiles of the vessel wall estimated from the common beam were used to reconstruct the full-view (38-mm width, 128-beam) image sequence. The feasibility of mapping local PWV variation along the artery using PWI technique was preliminarily validated on both homogeneous and inhomogeneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel vessel phantoms. Regional PWVs for the three homogeneous phantoms measured by the proposed method were in accordance with the sparse imaging method (38-mm width, 32-beam) and plane wave imaging method. Local PWV was estimated using the above-mentioned three methods on 3 inhomogeneous phantoms, and good agreement was obtained in both the softer (1.91±0.24 m/s, 1.97±0.27 m/s and 1.78±0.28 m/s) and the stiffer region (4.17±0.46 m/s, 3.99±0.53 m/s and 4.27±0.49 m/s) of the phantoms. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, higher precision of local PWV estimation in low SNR circumstances was also obtained by the proposed method as compared with the sparse imaging method. The proposed method might be helpful in disease detections through mapping the local PWV of the vascular wall. PMID:26773791

  20. Optical coherence elastography based on high speed imaging of single-hot laser-induced acoustic waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; Pelivanov, Ivan; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a novel technique that relies on the detection of the localized shear wave speed to map tissue elasticity. In this study, we demonstrate high speed imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation for SW-OCE. The fast imaging speed is achieved using a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) high-speed swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at an A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, enabling the detection of high-frequency shear waves up to 8 kHz in bandwidth. Several measures are taken to improve the phase-stability of the SS-OCT system, and the measured displacement sensitivity is ~10 nanometers. To facilitate non-contact elastography, shear waves are generated with the photo-thermal effect using an ultra-violet pulsed laser. High frequency shear waves launched by the pulsed laser contain shorter wavelengths and carry rich localized elasticity information. Benefiting from single-shot acquisition, each SWI scan only takes 2.5 milliseconds, and the reconstruction of the elastogram can be performed in real-time with ~20 Hz refresh rate. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on porcine cornea ex vivo. This study is the first demonstration of an all-optical method to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE. It is hoped that this technique will be applicable in the clinic to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurements of tissue biomechanical properties.

  1. In vivo imaging flow cytometry based on laser scanning two-photon microscopy at kHz cross-sectional frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingjie; Tang, Jianyong; Cui, Meng

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has found numerous applications in biology and pharmacology. However, conventional cytometry does not provide the detailed morphological information that is needed to fully determine the phenotype of individual circulating cells. Imaging cytometry, capable of visualizing the morphology and dynamics of the circulating cells at high spatiotemporal resolution, is highly desired. Current wide-field based image cytometers are limited in the imaging depth and provide only two-dimensional resolution. For deep tissue imaging, laser scanning two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) is widely adopted. However, for applications in flow cytometry, the axial scanning speed of current TPMs is inadequate to provide high-speed cross-sectional imaging of vasculature. We have integrated an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens into a standard TPM and achieved microsecond-scale axial scanning. With a galvo scanner for transverse scanning, we achieved kHz cross-sectional frame rate. Here we report its applications for in vivo deformability cytometry and in vivo imaging flow cytometry, and demonstrate the capability of imaging dynamical morphologies of flowing cells, distinguishing cells and cellular clusters, and simultaneously quantifying different cell populations based on their fluorescent labels.

  2. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  3. Digital 640x512 / 15μm InSb detector for high frame rate, high sensitivity, and low power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitz, T.; Pivnik, I.; Calahorra, Z.; Ilan, E.; Hirsh, I.; Zeierman, E.; Eylon, M.; Kahanov, E.; Kogan, I.; Fishler, N.; Brumer, M.; Lukomsky, I.

    2011-06-01

    Pelican-D is a new digital 640x512 / 15μm InSb detector developed by SCD to serve a number of applications. The Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) has a digital output which can be calibrated to a signal resolution in the 13-15 bit range. Besides the digital output, the detector has some additional advantages over other MWIR detectors of the same format. The high frequency of data output, which supports a full image frame rate of over 300Hz, is very useful in systems that track fast evolving events such as Missile Warning Systems (MWS), Missile Seekers and some Thermographic applications. Another important characteristic of the detector is related to an operation mode with relatively low readout noise. This mode of operation is especially beneficial in applications where the background radiation is low such as in long range surveillance systems. For imaging systems where very high sensitivity is required, the ROIC can be coupled to an epi-InSb detector array and have a dark current at 77K that is lower by a factor of 15 with respect to standard InSb. Alternatively, Pelican-D with epi-InSb can be operated at 95K with a standard dark current and sensitivity. Such an elevated operating temperature enables the use of cryogenic coolers of relatively low size, weight and power for applications such as Hand-held cameras, miniature gimbaled systems, and light UAVs. In this work we present in detail the characteristic performance of the new detector and its applications.

  4. Target activated frame capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. Marlon; Fitzgerald, James; McCormack, Michael; Steadman, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly intelligent systems for battlefield surveillance. These systems are triggered by a combination of external devices including acoustic and seismic sensors. Such products are mainly used to detect vehicles and personnel. These systems often use infra-red imagery to record environmental information, but Textron Defense Systems' Terrain Commander is one of a small number of systems which analyze these images for the presence of targets. The Terrain Commander combines acoustic, infrared, magnetic, seismic, and visible spectrum sensors to detect nearby targets in military scenarios. When targets are detected by these sensors, the cameras are triggered and images are captured in the infrared and visible spectrum. In this paper we discuss a method through which such systems can perform target tracking in order to record and transmit only the most pertinent surveillance images. This saves bandwidth which is crucial because these systems often use communication systems with throughputs below 2400bps. This method is expected to be executable on low-power processors at frame rates exceeding 10HZ. We accomplish this by applying target activated frame capture algorithms to infra-red video data. The target activated frame capture algorithms combine edge detection and motion detection to determine the best frames to be transmitted to the end user. This keeps power consumption and bandwidth requirements low. Finally, the results of the algorithm are analyzed.

  5. PanDAR: a wide-area, frame-rate, and full color lidar with foveated region using backfilling interpolation upsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Kim, Kyungnam; Owechko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    LIDAR devices for on-vehicle use need a wide field of view and good fidelity. For instance, a LIDAR for avoidance of landing collisions by a helicopter needs to see a wide field of view and show reasonable details of the area. The same is true for an online LIDAR scanning device placed on an automobile. In this paper, we describe a LIDAR system with full color and enhanced resolution that has an effective vertical scanning range of 60 degrees with a central 20 degree fovea. The extended range with fovea is achieved by using two standard Velodyne 32-HDL LIDARs placed head to head and counter rotating. The HDL LIDARS each scan 40 degrees vertical and a full 360 degrees horizontal with an outdoor effective range of 100 meters. By positioning them head to head, they overlap by 20 degrees. This creates a double density fovea. The LIDAR returns from the two Velodyne sensors do not natively contain color. In order to add color, a Point Grey LadyBug panoramic camera is used to gather color data of the scene. In the first stage of our system, the two LIDAR point clouds and the LadyBug video are fused in real time at a frame rate of 10 Hz. A second stage is used to intelligently interpolate the point cloud and increase its resolution by approximately four times while maintaining accuracy with respect to the 3D scene. By using GPGPU programming, we can compute this at 10 Hz. Our backfilling interpolation methods works by first computing local linear approximations from the perspective of the LIDAR depth map. The color features from the image are used to select point cloud support points that are the best points in a local group for building the local linear approximations. This makes the colored point cloud more detailed while maintaining fidelity to the 3D scene. Our system also makes objects appearing in the PanDAR display easier to recognize for a human operator.

  6. Thirty Frames per Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…

  7. Classroom Discourse Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    An analysis of classroom discourse proposes four frames, modeled as concentric circles. The inner most circle is the lesson frame, removed or sheltered from outside influences and most likely, in a language class, to maintain second-language usage. The next frame from the center is the lesson-support frame, an intermediate layer of classroom…

  8. A multi-frame, megahertz CCD imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob A; Balzer, Stephen J; Watson, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A high-efficiency, high-speed imager has been fabricated capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cmZ active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, gain, full-well capacity, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, and linearity. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  9. A multi-frame, megahertz CCd imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob; Balzer, Stephen; Watson, Scott; Reich, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To record high-speed, explosively driven, events, a high efficiency, high speed, imager has been fabricated which is capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cm{sup 2} active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform the most basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, full-well capacity, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, linearity and dynamic range. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  10. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  11. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  12. Dynamics of the Frame in Visual Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbener, Gerald F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Forty-four college students rated six framed, black-and-white single object pictures to determine if the framing of an object or the field surrounding it gives it more meaning. Based on factor analysis of the results, recommendations are made for future research. (JEG)

  13. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  14. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  15. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  16. Dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-01

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth. PMID:17805287

  17. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27100142

  18. Complex equiangular tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Joel A.

    2005-08-01

    A complex equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a tight frame consisting of N unit vectors in Cd whose absolute inner products are identical. One may view complex ETFs as a natural geometric generalization of an orthonormal basis. Numerical evidence suggests that these objects do not arise for most pairs (d, N). The goal of this paper is to develop conditions on (d, N) under which complex ETFs can exist. In particular, this work concentrates on the class of harmonic ETFs, in which the components of the frame vectors are roots of unity. In this case, it is possible to leverage field theory to obtain stringent restrictions on the possible values for (d, N).

  19. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  20. Behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Jamal, B.D.

    1992-09-21

    A review of current analytical methods for infilled frame behavior is conducted. A subset of these methods are applied to experimental results. Parametric studies are used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. In-plane loading, out-of-plane inertial loading, out-of-plane interstory drift loading, and combined loadings are examined. Particular reference is made to clay tile infilled frames, and the behavior of clay tile in compression.

  1. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  2. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  3. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  4. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  5. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  6. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  7. Popcorn Story Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal manner rather than in a…

  8. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  9. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed. PMID:24628288

  10. Nanosecond frame cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R

    2001-01-05

    The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.

  11. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  12. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  13. Framing the ultimatum game: gender differences and autonomic responses.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Lotto, Lorella; Palomba, Daniela; Scozzari, Simona; Rumiati, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating whether the way offers are framed in the Ultimatum Game (UG) affects behavioral and autonomic responses in men and women. The "I give you" and "I take" expressions were used as gain and loss frames, respectively. Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded as indices of autonomic activation in response to unfair, mid-value, and fair offers. Acceptance rates were higher in men than in women under the gain frame. Moreover, men showed higher acceptance rates under the gain than under the loss frame with mid-value offers, whereas women's choices were not affected by frame. On the physiological level, men produced differential autonomic response patterns during decision-making when offers were presented under gain and loss framing. The "I take" frame, by acting as a loss frame, elicited in men the characteristic defensive response pattern that is evoked by aversive stimulation, in which increases in skin conductance are coupled with increases in heart rate. On the other hand, the "I give you" frame, by acting as a gain frame, elicited in men increases in skin conductance associated with prevailing heart rate deceleratory responses, reflecting a state of enhanced attention and orienting. In contrast, women's autonomic reactivity was not affected by frame, consistent with behavioral results. Phasic changes in heart rate were crucial in revealing differential functional significance of skin conductance responses under different frames in men, thus questioning the assumption that this autonomic measure can be used as an index of negative emotional arousal in the UG. PMID:22494303

  14. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  15. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  16. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  17. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  18. Frame architecture for video servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.

