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Sample records for 60s biogenesis pathway

  1. A protein inventory of human ribosome biogenesis reveals an essential function of exportin 5 in 60S subunit export.

    PubMed

    Wild, Thomas; Horvath, Peter; Wyler, Emanuel; Widmann, Barbara; Badertscher, Lukas; Zemp, Ivo; Kozak, Karol; Csucs, Gabor; Lund, Elsebet; Kutay, Ulrike

    2010-10-26

    The assembly of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes is a complex, multistep process so far mostly studied in yeast. In S. cerevisiae, more than 200 factors including ribosomal proteins and trans-acting factors are required for the ordered assembly of 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. To date, only few human homologs of these yeast ribosome synthesis factors have been characterized. Here, we used a systematic RNA interference (RNAi) approach to analyze the contribution of 464 candidate factors to ribosomal subunit biogenesis in human cells. The screen was based on visual readouts, using inducible, fluorescent ribosomal proteins as reporters. By performing computer-based image analysis utilizing supervised machine-learning techniques, we obtained evidence for a functional link of 153 human proteins to ribosome synthesis. Our data show that core features of ribosome assembly are conserved from yeast to human, but differences exist for instance with respect to 60S subunit export. Unexpectedly, our RNAi screen uncovered a requirement for the export receptor Exportin 5 (Exp5) in nuclear export of 60S subunits in human cells. We show that Exp5, like the known 60S exportin Crm1, binds to pre-60S particles in a RanGTP-dependent manner. Interference with either Exp5 or Crm1 function blocks 60S export in both human cells and frog oocytes, whereas 40S export is compromised only upon inhibition of Crm1. Thus, 60S subunit export is dependent on at least two RanGTP-binding exportins in vertebrate cells.

  2. Defining the pathway of cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kai-Yin; Li, Zhihua; Bussiere, Cyril; Bresson, Stefan; Marcotte, Edward M; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells the final maturation of ribosomes occurs in the cytoplasm, where trans-acting factors are removed and critical ribosomal proteins are added for functionality. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of cytoplasmic maturation, ordering the known steps into a coherent pathway. Maturation is initiated by the ATPase Drg1. Downstream, assembly of the ribosome stalk is essential for the release of Tif6. The stalk recruits GTPases during translation. Because the GTPase Efl1, which is required for the release of Tif6, resembles the translation elongation factor eEF2, we suggest that assembly of the stalk recruits Efl1, triggering a step in 60S biogenesis that mimics aspects of translocation. Efl1 could thereby provide a mechanism to functionally check the nascent subunit. Finally, the release of Tif6 is a prerequisite for the release of the nuclear export adapter Nmd3. Establishing this pathway provides an important conceptual framework for understanding ribosome maturation. PMID:20670889

  3. Dbp9p, a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase involved in 60S-ribosomal-subunit biogenesis, functionally interacts with Dbp6p.

    PubMed Central

    Daugeron, M C; Kressler, D; Linder, P

    2001-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is a highly complex process and constitutes a major cellular activity. The biogenesis of this ribonucleoprotein assembly requires a multitude of protein trans-acting factors including several putative ATP-dependent RNA helicases of the DEAD-box and related protein families. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YLR276C, hereafter named DBP9 (DEAD-box protein 9), encodes an essential nucleolar protein involved in 60S-ribosomal-subunit biogenesis. Genetic depletion of Dbp9p results in a deficit in 60S ribosomal subunits and the appearance of half-mer polysomes. This terminal phenotype is likely due to the instability of early pre-ribosomal particles, as evidenced by the low steady-state levels and the decreased synthesis of the 27S precursors to mature 25S and 5.8S rRNAs. In agreement with a role of Dbp9p in 60S subunit synthesis, we find that increased Dbp9p dosage efficiently suppresses certain dbp6 alleles and that dbp6/dbp9 double mutants show synthetic lethality. Furthermore, Dbp6p and Dbp9p weakly interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Altogether, our findings indicate an intimate functional interaction between Dbp6p and Dbp9p during the process of 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly. PMID:11565753

  4. MicroRNA biogenesis pathways in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuibin; Gregory, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression. Amplification and overexpression of individual ‘oncomiRs’ or genetic loss of tumour suppressor miRNAs are associated with human cancer and are sufficient to drive tumorigenesis in mouse models. Furthermore, global miRNA depletion caused by genetic and epigenetic alterations in components of the miRNA biogenesis machinery is oncogenic. This, together with the recent identification of novel miRNA regulatory factors and pathways, highlights the importance of miRNA dysregulation in cancer. PMID:25998712

  5. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  6. Bypass of the pre-60S ribosomal quality control as a pathway to oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sulima, Sergey O.; Patchett, Stephanie; Advani, Vivek M.; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Johnson, Arlen W.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomopathies are a class of diseases caused by mutations that affect the biosynthesis and/or functionality of the ribosome. Although they initially present as hypoproliferative disorders, such as anemia, patients have elevated risk of hyperproliferative disease (cancer) by midlife. Here, this paradox is explored using the rpL10-R98S (uL16-R98S) mutant yeast model of the most commonly identified ribosomal mutation in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. This mutation causes a late-stage 60S subunit maturation failure that targets mutant ribosomes for degradation. The resulting deficit in ribosomes causes the hypoproliferative phenotype. This 60S subunit shortage, in turn, exerts pressure on cells to select for suppressors of the ribosome biogenesis defect, allowing them to reestablish normal levels of ribosome production and cell proliferation. However, suppression at this step releases structurally and functionally defective ribosomes into the translationally active pool, and the translational fidelity defects of these mutants culminate in destabilization of selected mRNAs and shortened telomeres. We suggest that in exchange for resolving their short-term ribosome deficits through compensatory trans-acting suppressors, cells are penalized in the long term by changes in gene expression that ultimately undermine cellular homeostasis. PMID:24706786

  7. Bypass of the pre-60S ribosomal quality control as a pathway to oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sulima, Sergey O; Patchett, Stephanie; Advani, Vivek M; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Johnson, Arlen W; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2014-04-15

    Ribosomopathies are a class of diseases caused by mutations that affect the biosynthesis and/or functionality of the ribosome. Although they initially present as hypoproliferative disorders, such as anemia, patients have elevated risk of hyperproliferative disease (cancer) by midlife. Here, this paradox is explored using the rpL10-R98S (uL16-R98S) mutant yeast model of the most commonly identified ribosomal mutation in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. This mutation causes a late-stage 60S subunit maturation failure that targets mutant ribosomes for degradation. The resulting deficit in ribosomes causes the hypoproliferative phenotype. This 60S subunit shortage, in turn, exerts pressure on cells to select for suppressors of the ribosome biogenesis defect, allowing them to reestablish normal levels of ribosome production and cell proliferation. However, suppression at this step releases structurally and functionally defective ribosomes into the translationally active pool, and the translational fidelity defects of these mutants culminate in destabilization of selected mRNAs and shortened telomeres. We suggest that in exchange for resolving their short-term ribosome deficits through compensatory trans-acting suppressors, cells are penalized in the long term by changes in gene expression that ultimately undermine cellular homeostasis.

  8. Ribosome-stalk biogenesis is coupled with recruitment of nuclear-export factor to the nascent 60S subunit.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anshuk; Pech, Markus; Thoms, Matthias; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear export of preribosomal subunits is a key step during eukaryotic ribosome formation. To efficiently pass through the FG-repeat meshwork of the nuclear pore complex, the large pre-60S subunit requires several export factors. Here we describe the mechanism of recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-export receptor Mex67-Mtr2 to the pre-60S subunit at the proper time. Mex67-Mtr2 binds at the premature ribosomal-stalk region, which later during translation serves as a binding platform for translational GTPases on the mature ribosome. The assembly factor Mrt4, a structural homolog of cytoplasmic-stalk protein P0, masks this site, thus preventing untimely recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to nuclear pre-60S particles. Subsequently, Yvh1 triggers Mrt4 release in the nucleus, thereby creating a narrow time window for Mex67-Mtr2 association at this site and facilitating nuclear export of the large subunit. Thus, a spatiotemporal mark on the ribosomal stalk controls the recruitment of an RNA-export receptor to the nascent 60S subunit.

  9. Centenarians maintain miRNA biogenesis pathway while it is impaired in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Borrás, C; Serna, E; Gambini, J; Inglés, M; Vina, J

    2017-07-25

    Centenarians but not octogenarians up regulate the expression of miRNAs, as we previously reported. We have looked into miRNA biogenesis. We show that RNA POL II, DROSHA, EXPORTIN 5 and DICER, are up-regulated in centenarians compared with octogenarians. Furthermore, factors involved in the control of these miRNAs biogenesis genes are also up-regulated in centenarians. Therefore, the up-regulation of miRNA expression in centenarians can be explained in part because miRNA biogenesis pathway is depressed in octogenarians (ordinary aging) while it is maintained in centenarians (extraordinary aging). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The evolution of the ribosome biogenesis pathway from a yeast perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; Simm, Stefan; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Schmitzberger, Peter; Mirus, Oliver; von Haeseler, Arndt; Bohnsack, Markus T.; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is fundamental for cellular life, but surprisingly little is known about the underlying pathway. In eukaryotes a comprehensive collection of experimentally verified ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) exists only for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Far less is known for other fungi, animals or plants, and insights are even more limited for archaea. Starting from 255 yeast RBFs, we integrated ortholog searches, domain architecture comparisons and, in part, manual curation to investigate the inventories of RBF candidates in 261 eukaryotes, 26 archaea and 57 bacteria. The resulting phylogenetic profiles reveal the evolutionary ancestry of the yeast pathway. The oldest core comprising 20 RBF lineages dates back to the last universal common ancestor, while the youngest 20 factors are confined to the Saccharomycotina. On this basis, we outline similarities and differences of ribosome biogenesis across contemporary species. Archaea, so far a rather uncharted domain, possess 38 well-supported RBF candidates of which some are known to form functional sub-complexes in yeast. This provides initial evidence that ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes and archaea follows similar principles. Within eukaryotes, RBF repertoires vary considerably. A comparison of yeast and human reveals that lineage-specific adaptation via RBF exclusion and addition characterizes the evolution of this ancient pathway. PMID:24234440

  11. Analysis of membrane lipid biogenesis pathways using yeast genetics.

    PubMed

    Gsell, Martina; Daum, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a valuable eukaryotic model organism to study biochemical and cellular processes at a molecular basis. A common strategy for such studies is the use of single and multiple mutants constructed by genetic manipulation which are compromised in individual enzymatic steps or certain metabolic pathways. Here, we describe selected examples of yeast research on phospholipid metabolism with emphasis on our own work dealing with investigations of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. Such studies start with the selection and construction of appropriate mutants and lead to phenotype analysis, lipid profiling, enzymatic analysis, and in vivo experiments. Comparing results obtained with wild-type and mutant strains allows us to understand the role of gene products and metabolic processes in more detail. Such studies are valuable not only for contributing to our knowledge of the complex network of lipid metabolism, but also of effects of lipids on structure and function of cellular membranes.