    1999-11-01

    Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.

  19. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  20. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  1. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  2. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  3. Chronic exposure of primates to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields: II. Neurochemical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F.; Wolpaw, J.R.; Dowman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We exposed Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaques) to electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields ranging in intensity from 3 kV/m and 0.1 G to 30 kV/m and 0.9 G for three 21-day (d) periods. Experimental animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for two 21-d periods, one prior to and one following actual exposure to E and B fields, resulting in a total of five 21-d periods. Control animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for the entire 105-d interval. At the end of each 21-d period cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained by lumbar puncture and analyzed for concentrations of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), metabolites of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters, respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Results are based on an examination of six experimental and four control animals. Exposure to E and B fields at all strengths was associated with a significant decline in CSF concentrations of both HVA and 5-HIAA when statistical comparisons were made against values obtained at the end of the preexposure interval. However, HVA returned to preexposure levels during the postexposure period, while 5-HIAA did not. No significant change in the concentrations of HVA or 5-HIAA was noted in the control animals. These results strongly suggest that exposure of the nonhuman primate to E and B fields can significantly affect specific biochemical estimates of nervous system function. These effects may involve alterations either in neuronal activity or in the activity of enzymes that catabolize the neurotransmitters.

  4. Analysis of the 60-Hz power system at KSC: The Orsino substation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, Alex O.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the Orsino Substation, a component (50 percent) of the 60-Hertz electric power system at the Kennedy Space Center, is presented. Presented here are separate single-line diagrams of the sixteen feeder circuits to permit easy access to information on the individual feeders for future planning. The load condition of each feeder and load break switch are presented and a heuristic reliability analysis of the system is performed. Information is given about the system fashion useful for decision making purposes. The beauty of it is in the simplified manner by which information about the system can be obtained.

  5. Coils performances of superconducting cables for 50/60 Hz applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, A.; Laumond, Y. ); Tavergnier, J.P.; Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T. ); Dalle, B.; Ansart, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Multifilamentary superconducting wires with a greatly reduced level of losses have been produced with unit lengths of several tens of kilometers by AISA (GEC ALSTHOM - IGC). With the reduction of the filament diameter, proximity effects are avoided and the authors take a maximum advantage of the reversible motion of flux lines, so that the hysteretic and matrix losses are lower. In this paper the authors report on 50 Hz and DC quench currents, 50 Hz AC losses, 50 Hz electromagnetic stability results.

  6. Case-control study of childhood cancer and exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Wachtel, H.; Barnes, F.A.; John, E.M.; Tvrdik, J.G.

    1988-07-01

    Concern with health effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields has been raised by epidemiologic studies of childhood cancer in relation to proximity to electric power distribution lines. This case-control study was designed to assess the relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and the development of childhood cancer. Eligible cases consisted of all 356 residents of the five-county 1970 Denver, Colorado Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with any form of cancer between 1976 and 1983. Controls were selected by random digit dialing to approximate the case distribution by age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Exposure was characterized through in-home electric and magnetic field measurements under low and high power use conditions and wire configuration codes, a surrogate measure of long-term magnetic field levels. Measured magnetic fields under low power use conditions had a modest association with cancer incidence; a cutoff score of 2.0 milligauss resulted in an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-2.9) for total cancers and somewhat larger odds ratios (ORs) for leukemias (OR = 1.9), lymphomas (OR = 2.2), and soft tissue sarcomas (OR = 3.3). Neither magnetic fields (OR = 1.0) nor electric fields (OR = 0.9) under high power use conditions were related to total cancers. Wire codes associated with higher magnetic fields were more common among case than control homes. The odds ratio to contrast very high and high to very low, low, and buried wire codes was 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0-2.3) for total cases, with consistency across cancer subgroups except for brain cancer (OR = 2.0) and lymphomas (OR = 0.8). Contrasts of very high to buried wire code homes produced larger, less precise odds ratios of 2.3 for total cases, 2.9 for leukemias, and 3.3 for lymphomas.

  7. Effects of intermittent 60-Hz high voltage electric fields on metabolism, activity, and temperature in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbergy, R.S; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Transient effects of 100-kV/m extremely low frequency electric fields were studied in the white footed deermouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and core body temperature were monitored before, during, and after intermittent field exposures (four hour-long exposures, at one-hour intervals). Thirty-four mice were exposed in cages with plastic floors floating above ground potential, and 21 mice were exposed in cages with grounded metal floor plates. The first field exposure produced an immediate, transient increase of activity and gas measures during the inactive phase of the circadian cycle. All measures returned to baseline levels before the second exposure and were not significantly changed throughout the remainder of the exposures. The rapid habituation of field-induced arousal suggests that significant metabolic changes will not be measured in experiments in which the interval between exposure and measurement is greater than two hours.

  8. Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers.

    PubMed

    Miller, A B; To, T; Agnew, D A; Wall, C; Green, L M

    1996-07-15

    In a nested case-control study of 1,484 cancer cases and 2,179 matched controls from a cohort of 31,543 Ontario Hydro male employees, the authors evaluated associations of cancer risk with electric field exposure and reevaluated the previously reported findings for magnetic fields. Pensioners were followed from January 1, 1970, and active workers (including those who left the corporation) from January 1, 1973, with both groups followed through December 31, 1988. Exposures to electric and magnetic fields and to potential occupational confounders were estimated through job exposure matrices. Odds ratios were elevated for hematopoietic malignancies with cumulative electric field exposure. After adjustment, the odds ratio for leukemia in the upper tertile was 4.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-19.7). Odds ratios were also elevated for acute nonlymphoid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphoid leukemia. For cumulative magnetic field exposure, there were similar elevations that fell with adjustment. Evaluation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields for leukemia showed significant elevations of risk for high exposure to both, with a dose-response relation for increasing exposure to electric fields and an inconsistent effect for magnetic fields. There was some evidence of a nonsignificant association for brain cancer and benign brain tumors with magnetic fields. For lung cancer, the odds ratio for high exposure to electric and magnetic fields was 1.84 (95% CI 0.69-4.94). PMID:8678046

  9. Detection of refrigerator-associated 60 Hz alternating current as ventricular fibrillation by an implantable defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Al Khadra, Ayman S; Al Jutaily, Abdulaziz; Al Shuhri, Salem

    2006-03-01

    This report describes a patient with an implantable defibrillator who suffered an inappropriate defibrillation shock upon retrieving some food items from his inadequately earthed refrigerator. Noise typical of electrical interference can be observed in the stored electrogram of the episode. The patient was instructed to earth his home appliances, but he decided to avoid his refrigerator altogether, and has had no subsequent shocks. PMID:16627434

  10. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  11. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  12. MRI Contrasts in High Rank Rotating Frames

    PubMed Central

    Liimatainen, Timo; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Mangia, Silvia; Huttunen, Janne M.J.; Storino, Christine; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Sorce, Dennis; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose MRI relaxation measurements are performed in the presence of a fictitious magnetic field in the recently described technique known as RAFF (Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field). This method operates in the 2nd rotating frame (rank n = 2) by utilizing a non-adiabatic sweep of the radiofrequency effective field to generate the fictitious magnetic field. In the present study, the RAFF method is extended for generating MRI contrasts in rotating frames of ranks 1 ≤ n ≤ 5. The developed method is entitled RAFF in rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn). Methods RAFFn pulses were designed to generate fictitious fields that allow locking of magnetization in rotating frames of rank n. Contrast generated with RAFFn was studied using Bloch-McConnell formalism together with experiments on human and rat brains. Results Tolerance to B0 and B1 inhomogeneities and reduced specific absorption rate with increasing n in RAFFn were demonstrated. Simulations of exchange-induced relaxations revealed enhanced sensitivity of RAFFn to slow exchange. Consistent with such feature, an increased grey/white matter contrast was observed in human and rat brain as n increased. Conclusion RAFFn is a robust and safe rotating frame relaxation method to access slow molecular motions in vivo. PMID:24523028

  13. STARS[R] Spring 2012 Quarterly Review: Framing Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanski, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The Spring 2012 SQR: "Framing Campus Sustainability," features stories that frame the evolving concept of sustainability in higher education. Included in this issue are a snapshot of ratings-to-date, a focus on credits within the Operations (OP) category, and insights into how institutions are defining and interpreting the evolving concepts of…

  14. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  15. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  16. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  17. Optical characterization of frame grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, A. M.; Rubiño, M.

    2013-04-01

    Today, video cameras connected to frame grabbers are used in many applications such as traffic control, surveillance, medical systems or machine vision. In this work, we present an optical characterization of frame grabbers in terms of their spatial-frequency responses. This characterization is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) determination from speckle patterns using a low-cost experimental setup. We have characterized and compared three different frame grabbers. The three frame grabbers produce an amplification (boost) in the horizontal MTF in different spatial-frequency ranges and having different maximum amplification values.

  18. Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.

  19. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  20. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  1. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts. PMID:26375052

  2. DRIFT: an analysis of outcome framing in intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Read, Daniel; Frederick, Shane; Scholten, Marc

    2013-03-01

    People prefer to receive good outcomes immediately rather than wait, and they must be compensated for waiting. But what influences their decision about how much compensation is required for a given wait? To give a partial answer to this question, we develop the DRIFT model, a heuristic description of how framing influences intertemporal choice. We describe 4 experiments showing the implications of this model. In the experiments, we vary how the difference between a smaller sooner outcome and a larger later outcome is framed-either as total interest earned, as an interest rate, or as total amount earned (the conventional frame in studies of intertemporal choice)-and whether the larger later outcome is described as resulting from the investment of the smaller sooner one. These alternate frames have several effects. First, the investment language increases patience. Second, the explicit provision of the (otherwise implicit) experimental interest rate sharply reduces the magnitude effect. Correspondingly, we find that interest frames increase patience when the rewards are small, but they decrease patience when they are large. Third, the interest-rate frame induces somewhat greater discounting for longer time periods and, thus, reverses the common finding of "hyperbolic" discounting. Thus, many of the "stylized facts" implied by studies involving choices between a smaller sooner and a larger later amount are eliminated or reverse under alternate outcome frames. PMID:22866891

  3. Dragging of inertial frames inside the rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Modak, Kamakshya Prasad; Bandyopadhyay, Debades E-mail: kamakshya.modak@saha.ac.in

    2014-07-20

    We derive the exact frame-dragging rate inside rotating neutron stars. This formula is applied to show that the frame-dragging rate monotonically decreases from the center to the surface of the neutron star along the pole. In the case of the frame-dragging rate along the equatorial distance, it decreases initially away from the center, becomes negligibly small well before the surface of the neutron star, rises again, and finally approaches to a small value at the surface. The appearance of a local maximum and minimum in this case is the result of the dependence of frame-dragging frequency on the distance and angle. Moving from the equator to the pole, it is observed that this local maximum and minimum in the frame-dragging rate along the equator disappear after crossing a critical angle. It is also noted that the positions of the local maximum and minimum of the frame-dragging rate along the equator depend on the rotation frequency and central energy density of a particular pulsar.