  12. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress through SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-guang; Zhu, Wei; Tao, Jian-ping; Xin, Ping; Liu, Ming-ya; Li, Jing-bo; Wei, Meng

    2013-08-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated by oxidative stress and plays an important role in various cardiac pathologies. The SIRT1 signaling pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis play essential roles in mediating the production of ROS. SIRT1 activated by resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress, but the exact mechanisms by which SIRT1 prevents oxidative stress, and its relationship with mitochondrial biogenesis, remain unclear. In this study, it was observed that after stimulation with 50μMH2O2 for 6h, H9C2 cells produced excessive ROS and downregulated SIRT1. The mitochondrial protein NDUFA13 was also downregulated by ROS mediated by SIRT1. Resveratrol induced the expression of SIRT1 and mitochondrial genes NDUFA1, NDUFA2, NDUFA13 and Mn-SOD. However, the production of these genes was reversed by SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. These results suggest that resveratrol inhibits ROS generation in cardiomyocytes via SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances in the Suf Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway: Beyond the Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Outten, F Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Fe-S clusters play critical roles in cellular function throughout all three kingdoms of life. Consequently, Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems are present in most organisms. The Suf (sulfur formation) system is the most ancient of the three characterized Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways, which also include the Isc and Nif systems. Much of the first work on the Suf system took place in Gram-negative Proteobacteria used as model organisms. These early studies led to a wealth of biochemical, genetic, and physiological information on Suf function. From those studies we have learned that SufB functions as an Fe-S scaffold in conjunction with SufC (and in some cases SufD). SufS and SufE together mobilize sulfur for cluster assembly and SufA traffics the complete Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, recent progress on the Suf system in other organisms has opened up new avenues of research and new hypotheses about Suf function. This review focuses primarily on the most recent discoveries about the Suf pathway and where those new models may lead the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  14. Interplay between Oxygen and Fe–S Cluster Biogenesis: Insights from the Suf Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster metalloproteins conduct essential functions in nearly all contemporary forms of life. The nearly ubiquitous presence of Fe–S clusters and the fundamental requirement for Fe–S clusters in both aerobic and anaerobic Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya suggest that these clusters were likely integrated into central metabolic pathways early in the evolution of life prior to the widespread oxidation of Earth’s atmosphere. Intriguingly, Fe–S cluster-dependent metabolism is sensitive to disruption by oxygen because of the decreased bioavailability of ferric iron as well as direct oxidation of sulfur trafficking intermediates and Fe–S clusters by reactive oxygen species. This fact, coupled with the ubiquity of Fe–S clusters in aerobic organisms, suggests that organisms evolved with mechanisms that facilitate the biogenesis and use of these essential cofactors in the presence of oxygen, which gradually began to accumulate around 2.5 billion years ago as oxygenic photosynthesis proliferated and reduced minerals that buffered against oxidation were depleted. This review highlights the most ancient of the Fe–S cluster biogenesis pathways, the Suf system, which likely was present in early anaerobic forms of life. Herein, we use the evolution of the Suf pathway to assess the relationships between the biochemical functions and physiological roles of Suf proteins, with an emphasis on the selective pressure of oxygen toxicity. Our analysis suggests that diversification into oxygen-containing environments disrupted iron and sulfur metabolism and was a main driving force in the acquisition of accessory Suf proteins (such as SufD, SufE, and SufS) by the core SufB–SufC scaffold complex. This analysis provides a new framework for the study of Fe–S cluster biogenesis pathways and Fe–S cluster-containing metalloenzymes and their complicated patterns of divergence in response to oxygen. PMID:25153801

  15. Recent advances in the Suf Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway: Beyond the Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Outten, F. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Fe-S clusters play critical roles in cellular function throughout all three kingdoms of life. Consequently, Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems are present in most organisms. The Suf (sulfur formation) system is the most ancient of the three characterized Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways, which also include the Isc and Nif systems. Much of the first work on the Suf system took place in Gram-negative Proteobacteria used as model organisms. These early studies led to a wealth of biochemical, genetic, and physiological information on Suf function. From those studies we have learned that SufB functions as an Fe-S scaffold in conjunction with SufC (and in some cases SufD). SufS and SufE together mobilize sulfur for cluster assembly and SufA traffics the complete Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, recent progress on the Suf system in other organisms has opened up new avenues of research and new hypotheses about Suf function. This review focuses primarily on the most recent discoveries about the Suf pathway and where those new models may lead the field. PMID:25447545

  16. Secretory granule biogenesis and neuropeptide sorting to the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Loh, Y Peng; Kim, Taeyoon; Rodriguez, Yazmin M; Cawley, Niamh X

    2004-01-01

    Neuropeptide precursors synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum are transported and sorted at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the granules of the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) of neuroendocrine cells. They are then processed into active peptides and stored in large dense-core granules (LDCGs) until secreted upon stimulation. We have studied the regulation of biogenesis of the LDCGs and the mechanism by which neuropeptide precursors, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are sorted into these LDCGs of the RSP in neuroendocrine and endocrine cells. We provide evidence that chromogranin A (CgA), one of the most abundant acidic glycoproteins ubiquitously present in neuroendocrine/endocrine cells, plays an important role in the regulation of LDCG biogenesis. Specific depletion of CgA expression by antisense RNAs in PC12 cells led to a profound loss of secretory granule formation. Exogenously expressed POMC was neither stored nor secreted in a regulated manner in these CgA-deficient PC12 cells. Overexpression of CgA in a CgA- and LDCG-deficient endocrine cell line, 6T3, restored regulated secretion of transfected POMC and the presence of immunoreactive CgA at the tips of the processes of these cells. Unlike CgA, CgB, another granin protein, could not substitute for the role of CgA in regulating LDCG biogenesis. Thus, we conclude that CgA is a key player in the regulation of the biogenesis of LDCGs in neuroendocrine cells. To examine the mechanism of sorting POMC to the LDCGs, we carried out site-directed mutagenesis, transfected the POMC mutants into PC12 cells, and assayed for regulated secretion. Our previous molecular modeling studies predicted a three-dimensional sorting motif in POMC that can bind to a sorting receptor, membrane carboxypeptidase E (CPE). The sorting signal consists of four conserved residues at the N-terminal loop structure of POMC: two acidic residues and two hydrophobic residues. The two acidic residues were predicted to bind to a

  17. Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Harris, Janna L; Carl, Steven M; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Eva Selfridge, J; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Koppel, Scott; Morris, Jill; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Brooks, William M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-12-15

    Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA) affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation and neurogenesis, we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 mice. OAA altered levels, distributions or post-translational modifications of mRNA and proteins (proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, PGC1 related co-activator, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor A of the mitochondria, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, cAMP-response element binding, p38 MAPK and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) in ways that should promote mitochondrial biogenesis. OAA increased Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and P70S6K phosphorylation. OAA lowered nuclear factor κB nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and CCL11 mRNA. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, doublecortin mRNA, doublecortin protein, doublecortin-positive neuron counts and neurite length increased in OAA-treated mice. (1)H-MRS showed OAA increased brain lactate, GABA and glutathione thereby demonstrating metabolic changes are detectable in vivo. In mice, OAA promotes brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activates the insulin signaling pathway, reduces neuroinflammation and activates hippocampal neurogenesis.

  18. Tor1 and CK2 kinases control a switch between alternative ribosome biogenesis pathways in a growth-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kos-Braun, Isabelle C.; Jung, Ilona; Koš, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a major energy-consuming process in the cell that has to be rapidly down-regulated in response to stress or nutrient depletion. The target of rapamycin 1 (Tor1) pathway regulates synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the level of transcription initiation. It remains unclear whether ribosome biogenesis is also controlled directly at the posttranscriptional level. We show that Tor1 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) kinases regulate a rapid switch between a productive and a non-productive pre-rRNA processing pathways in yeast. Under stress, the pre-rRNA continues to be synthesized; however, it is processed differently, and no new ribosomes are produced. Strikingly, the control of the switch does not require the Sch9 kinase, indicating that an unrecognized Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signaling branch involving CK2 kinase directly regulates ribosome biogenesis at the posttranscriptional level. PMID:28282370

  19. Visualizing ribosome biogenesis: parallel assembly pathways for the 30S subunit.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Anke M; Yoshioka, Craig; Beck, Andrea H; Bunner, Anne E; Milligan, Ronald A; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Williamson, James R

    2010-10-29

    Ribosomes are self-assembling macromolecular machines that translate DNA into proteins, and an understanding of ribosome biogenesis is central to cellular physiology. Previous studies on the Escherichia coli 30S subunit suggest that ribosome assembly occurs via multiple parallel pathways rather than through a single rate-limiting step, but little mechanistic information is known about this process. Discovery single-particle profiling (DSP), an application of time-resolved electron microscopy, was used to obtain more than 1 million snapshots of assembling 30S subunits, identify and visualize the structures of 14 assembly intermediates, and monitor the population flux of these intermediates over time. DSP results were integrated with mass spectrometry data to construct the first ribosome-assembly mechanism that incorporates binding dependencies, rate constants, and structural characterization of populated intermediates.

  20. Disparate Pathways for the Biogenesis of Cytochrome Oxidases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum*

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Doris; Rossmann, Reinhild; Landolt, Sarah; Balsiger, Sylvia; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Hennecke, Hauke

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the biogenesis of heme-copper terminal oxidases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiont of soybean. B. japonicum has four quinol oxidases and four cytochrome oxidases. The latter include the aa3- and cbb3-type oxidases. Although both have a CuB center in subunit I, the subunit II proteins differ in having either a CuA center (in aa3) or a covalently bound heme c (in cbb3). Two biogenesis factors were genetically studied here, the periplasmically exposed CoxG and ScoI proteins, which are the respective homologs of the mitochondrial copper-trafficking chaperones Cox11 and Sco1 for the formation of the CuB center in subunit I and the CuA center in subunit II of cytochrome aa3. We could demonstrate copper binding to ScoI in vitro, a process for which the thiols of cysteine residues 74 and 78 in the ScoI polypeptide were shown to be essential. Knock-out mutations in the B. japonicum coxG and scoI genes led to loss of cytochrome aa3 assembly and activity in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas the cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase apparently remained unaffected. This suggests that subunit I of the cbb3-type oxidase obtains its copper cofactor via a different pathway than cytochrome aa3. In contrast to the coxG mutation, the scoI mutation caused a decreased symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity. We hypothesize that a periplasmic B. japonicum protein other than any of the identified CuA proteins depends on ScoI and is required for an effective symbiosis. PMID:20335176

  1. Disparate pathways for the biogenesis of cytochrome oxidases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Doris; Rossmann, Reinhild; Landolt, Sarah; Balsiger, Sylvia; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Hennecke, Hauke

    2010-05-21

    This work addresses the biogenesis of heme-copper terminal oxidases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiont of soybean. B. japonicum has four quinol oxidases and four cytochrome oxidases. The latter include the aa(3)- and cbb(3)-type oxidases. Although both have a Cu(B) center in subunit I, the subunit II proteins differ in having either a Cu(A) center (in aa(3)) or a covalently bound heme c (in cbb(3)). Two biogenesis factors were genetically studied here, the periplasmically exposed CoxG and ScoI proteins, which are the respective homologs of the mitochondrial copper-trafficking chaperones Cox11 and Sco1 for the formation of the Cu(B) center in subunit I and the Cu(A) center in subunit II of cytochrome aa(3). We could demonstrate copper binding to ScoI in vitro, a process for which the thiols of cysteine residues 74 and 78 in the ScoI polypeptide were shown to be essential. Knock-out mutations in the B. japonicum coxG and scoI genes led to loss of cytochrome aa(3) assembly and activity in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas the cbb(3)-type cytochrome oxidase apparently remained unaffected. This suggests that subunit I of the cbb(3)-type oxidase obtains its copper cofactor via a different pathway than cytochrome aa(3). In contrast to the coxG mutation, the scoI mutation caused a decreased symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity. We hypothesize that a periplasmic B. japonicum protein other than any of the identified Cu(A) proteins depends on ScoI and is required for an effective symbiosis.