  4. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  5. Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

  6. Coding scheme for wireless video transport with reduced frame skipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramvith, Supavadee; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the scenario of using the Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) retransmission scheme for two-way low bit-rate video communications over wireless Rayleigh fading channels. We show that during the retransmission of error packets, due to the reduced channel throughput, the video encoder buffer may fill-up quickly and cause the TMN8 rate-control algorithm to significantly reduce the bits allocated to each video frame. This results in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) degradation and many skipper frames. To reduce the number of frames skipped, in this paper we propose a coding scheme which takes into consideration the effects of the video buffer fill-up, an a priori channel model, the channel feedback information, and hybrid ARQ/FEC. The simulation results indicate that our proposed scheme encode the video sequences with much fewer frame skipping and with higher PSNR compared to H.263 TMN8.

  7. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  8. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  9. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-09-15

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  10. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  11. Epistemic Frames for Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, develops the concept of "epistemic frames" as a mechanism through which students can use experiences in video games, computer games, and other interactive learning environments to help them deal more effectively with situations outside of the original context of learning. Building on ideas of "islands of expertise" [Crowley, K., &…

  12. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  13. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  14. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making. PMID:24849872

  15. Fast frame scanning camera system for light-sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhou, Xing; Yao, Baoli; Li, Runze; Yang, Yanlong; Peng, Tong; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Ye, Tong

    2015-10-10

    In the interest of improving the temporal resolution for light-sheet microscopy, we designed a fast frame scanning camera system that incorporated a galvanometer scanning mirror into the imaging path of a home-built light-sheet microscope. This system transformed a temporal image sequence to a spatial one so that multiple images could be acquired during one exposure period. The improvement factor of the frame rate was dependent on the number of sub-images that could be tiled on the sensor without overlapping each other and was therefore a trade-off with the image size. As a demonstration, we achieved 960 frames/s (fps) on a CCD camera that was originally capable of recording images at only 30 fps (full frame). This allowed us to observe millisecond or sub-millisecond events with ordinary CCD cameras. PMID:26479797

  16. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  17. Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, Anthony; Rarity, John G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-07-15

    We describe a quantum key distribution protocol based on pairs of entangled qubits that generates a secure key between two partners in an environment of unknown and slowly varying reference frame. A direction of particle delivery is required, but the phases between the computational basis states need not be known or fixed. The protocol can simplify the operation of existing setups and has immediate applications to emerging scenarios such as earth-to-satellite links and the use of integrated photonic waveguides. We compute the asymptotic secret key rate for a two-qubit source, which coincides with the rate of the six-state protocol for white noise. We give the generalization of the protocol to higher-dimensional systems and detail a scheme for physical implementation in the three-dimensional qutrit case.

  18. New frame 8 generator from Newage

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1995-11-01

    Newage International is now in full production with a new range of generators developed in response to the trend towards bigger, more powerful turbo diesels and the growing use of industrial gas turbines. Designated Frame 8, the series is the most powerful yet produced by the Stamford, England-based company, with low-voltage ratings extending to 3125 kVA and medium- and high-voltage ratings available up to 13.8 kV. The company says the new range will be an option for combined heat and power (CHP), standby and interruptible power installations. The new generators incorporate a great deal of new technology. The familiar PMG (permanent magnet generator) control system developed by Newage now incorporates a new higher-powered AVR - the MA325. This is fitted as standard to both marine and industrial machines. This article points out the salient features of this new generator.

  19. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD. PMID:24010426

  20. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  1. A-frame model for metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, W.

    1982-01-01

    While literal language is successfully being subjected to automatic analysis, metaphors remain intractable. Using Minsky's frame theory the metaphoric process is viewed as a copying of stereotypic terminal clusters from the frames of the 1 degrees and 2 degrees terms of the metaphor. Stereotypic values from the two original frames share equal status in this new frame, while non-stereotypic values from the two will be kept separate for possible use in metaphoric extension. The a-frame analysis is illustrated by application to non-literary novel metaphors. Frames provide the quantity of information needed for interpretation. Certain frame values are marked as stereotypic. Creativity is realized by the construction of a new a-frame, and the tension is realized by the presence in a single a-frame of both shared stereotypic and discrete non-stereotypic values. 10 references.

  2. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, N.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Clarke, B.; Haas, M. R.; Jenkins, J.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Quintana, E.; Van Cleve, J.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 106 mv < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  3. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  4. Framed Morse functions on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtseva, Elena A; Permyakov, Dmitrii A

    2010-06-09

    Let M be a smooth, compact, not necessarily orientable surface with (maybe empty) boundary, and let F be the space of Morse functions on M that are constant on each component of the boundary and have no critical points at the boundary. The notion of framing is defined for a Morse function f element of F. In the case of an orientable surface M this is a closed 1-form {alpha} on M with punctures at the critical points of local minimum and maximum of f such that in a neighbourhood of each critical point the pair (f,{alpha}) has a canonical form in a suitable local coordinate chart and the 2-form df and {alpha} does not vanish on M punctured at the critical points and defines there a positive orientation. Each Morse function on M is shown to have a framing, and the space F endowed with the C{sup {infinity}-}topology is homotopy equivalent to the space F of framed Morse functions. The results obtained make it possible to reduce the problem of describing the homotopy type of F to the simpler problem of finding the homotopy type of F. As a solution of the latter, an analogue of the parametric h-principle is stated for the space F. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  5. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    DOEpatents

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  6. Framing and global health governance: key findings.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Lee, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that collective action to address shared health challenges across countries is desirable and necessary, the realm of global health governance has remained highly problematic. A key reason for this is the manner in which health issues are presented ('framed'). Because multiple frames are operating simultaneously, confusion and a range of competing policy recommendations and priorities result. Drawing on the previous articles published in this Special Supplement, these key findings explore how health issues are framed, what makes a framing successful, what frames are used for and what effects framing has. PMID:23088193

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  8. Heavy viewing: emergent frames in contemporary news coverage of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Helene A

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, rising rates of obesity in the United States have drawn significant and increasing public attention from various quarters, which has led to commensurately increased news coverage of the issue. A handful of scholars to date have examined how obesity has been "framed" in the news, given that news framing of issues has proven effects on cultural and political attitudes, practices, and policies as regards the subject of coverage. Consistent with these studies, this qualitative framing analysis assesses how obesity is framed in more recent mainstream news coverage. Framing patterns identified in this analysis represent a notable departure from those identified in earlier studies, specifically as relevant to troubling the individual/environmental attribution binary that historically has characterized public discourse around obesity, in particular, and health more broadly. These findings signal important shifts for contemporary cultural attitudes toward obesity and, accordingly, public health policies designed to redress the issue. Further, the findings suggest a reconsideration and elaboration of established tenets of framing theory. PMID:21541866

  9. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  10. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  11. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  12. Rest frame of bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: sugumi@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum bubbles nucleate at rest with a certain critical size and subsequently expand. But what selects the rest frame of nucleation? This question has been recently addressed in [1] in the context of Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensions, by using a model detector in order to probe the nucleated pairs. The analysis in [1] showed that, for a constant external electric field, the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum of charged particles is Lorentz invariant, (and in this) case pairs tend to nucleate preferentially at rest with respect to the detector. Here, we sharpen this picture by showing that the typical relative velocity between the frame of nucleation and that of the detector is at most of order Δv ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3} << 1. Here, S{sub E} >> 1 is the action of the instanton describing pair creation. The bound Δv coincides with the minimum uncertainty in the velocity of a non-relativistic charged particle embedded in a constant electric field. A velocity of order Δv is reached after a time interval of order Δt ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3}r{sub 0} << r{sub 0} past the turning point in the semiclassical trajectory, where r{sub 0} is the size of the instanton. If the interaction takes place in the vicinity of the turning point, the semiclassical description of collision does not apply. Nonetheless, we find that even in this case there is still a strong asymmetry in the momentum transferred from the nucleated particles to the detector, in the direction of expansion after the turning point. We conclude that the correlation between the rest frame of nucleation and that of the detector is exceedingly sharp.

  13. Development and Performance of Bechtel Nevada's Nine-Frame Camera System

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker; M. J. Griffith; J. L. Tybo

    2002-07-01

    Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos Operations, has developed a high-speed, nine-frame camera system that records a sequence from a changing or dynamic scene. The system incorporates an electrostatic image tube with custom gating and deflection electrodes. The framing tube is shuttered with high-speed gating electronics, yielding frame rates of up to 5MHz. Dynamic scenes are lens-coupled to the camera, which contains a single photocathode gated on and off to control each exposure time. Deflection plates and drive electronics move the frames to different locations on the framing tube output. A single charge-coupled device (CCD) camera then records the phosphor image of all nine frames. This paper discusses setup techniques to optimize system performance. It examines two alternate philosophies for system configuration and respective performance results. We also present performance metrics for system evaluation, experimental results, and applications to four-frame cameras.

  14. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  15. Entangled light in moving frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Bergou, Attila J.; Adami, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    We calculate the entanglement between a pair of polarization-entangled photon beams as a function of the reference frame, in a fully relativistic framework. We find the transformation law for helicity basis states and show that, while it is frequency independent, a Lorentz transformation on a momentum-helicity eigenstate produces a momentum-dependent phase. This phase leads to changes in the reduced polarization density matrix, such that entanglement is either decreased or increased, depending on the boost direction, the rapidity, and the spread of the beam.

  16. Megapixel 1000-frame-per-second camera with 1000-frame storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, Lawrence A.; Rhea, Kerry D.; Gardner, David W.; Snyder, Donald R.

    1997-12-01

    One of the main problems facing users of high speed imagers is the difficulty of storing the large volume of generated data. Silicon Mountain Design (SMD) has designed a 1000 frame per second digital camera, the Mach-1, which alleviates this problem by storing 1000 frames in its on board memory. SMD's software then allows the user to view the data set, or a subset and save the desired information to the storage media of choice. The unique design and interline transfer architecture of SMD's imager gives this camera high sensitivity, excellent red response, and eliminates the image smearing common in other high speed cameras. The Mach-1's output has 10 bits of dynamic range and uses innovative electronics to achieve less than 1 bit of rms noise, all without the need for active cooling. The frame rate is adjustable from 1000 FPS down to 62.5 FPS by factors of 2 and electronic shuttering is offered down to 10 microseconds. Electronic shuttering results in crisp images of rapidly moving objects without the need for inefficient LCD shutters. The Mach-1 also has the capability of synchronizing multiple cameras which allows for stereo imaging and other multiple viewpoint applications. The Mach-1 has been used to enhance the performance of weapons delivery systems and also for 3 dimensional medical imaging. A brief technical overview of the camera and its performance are presented in this paper.

  17. Million-frame-per-second CCD camera with 16 frames of storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Nathan E.; Gardner, David W.; Snyder, Donald R.

    1997-12-01

    Ultrafast imaging is an important need for the development, control, and evaluation of modern air-deliverable weapons systems. Recent advances in optical imaging such as speckle interferometry can potentially improve DoD capability to deliver munitions and armaments to targets at long ranges, and under adverse seeing conditions. Moderate density arrays of at least 100 by 100 pixels and frame rates of at least 1 MHz are required. Ultrafast imaging is also required for flow field optical image analysis for hypersonic propulsion systems. Silicon Mountain Design (SMD) has built such an imager so that high quality images can be obtained for relatively low cost. The SMD-64k1M camera is capable of imaging 1,000,000 frames per second using a 256 by 256 array with the ability to store 16 frames with true 12 bits of dynamic range. This camera allows researchers to capture multiple high speed events using solid state technology housed in a 53 cubic inch package. A brief technical overview of the imager and results are presented in this paper.

  18. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  19. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  20. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  1. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  2. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  7. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  8. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  9. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  10. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  11. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  12. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  13. Ambient-Light-Canceling Camera Using Subtraction of Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morookian, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    during one frame period, and would be illuminated with only ambient (background) light during the next frame period. The camera output would be digitized and sent to a computer, wherein the pixel values of the background-only frame would be subtracted from the pixel values of the signal-plus-background frame to obtain signal-only pixel values (see figure). To prevent artifacts of motion from entering the images, it would be necessary to acquire image data at a rate greater than the standard video rate of 30 frames per second. For this purpose, the ALCC would exploit a novel control technique developed at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory for advanced charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras. This technique provides for readout from a subwindow [region of interest (ROI)] within the image frame. Because the desired reflections from the eye would typically occupy a small fraction of the area within the image frame, the ROI capability would make it possible to acquire and subtract pixel values at rates of several hundred frames per second considerably greater than the standard video rate and sufficient to both (1) suppress motion artifacts and (2) track the motion of the eye between consecutive subtractive frame pairs.

  14. Advanced High-Speed Framing Camera Development for Fast, Visible Imaging Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Lewis, Stuart Baker, Brian Cox, Abel Diaz, David Glass, Matthew Martin

    2011-05-11

    The advances in high-voltage switching developed in this project allow a camera user to rapidly vary the number of output frames from 1 to 25. A high-voltage, variable-amplitude pulse train shifts the deflection location to the new frame location during the interlude between frames, making multiple frame counts and locations possible. The final deflection circuit deflects to five different frame positions per axis, including the center position, making for a total of 25 frames. To create the preset voltages, electronically adjustable {+-}500 V power supplies were chosen. Digital-to-analog converters provide digital control of the supplies. The power supplies are clamped to {+-}400 V so as not to exceed the voltage ratings of the transistors. A field-programmable gated array (FPGA) receives the trigger signal and calculates the combination of plate voltages for each frame. The interframe time and number of frames are specified by the user, but are limited by the camera electronics. The variable-frame circuit shifts the plate voltages of the first frame to those of the second frame during the user-specified interframe time. Designed around an electrostatic image tube, a framing camera images the light present during each frame (at the photocathode) onto the tube’s phosphor. The phosphor persistence allows the camera to display multiple frames on the phosphor at one time. During this persistence, a CCD camera is triggered and the analog image is collected digitally. The tube functions by converting photons to electrons at the negatively charged photocathode. The electrons move quickly toward the more positive charge of the phosphor. Two sets of deflection plates skew the electron’s path in horizontal and vertical (x axis and y axis, respectively) directions. Hence, each frame’s electrons bombard the phosphor surface at a controlled location defined by the voltages on the deflection plates. To prevent the phosphor from being exposed between frames, the image tube

  15. An Investigation On The Problems Of The Intermittent High-Speed Camera Of 360 Frames/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Rong

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses several problems on the JX-300 intermittent synchronous high-speed camera developed by the Institue of Optics and Electronics (10E), Academia Sinica in 1985. It is shown that when a framing rate is no more than 120 frames/s, a relatively high reliability is obtained resulting from low acceleration of the moving elements, weak intermittent pulldown strength, low frequency vibration, etc. At the time when a framing rate increases to over 200 frames/s, the photographic resolving power, as well as the film running reliability reduce due to the dramatic increase in vibration and pulldown strenth, which is similar to that in the stationary photography. It is getting worse when the framing rate is up to 300 frames/s. Therefore, deliberating on the choice of a claw mechanism having a framing rate of over 300 frames/s and conducting a series of technical measures are particularly important for a camera to obtain a sharp object image securely, otherwise it can hardly reach the framing rate of 300 frames/s for an intermittent camera. Even if this framing rate is attained, the image quality is also deformed and the mechanism would be rapidly worn off from high vibration.

  16. Word and frame synchronization with verification for PPM optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for obtaining word and frame synchronization in pulse position modulated optical communication systems is described. The method uses a short sync sequence inserted at the beginning of each data frame and a verification procedure to distinguish between inserted and randomly occurring sequences at the receiver. This results in an easy to implement sync system which provides reliable synchronization even at high symbol error rates. Results are given for the application of this approach to a highly energy efficient 256-ary PPM test system.

  17. Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotman, Phyllis R.; Gibson, Gloria J.

    A reference guide on African American film professionals, this book is a companion volume to the earlier "Frame by Frame I." It focuses on giving credit to African Americans who have contributed their talents to a film industry that has scarcely recognized their contributions, building on the aforementioned "Frame by Frame I," which included…

  18. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  19. Technological Frame Incongruence, Diffusion, and Noncompliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobreperez, Polly

    The technological frames of reference strand of social shaping of technology theory is used to overlay the issues arising from a case study looking at noncompliance with information systems. A recent review of the theory suggests that although frame content is often addressed, frame structure, the process of framing, and the characteristics and outcomes of frames are largely overlooked. This paper attempts to address this shortfall by applying the indicators identified by case study research to the frames of different groups and using them to highlight differing perceptions and attitudes. In this way, the author suggests that issues surrounding noncompliance should not be dismissed as resistance but instead should be further studied by managers and developers, leading to accommodation of differing views. Further examination of frame incongruence reveals dependence on inefficient or ineffective organizational situations and thus these indicators can be useful in future studies to identify and address procedural, acceptance and cultural issues leading to acts of noncompliance.

  20. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  1. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-09-01

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob’s qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a “critical point.”

  2. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  3. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jieci; Jing Jiliang

    2010-09-15

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob's qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a 'critical point'.

  4. Estimating body related soft biometric traits in video frames.

    PubMed

    Arigbabu, Olasimbo Ayodeji; Ahmad, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed; Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan; Yussof, Salman; Iranmanesh, Vahab; Malallah, Fahad Layth

    2014-01-01

    Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames. PMID:25121120

  5. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    PubMed Central

    Arigbabu, Olasimbo Ayodeji; Ahmad, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed; Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan; Yussof, Salman; Iranmanesh, Vahab; Malallah, Fahad Layth

    2014-01-01

    Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames. PMID:25121120

  6. Design options for low-conductivity window frames

    SciTech Connect

    Byars, N.; Arasteh, D.

    1990-10-01

    The window industry's commercialization of low-emissivity coatings and low-conductivity gas-filling over the past few years has helped to drastically reduce heat transfer rates through the glazed areas of windows. However, few changes have taken place in the design and construction of window frames and edges, leaving these elements to account for most of the heat transfer through today's state-of-the-art windows. This paper presents design and material requirements for the manufacture of low-conductivity window frames obtained through the use of finite element computer modeling. Such frames will compliment and not degrade today's most energy-efficient insulated glass units. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  8. Coincidence electron/ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander; Fan, Lin

    2015-05-01

    A new time- and position- sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS camera is developed for coincidence electron/ion imaging. The system is composed of three major components: a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen electron/ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions/electrons from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of MCPs processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of electron/ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide. We further show that a time resolution of 30 ps can be achieved when measuring electron TOF spectrum and this enables the new system to achieve a good energy resolution along the TOF axis.

  9. A new frame-based registration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, C H; Whalen, R T; Beaupre, G S; Sumanaweera, T S; Yen, S Y; Napel, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required. PMID:9472834

  10. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  11. Effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on nueroendocrine system of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.

    1993-01-22

    This series of experiments, using a well-characterized exposure facility and employing a variety of control procedures to study behavior and the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates, does not provide any evidence that exposure to power-frequency electric fields, or electric and magnetic fields in combination, for 12 hours per day for six weeks produces any deleterious effects in young-adult males. The primate experiments summarized here confirm the general conclusion indicated by experiments with rodents; although biological and behavioral changes can occur, there are no clear results establishing the occurrence of adverse effects in experiments involving relatively short-term exposure to environmentally-relevant electric or magnetic fields. Given the general agreement of the primate and rodent results, conclusions from the laboratory animal studies therefore presumably generalize well to humans.

  12. (Study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields): Quarterly technical progress report No. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-07-14

    Activities this quarter involved all phases of the project plus a meeting of the Joint Committee in Tokyo. Detailed mapping of the exposure facility is scheduled to be completed during the week of August 14, 1989. Both electric and magnetic fields should be available for tests of the components of the tether and blood sampling system for the neuroendocrine pilot study in September 1989. The groups for the social behavior study are stabilizing appropriately. Details on the formation of the groups and their status has been provided. Dr. Coelho has included information related to aspects of the social experiment ranging from age estimation in baboons through the cardiovascular consequences of psychosocial stress. In addition, a draft manuscript is included on the data from the previous experiments which describes the effects of 30 and 60 kV/m electric fields on the social behavior of baboons. Tests of the blood handling procedures and analysis methods have been completed. With the exception of the catecholamine analyses, the handling procedures and variability in replicate measurements are satisfactory. Logistic and practical considerations now weigh strongly against including the analysis of the blood samples for catecholamines. Preliminary tests indicate that a sampling procedure which will work for the other compounds is probably not satisfactory for the catecholamines.

  13. An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

  14. From sunlight in space to 60 Hz on earth - The losses along the way. [satellite solar power transmission efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    The space-to-ground links for the Solar Power Satellite System are discussed in terms of worst, best, and nominal efficiency used in the development of the preliminary design. An uncertainty analysis of this design illustrates the effect of link efficiency on SPS size and mass. It is shown that a solar power satellite can deliver power to a ground-based utility for 4 to 5 cents per kWh, depending on the efficiency of the solar cells available in 1987. The overall efficiency of converting sunlight in space to electric power delivered to utilities ranged from 3.83% for the worst combination of efficiencies to 9.5% for the best, with a nominal efficiency of 7.12%.

  15. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. > We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. > We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. > We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  16. Dynamic frame selection for in vivo ultrasound temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-08-01

    Minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation have been developed to treat cancers of the liver, prostate and kidney without invasive surgery. Prior work has demonstrated that ultrasound echo shifts due to temperature changes can be utilized to track the temperature distribution in real time. In this paper, a motion compensation algorithm is evaluated to reduce the impact of cardiac and respiratory motion on ultrasound-based temperature tracking methods. The algorithm dynamically selects the next suitable frame given a start frame (selected during the exhale or expiration phase where extraneous motion is reduced), enabling optimization of the computational time in addition to reducing displacement noise artifacts incurred with the estimation of smaller frame-to-frame displacements at the full frame rate. A region of interest that does not undergo ablation is selected in the first frame and the algorithm searches through subsequent frames to find a similarly located region of interest in subsequent frames, with a high value of the mean normalized cross-correlation coefficient value. In conjunction with dynamic frame selection, two different two-dimensional displacement estimation algorithms namely a block matching and multilevel cross-correlation are compared. The multi-level cross-correlation method incorporates tracking of the lateral tissue expansion in addition to the axial deformation to improve the estimation performance. Our results demonstrate the ability of the proposed motion compensation using dynamic frame selection in conjunction with the two-dimensional multilevel cross-correlation to track the temperature distribution.