  2. The MIA Pathway: A Key Regulator of Mitochondrial Oxidative Protein Folding and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10–15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting

  3. The MIA pathway: a key regulator of mitochondrial oxidative protein folding and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mordas, Amelia; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2015-08-18

    Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10-15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting of the

  4. Bistable switch in let-7 miRNA biogenesis pathway involving Lin28.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fei; Yu, Wenbao; Wang, Xia

    2014-10-21

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs capable of regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A growing body of evidence demonstrated that let-7 family of miRNAs, as one of the highly conserved miRNAs, plays an important role in cell differentiation and development, as well as tumor suppressor function depending on their levels of expression. To explore the physiological significance of let-7 in regulating cell fate decisions, we present a coarse grained model of let-7 biogenesis network, in which let-7 and its regulator Lin28 inhibit mutually. The dynamics of this minimal network architecture indicates that, as the concentration of Lin28 increases, the system undergoes a transition from monostability to a bistability and then to a one-way switch with increasing strength of positive feedback of let-7, while in the absence of Lin28 inhibition, the system loses bistability. Moreover, the ratio of degradation rates of let-7 and Lin28 is critical for the switching sensitivity and resistance to stimulus fluctuations. These findings may highlight why let-7 is required for normal gene expression in the context of embryonic development and oncogenesis, which will facilitate the development of approaches to exploit this regulatory pathway by manipulating Lin28/let-7 axis for novel treatments of human diseases.

  5. Four distinct secretory pathways serve protein secretion, cell surface growth, and peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, V I; Ogrydziak, D M; Rachubinski, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and characterized mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica that are deficient in protein secretion, in the ability to undergo dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form, and in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, PEX2, PEX6, and PEX9 genes affect protein secretion, prevent the exit of the precursor form of alkaline extracellular protease from the endoplasmic reticulum, and compromise peroxisome biogenesis. The mutants sec238A, srp54KO, pex2KO, pex6KO, and pex9KO are also deficient in the dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form and are affected in the export of only plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes prevent or significantly delay the exit of two peroxisomal membrane proteins, Pex2p and Pex16p, from the endoplasmic reticulum en route to the peroxisomal membrane. Mutations in the PEX5, PEX16, and PEX17 genes, which have previously been shown to be essential for peroxisome biogenesis, affect the export of plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form but do not impair exit from the endoplasmic reticulum of either Pex2p and Pex16p or of proteins destined for secretion. Biochemical analyses of these mutants provide evidence for the existence of four distinct secretory pathways that serve to deliver proteins for secretion, plasma membrane and cell wall synthesis during yeast and mycelial modes of growth, and peroxisome biogenesis. At least two of these secretory pathways, which are involved in the export of proteins to the external medium and in the delivery of proteins for assembly of the peroxisomal membrane, diverge at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:9271399

  6. A role of uridylation pathway for blockade of let-7 microRNA biogenesis by Lin28B.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Katsura, Akihiro; Miyazono, Kohei

    2015-09-01

    The precise control of microRNA (miRNA) biosynthesis is crucial for gene regulation. Lin28A and Lin28B are selective inhibitors of biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs involved in development and tumorigenesis. Lin28A selectively inhibits let-7 biogenesis through cytoplasmic uridylation of precursor let-7 by TUT4 terminal uridyl transferase and subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 exonuclease. However, a role of this uridylation pathway remains unclear in let-7 blockade by Lin28B, a paralog of Lin28A, while Lin28B is reported to engage a distinct mechanism in the nucleus to suppress let-7. Here we revisit a functional link between Lin28B and the uridylation pathway with a focus on let-7 metabolism in cancer cells. Both Lin28A and Lin28B interacted with Dis3l2 in the cytoplasm, and silencing of Dis3l2 upregulated uridylated pre-let-7 in both Lin28A- and Lin28B-expressing cancer cell lines. In addition, we found that amounts of let-7 precursors influenced intracellular localization of Lin28B. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 (Zc3h12a) ribonuclease was also involved in degradation of both non-uridylated and uridylated pre-let-7. Cancer transcriptome analysis showed association of expression levels of Lin28B and uridylation pathway components, TUT4 and Dis3l2, in various human cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively, these results suggest that cytoplasmic uridylation pathway actively participates in blockade of let-7 biogenesis by Lin28B. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. A role of uridylation pathway for blockade of let-7 microRNA biogenesis by Lin28B

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Katsura, Akihiro; Miyazono, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    The precise control of microRNA (miRNA) biosynthesis is crucial for gene regulation. Lin28A and Lin28B are selective inhibitors of biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs involved in development and tumorigenesis. Lin28A selectively inhibits let-7 biogenesis through cytoplasmic uridylation of precursor let-7 by TUT4 terminal uridyl transferase and subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 exonuclease. However, a role of this uridylation pathway remains unclear in let-7 blockade by Lin28B, a paralog of Lin28A, while Lin28B is reported to engage a distinct mechanism in the nucleus to suppress let-7. Here we revisit a functional link between Lin28B and the uridylation pathway with a focus on let-7 metabolism in cancer cells. Both Lin28A and Lin28B interacted with Dis3l2 in the cytoplasm, and silencing of Dis3l2 upregulated uridylated pre-let-7 in both Lin28A- and Lin28B-expressing cancer cell lines. In addition, we found that amounts of let-7 precursors influenced intracellular localization of Lin28B. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 (Zc3h12a) ribonuclease was also involved in degradation of both non-uridylated and uridylated pre-let-7. Cancer transcriptome analysis showed association of expression levels of Lin28B and uridylation pathway components, TUT4 and Dis3l2, in various human cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively, these results suggest that cytoplasmic uridylation pathway actively participates in blockade of let-7 biogenesis by Lin28B. PMID:26080928

  8. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack.

  9. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Brennan, Gerard P.; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular “machinery” required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack. PMID:26486420

  10. Diallyl disulfide ameliorates isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy activating mitochondrial biogenesis via eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Dinda, Amit K; Putcha, Uday K; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effect of garlic on cardiovascular disease is well known. However, the use of raw garlic against cardiac hypertrophy is not established. In the present study we explored whether raw garlic and its compound, diallyl disulfide (DADS) could inhibit hypertrophy through H2S and/or mitochondrial biogenesis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rat by giving isoproterenol at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 14 days through alzet minipump. Aqueous garlic homogenate, DADS and NaHS (liberate H2S) were fed to third, forth and fifth group of rats for 14 days at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day, 14 µM/kg/day respectively. Garlic and DADS reduced cardiac hypertrophy markers and normalized mitochondrial ETC-complex activities, mitochondrial enzyme activites and mitochondrial biogenetic and apoptotic genes expression. Garlic and DADS enhanced eNOS and p-AKT level in rat heart along with increased NRF2 protein level and Tfam gene expression. However, normalization was not observed after administration of NaHS which generates H2S in-vivo. In conclusion, garlic and DADS induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy via activation of eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

  11. Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis and Metallochaperone Interactions: Steps in the Assembly Pathway of a Bacterial Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a complex process involving the coordinate expression and assembly of numerous subunits (SU) of dual genetic origin. Moreover, several auxiliary factors are required to recruit and insert the redox-active metal compounds, which in most cases are buried in their protein scaffold deep inside the membrane. Here we used a combination of gel electrophoresis and pull-down assay techniques in conjunction with immunostaining as well as complexome profiling to identify and analyze the composition of assembly intermediates in solubilized membranes of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. Our results show that the central SUI passes through at least three intermediate complexes with distinct subunit and cofactor composition before formation of the holoenzyme and its subsequent integration into supercomplexes. We propose a model for COX biogenesis in which maturation of newly translated COX SUI is initially assisted by CtaG, a chaperone implicated in CuB site metallation, followed by the interaction with the heme chaperone Surf1c to populate the redox-active metal-heme centers in SUI. Only then the remaining smaller subunits are recruited to form the mature enzyme which ultimately associates with respiratory complexes I and III into supercomplexes. PMID:28107462

  12. Loss of p16INK4A stimulates aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis through a CDK4/Rb-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chelsea; Liu, Tong; Rutter, Jared; Grossman, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p16INK4A (p16) inhibits cell cycle progression through the CDK4/Rb pathway. We have previously shown that p16 regulates cellular oxidative stress, independent of its role in cell cycle control. We investigated whether loss of p16 had a direct impact on the mitochondria. We found that p16-null primary mouse fibroblasts (PMFs) displayed increased mitochondrial mass and expression of mitochondrial respiratory subunit proteins compared to wild-type (WT) PMFs. These findings in p16-null PMFs were associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors PRC and TFAM. On the other hand, p16-deficient PMFs demonstrated reduced mitochondrial respiration capacity consistent with electron microscopy findings showing that mitochondria in p16-deficient PMFs have abnormal morphology. Consistent with increased mitochondrial mass and reduced respiratory capacity, p16-deficient PMFs generated increased mitochondrial superoxide. One biological consequence of elevated ROS in p16-deficient PMFs was enhanced migration, which was reduced by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Finally, p16-deficient PMFs displayed increased mitochondrial membrane potential, which was also required for their enhanced migration. The mitochondrial and migration phenotype was restored in p16-deficient PMFs by forced expression of p16. Similarly, over-expression of p16 in human melanocytes and A375 melanoma cells led to decreased expression of some mitochondrial respiratory proteins, enhanced respiration, and decreased migration. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation in melanocytes and melanoma cells, either by addition of chemical CDK4 inhibitors or RNAi-mediated knockdown of CDK4, did not mimic the effects of p16 loss. These results suggest that p16 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which is independent of the canonical CDK4/Rb pathway. PMID:28915557

  13. Loss of p16(INK4A) stimulates aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis through a CDK4/Rb-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ethika; Liu, Bin; Li, Chelsea; Liu, Tong; Rutter, Jared; Grossman, Douglas

    2017-08-22

    The tumor suppressor p16INK4A (p16) inhibits cell cycle progression through the CDK4/Rb pathway. We have previously shown that p16 regulates cellular oxidative stress, independent of its role in cell cycle control. We investigated whether loss of p16 had a direct impact on the mitochondria. We found that p16-null primary mouse fibroblasts (PMFs) displayed increased mitochondrial mass and expression of mitochondrial respiratory subunit proteins compared to wild-type (WT) PMFs. These findings in p16-null PMFs were associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors PRC and TFAM. On the other hand, p16-deficient PMFs demonstrated reduced mitochondrial respiration capacity consistent with electron microscopy findings showing that mitochondria in p16-deficient PMFs have abnormal morphology. Consistent with increased mitochondrial mass and reduced respiratory capacity, p16-deficient PMFs generated increased mitochondrial superoxide. One biological consequence of elevated ROS in p16-deficient PMFs was enhanced migration, which was reduced by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Finally, p16-deficient PMFs displayed increased mitochondrial membrane potential, which was also required for their enhanced migration. The mitochondrial and migration phenotype was restored in p16-deficient PMFs by forced expression of p16. Similarly, over-expression of p16 in human melanocytes and A375 melanoma cells led to decreased expression of some mitochondrial respiratory proteins, enhanced respiration, and decreased migration. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation in melanocytes and melanoma cells, either by addition of chemical CDK4 inhibitors or RNAi-mediated knockdown of CDK4, did not mimic the effects of p16 loss. These results suggest that p16 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which is independent of the canonical CDK4/Rb pathway.