  17. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  18. Frame-based cranial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hochfeld, Mascha; Lamecker, Hans; Thomale, Ulrich-W; Schulz, Matthias; Zachow, Stefan; Haberl, Hannes

    2014-03-01

    The authors report on the first experiences with the prototype of a surgical tool for cranial remodeling. The device enables the surgeon to transfer statistical information, represented in a model, into the disfigured bone. The model is derived from a currently evolving databank of normal head shapes. Ultimately, the databank will provide a set of standard models covering the statistical range of normal head shapes, thus providing the required template for any standard remodeling procedure as well as customized models for intended overcorrection. To date, this technique has been used in the surgical treatment of 14 infants (age range 6-12 months) with craniosynostosis. In all 14 cases, the designated esthetic result, embodied by the selected model, has been achieved, without morbidity or mortality. Frame-based reconstruction provides the required tools to precisely realize the surgical reproduction of the model shape. It enables the establishment of a self-referring system, feeding back postoperative growth patterns, recorded by 3D follow-up, into the model design. PMID:24437987

  19. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  20. Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

  1. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  2. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames. PMID:22453638

  3. Subjective evaluation of MPEG-2 video with and without B frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Gregory W.; Tweedy, Ernest P.

    1999-11-01

    Two studies examined the effect of B-frames on subjective quality of MPEG-2 video. One study used consumer judgments in a variant of the standard CCIR Recommendation 500-5 procedure for collecting subjective evaluations. The other study used the judgments of a single expert in adjusting the bit rate necessary for MPEG-2 without B-frames to be subjectively equal to MPEG-2 with B-frames at a given bit rate. The results of the two studies were qualitatively similar. Summary of results: Picture quality improved with increase in bit rate until a saturation point was reached. The introduction of B-frames improved picture quality, especially for difficult source material. This was more noticeable at the lower bit rates (e.g., 3 Mb/s). The difference in bit rate between MPEG-2 with and without B-frames varied substantially with the source material. For example, for basketball, 5 Mb/s with B-frames was subjectively equal to 8 Mb/s without B-frames, but for other material the difference was near zero.

  4. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  5. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  6. Frame Dominance in Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: According to the frames then content (f/c) hypothesis (P. F. MacNeilage & B. L. Davis, 1990), the internal structure of syllables with consonant plus vowel structure (CV) during canonical babbling is determined primarily by production system properties related to rhythmic mandibular oscillations ("motor frames"). The purpose of this study…

  7. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  8. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  9. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  10. The vista paradox: Framing or contrast?

    PubMed

    Daum, S Oliver; Both, Bernhard S; Bertamini, Marco; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The vista paradox is the illusion in which an object seen through a window appears to shrink in apparent size (and appears farther away) as the observer approaches the window. Paradoxically, the distal object appears smaller as its visual angle increases. We investigated the effect in four experiments varying object size, distance, point of fixation, and texture of the frame and of the object. In the first experiment, we tried to confirm the illusion and to test the robustness of the phenomenon. In the second experiment, we manipulated where subjects fixated (on the frame or on the object) as well as the texture of the object and the frame. Fixation was essential for the illusion: fixating the frame led to an apparent shrinking of the object, whereas fixation on the object did not. Texture of the frame intensified the apparent shrinking of the object. In a third experiment, we separated the point of fixation from the frame in a between-subjects design. Finally, in Experiment 4, we showed that the paradox does not require a frame, but it requires a fixation on a location different from the object. That is, the window or frame is dispensable for the vista paradox, but fixation is critical. PMID:26280259

  11. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  12. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  13. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  14. Strategy and Issue Frames in Election Campaign Coverage: A Social Cognitive Account of Framing Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, June Woong

    1997-01-01

    Examines how news frames in campaign coverage affect an individual's interpretation of campaigns. Conceptualizes framing effects in terms of a construction of a mental model and emphasizes how news interpretation is influenced by news texts and by interpreter's social knowledge. Explores message structures of the strategy and issue frames, and…

  15. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  16. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers. PMID:23098268

  17. Research on frame capture of high speed and image storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Dong; Ju, Huo

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts among high speed, large amount of data rate and long time to record are still problems in the field of frame grabbing. It has been settled partly and temporarily by the development of raid technology. A frame grabbing system with the characteristic of high speed and large storage is generated using raid technology and Fibre Channels. It is able to keep recording frames at a high speed for a long time without reducing resolution. The system has been set up successfully whose recording and displaying process can be generally controlled. Problems that show stable live video in real time while recording have been solved. The composition of hardware in this system is given out in the paper. The principle how it works is described. For the purpose of recording at a high speed without dropping frames and to insure the imaging quality while synchronized with outer signals that generated from an outer circuit, several synchronizing ways are discussed and compared. The most suitable way is chosen through analyzing theoretically and tested out by experiment.

  18. Video data compression using MPEG-2 and frame decimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachtenauer, Jon C.; Richardson, Mark; Garvin, Paul

    1999-07-01

    Video systems have seen a resurgence in military applications since the recent proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Video system offer light weight, low cost, and proven COTS technology. Video has not proven to be a panacea, however, as generally available storage and transmission systems are limited in bandwidth. Digital video systems collect data at rates of up to 270 Mbs; typical transmission bandwidths range from 9600 baud to 10 Mbs. Either extended transmission times or data compression are needed to handle video bit streams. Video compression algorithm have been developed and evaluated in the commercial broadcast and entertainment industry. The Motion Pictures Expert Group developed MPEG-1 to compress videos to CD ROM bandwidths and MPEG-2 to cover the range of 5-10 Mbs and higher. Commercial technology has not extended to lower bandwidths, nor has the impact of MPEG compression for military applications been demonstrated. Using digitized video collected by UAV systems, the effects of data compression on image interpretability and task satisfaction were investigated. Using both MPEG-2 and frame decimation, video clips were compressed to rates of 6MPS, 1.5 Mbs, and 0.256 Mbs. Experienced image analysts provided task satisfaction estimates and National Image Interpretability Rating Scale ratings on the compressed and uncompressed video clips. Result were analyzed to define the effects of compression rate and method on interpretability and task satisfaction. Lossless compression was estimated to occur at approximately 10 Mbs and frame decimation was superior to MPEG-2 at low bit rates.

  19. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  20. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  1. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehr, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on {ital k}-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L{sup 2}({bold R}{sup {ital k}}) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  3. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  4. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  5. Moving Frames for Heart Fiber Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Piuze, Emmanuel; Sporring, Jon; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2015-01-01

    The method of moving frames provides powerful geometrical tools for the analysis of smoothly varying frame fields. However, in the face of missing measurements, a reconstruction problem arises, one that is largely unexplored for 3D frame fields. Here we consider the particular example of reconstructing impaired cardiac diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. We combine moving frame analysis with a diffusion inpainting scheme that incorporates rule-based priors. In contrast to previous reconstruction methods, this new approach uses comprehensive differential descriptors for cardiac fibers, and is able to fully recover their orientation. We demonstrate the superior performance of this approach in terms of error of fit when compared to alternate methods. We anticipate that these tools could find application in clinical settings, where damaged heart tissue needs to be replaced or repaired, and for generating dense fiber volumes in electromechanical modelling of the heart. PMID:26221700

  6. Toward a generalized plate motion reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Conrad, C. P.

    2015-05-01

    An absolute plate motion (APM) model is required to address issues such as the thermochemical evolution of Earth's mantle. All APM models have to rely on indirect inferences, including those based on hot spots and seismic anisotropy, each with their own set of uncertainties. Here, we explore a seafloor spreading-aligned reference frame. We show that this reference frame fits azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the uppermost mantle very well. The corresponding Euler pole is close to those of hot spot reference frames, ridge motion minimizing models, and geodynamic estimates of net rotation and predicts clear trench motion patterns. We conclude that a net rotation pole guided by the spreading-aligned model (at 64°E, 61°S, with moderate rotation of ˜ 0.2 … 0.3°/Myr) could indeed represent a standard, comprehensive reference frame for present-day plate motions with respect to the deep mantle.

  7. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  8. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it. PMID:21768064

  9. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  10. Framing health messages based on anomalies in time preference.

    PubMed

    Ortendahl, Monica; Fries, James F

    2005-08-01

    Time discounting processes and their effects are increasingly taken into account in health-related decisions. Because these effects have a potentially large impact the characteristics of discounting should also be taken into consideration when framing health messages. Research on the relationship between time and health is discussed with a special focus on discounting biases. The criteria for selection of articles were potential practical application when formulating health messages. Time discounting processes vary with individuals and contexts. Therefore, no single model is expected to describe discounting processes completely. Discounting biases appear more prevalent in health decisions than in economic decisions, even when health and monetary outcomes are matched for utility. Research on decision-making under conditions of uncertainty has documented numerous anomalies of expected utility. Analysis on the anomalies related to intertemporal choice and discounted utility (DU) include the magnitude effect, dynamic inconsistency effect, instant endowment, status quo bias, and sequence effect. Discounting biases in the formulation of preventive health messages are important. The desire for behavioral change in these programs would benefit from considering the psychological factor of discounting. Framing health messages in terms of large, important outcomes or long delays should induce lower implicit discount rates. Framing health messages as losses rather than gains, or as involving a series of outcomes rather than individual outcomes, might similarly lower the implicit discount rate used. PMID:16049392

  11. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1989-01-01

    In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.

  12. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  13. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier☆

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Stoeva, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in ℓ2. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case. PMID:25843976

  14. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  15. Inertial nonvacuum states viewed from the Rindler frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The appearance of the inertial vacuum state in Rindler frame has been extensively studied in the literature, both from the point of view of quantum field theory developed using Rindler foliation and using the response of an Unruh-Dewitt detector. In comparison, less attention has been devoted to the study of inertial nonvacuum states when viewed from the Rindler frame. We provide a comprehensive study of this issue in this paper. We first present a general formalism describing the characterization of arbitrary inertial state (i) when described using an arbitrary foliation and (ii) using the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. This allows us to calculate the mean number of particles in an arbitrary inertial state, when the QFT is described using an arbitrary foliation of spacetime or when the state is probed by a detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. We use this formalism to explicitly compute the results for the Rindler frame and uniformly accelerated detectors. Any arbitrary inertial state will always have a thermal component in the Rindler frame with additional contributions arising from the nonvacuum nature. We classify the nature of the additional contributions in terms of functions characterizing the inertial state. We establish that for all physically well-behaved normalizable inertial states, the correction terms decrease rapidly with the energy of the Rindler mode so that the high frequency limit is dominated by the thermal noise in any normalizable inertial state. However, inertial states which are not strictly normalizable like, for example, the one-particle state with definite momentum, lead to a constant contribution at all high frequencies in the Rindler frame. We show that a similar behavior arises in the response of the Unruh-DeWitt detector as well. In the case of the detector response, we provide a physical interpretation for the constant contribution at high frequencies in terms of total detection

  16. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  17. Formation of the properties of antimony matrix alloys for frame-type composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevskii, V. A.; Antipov, V. I.; Vinogradov, L. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Lazarev, E. M.; Samarina, A. M.; Mukhina, Yu. E.

    2009-12-01

    A frame-type composite material (CM) produced upon impregnation represents a system consisting of a rigid porous frame and a matrix material filling its voids. When metals are used as a matrix material, they bring up specific problems related to melting of a metal, such as the thermal effect of the metal on the frame and the chemical interaction of the matrix and frame with the formation of brittle compounds. A CM that combines the best characteristics of its components can be produced. Since impregnation is, as a rule, performed under vacuum, melting of a matrix metal is accompanied by an increase in the evaporation rate. The evaporation of a matrix metal can be decreased by controlling its chemical composition, decreasing the melting temperature of the melt, and controlling the cooling rate. In this work, antimony alloys are used as a matrix material and their properties are studied.

  18. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. PMID:24698943

  19. Interdependence between Cooling Rate, Microstructure and Porosity in Mg Alloy AE42

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Rhee, Hongjoo; Felicelli, Sergio D.; Sabau, Adrian S; Berry, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation during the gravity-poured castings of magnesium alloy AE42. Two graphite plate molds and a ceramic cylindrical mold were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at two or three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. The results of this study revealed the existence of oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. The cooling rates showed significant effect on the formation of porosity.

  20. X/Ka Celestial Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bagri, D. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Sigman, E. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  1. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  2. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development. PMID:23113870

  3. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  4. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  5. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  6. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  7. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  8. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  9. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  10. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  11. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  12. Framing the Future. Re-framing the Future: A Report on the Long-Term Impacts of Framing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    Australia's Framing the Future (FTF) project was designed to develop a model of staff development to support implementation of the National Training Framework (NTF). A survey of FTF project managers found these long-term impacts: implementation of training packages and other aspects of NTF, new forms of collaboration between industry and training…

  13. Magnetization patterns of permalloy square frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Wei, Zung-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wu, J. C.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Usov, Nickolai A.; Lai, Jun-Yang; Yao, Y. D.

    2003-05-01

    Four different magnetization configurations of micron- and submicron-sized permalloy square frames are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Beside the pure conventional 90° Neel type wall with zero net magnetic pole, we also obtain numerically another high energy domain wall with positive or negative net magnetic poles in the corner. These three kinds of domain walls constitute four different patterns in square frames. We compare the magnetic pole density distributions derived from the spin configurations of simulation results with the images taken by magnetic force microscopy, and find reasonable agreement between them.

  14. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  15. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tencer, John

    2016-06-14

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  16. Molecular Evolution of the Escherichia Coli Chromosome. III. Clonal Frames

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, R.; Bridges, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    PCR fragments, 1500-bp, from 15 previously sequenced regions in the Escherichia coli chromosome have been compared by restriction analysis in a large set of wild (ECOR) strains. Prior published observations of segmental clonality are confirmed: each of several sequence types is shared by a number of strains. The rate of recombinational replacement and the average size of the replacements are estimated in a set of closely related strains in which a clonal frame is dotted with occasional stretches of DNA belonging to other clones. A clonal hierarchy is described. Some new comparative sequencing data are presented. PMID:1979037

  17. Line formation in accretion disks. 3D comoving frame calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    The 3D radiative transfer equation is written in O(nu/c) in the comoving frame and solved by a short characteristics method for a two-level atom with complete redistribution. An Approximate-LAMBDA operator and various other acceleration techniques are applied to improve the rate of convergence. Line profiles and source functions are calculated for accretion disk models of cataclysmic variables (CV) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) homogeneous in density and temperature. We find that the velocity gradient in the disks makes it necessary for line transfer problems to use the full 3D radiative transfer equation.

  18. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    The present thesis focused on haptic spatial processing. In particular, our interest was directed to the perception of spatial relations with the main focus on the perception of orientation. To this end, we studied haptic perception in different tasks, either in isolation or in combination with vision. The parallelity task, where participants have to match the orientations of two spatially separated bars, was used in its two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, respectively. The influence of non-informative vision and visual interference on performance in the parallelity task was studied in Chapter 4. A different task, the mental rotation task, was introduced in a purely haptic study in Chapter 5 and in a visuo-haptic cross-modal study in Chapter 6. The interaction of multiple reference frames and their influence on haptic spatial processing were the common denominators of these studies. In this thesis we approached the problems of which reference frames play the major role in haptic spatial processing and how the relative roles of distinct reference frames change depending on the available information and the constraints imposed by different tasks. We found that the influence of a reference frame centered on the hand was the major cause of the deviations from veridicality observed in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional studies. The results were described by a weighted average model, in which the hand-centered egocentric reference frame is supposed to have a biasing influence on the allocentric reference frame. Performance in haptic spatial processing has been shown to depend also on sources of information or processing that are not strictly connected to the task at hand. When non-informative vision was provided, a beneficial effect was observed in the haptic performance. This improvement was interpreted as a shift from the egocentric to the allocentric reference frame. Moreover, interfering visual information presented

  19. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  20. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  1. Framing the Future: Workbased Learning Facilitation Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This resource provides tips to assist facilitators as they work with Australia's Framing the Future project teams. The 16 tips are about group selection; how to prepare for input; participant roles; how to use participants and observers; scribes and recorders; some ideas for launches and fun; praise! praise! praise!; making facilitation the key to…

  2. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  3. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-12-31

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high-speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high-speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High-power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high-resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high-resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  4. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-06-01

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  5. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  6. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  7. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  8. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  9. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  10. Defining Enrollment Management: The Political Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the elements of Bolman and Deal's (1991) political frame, which are widely discussed and written about among enrollment managers. Whether it is under the guise of managing change, getting things done, understanding institutional politics, or soliciting campus-wide involvement, the issues are often thorny and leave many…

  11. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  12. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  13. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most important finding…

  14. The Frame Game: A Flexible Conversation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Carl

    The Frame Game is a second language conversation activity that allows instructors to determine the content. The activity provides a structure for communication between students and adapts easily to almost any topic. The basic version of the game has been adapted from a management training activity, and is presented along with several variations…

  15. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  16. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  17. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  18. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  19. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  20. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5

  1. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  3. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  4. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  5. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  6. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  7. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  8. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  9. Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…

  10. Effects of Problem Frame and Gender on Principals' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul M.; Fagley, Nancy S.; Casella, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates people's decisions can sometimes be influenced by seemingly trivial differences in the "framing" (i.e., wording) of alternative options. The tendency to prefer risk averse options when framed positively and risky options when framed negatively is known as the framing effect. The current study examined the susceptibility of…

  11. Remarks on Viewing Situation in a Rotating Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Representations of centrifugal forces are derived in a variety of rotating frames. Although the rotating angle of a point mass relative to an inertial frame is often confused with the rotating angle of a rotating frame relative to the inertial frame, they should be differentiated. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  12. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  13. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  14. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  15. RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.

    Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.

  16. Spatial resampling of IDR frames for low bitrate video coding with HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, Brett; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Bull, David; Easton, Nick

    2015-03-01

    As the demand for higher quality and higher resolution video increases, many applications fail to meet this demand due to low bandwidth restrictions. One factor contributing to this problem is the high bitrate requirement of the intra-coded Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) frames featuring in all video coding standards. Frequent coding of IDR frames is essential for error resilience in order to prevent the occurrence of error propagation. However, as each one consumes a huge portion of the available bitrate, the quality of future coded frames is hindered by high levels of compression. This work presents a new technique, known as Spatial Resampling of IDR Frames (SRIF), and shows how it can increase the rate distortion performance by providing a higher and more consistent level of video quality at low bitrates.

  17. The Influence of Framing on Risky Decisions: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kühberger

    1998-07-01

    In framing studies, logically equivalent choice situations are differently described and the resulting preferences are studied. A meta-analysis of framing effects is presented for risky choice problems which are framed either as gains or as losses. This evaluates the finding that highlighting the positive aspects of formally identical problems does lead to risk aversion and that highlighting their equivalent negative aspects does lead to risk seeking. Based on a data pool of 136 empirical papers that reported framing experiments with nearly 30,000 participants, we calculated 230 effect sizes. Results show that the overall framing effect between conditions is of small to moderate size and that profound differences exist between research designs. Potentially relevant characteristics were coded for each study. The most important characteristics were whether framing is manipulated by changing reference points or by manipulating outcome salience, and response mode (choice vs. rating/judgment). Further important characteristics were whether options differ qualitatively or quantitatively in risk, whether there is one or multiple risky events, whether framing is manipulated by gain/loss or by task-responsive wording, whether dependent variables are measured between- or within- subjects, and problem domains. Sample (students vs. target populations) and unit of analysis (individual vs. group) was not influential. It is concluded that framing is a reliable phenomenon, but that outcome salience manipulations, which constitute a considerable amount of work, have to be distinguished from reference point manipulations and that procedural features of experimental settings have a considerable effect on effect sizes in framing experiments. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9719656

  18. High accuracy optical rate sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, J.

    1990-01-01

    Optical rate sensors, in particular CCD arrays, will be used on Space Station Freedom to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. An algorithm to provide attitude rate information by directly manipulating the sensor pixel intensity output is presented. The star image produced by a sensor in the laboratory is modeled. Simulated, moving star images are generated, and the algorithm is applied to this data for a star moving at a constant rate. The algorithm produces accurate derived rate of the above data. A step rate change requires two frames for the output of the algorithm to accurately reflect the new rate. When zero mean Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 5 is added to the simulated data of a star image moving at a constant rate, the algorithm derives the rate with an error of 1.9 percent at a rate of 1.28 pixels per frame.

  19. Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with source flaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2015-10-01

    Compared with the traditional protocols of quantum key distribution (QKD), the reference-frame-independent (RFI)-QKD protocol has been generally proved to be very useful and practical, since its experimental implementation can be simplified without the alignment of a reference frame. In most RFI-QKD systems, the encoding states are always taken to be perfect, which, however, is not practical in realizations. In this paper, we consider the security of RFI QKD with source flaws based on the loss-tolerant method proposed by Tamaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052314 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052314]. As the six-state protocol can be realized with four states, we show that the RFI-QKD protocol can also be performed with only four encoding states instead of six encoding states in its standard version. Furthermore, the numerical simulation results show that the source flaws in the key-generation basis (Z basis) will reduce the key rate but are loss tolerant, while the ones in X and Y bases almost have no effect and the key rate remains almost the same even when they are very large. Hence, our method and results will have important significance in practical experiments, especially in earth-to-satellite or chip-to-chip quantum communications.

  20. ARAMS/FRAMES JOINT FREQUENCY DATA (JFD) GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2006-10-04

    An ARAMS/FRAMES utility entitled ''Joint Frequency Data (JFD) Generator'' provides the capability of creating joint frequency tables. The resultant JFD tables contain summaries of the frequency of occurrence of meteorological dispersion, wind speed, and wind direction that are required as input in climatological air dispersion models. The JFD Generator computations are made by an updated version of the EPA STAR (STAbility ARray) program. Surface observations are combined with computed seasonally and diurnally varying solar flux rates to estimate the ambient atmospheric dispersion rates, represented as a stability category. The wind speeds and directions are obtained directly from the hourly surface observation data. The product is a file in a format that can be directly read by an air dispersion model. The JFD Generator can input hourly meteorological surface observation data in CD-144, Samson, and SCRAM data formats. An enhanced joint frequency table file that can be read directly by the ARAMS/FRAMES interface is produced. The output file has a format can be used by the MEPAS air dispersion program or can be modified for input to other models requiring joint frequency input.