  14. GAIP Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy and Exosome Biogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer through Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Santanu; Pal, Krishnendu; Sharma, Anil K.; Dutta, Shamit K.; Lau, Julie S.; Yan, Irene K.; Wang, Enfeng; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Sanyal, Arunik; Patel, Tushar C.; Chari, Suresh T.; Spaller, Mark R.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular shedding, and observed that GIPC status determines the loading of cellular cargo in the exosome. Furthermore, we have shown the overexpression of the drug resistance gene ABCG2 in exosomes from GIPC-depleted pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrated that depletion of GIPC from cancer cells sensitized them to gemcitabine treatment, an avenue that can be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer. PMID:25469510

  15. GAIP interacting protein C-terminus regulates autophagy and exosome biogenesis of pancreatic cancer through metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Santanu; Pal, Krishnendu; Sharma, Anil K; Dutta, Shamit K; Lau, Julie S; Yan, Irene K; Wang, Enfeng; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Sanyal, Arunik; Patel, Tushar C; Chari, Suresh T; Spaller, Mark R; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular shedding, and observed that GIPC status determines the loading of cellular cargo in the exosome. Furthermore, we have shown the overexpression of the drug resistance gene ABCG2 in exosomes from GIPC-depleted pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrated that depletion of GIPC from cancer cells sensitized them to gemcitabine treatment, an avenue that can be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer.

  16. A microRNA derived from an apparent canonical biogenesis pathway regulates variant surface protein gene expression in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Ashesh A.; Li, Wei; Wang, Ching C.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that a snoRNA-derived microRNA, miR2, in Giardia lamblia potentially regulates the expression of 22 variant surface protein (VSP) genes. Here, we identified another miRNA, miR4, also capable of regulating the expression of several VSPs but derived from an unannotated open reading frame (ORF) rather than a snoRNA, suggesting a canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway in Giardia. miR4 represses expression of a reporter containing two miR4 antisense sequences at the 3′ UTR without causing a corresponding decrease in the mRNA level. This repression requires the presence of the Giardia Argonaute protein (GlAgo) and is reversed by 2′ O–methylated antisense oligo to miR4, suggesting an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)–mediated mechanism. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro evidence suggested that the Giardia Dicer protein (GlDcr) is required for miR4 biogenesis. Coimmunoprecipitation of miR4 with GlAgo further verified miR4 as a miRNA. A total of 361 potential target sites for miR4 were bioinformatically identified in Giardia, out of which 69 (32.7%) were associated with VSP genes. miR4 reduces the expression of a reporter containing two copies of the target site from VSP (GL50803_36493) at the 3′ UTR. Sixteen of the 69 VSP genes were further found to contain partially overlapping miR2 and miR4 targeting sites. Expression of a reporter carrying the two overlapping sites was inhibited by either miR2 or miR4, but the inhibition was neither synergistic nor additive, suggesting a complex mechanism of miRNA regulation of VSP expression and the presence of a rich miRNAome in Giardia. PMID:22033329

  17. Mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisca; Moraes, Carlos T

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process involving the coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the import of the products of the latter into the organelle and turnover. The mechanisms associated with these events have been intensively studied in the last 20 years and our understanding of their details is much improved. Mitochondrial biogenesis requires the participation of calcium signaling that activates a series of calcium-dependent protein kinases that in turn activate transcription factors and coactivators such as PGC-1alpha that regulates the expression of genes coding for mitochondrial components. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis involves the balance of mitochondrial fission-fusion. Mitochondrial malfunction or defects in any of the many pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis can lead to degenerative diseases and possibly play an important part in aging.

  18. Convergence of multiple signaling pathways is required to coordinately up-regulate mtDNA and mitochondrial biogenesis during T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Anthony D.; Parikh, Neal; Kaech, Susan M.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    The quantity and activity of mitochondria vary dramatically in tissues and are modulated in response to changing cellular energy demands and environmental factors. The amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes required for cellular ATP production, is also tightly regulated, but by largely unknown mechanisms. Using murine T cells as a model system, we have addressed how specific signaling pathways influence mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA levels. T cell receptor (TCR) activation results in a large increase in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential and a corresponding increase of mtDNA copy number, indicating the vital role for mitochondrial function for the growth and proliferation of these cells. Independent activation of protein kinase C (via PMA) or calcium-related pathways (via ionomycin) had differential and sub-maximal effects on these mitochondrial parameters, as did activation of naïve T cells with proliferative cytokines. Thus, the robust mitochondrial biogenesis response observed upon TCR activation requires synergy of multiple downstream signaling pathways. One such pathway involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which we show has an unprecedented role in negatively regulating mitochondrial biogenesis that is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent. That is, inhibition of AMPK after TCR signaling commences results in excessive, but uncoordinated mitochondrial proliferation. We propose that mitochondrial biogenesis is not under control of a master regulatory circuit, but rather requires the convergence of multiple signaling pathways with distinct downstream consequences on the organelle’s structure, composition, and function. PMID:17890163

  19. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  20. The Stability of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor WBSCR22 Is Regulated by Interaction with TRMT112 via Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Õunap, Kadri; Leetsi, Lilian; Matsoo, Maarja; Kurg, Reet

    2015-01-01

    The human WBSCR22 protein is a 18S rRNA methyltransferase involved in pre-rRNA processing and ribosome 40S subunit biogenesis. Recent studies have shown that the protein function in ribosome synthesis is independent of its enzymatic activity. In this work, we have studied the WBSCR22 protein interaction partners by SILAC-coupled co-immunoprecipitation assay and identified TRMT112 as the interaction partner of WBSCR22. Knock-down of TRMT112 expression decreased the WBSCR22 protein level in mammalian cells, suggesting that the stability of WBSCR22 is regulated through the interaction with TRMT112. The localization of the TRMT112 protein is determined by WBSCR22, and the WBSCR22-TRMT112 complex is localized in the cell nucleus. We provide evidence that the interaction between WBSCR22/Bud23 and TRMT112/Trm112 is conserved between mammals and yeast, suggesting that the function of TRMT112 as a co-activator of methyltransferases is evolutionarily conserved. Finally, we show that the transiently expressed WBSCR22 protein is ubiquitinated and degraded through the proteasome pathway, revealing the tight control of the WBSCR22 protein level in the cells. PMID:26214185

  1. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury via the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism of these effects in a weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administrated 30 min after TBI. In this experiment, ICR mice were divided into four groups: A sham group, TBI group, TBI + vehicle group, and TBI + quercetin group. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment resulted in an upregulation of Nrf2 expression and cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were restored by quercetin treatment. Quercetin markedly promoted the translocation of Nrf2 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These observations suggest that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in TBI models, possibly by activating the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:27780244

  2. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury via the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism of these effects in a weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administrated 30 min after TBI. In this experiment, ICR mice were divided into four groups: A sham group, TBI group, TBI + vehicle group, and TBI + quercetin group. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment resulted in an upregulation of Nrf2 expression and cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were restored by quercetin treatment. Quercetin markedly promoted the translocation of Nrf2 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These observations suggest that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in TBI models, possibly by activating the Nrf2 pathway.

  3. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity. PMID:26083070

  4. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-07-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity.

  5. Sub-lethal oxidative stress induces lysosome biogenesis via a lysosomal membrane permeabilization-cathepsin-caspase 3-transcription factor EB-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Leow, San Min; Chua, Shu Xian Serene; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Shen, Liang; Luo, Le; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2016-12-18

    Here we provide evidence to link sub-lethal oxidative stress to lysosomal biogenesis. Exposure of cells to sub-lethal concentrations of exogenously added hydrogen peroxide resulted in cytosol to nuclear translocation of the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), the master controller of lysosome biogenesis and function. Nuclear translocation of TFEB was dependent upon the activation of a cathepsin-caspase 3 signaling pathway, downstream of a lysosomal membrane permeabilization and accompanied by a significant increase in lysosome numbers as well as induction of TFEB dependent lysosome-associated genes expression such as Ctsl, Lamp2 and its spliced variant Lamp2a, Neu1and Ctsb and Sqstm1 and Atg9b. The effects of sub-lethal oxidative stress on lysosomal gene expression and biogenesis were rescued upon gene silencing of caspase 3 and TFEB. Notably, caspase 3 activation was not associated with phenotypic hallmarks of apoptosis, evidenced by the absence of caspase 3 substrate cleavage, such as PARP, Lamin A/C or gelsolin. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time an unexpected and non-canonical role of a cathepsin-caspase 3 axis in the nuclear translocation of TFEB leading to lysosomes biogenesis under conditions of sub-lethal oxidative stress.

  6. Biogenesis of telomerase ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Emily D.; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase adds simple-sequence repeats to the ends of linear chromosomes to counteract the loss of end sequence inherent in conventional DNA replication. Catalytic activity for repeat synthesis results from the cooperation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) and the template-containing telomerase RNA (TER). TERs vary widely in sequence and structure but share a set of motifs required for TERT binding and catalytic activity. Species-specific TER motifs play essential roles in RNP biogenesis, stability, trafficking, and regulation. Remarkably, the biogenesis pathways that generate mature TER differ across eukaryotes. Furthermore, the cellular processes that direct the assembly of a biologically functional telomerase holoenzyme and its engagement with telomeres are evolutionarily varied and regulated. This review highlights the diversity of strategies for telomerase RNP biogenesis, RNP assembly, and telomere recruitment among ciliates, yeasts, and vertebrates and suggests common themes in these pathways and their regulation. PMID:22875809

  7. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism. PMID:23267440

  8. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism.