  1. Merge Frame Design for Video Stream Switching Using Piecewise Constant Functions.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Cheung, Gene; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Ortega, Antonio; Au, Oscar C

    2016-08-01

    The ability to efficiently switch from one pre-encoded video stream to another (e.g., for bitrate adaptation or view switching) is important for many interactive streaming applications. Recently, stream-switching mechanisms based on distributed source coding (DSC) have been proposed. In order to reduce the overall transmission rate, these approaches provide a merge mechanism, where information is sent to the decoder, such that the exact same frame can be reconstructed given that any one of a known set of side information (SI) frames is available at the decoder (e.g., each SI frame may correspond to a different stream from which we are switching). However, the use of bit-plane coding and channel coding in many DSC approaches leads to complex coding and decoding. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for merging multiple SI frames, using a piecewise constant (PWC) function as the merge operator. In our approach, for each block to be reconstructed, a series of parameters of these PWC merge functions are transmitted in order to guarantee identical reconstruction given the known SI blocks. We consider two different scenarios. In the first case, a target frame is first given, and then merge parameters are chosen, so that this frame can be reconstructed exactly at the decoder. In contrast, in the second scenario, the reconstructed frame and the merge parameters are jointly optimized to meet a rate-distortion criteria. Experiments show that for both scenarios, our proposed merge techniques can outperform both a recent approach based on DSC and the SP-frame approach in H.264, in terms of compression efficiency and decoder complexity. PMID:27244739

  2. Merge Frame Design for Video Stream Switching Using Piecewise Constant Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Cheung, Gene; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Ortega, Antonio; Au, Oscar C.

    2016-08-01

    The ability to efficiently switch from one pre-encoded video stream to another (e.g., for bitrate adaptation or view switching) is important for many interactive streaming applications. Recently, stream-switching mechanisms based on distributed source coding (DSC) have been proposed. In order to reduce the overall transmission rate, these approaches provide a "merge" mechanism, where information is sent to the decoder such that the exact same frame can be reconstructed given that any one of a known set of side information (SI) frames is available at the decoder (e.g., each SI frame may correspond to a different stream from which we are switching). However, the use of bit-plane coding and channel coding in many DSC approaches leads to complex coding and decoding. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for merging multiple SI frames, using a piecewise constant (PWC) function as the merge operator. In our approach, for each block to be reconstructed, a series of parameters of these PWC merge functions are transmitted in order to guarantee identical reconstruction given the known side information blocks. We consider two different scenarios. In the first case, a target frame is first given, and then merge parameters are chosen so that this frame can be reconstructed exactly at the decoder. In contrast, in the second scenario, the reconstructed frame and merge parameters are jointly optimized to meet a rate-distortion criteria. Experiments show that for both scenarios, our proposed merge techniques can outperform both a recent approach based on DSC and the SP-frame approach in H.264, in terms of compression efficiency and decoder complexity.

  3. Names in frames: infants interpret words in sentence frames faster than words in isolation

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2011-01-01

    In child-directed speech (CDS), adults often use utterances with very few words; many include short, frequently used sentence frames, while others consist of a single word in isolation. Do such features of CDS provide perceptual advantages for the child? Based on descriptive analyses of parental speech, some researchers argue that isolated words should help infants in word recognition by facilitating segmentation, while others predict no advantage. To address this question directly, we used online measures of speech processing in a looking-while-listening procedure. In two experiments, 18-month-olds were presented with familiar object names in isolation and in a sentence frame. Infants were 120 ms slower to interpret target words in isolation than when the same words were preceded by a familiar carrier phrase, suggesting that the sentence frame facilitated word recognition. Familiar frames may enable the infant to ‘listen ahead’ more efficiently for the focused word at the end of the sentence. PMID:16669790

  4. Reference Frames in Earth Rotation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrándiz, José M.; Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Getino, Juan; Schuh, Harald; Escapa, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and the different Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF) are not independent. The available theories of Earth rotation aims at providing the orientation of a certain reference system linked somehow to the Earth with respect to a given celestial system, considered as inertial. In the past years a considerable effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the TRF realizations, following the lines set up in the 1980's. However, the reference systems used in the derivation of the theories have been rather considered as something fully established, not deserving a special attention. In this contribution we review the definitions of the frames used in the main theoretical approaches, focusing on those used in the construction of IAU2000, and the extent to which their underlying hypotheses hold. The results are useful to determine the level of consistency of the predicted and determined EOP.

  5. URAT and the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    The US Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) survey begun in April 2012 and the Northern Hemisphere program will be completed in 2015. Positions of over 228 million stars in the about R = 3 to 19 mag range were published with the URAT1 catalog release (CDS I/329) and positional accuracy near 10 mas per coordinate for mid-range magnitude objects.URAT directly observes Hipparcos stars as well as counterparts of extragalactic ICRF2 sources. The status of the current celestial reference frame is investigated with URAT data. The accuracy of Hipparcos positions at URAT epoch is analyzed. Radio-optical position differences are investigated for possible astrophysical offsets which would affect the Gaia to radio reference frame alignment accuracy.

  6. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __want__, __see__, and __get__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and creativity of use in these slots. We do so using a rigorously controlled sample of child speech and child directed speech from three English-speaking children between the ages of 2-3 years and their caregivers. We find different levels of creativity and flexibility between the adult and child samples for some measures, for some slots, and for some developmental periods. We discuss these differences in the context of verb frame semantics, conventionality versus creativity and child errors, and draw some tentative conclusions regarding developmental changes in children's early grammatical representations. PMID:25604137

  7. Heteronuclear decoupling by multiple rotating frame technique

    PubMed Central

    Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard; Khaneja, Navin

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the multiple rotating frame technique for designing modulated rf fields, that perform broadband heteronuclear decoupling in solution NMR spectroscopy. The decoupling method presented here is understood by performing a sequence of coordinate transformations, each of which demodulates a component of the rf field to a static component, that progressively averages the chemical shift and the dipolar interaction. We show that by increasing the number of modulations in the decoupling field, the ratio of dispersion in the chemical shift to the strength of the static component of the rf field is successively reduced in the progressive frames. The known decoupling methods like continuous wave decoupling, TPPM, etc., can be viewed as special cases of this method and their performance improves by adding additional modulations in the decoupling field. The technique is also expected to find use in design of broadband excitation, inversion and mixing sequences and broadband experiments in solid state NMR. PMID:21227724

  8. Composite lightweight non-metallic vehicle frame

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A non-metallic ladder type automotive frame is described having beam elements formed of composite plastic materials. The frame consists of: paired opposed elongate lateral beams interconnected by plural cross beams, each of the beams and cross beams having, a rigid lower density core formed by foaming plastic material in a peripheral mold to create a structure having closed cells and a graduated density that is greatest at the periphery of the core, and a higher density peripheral skin formed of polymeric matrix material adhered to the core and embedding reinforcing fiber in the form of woven cloth, plural layers of the cloth, covering the peripheral surfaces of the beams and additional layers of the cloth covering top and bottom portions of the beams, and means of releasably fastening automotive components to at least some of the beams.

  9. Relativistic stellar stability: Preferred-frame effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.

    1973-01-01

    Possible preferred-frame effects on stellar stability were examined and no new instabilities were found. In particular, it is shown that: (1) Although terms linear in the preferred-frame velocity w (time-odd terms, analogous to viscosity and energy generation) change the shapes of the normal modes, their symmetry properties prevent them from changing the characteristic frequencies. Thus, no new vibrational or secular instabilities can occur. (2) Terms quadratic in w do not change either the shapes of the normal modes or the characteristic frequencies for radial pulsations. Thus, they have no influence on radial stability. (3) Terms quadratic in w do change both the normal modes and the characteristic frequencies of nonradial pulsations; but in the limit of a neutral mode these changes vanish. Hence, there is no modification of the criterion for convective stability, i.e., the standard Schwarzschild criterion remains valid.

  10. Spline Curves, Wire Frames and Bvalue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L.; Munchmeyer, F.

    1985-01-01

    The methods that were developed for wire-frame design are described. The principal tools for control of a curve during interactive design are mathematical ducks. The simplest of these devices is an analog of the draftsman's lead weight that he uses to control a mechanical spline also create Ducks for controlling differential and integral properties of curves were created. Other methods presented include: constructing the end of a Bezier polygon to gain quick and reasonably confident control of the end tangent vector, end curvature and end torsion; keeping the magnitude of unwanted curvature oscillations within tolerance; constructing the railroad curves that appear in many engineering design problems; and controlling the frame to minimize errors at mesh points and to optimize the shapes of the curve elements.

  11. Tunneling Spectroscopy by Level Matching in the Spin Rotating Frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changho

    _{rm Z}=2omega_{ rm T}, which indicate that two methyl groups simultaneously undergo a symmetry breaking transition, were observed in the Theta=54.7^circ tilted rotating frame. The dependencies of level -matching transitions on Zeeman-tunneling mixing time, tilt angle and temperature are reported. By adding a train of C pulses, "comb-C", to the ABC sequence it is possible to monitor consecutive polarization transfers from tunneling to Zeeman states, leading to a saturation of tunneling states. The dependence of the saturation rate on the Zeeman splitting also yields a resonance peak at the effective magnetic field which satisfies a level-matching condition. The experimental results for propionic acid are reported. The ABC method is used to study the torsion-torsion interaction of methyl groups with low hindering potential as well. The model compound is acetylacetone which has tunneling frequencies in the GHz range. In the rotating -frame level-matching experiment transitions between methyl states, which are split due to the methyl-methyl torsional interaction, are observed. The level matching resonances detected at Delta=nomega_{ rm T}, n=1/4, 1/3, 1/2 and 1, are interpreted in terms of three-weakly-coupled -methyl groups. hDelta is the torsion -torsion E state splitting which was found to be 27.2 +/- 0.5 G. Dependencies of these level matching transition peaks on the main field strength, mixing time and temperature are also reported. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. GAOUA realizations of the Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya.; Bolotin, S.; Kur'yanova, A.

    2005-09-01

    Short overview of the activity of the Main Astronomical observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine for maintenance and extension of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is presented. Special attention is paid on the time stabilities of positions of radio sources (RS) and on the selection of a subset of RS to be used for maintenance of the ICRF. It is shown that seven RS qualified by the IERS as defining sources are unstable.

  13. Key frames extraction in athletic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

  14. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages. PMID:27423134

  15. Flexibly weighted integration of tactile reference frames.

    PubMed

    Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the location of a tactile stimulus, the brain seems to integrate different types of spatial information such as skin-based, anatomical coordinates and external, spatiotopic coordinates. The aim of the present study was to test whether the use of these coordinates is fixed, or whether they are weighted according to the task context. Participants made judgments about two tactile stimuli with different vibration characteristics, one applied to each hand. First, they always performed temporal order judgments (TOJ) of the tactile stimuli with respect to the stimulated hands that were either crossed or uncrossed. The resulting crossing effect, that is, impaired performance in crossed compared to uncrossed conditions, was used as a measure of reference frame weighting and was compared across conditions. Second, in dual judgment conditions participants subsequently made judgments about the stimulus vibration characteristics, either with respect to spatial location or with respect to temporal order. Responses in the spatial secondary task either accented anatomical (Experiment 1) or external (Experiment 2) coding. A TOJ crossing effect emerged in all conditions, and secondary tasks did not affect primary task performance in the uncrossed posture. Yet, the spatial secondary task resulted in improved crossed hands performance in the primary task, but only if the secondary judgment stressed the anatomical reference frame (Experiment 1), rather than the external reference frames (Experiment 2). Like the anatomically coded spatial secondary task, the temporal secondary task improved crossed hand performance of the primary task. The differential influence of the varying secondary tasks implies that integration weights assigned to the anatomical and external reference frames are not fixed. Rather, they are flexibly adjusted to the context, presumably through top-down modulation. PMID:25447059

  16. Reference frame requirements and the MERIT campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Zhu, S. Y.; Bock, Y.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is given of how satellite, lunar laser, and very long base interferometry stations available during the MERIT Campaign in 1983/84 can contribute to the detection of short periodic variations in the rotational parameters of the earth, as well as the determination of the differences between the various Conventional Terrestrial and Inertial Reference Frames inherent in the above systems. Specific observational requirements are given both by objective and by country.

  17. Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Bryan C. . E-mail: bryan.murray@utsouthwestern.edu; Forster, Kenneth; Timmerman, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates

  18. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  19. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  20. Simulation of a fast framing staring sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, K.J.; Wickstrom, R.D.

    1998-04-01

    A sensor system simulation has been developed which aids in the evaluation of a proposed fast framing staring sensor as it will perform in its operational environment. Beginning with a high resolution input image, a sequence of frames at the target sensor resolution are produced using the assumed platform motion and the contribution of various noise sources as input data. The resulting frame sequence can then be used to help define system requirements, to aid algorithm development, and to predict system performance. In order to assess the performance of a sensor system, the radiance measured by the system is modeled using a variety of scenarios. For performance prediction, the modeling effort is directed toward providing the ability to determine the minimum Noise Equivalent Target (NET) intensities for each band of the sensor system. The NET is calculated at the entrance pupil of the instrument in such a way that the results can be applied to a variety of point source targets and collection conditions. The intent is to facilitate further study within the user community as new mission areas and/or targets of interest develop that are not addressed explicitly during sensor conceptual design.

  1. X-Ray Backscatter Machine Support Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This summer at Kennedy Space Center, I spent 10 weeks as an intern working at the Prototype Development Lab. During this time I learned about the design and machining done here at NASA. I became familiar with the process from where a design begins in Pro/Engineer and finishes at the hands of the machinists. As an intern I was given various small jobs to do and then one project of my own. My personal project was a job for the Applied Physics Lab; in their work they use an X-Ray Backscatter machine. Previously it was resting atop a temporary frame that limited the use of the machine. My job was to design a frame for the machine to rest upon that would allow a full range of sample sizes. The frame was required to support the machine and provide a strain relief for the cords attached to the machine as it moved in the x and y directions. Calculations also had to be done to be sure the design would be able to withstand any loads or outside sources of stress. After the calculations proved the design to be ready to withstand the requirements, the parts were ordered or fabricated, as required. This helped me understand the full process of jobs sent to the Prototype Development Lab.

  2. Celestial reference frame RSC (GAOUA) 98 C 01.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotaj, O. A.; Tel'Nyuk-Adamchuk, V. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    The celestial reference frame RSC (GAOUA) 98 C 01 was constructed by applying the Kiev arc method to five initial frames submitted to the IERS during 1997. The frame comprises positions of 631 radio sources. The frame axes are aligned to those of the ICRF with an accuracy of 0.02 mas using all 212 defining common radio sources. The internal standard errors of right ascension and declination for the defining sources are equal to 0.11 and 0.13 mas, respectively. Results of intercomparison between the ICRF, five initial frames, and the compiled frame are discussed.

  3. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  4. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women’s Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    BEST, ALICIA L.; SPENCER, S. MELINDA; FRIEDMAN, DANIELA B.; HALL, INGRID J.; BILLINGS, DEBORAH

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001). Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  5. 3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content. PMID:17491456

  6. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference

  7. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J.; Ray, J.

    2016-01-01

    While it has been known for some time that offsets in the time-series of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position estimates degrade station velocity determinations, the magnitude of the effect has not been clear. Using products of the International GNSS Service (IGS), we assess the impact empirically by injecting progressively larger numbers of artificial offsets and solving for a series of long-term secular GNSS frames. Our results show that the stability of the IGS global frame datum is fairly robust, with significant effects at the formal error level only for the Rx (and Y-pole) and Rz rotational orientations. On the other hand, station velocity estimates are more seriously affected, especially the vertical component. For the typical IGS station, the mean vertical rate uncertainty is already limited to 0.34 mm yr-1 for the current set of position discontinuities. If the number of breaks doubles, which might occur using newer detection schemes, then that uncertainty will worsen by ˜40 per cent to 0.48 mm yr-1. This error source is generally a more important component of realistic velocity uncertainties than any other, including accounting for temporal correlations in the GNSS data. The only way to improve future GNSS velocity estimates is to severely limit manmade displacements at the tracking stations.

  8. Realization of fertility intentions by different time frames.

    PubMed

    Dommermuth, Lars; Klobas, Jane; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-06-01

    This paper focuses on the realization of positive fertility intentions with different time frames. The analyses are based on a unique combination of survey data and information from Norwegian administrative registers on childbearing in the years following the complete selected sample. Guided by the theoretical and empirical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the results suggest that a fertility intention's time frame is relevant for childbearing behaviour, but the patterns are somewhat different for respondents who were childless at the time of the interview compared to those who already had children. Overall, childless were less likely to realize their fertility intentions than parents. Following the TPB, childless may underestimate the difficulty of acting on their intentions and therefore have more difficulty realizing their intentions, versus parents who take into account their ability to manage another child. The results also show that childless with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to succeed than those with a longer-term intention. Likewise, parents with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to realize their intention during the two first years after the interview, but after four years the childbearing rate was higher among those with longer-term fertility intentions. PMID:26047988

  9. UEM boosts cogeneration activity with frame 6 gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Boissenin, Y.; Moliere, M.; Remyl, P.

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, after EC directives allowed the use of natural gas for electricity production, Usine d`Electricite de Metz (UEM) decided to install a new combined-cycle plant based on a 38 MW MS6001B gas turbine supplied by European Gas Turbines. This selection was made after a screening of twenty or so solutions. The cogeneration/combined-cycle system based on a heavy-duty gas turbine was found to be the best because it ensured high efficiency, low environment impact and a profitability ratio of 20%, providing a payback of five years. The system consisting of the gas turbine, HRSG and other structures of the Chambiere plant has an efficiency of over 80% in cogeneration mode and approaching 50% in the combined-cycle configuration. A major factor in this flexibility is the Frame 6 gas turbine. The UEM Frame 6 gas turbine at site conditions has a rated ISO output of 38.15 MW without steam injection, 40.5 MW with 10.5 t/h of steam and 43.5 MW with 24.7 t/h of steam. NO{sub x} emissions are 152, 42 and less than 42 ppm respectively, at 15% O{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} emissions are below 100 g/MJ at base load, and a 14% increase in output by steam injection will only cause a 7% increase in CO{sub 2} emissions.

  10. 57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING AND UNDERSIDE FRAMING - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  11. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  12. Frame structure for a four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, I.

    1986-09-30

    A frame is described for a four-wheel drive vehicle of the type where the rider straddles the vehicle, comprising a front axle support structure extending transversely of the vehicle; an upper frame structure including two downtubes extending upwardly, rearwardly and inwardly from the axle support structure and two main body tubes extending rearwardly from the downtubes; a lower frame structure extending rearwardly from the axle support structure, the lower frame structure including two lower frame tubes mutually spaced and extending rearwardly from the axle support structure. The lower frame structure is laterally inward of the downtubes at the axle support structure and laterally outward of the main body tubes; and each of the downtubes, main body tubes and lower frame tubes being formed from a continuous tube, the main body tube and the lower frame tube forming a continuous U-bend at the rear of the vehicle.

  13. Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old frames and planks with bulwark timbers above. - Schooner ERNESTINA, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park State Pier, New Bedford, Bristol County, MA

  14. Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Vu Truong Son; Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Nguyen, Hoang Dung; Le Cuong, Vo; Takehara, Kohsei; Akino, Toshiro; Nishi, Kenji; Aoki, Hitoshi; Nakai, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Our experience in the design of an ultra-high speed image sensor targeting the theoretical maximum frame rate is summarized. The imager is the backside illuminated in situ storage image sensor (BSI ISIS). It is confirmed that the critical factor limiting the highest frame rate is the signal electron transit time from the generation layer at the back side of each pixel to the input gate to the in situ storage area on the front side. The theoretical maximum frame rate is estimated at 100 Mega-frames per second (Mfps) by transient simulation study. The sensor has a spatial resolution of 140,800 pixels with 126 linear storage elements installed in each pixel. The very high sensitivity is ensured by application of backside illumination technology and cooling. The ultra-high frame rate is achieved by the in situ storage image sensor (ISIS) structure on the front side. In this paper, we summarize technologies developed to achieve the theoretical maximum frame rate, including: (1) a special p-well design by triple injections to generate a smooth electric field backside towards the collection gate on the front side, resulting in much shorter electron transit time; (2) design technique to reduce RC delay by employing an extra metal layer exclusively to electrodes responsible for ultra-high speed image capturing; (3) a CCD specific complementary on-chip inductance minimization technique with a couple of stacked differential bus lines. PMID:22315524

  15. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciTech Connect

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  16. Lung tissue classification using wavelet frames.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Sage, Daniel; Hidki, Asmâa; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Unser, Michael; Müller, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We describe a texture classification system that identifies lung tissue patterns from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This pattern recognition task is part of an image-based diagnostic aid system for ILDs. Five lung tissue patterns (healthy, emphysema, ground glass, fibrosis and microdules) selected from a multimedia database are classified using the overcomplete discrete wavelet frame decompostion combined with grey-level histogram features. The overall multiclass accuracy reaches 92.5% of correct matches while combining the two types of features, which are found to be complementary. PMID:18003452

  17. Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Nikodem J.

    2006-11-15

    The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.

  18. Anticipating change, sparking innovation: framing the future.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Donna J; Finnegan, John R; Spencer, Harrison C

    2015-03-01

    As the 100th anniversary of the 1915 Welch-Rose report approaches, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) has been pursuing two initiatives to spark innovation in academic partnerships for enhancing population health: (1) Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health and (2) Reconnecting Public Health and Care Delivery to Improve the Health of Populations. We describe how ASPPH-member schools and programs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health, along with their extraordinarily diverse array of partners, are working to improve education that better prepares health professionals to meet 21st-century population health needs. PMID:25706017

  19. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  20. The celestial reference frame defined by VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    VLBI currently produces the most accurate positions of celestial objects. From 1979 to 1987, 114 extragalactic radio sources have been observed with dual-frequency Mark III VLBI as part of the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project and the NGS POLARIS/IRIS program. The formal statistical errors of conventional celestial coordinates are as small as 0.3 milliarcseconds. The fundamental quantity measured by VLBI is the arc length between radio sources. Thus, it is suggested that VLBI be used to establish a coordinate reference frame based solely on radio positions, and that this system not necessarily be coupled to right ascension and declination.