  9. The ribosome biogenesis pathway as an early target of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant whose presence in the environment is expected for decades, since it has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products. In the present study, the interaction of BBP with the ribosome biogenesis pathway and the general transcriptional profile of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae were investigated by means of changes in the rDNA activity (through the study of the internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and variations in the expression profile of ribosomal protein genes (rpL4, rpL11, and rpL13) after acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses. Furthermore, cytogenetic assays were conducted to evaluate the transcriptional activity of polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells, with special attention to the nucleolus and the Balbiani rings (BRs) of chromosome IV. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers, with a general depletion in the gene expression levels and the activity of BR2 after 48-h treatments. At the same time, decondensation and activation of some centromeres took place, while the activity of nucleolus remained unaltered. Withdrawal of the xenobiotic allowed the larvae to reach control levels in the case of rpL4 and rpL13 genes, which were previously slightly downregulated in 24-h tests. These data provide the first evidence on the interaction of BBP with the ribosome synthesis pathways, which results in a significant impairment of the functional activity of ribosomal protein genes. Thus, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of BBP-induced cellular damage. These findings may have important implications for understanding the adverse biological effects of BBP in C. riparius, since they provide new sensitive biomarkers of BBP exposure and highlight the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic

  10. General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sandkvist, M; Michel, L O; Hough, L P; Morales, V M; Bagdasarian, M; Koomey, M; DiRita, V J; Bagdasarian, M

    1997-11-01

    The general secretion pathway (GSP) of Vibrio cholerae is required for secretion of proteins including chitinase, enterotoxin, and protease through the outer membrane. In this study, we report the cloning and sequencing of a DNA fragment from V. cholerae, containing 12 open reading frames, epsC to -N, which are similar to GSP genes of Aeromonas, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas spp. In addition to the two previously described genes, epsE and epsM (M. Sandkvist, V. Morales, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 123: 81-86, 1993; L. J. Overbye, M. Sandkvist, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 132:101-106, 1993), it is shown here that epsC, epsF, epsG, and epsL also encode proteins essential for GSP function. Mutations in the eps genes result in aberrant outer membrane protein profiles, which indicates that the GSP, or at least some of its components, is required not only for secretion of soluble proteins but also for proper outer membrane assembly. Several of the Eps proteins have been identified by use of the T7 polymerase-promoter system in Escherichia coli. One of them, a pilin-like protein, EpsG, was analyzed also in V. cholerae and found to migrate as two bands on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that in this organism it might be processed or otherwise modified by a prepilin peptidase. We believe that TcpJ prepilin peptidase, which processes the subunit of the toxin-coregulated pilus, TcpA, is not involved in this event. This is supported by the observations that apparent processing of EpsG occurs in a tcpJ mutant of V. cholerae and that, when coexpressed in E. coli, TcpJ cannot process EpsG although the PilD peptidase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can.

  11. Cutis laxa: intersection of elastic fiber biogenesis, TGFβ signaling, the secretory pathway and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL), a disease characterized by redundant and inelastic skin, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. Together with geroderma osteodysplasticum and arterial tortuosity syndrome, which show phenotypic overlap with CL, eleven CL-related genes have been identified to date, which encode proteins within 3 groups. Elastin, fibulin-4, fibulin-5 and latent transforming growth factor-β-binding protein 4 are secreted proteins which form elastic fibers and are involved in the sequestration and subsequent activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Proteins within the second group, localized to the secretory pathway, perform transport and membrane trafficking functions necessary for the modification and secretion of elastic fiber components. Key proteins include a subunit of the vacuolar-type proton pump, which ensures the efficient secretion of tropoelastin, the precursor or elastin. A copper transporter is required for the activity of lysyl oxidases, which crosslink collagen and elastin. A Rab6-interacting goglin recruits kinesin motors to Golgi-vesicles facilitating the transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. The Rab and Ras interactor 2 regulates the activity of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase essential for the endocytosis of various cell surface receptors, including integrins. Proteins of the third group related to CL perform metabolic functions within the mitochondria, inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Two of these proteins catalyze subsequent steps in the conversion of glutamate to proline. The third transports dehydroascorbate into mitochondria. Recent studies on CL-related proteins highlight the intricate connections among membrane trafficking, metabolism, extracellular matrix assembly, and TGFβ signaling.

  12. FTO is required for myogenesis by positively regulating mTOR-PGC-1α pathway-mediated mitochondria biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Ning; Yang, Min; Wei, Dandan; Tai, Haoran; Han, Xiaojuan; Gong, Hui; Zhou, Jiao; Qin, Jianqiong; Wei, Xiawei; Chen, Honghan; Fang, Tingting; Xiao, Hengyi

    2017-03-23

    Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice. Significantly, FTO-promoted myogenic differentiation was dependent on its m6A demethylase activity. Mechanically, we found that FTO downregulation suppressed mitochondria biogenesis and energy production, showing as the decreased mitochondria mass and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, the downregulated expression of mtDNA-encoding genes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) gene, together with declined ATP level. Moreover, the involvement of mTOR-PGC-1α pathway in the connection between FTO and muscle differentiation is displayed, since the expression of FTO affected the activity of mTOR and rapamycin blocked FTO-induced PGC-1α transcription, along with the parallel alteration pattern of FTO expression and mTOR phosphorylation during myoblasts differentiation. Summarily, our findings provide the first evidence for the contribution of FTO for skeletal muscle differentiation and a new insight to study the physiologic significance of RNA methylation.

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Joel M

    2011-03-01

    The transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by normal metabolic adaptation or injury has been clarified over the past decade. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its attendant processes enhance metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation and increase antioxidant defense mechanisms that ameliorate injury from aging, tissue hypoxia, and glucose or fatty acid overload, all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic kidney disease. There has been considerable interest in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in the kidney, which affect multiple processes in addition to mitochondrial biogenesis. As yet there is relatively little information focused specifically on mitochondrial biogenesis and its regulation by PPARγ coactivators and their modulators such as SIRT1. The available data indicate that these pathways will be fruitful areas for study in the modification of renal disease.

  14. Coordinate Regulation of the Suf and Isc Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis Pathways by IscR Is Essential for Viability of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mettert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Fe-S cluster biogenesis is essential for the viability of most organisms. In Escherichia coli, this process requires either the housekeeping Isc or the stress-induced Suf pathway. The global regulator IscR coordinates cluster synthesis by repressing transcription of the isc operon by [2Fe-2S]-IscR and activating expression of the suf operon. We show that either [2Fe-2S]-IscR or apo-IscR can activate suf, making expression sensitive to mainly IscR levels and not the cluster state, unlike isc expression. We also demonstrate that in the absence of isc, IscR-dependent suf activation is essential since strains lacking both the Isc pathway and IscR were not viable unless Suf was expressed ectopically. Similarly, removal of the IscR binding site in the sufA promoter also led to a requirement for isc. Furthermore, suf expression was increased in a Δisc mutant, presumably due to increased IscR levels in this mutant. This was surprising because the iron-dependent repressor Fur, whose higher-affinity binding at the sufA promoter should occlude IscR binding, showed only partial repression. In addition, Fur derepression was not sufficient for viability in the absence of IscR and the Isc pathway, highlighting the importance of direct IscR activation. Finally, a mutant lacking Fur and the Isc pathway increased suf expression to the highest observed levels and nearly restored [2Fe-2S]-IscR activity, providing a mechanism for regulating IscR activity under stress conditions. Together, these findings have enhanced our understanding of the homeostatic mechanism by which cells use one regulator, IscR, to differentially control Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways to ensure viability. PMID:25266384

  15. A novel pathway of cytochrome c biogenesis is involved in the assembly of the cytochrome b6f complex in arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Lezhneva, Lina; Kuras, Richard; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; de Vitry, Catherine

    2008-09-05

    We recently characterized a novel heme biogenesis pathway required for heme c(i)' covalent binding to cytochrome b6 in Chlamydomonas named system IV or CCB (cofactor assembly, complex C (b6f), subunit B (PetB)). To find out whether this CCB pathway also operates in higher plants and extend the knowledge of the c-type cytochrome biogenesis, we studied Arabidopsis insertion mutants in the orthologs of the CCB genes. The ccb1, ccb2, and ccb4 mutants show a phenotype characterized by a deficiency in the accumulation of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex and lack covalent heme binding to cytochrome b6. These mutants were functionally complemented with the corresponding wild type cDNAs. Using fluorescent protein reporters, we demonstrated that the CCB1, CCB2, CCB3, and CCB4 proteins are targeted to the chloroplast compartment of Arabidopsis. We have extended our study to the YGGT family, to which CCB3 belongs, by studying insertion mutants of two additional members of this family for which no mutants were previously characterized, and we showed that they are not functionally involved in the CCB system. Thus, we demonstrate the ubiquity of the CCB proteins in chloroplast heme c(i)' binding.

  16. A Novel Pathway of Cytochrome c Biogenesis Is Involved in the Assembly of the Cytochrome b6f Complex in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lezhneva, Lina; Kuras, Richard; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; de Vitry, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    We recently characterized a novel heme biogenesis pathway required for heme ci′ covalent binding to cytochrome b6 in Chlamydomonas named system IV or CCB (cofactor assembly, complex C (b6f), subunit B (PetB)). To find out whether this CCB pathway also operates in higher plants and extend the knowledge of the c-type cytochrome biogenesis, we studied Arabidopsis insertion mutants in the orthologs of the CCB genes. The ccb1, ccb2, and ccb4 mutants show a phenotype characterized by a deficiency in the accumulation of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex and lack covalent heme binding to cytochrome b6. These mutants were functionally complemented with the corresponding wild type cDNAs. Using fluorescent protein reporters, we demonstrated that the CCB1, CCB2, CCB3, and CCB4 proteins are targeted to the chloroplast compartment of Arabidopsis. We have extended our study to the YGGT family, to which CCB3 belongs, by studying insertion mutants of two additional members of this family for which no mutants were previously characterized, and we showed that they are not functionally involved in the CCB system. Thus, we demonstrate the ubiquity of the CCB proteins in chloroplast heme ci′ binding. PMID:18593701

  17. Fast-suppressor screening for new components in protein trafficking, organelle biogenesis and silencing pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana using DEX-inducible FREE1-RNAi plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiong; Gao, Caiji; Lee, PoShing; Liu, Lin; Li, Shaofang; Hu, Tangjin; Shen, Jinbo; Pan, Shuying; Ye, Hao; Chen, Yunru; Cao, Wenhan; Cui, Yong; Zeng, Peng; Yu, Sheng; Gao, Yangbin; Chen, Liang; Mo, Beixin; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Shi; Zhao, Yunde; Zhong, Silin; Chen, Xuemei; Jiang, Liwen

    2015-06-20

    Membrane trafficking is essential for plant growth and responses to external signals. The plant unique FYVE domain-containing protein FREE1 is a component of the ESCRT complex (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). FREE1 plays multiple roles in regulating protein trafficking and organelle biogenesis including the formation of intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular body (MVB), vacuolar protein transport and vacuole biogenesis, and autophagic degradation. FREE1 knockout plants show defective MVB formation, abnormal vacuolar transport, fragmented vacuoles, accumulated autophagosomes, and seedling lethality. To further uncover the underlying mechanisms of FREE1 function in plants, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutants that suppressed the seedling lethal phenotype of FREE1-RNAi transgenic plants. The obtained mutants are termed as suppressors of free1 (sof). To date, 229 putative sof mutants have been identified. Barely detecting of FREE1 protein with M3 plants further identified 84 FREE1-related suppressors. Also 145 mutants showing no reduction of FREE1 protein were termed as RNAi-related mutants. Through next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bulked DNA from F2 mapping population of two RNAi-related sof mutants, FREE1-RNAi T-DNA inserted on chromosome 1 was identified and the causal mutation of putative sof mutant is being identified similarly. These FREE1- and RNAi-related sof mutants will be useful tools and resources for illustrating the underlying mechanisms of FREE1 function in intracellular trafficking and organelle biogenesis, as well as for uncovering the new components involved in the regulation of silencing pathways in plants.

  18. Distinct and concurrent pathways of Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent siRNA biogenesis at a repetitive trans-silencer locus in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Taku; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Liao, Wen-Wei; Naumann, Ulf; Liao, Jo-Ling; Eun, Changho; Huang, Ya-Yi; Fu, Jason L; Chen, Pao-Yang; Meyers, Blake C; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-07-01

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) homologous to transcriptional regulatory regions can induce RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of target genes. In our system, siRNAs are produced by transcribing an inverted DNA repeat (IR) of enhancer sequences, yielding a hairpin RNA that is processed by several Dicer activities into siRNAs of 21-24 nt. Primarily 24-nt siRNAs trigger RdDM of the target enhancer in trans and TGS of a downstream GFP reporter gene. We analyzed siRNA accumulation from two different structural forms of a trans-silencer locus in which tandem repeats are embedded in the enhancer IR and distinguished distinct RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol IV-dependent pathways of siRNA biogenesis. At the original silencer locus, Pol-II transcription of the IR from a 35S promoter produces a hairpin RNA that is diced into abundant siRNAs of 21-24 nt. A silencer variant lacking the 35S promoter revealed a normally masked Pol IV-dependent pathway that produces low levels of 24-nt siRNAs from the tandem repeats. Both pathways operate concurrently at the original silencer locus. siRNAs accrue only from specific regions of the enhancer and embedded tandem repeat. Analysis of these sequences and endogenous tandem repeats producing siRNAs revealed the preferential accumulation of siRNAs at GC-rich regions containing methylated CG dinucleotides. In addition to supporting a correlation between base composition, DNA methylation and siRNA accumulation, our results highlight the complexity of siRNA biogenesis at repetitive loci and show that Pol II and Pol IV use different promoters to transcribe the same template.

  19. Genetic variants in microRNA and microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer risk among women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Frank; Feng, Ye; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Nathanson, Katherine L; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Haiman, Christopher A; Huo, Dezheng

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate breast biology by binding to specific RNA sequences, leading to RNA degradation and inhibition of translation of their target genes. While germline genetic variations may disrupt some of these interactions between miRNAs and their targets, studies assessing the relationship between genetic variations in the miRNA network and breast cancer risk are still limited, particularly among women of African ancestry. We systematically put together a list of 822 and 10,468 genetic variants among primary miRNA sequences and 38 genes in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, respectively; and examined their association with breast cancer risk in the ROOT consortium which includes women of African ancestry. Findings were replicated in an independent consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). For overall breast cancer risk, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes DROSHA rs78393591 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.88, P = 0.003), ESR1 rs523736 (OR = 0.88, 95 % CI: 0.82-0.95, P = 3.99 × 10(-4)), and ZCCHC11 rs114101502 (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002), and one SNP in primary miRNA sequence (rs116159732 in miR-6826, OR = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.89, P = 0.001) were found to have significant associations in both discovery and validation phases. In a subgroup analysis, two SNPs were associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, and three SNPs were associated with risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Several variants in miRNA and miRNA biogenesis pathway genes were associated with breast cancer risk. Risk associations varied by ER status, suggesting potential new mechanisms in etiology.

  20. Genetic variants in microRNA and microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer risk among women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Frank; Feng, Ye; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Huo, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate breast biology by binding to specific RNA sequences, leading to RNA degradation and inhibition of translation of their target genes. While germline genetic variations may disrupt some of these interactions between miRNAs and their targets, studies assessing the relationship between genetic variations in the miRNA network and breast cancer risk are still limited, particularly among women of African ancestry. Methods We systematically put together a list of 822 and 10,468 genetic variants among primary miRNA sequences and 38 genes in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, respectively; and examined their association with breast cancer risk in the ROOT consortium which includes women of African ancestry. Findings were replicated in an independent consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results For overall breast cancer risk, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes DROSHA rs78393591 (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.55–0.88, P=0.003), ESR1 rs523736 (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.82–0.95, P=3.99×10−4), and ZCCHC11 rs114101502 (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59, P=0.002) and one SNP in primary miRNA sequence (rs116159732 in miR-6826, OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.63–0.89, P=0.001) were found to have significant associations in both discovery and validation phases. In a subgroup analysis, two SNPs were associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and three SNPs were associated with risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Conclusion Several variants in miRNA and miRNA biogenesis pathway genes were associated with breast cancer risk. Risk associations varied by ER status, suggesting potential new mechanisms in etiology. PMID:27380242

  1. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Translational regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hong

    2016-12-15

    Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation. We postulate that the local translation may also allow cells to promote mitochondrial biogenesis selectively based on the fitness of individual organelle. MDI-Larp complex promotes the biogenesis of healthy mitochondria and thereby is essential for the selective transmission of healthy mitochondria. On the other hand, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-Pakin activates protein synthesis on damaged mitochondria to maintain the organelle homeostasis and activity. We also summarize some recent progress on miRNAs' regulation on mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains.

    PubMed

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L

    2014-01-15

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA-protein particles evolved.

  4. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA–protein particles evolved. PMID:24449272

  5. The histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway is regulated by target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and functions directly in ribosomal RNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongfeng; Fan, Meiyun; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Laribee, R Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Epigenetic changes in chromatin through histone post-translational modifications are essential for altering gene transcription in response to environmental cues. How histone modifications are regulated by environmental stimuli remains poorly understood yet this process is critical for delineating how epigenetic pathways are influenced by the cellular environment. We have used the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, which transmits environmental nutrient signals to control cell growth, as a model to delineate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. A chemical genomics screen using the TOR inhibitor rapamycin against a histone H3/H4 mutant library identified histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) as a chromatin modification regulated by TOR signaling. We demonstrate this acetylation pathway functions in TOR-dependent cell growth in part by contributing directly to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Specifically, H3K56ac creates a chromatin environment permissive to RNA polymerase I transcription and nascent rRNA processing by regulating binding of the high mobility group protein Hmo1 and the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome complex. Overall, these studies identify a novel chromatin regulatory role for TOR signaling and support a specific function for H3K56ac in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene transcription and nascent rRNA processing essential for cell growth.

  6. Maturation of the unusual single-cysteine (XXXCH) mitochondrial c-type cytochromes found in trypanosomatids must occur through a novel biogenesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James W. A.; Ginger, Michael L.; Ferguson, Stuart J.

    2004-01-01

    The c-type cytochromes are characterized by the covalent attachment of haem to the polypeptide via thioether bonds formed from haem vinyl groups and, normally, the thiols of two cysteines in a CXXCH motif. Intriguingly, the mitochondrial cytochromes c and c1 from two euglenids and the Trypanosomatidae contain only a single cysteine within the haem-binding motif (XXXCH). There are three known distinct pathways by which c-type cytochromes are matured post-translationally in different organisms. The absence of genes encoding any of these c-type cytochrome biogenesis machineries is established here by analysis of six trypanosomatid genomes, and correlates with the presence of single-cysteine cytochromes c and c1. In contrast, we have identified a comprehensive catalogue of proteins required for a typical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation apparatus. Neither spontaneous nor catalysed maturation of the single-cysteine Trypanosoma brucei cytochrome c occurred in Escherichia coli. However, a CXXCH variant was matured by the E. coli cytochrome c maturation machinery, confirming the proposed requirement of the latter for two cysteines in the haem-binding motif and indicating that T. brucei cytochrome c can accommodate a second cysteine in a CXXCH motif. The single-cysteine haem attachment conserved in cytochromes c and c1 of the trypanosomatids is suggested to be related to their cytochrome c maturation machinery, and the environment in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Our genomic and biochemical studies provide very persuasive evidence that the trypanosomatid mitochondrial cytochromes c are matured by a novel biogenesis system. PMID:15500440

  7. Rab GTPases and the Autophagy Pathway: Bacterial Targets for a Suitable Biogenesis and Trafficking of Their Own Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    López de Armentia, María Milagros; Amaya, Celina; Colombo, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process that comprises degradation of damaged organelles, protein aggregates and intracellular pathogens, having an important role in controlling the fate of invading microorganisms. Intracellular pathogens are internalized by professional and non-professional phagocytes, localizing in compartments called phagosomes. To degrade the internalized microorganism, the microbial phagosome matures by fusion events with early and late endosomal compartments and lysosomes, a process that is regulated by Rab GTPases. Interestingly, in order to survive and replicate in the phagosome, some pathogens employ different strategies to manipulate vesicular traffic, inhibiting phagolysosomal biogenesis (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or surviving in acidic compartments and forming replicative vacuoles (e.g., Coxiella burnetti and Legionella pneumophila). The bacteria described in this review often use secretion systems to control the host’s response and thus disseminate. To date, eight types of secretion systems (Type I to Type VIII) are known. Some of these systems are used by bacteria to translocate pathogenic proteins into the host cell and regulate replicative vacuole formation, apoptosis, cytokine responses, and autophagy. Herein, we have focused on how bacteria manipulate small Rab GTPases to control many of these processes. The growing knowledge in this field may facilitate the development of new treatments or contribute to the prevention of these types of bacterial infections. PMID:27005665

  8. Principles of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly emerging from recent studies in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Konikkat, Salini; Woolford, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires the intertwined processes of folding, modification, and processing of ribosomal RNA, together with binding of ribosomal proteins. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome assembly begins in the nucleolus, continues in the nucleoplasm, and is not completed until after nascent particles are exported to the cytoplasm. The efficiency and fidelity of ribosome biogenesis are facilitated by >200 assembly factors and ~76 different small nucleolar RNAs. The pathway is driven forward by numerous remodeling events to rearrange the ribonucleoprotein architecture of pre-ribosomes. Here, we describe principles of ribosome assembly that have emerged from recent studies of biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe tools that have empowered investigations of ribosome biogenesis, and then summarize recent discoveries about each of the consecutive steps of subunit assembly. PMID:28062837

  9. Principles of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly emerging from recent studies in yeast.

    PubMed

    Konikkat, Salini; Woolford, John L

    2017-01-15

    Ribosome biogenesis requires the intertwined processes of folding, modification, and processing of ribosomal RNA, together with binding of ribosomal proteins. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome assembly begins in the nucleolus, continues in the nucleoplasm, and is not completed until after nascent particles are exported to the cytoplasm. The efficiency and fidelity of ribosome biogenesis are facilitated by >200 assembly factors and ∼76 different small nucleolar RNAs. The pathway is driven forward by numerous remodeling events to rearrange the ribonucleoprotein architecture of pre-ribosomes. Here, we describe principles of ribosome assembly that have emerged from recent studies of biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe tools that have empowered investigations of ribosome biogenesis, and then summarize recent discoveries about each of the consecutive steps of subunit assembly. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1α axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  12. Biogenesis and functions of mammalian iron-sulfur proteins in the regulation of iron homeostasis and pivotal metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Rouault, Tracey A; Maio, Nunziata

    2017-08-04

    Fe-S cofactors are composed of iron and inorganic sulfur in various stoichiometries. A complex assembly pathway conducts their initial synthesis and subsequent binding to recipient proteins. In this minireview, we discuss how discovery of the role of the mammalian cytosolic aconitase, known as iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), led to the characterization of the function of its Fe-S cluster in sensing and regulating cellular iron homeostasis. Moreover, we present an overview of recent studies that have provided insights into the mechanism of Fe-S cluster transfer to recipient Fe-S proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Absence of nucleolar disruption after impairment of 40S ribosome biogenesis reveals an rpL11-translation-dependent mechanism of p53 induction

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Di Cara, Alessandro; Neb-Gulati, Arti; Natt, Francois; Schwemberger, Sandy; Hall, Jonathan; Babcock, George F.; Bernardi, Rosa; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Impaired ribosome biogenesis is attributed to nucleolar disruption and diffusion of a subset of 60S ribosomal proteins, particularly ribosomal protein (rp)L11, into the nucleoplasm, where they inhibit MDM2, leading to p53 induction and cell-cycle arrest1–4. Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of the 40S rpS6 gene in mouse liver prevents hepatocytes from re-entering the cell cycle after partial hepatectomy5. Here, we show that this response leads to an increase in p53, which is recapitulated in culture by rpS6-siRNA treatment and rescued by the simultaneous depletion of p53. However, disruption of biogenesis of 40S ribosomes had no effect on nucleolar integrity, although p53 induction was mediated by rpL11, leading to the finding that the cell selectively upregulates the translation of mRNAs with a polypyrimidine tract at their 5´-transcriptional start site (5´-TOP mRNAs), including that encoding rpL11, on impairment of 40S ribosome biogenesis. Increased 5´-TOP mRNA translation takes place despite continued 60S ribosome biogenesis and a decrease in global translation. Thus, in proliferative human disorders involving hypomorphic mutations in 40S ribosomal proteins6,7, specific targeting of rpL11 upregulation would spare other stress pathways that mediate the potential benefits of p53 induction8. PMID:19287375

  14. Resveratrol and the mitochondria: From triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, a mechanistic view.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Manayi, Azadeh; Daglia, Maria; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, are known as a cross-road of different cellular signaling pathways. These cytoplasmic double-membraned organelles play a pivotal role in energy metabolism and regulate calcium flux in the cells. It is well known that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. A growing body of literature has shown that polyphenolic compounds exert direct effects on mitochondrial ultra-structure and function. Resveratrol is known as one of the most common bioactive constituents of red wine, which improves mitochondrial functions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. This paper aims to review the molecular pathways underlying the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial structure and functions. In addition, we discuss the chemistry and main sources of resveratrol. Resveratrol represents the promising effects on mitochondria in different experimental models. However, there are several reports on the detrimental effects elicited by resveratrol on mitochondria. An understanding of the chemistry and source of resveratrol, its bioavailability and the promising effects on mitochondria brings a new hope to therapy of mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SNP Variation in MicroRNA Biogenesis Pathway Genes as a New Innovation Strategy for Alzheimer Disease Diagnostics: A Study of 10 Candidate Genes in an Understudied Population From the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Görücü Yilmaz, Şenay; Erdal, Mehmet E; Avci Özge, Aynur; Sungur, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common complex neurodegenerative disorder accounting for nearly 50% to 70% of dementias worldwide. Yet the current diagnostic options for AD are limited. New diagnostic innovation strategies focusing on novel molecules and pathways are sorely needed. In this connection, microRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and are vital for neuronal development and its functional sustainability. Conceivably, biological pathways responsible for the biogenesis of miRNAs represent a veritable set of upstream candidate genes that can be potentially associated with the AD pathophysiology. Notably, whereas functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes have been studied in other complex diseases, surprisingly, virtually no such study has been conducted on their relevance in AD. Moreover, novel diagnostics identified in easily accessible peripheral tissues such as the whole blood samples represent the initial entry or gateway points on the biomarker discovery critical path for AD. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first association study of functional SNPs, as measured by real-time PCR in 10 "upstream" candidate genes critically situated on the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in a large sample of AD patients (N=172) and healthy controls (N=109) in a hitherto understudied world population from the Mersin region of the Eastern Mediterranean. We observed a significant association between 2 candidate genes and AD, TARBP2 rs784567 genotype and AD (χ=6.292, P=0.043), and a trend for RNASEN rs10719 genotype (χ=4.528, P=0.104) and allele (P=0.035). Functional SNP variations in the other 8 candidate genes (DGCR8, XPO5, RAN, DICER1, AGO1, AGO2, GEMIN3, and GEMIN4) did not associate with AD in our sample. Given the putative biological importance of miRNA biogenesis pathways, these emerging data can provide a new foundation to stimulate future debate and

  16. In Polytomella sp. mitochondria, biogenesis of the heterodimeric COX2 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase requires two different import pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Suárez, Alejandra; Vázquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Rojas-Hernández, Andrés; Funes, Soledad; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; González-Halphen, Diego

    2012-05-01

    In the vast majority of eukaryotic organisms, the mitochondrial cox2 gene encodes subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (COX2). However, in some lineages including legumes and chlorophycean algae, the cox2 gene migrated to the nucleus. Furthermore, in chlorophycean algae, this gene was split in two different units. Thereby the COX2 subunit is encoded by two independent nuclear genes, cox2a and cox2b, and mitochondria have to import the cytosol-synthesized COX2A and COX2B subunits and assemble them into the cytochrome c oxidase complex. In the chlorophycean algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Polytomella sp., the COX2A precursor exhibits a long (130-140 residues), cleavable mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). In contrast, COX2B lacks an MTS, suggesting that mitochondria use different mechanisms to import each subunit. Here, we explored the in vitro import processes of both, the Polytomella sp. COX2A precursor and the COX2B protein. We used isolated, import-competent mitochondria from this colorless alga. Our results suggest that COX2B is imported directly into the intermembrane space, while COX2A seems to follow an energy-dependent import pathway, through which it finally integrates into the inner mitochondrial membrane. In addition, the MTS of the COX2A precursor is eliminated. This is the first time that the in vitro import of split COX2 subunits into mitochondria has been achieved.

  17. Biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Harrison, Megan S; Burd, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Sorting of macromolecules within the endosomal system is vital for physiological control of nutrient homeostasis, cell motility, and proteostasis. Trafficking routes that export macromolecules from the endosome via vesicle and tubule transport carriers constitute plasma membrane recycling and retrograde endosome-to-Golgi pathways. Proteins of the sorting nexin family have been discovered to function at nearly every step of endosomal transport carrier biogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they form the core machineries of cargo-specific transport pathways that are closely integrated with cellular physiology. Here, we summarize recent progress in elucidating the pathways that mediate the biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

  18. NADPH Oxidase 4 (Nox4) Suppresses Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Bioenergetics in Lung Fibroblasts via a Nuclear Factor Erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Karen; Logsdon, Naomi J; Miguel, Veronica; Benavides, Gloria A; Zhang, Jianhua; Carter, A Brent; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Thannickal, Victor J

    2017-02-17

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense, and tissue fibrosis. In this study we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4. Inhibition of Nox4 expression/activity by genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by elevated mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio and increased expression of the mitochondrial markers transcription factor A (TFAM), citrate synthase, voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (COX IV). Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on TFAM up-regulation but was independent of the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α). The enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as the increase in mitochondrial proteins in Nox4-deficient lung fibroblasts is inhibited by silencing of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), supporting a key role for Nrf2 in control of mitochondrial biogenesis. Together, these results indicate a critical role for both Nox4 and Nrf2 in counter-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

  19. Assessing mitochondria biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Denis M

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondria have their own DNA (mtDNA) and hence biogenesis of mitochondria requires a coordination of nuclear and mtDNA, both of which encode for mitochondria proteins. Our understanding of the molecular control of mitochondria biogenesis has increased in recent years, providing key signatures of the process. To determine whether or not a tissue or an organ of human or animal origin is undergoing mitochondria biogenesis, multiple parameters should be analyzed. First and foremost is visualization and measurement of mitochondria mass/volume in histological sections using fluorescent mitochondria dyes and light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy to yield quantitative results. To confirm or extend these types of analysis, biochemical markers of mitochondria biogenesis should also be included, including assessment of mtDNA copy number, steady-state levels of biogenesis-related transcription factors (e.g. mitochondria transcription factor A, mitochondrial transcription specificity factors, nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha), mtDNA-encoded transcripts and proteins, and rates of mitochondria translation. These techniques are described in isolation and in the context of transgenic and dietary animal models that have been used as tools to study the regulation of mitochondria biogenesis and its role in disease pathology.

  20. Has1 regulates consecutive maturation and processing steps for assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Dembowski, Jill A.; Kuo, Benjamin; Woolford, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires ∼200 assembly factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing defects associated with depletion of most of these factors have been characterized. However, how assembly factors drive the construction of ribonucleoprotein neighborhoods and how structural rearrangements are coupled to pre-rRNA processing are not understood. Here, we reveal ATP-independent and ATP-dependent roles of the Has1 DEAD-box RNA helicase in consecutive pre-rRNA processing and maturation steps for construction of 60S ribosomal subunits. Has1 associates with pre-60S ribosomes in an ATP-independent manner. Has1 binding triggers exonucleolytic trimming of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to generate the 5′ end of 5.8S rRNA and drives incorporation of ribosomal protein L17 with domain I of 5.8S/25S rRNA. ATP-dependent activity of Has1 promotes stable association of additional domain I ribosomal proteins that surround the polypeptide exit tunnel, which are required for downstream processing of 27SB pre-rRNA. Furthermore, in the absence of Has1, aberrant 27S pre-rRNAs are targeted for irreversible turnover. Thus, our data support a model in which Has1 helps to establish domain I architecture to prevent pre-rRNA turnover and couples domain I folding with consecutive pre-rRNA processing steps. PMID:23788678

  1. Diverse roles of assembly factors revealed by structures of late nuclear pre-60S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Yan, Kaige; Brown, Hailey; Zhang, Yixiao; Tan, Dan; Gamalinda, Michael; Yuan, Yi; Li, Zhifei; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ma, Chengying; Lei, Jianlin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2016-06-02

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process in eukaryotes, involving temporally and spatially regulated ribosomal protein (r-protein) binding and ribosomal RNA remodelling events in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Hundreds of assembly factors, organized into sequential functional groups, facilitate and guide the maturation process into productive assembly branches in and across different cellular compartments. However, the precise mechanisms by which these assembly factors function are largely unknown. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structures of yeast nucleoplasmic pre-60S particles affinity-purified using the epitope-tagged assembly factor Nog2. Our data pinpoint the locations and determine the structures of over 20 assembly factors, which are enriched in two areas: an arc region extending from the central protuberance to the polypeptide tunnel exit, and the domain including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) that separates 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs. In particular, two regulatory GTPases, Nog2 and Nog1, act as hub proteins to interact with multiple, distant assembly factors and functional ribosomal RNA elements, manifesting their critical roles in structural remodelling checkpoints and nuclear export. Moreover, our snapshots of compositionally and structurally different pre-60S intermediates provide essential mechanistic details for three major remodelling events before nuclear export: rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein, construction of the active centre and ITS2 removal. The rich structural information in our structures provides a framework to dissect molecular roles of diverse assembly factors in eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  2. [About the ribosomal biogenesis in human].

    PubMed

    Tafforeau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are cellular ribonucleoprotein particles required for a fundamental mechanism, translation of the genetic information into proteins. Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex pathway involving many maturation steps: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, rRNA processing, pre-rRNA modifications, its assembly with ribosomal proteins in the nuceolus, export of the subunit precursors to the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. Ribosome biogenesis has mainly being investigated in yeast during these last 25 years. However, recent works have shown that, despite many similarities between yeast and human ribosome structure and biogenesis, human pre-rRNA processing is far more complex than in yeast. In order to better understand diseases related to a malfunction in ribosome synthesis, the ribosomopathies, research should be conducted directly in human cells and animal models. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. The N-terminal extension of yeast ribosomal protein L8 is involved in two major remodeling events during late nuclear stages of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Wu, Shan; Gao, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Assaying effects on pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly upon depleting individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) provided an initial paradigm for assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo—that each structural domain of ribosomal subunits assembles in a hierarchical fashion. However, two features suggest that a more complex pathway may exist: (i) Some r-proteins contain extensions that reach long distances across ribosomes to interact with multiple rRNA domains as well as with other r-proteins. (ii) Individual r-proteins may assemble in a stepwise fashion. For example, the globular domain of an r-protein might assemble separately from its extensions. Thus, these extensions might play roles in assembly that could not be revealed by depleting the entire protein. Here, we show that deleting or mutating extensions of r-proteins L7 (uL30) and L35 (uL29) from yeast reveal important roles in early and middle steps during 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Detailed analysis of the N-terminal terminal extension of L8 (eL8) showed that it is necessary for late nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly involving two major remodeling events: removal of the ITS2 spacer; and reorganization of the central protuberance (CP) containing 5S rRNA and r-proteins L5 (uL18) and L11 (uL5). Mutations in the L8 extension block processing of 7S pre-rRNA, prevent release of assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1 from pre-ribosomes, which is required for rotation of the CP, and block association of Sda1, the Rix1 complex, and the Rea1 ATPase involved in late steps of remodeling. PMID:27390266

  4. DNAJC21 Mutations Link a Cancer-Prone Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome to Corruption in 60S Ribosome Subunit Maturation.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Hemanth; Walne, Amanda J; Williams, Mike; Bockett, Nicholas; Collopy, Laura; Cardoso, Shirleny; Ellison, Alicia; Wynn, Rob; Leblanc, Thierry; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Kelsell, David P; van Heel, David A; Payne, Elspeth; Plagnol, Vincent; Dokal, Inderjeet; Vulliamy, Tom

    2016-07-07

    A substantial number of individuals with bone marrow failure (BMF) present with one or more extra-hematopoietic abnormality. This suggests a constitutional or inherited basis, and yet many of them do not fit the diagnostic criteria of the known BMF syndromes. Through exome sequencing, we have now identified a subgroup of these individuals, defined by germline biallelic mutations in DNAJC21 (DNAJ homolog subfamily C member 21). They present with global BMF, and one individual developed a hematological cancer (acute myeloid leukemia) in childhood. We show that the encoded protein associates with rRNA and plays a highly conserved role in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Lymphoblastoid cells obtained from an affected individual exhibit increased sensitivity to the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and reduced amounts of rRNA. Characterization of mutations revealed impairment in interactions with cofactors (PA2G4, HSPA8, and ZNF622) involved in 60S maturation. DNAJC21 deficiency resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation of the 60S nuclear export factor PA2G4, aberrant ribosome profiles, and increased cell death. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that mutations in DNAJC21 cause a cancer-prone BMF syndrome due to corruption of early nuclear rRNA biogenesis and late cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S subunit.

  5. Structural snapshot of cytoplasmic pre-60S ribosomal particles bound by Nmd3, Lsg1, Tif6 and Reh1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengying; Wu, Shan; Li, Ningning; Chen, Yan; Yan, Kaige; Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Lvqin; Lei, Jianlin; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2017-03-01

    A key step in ribosome biogenesis is the nuclear export of pre-ribosomal particles. Nmd3, a highly conserved protein in eukaryotes, is a specific adaptor required for the export of pre-60S particles. Here we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-60S particles purified with epitope-tagged Nmd3. Our structural analysis indicates that these particles belong to a specific late stage of cytoplasmic pre-60S maturation in which ribosomal proteins uL16, uL10, uL11, eL40 and eL41 are deficient, but ribosome assembly factors Nmd3, Lsg1, Tif6 and Reh1 are present. Nmd3 and Lsg1 are located near the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). In particular, Nmd3 recognizes the PTC in its near-mature conformation. In contrast, Reh1 is anchored to the exit of the polypeptide tunnel, with its C terminus inserted into the tunnel. These findings pinpoint a structural checkpoint role for Nmd3 in PTC assembly, and provide information about functional and mechanistic roles of these assembly factors in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit.

  6. Interaction of frataxin, an iron binding protein, with IscU of Fe-S clusters biogenesis pathway and its upregulation in AmpB resistant Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Amir; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Anwar, Shadab; Suman, Shashi S; Equbal, Asif; Singh, Kuljit; Dikhit, Manas R; Bimal, Sanjeeva; Pandey, Krishna; Das, Pradeep; Ali, Vahab

    2015-08-01

    Leishmania donovani is a unicellular protozoon parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is a fatal disease if left untreated. Certain Fe-S proteins of the TCA cycle and respiratory chain have been found in the Leishmania parasite but the precise mechanisms for their biogenesis and the maturation of Fe-S clusters remains unknown. Fe-S clusters are ubiquitous cofactors of proteins that perform critical cellular functions. The clusters are biosynthesized by the mitochondrial Iron-Sulphur Cluster (ISC) machinery with core protein components that include the catalytic cysteine desulphurase IscS, the scaffold proteins IscU and IscA, and frataxin as an iron carrier/donor. However, no information regarding frataxin, its regulation, or its role in drug resistance is available for the Leishmania parasite. In this study, we characterized Ld-frataxin to investigate its role in the ISC machinery of L. donovani. We expressed and purified the recombinant Ld-frataxin protein and observed its interaction with Ld-IscU by co-purification and pull-down assay. Furthermore, we observed that the cysteine desulphurase activity of the purified Ld-IscS protein was stimulated in the presence of Ld-frataxin and Ld-IscU, particularly in the presence of iron; neither Ld-frataxin nor Ld-IscU alone had significant effects on Ld-IscS activity. Interestingly, RT-PCR and western blotting showed that Ld-frataxin is upregulated in AmpB-resistant isolates compared to sensitive strains, which may support higher Fe-S protein activity in AmpB-resistant L. donovani. Additionally, Ld-frataxin was localized in the mitochondria, as revealed by digitonin fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence. Thus, our results suggest the role of Ld-frataxin as an iron binding/carrier protein for Fe-S cluster biogenesis that physically interacts with other core components of the ISC machinery within the mitochondria.

  7. Plant Peroxisomes: Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Baker, Alison; Bartel, Bonnie; Linka, Nicole; Mullen, Robert T.; Reumann, Sigrun; Zolman, Bethany K.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that are highly dynamic both in morphology and metabolism. Plant peroxisomes are involved in numerous processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considerable progress has been made in the identification of factors involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, revealing mechanisms that are both shared with and diverged from non-plant systems. Furthermore, recent advances have begun to reveal an unexpectedly large plant peroxisomal proteome and have increased our understanding of metabolic pathways in peroxisomes. Coordination of the biosynthesis, import, biochemical activity, and degradation of peroxisomal proteins allows for highly dynamic responses of peroxisomal metabolism to meet the needs of a plant. Knowledge gained from plant peroxisomal research will be instrumental to fully understanding the organelle’s dynamic behavior and defining peroxisomal metabolic networks, thus allowing the development of molecular strategies for rational engineering of plant metabolism, biomass production, stress tolerance, and pathogen defense. PMID:22669882

  8. TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Aaron Z.; Gibney, Patrick A.; Botstein, David; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to desiccation in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inducible; only one in a million cells from an exponential culture survive desiccation compared with one in five cells in stationary phase. Here we exploit the desiccation sensitivity of exponentially dividing cells to understand the stresses imposed by desiccation and their stress response pathways. We found that induction of desiccation tolerance is cell autonomous and that there is an inverse correlation between desiccation tolerance and growth rate in glucose-, ammonia-, or phosphate-limited continuous cultures. A transient heat shock induces a 5000–fold increase in desiccation tolerance, whereas hyper-ionic, -reductive, -oxidative, or -osmotic stress induced much less. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the Sch9p-regulated branch of the TOR and Ras-cAMP pathway inhibits desiccation tolerance by inhibiting the stress response transcription factors Gis1p, Msn2p, and Msn4p and by activating Sfp1p, a ribosome biogenesis transcription factor. Among 41 mutants defective in ribosome biogenesis, a subset defective in 60S showed a dramatic increase in desiccation tolerance independent of growth rate. We suggest that reduction of a specific intermediate in 60S biogenesis, resulting from conditions such as heat shock and nutrient deprivation, increases desiccation tolerance. PMID:23171550

  9. Physiological function of IspE, a plastid MEP pathway gene for isoprenoid biosynthesis, in organelle biogenesis and cell morphogenesis in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2008-03-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants occurs by two independent pathways: the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we investigated the cellular effects of depletion of IspE, a protein involved in the MEP pathway, using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The IspE gene is preferentially expressed in young tissues, and induced by light and methyl jasmonate. The GFP fusion protein of IspE was targeted to chloroplasts. Reduction of IspE expression by VIGS resulted in a severe leaf yellowing phenotype. At the cellular level, depletion of IspE severely affected chloroplast development, dramatically reducing both the number and size of chloroplasts. Interestingly, mitochondrial development was also impaired, suggesting a possibility that the plastidic MEP pathway contributes to mitochondrial isoprenoid biosynthesis in leaves. A deficiency in IspE activity decreased cellular levels of the metabolites produced by the MEP pathway, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids, and stimulated expression of some of the downstream MEP pathway genes, particularly IspF and IspG. Interestingly, the IspE VIGS lines had significantly increased numbers of cells of reduced size in all leaf layers, compared with TRV control and other VIGS lines for the MEP pathway genes. The increased cell division in the IspE VIGS lines was particularly pronounced in the abaxial epidermal layer, in which the over-proliferated cells bulged out of the plane, making the surface uneven. In addition, trichome numbers dramatically increased and the stomata size varied in the affected tissues. Our results show that IspE deficiency causes novel developmental phenotypes distinct from the phenotypes of other MEP pathway mutants, indicating that IspE may have an additional role in plant development besides its role in isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  10. Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that play an essential role in a variety of cellular catabolic and anabolic metabolic pathways, including fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, and plasmalogen and bile acid synthesis. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a large variety of peroxisomal disorders either affecting specific metabolic pathways, i.e., the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, or causing a generalized defect in function and assembly of peroxisomes, i.e., peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In this review, we discuss the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of all human peroxisomal disorders currently known.

  11. Two New Plant-Like Pathways Link Hemoglobin Degradation to Lipid Biogenesis in Falciparum Malaria: Novel Targets for Anti-Malarial Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    0.1 M sodium borate as a standard. (75:45:12:4.5) as mobile phase. The identity of the radioactive spots was determined by TLC analysis using...formation of both PtdEtn and PtdCho (Fig. IA), (253aa) indicating the presence of a functional CDP- ethano [amine pathway for PtdEtn synthesis and

  12. Curli Biogenesis: Order out of Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Margery L.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria assemble extracellular amyloid fibers on their cell surface. Secretion of proteins across membranes and the assembly of complex macromolecular structures must be highly coordinated to avoid the accumulation of potentially toxic intracellular protein aggregates. Extracellular amyloid fiber assembly poses an even greater threat to cellular health due to the highly aggregative nature of amyloids and the inherent toxicity of amyloid assembly intermediates. Therefore, temporal and spatial control of amyloid protein secretion is paramount. The biogenesis and assembly of the extracellular bacterial amyloid curli is an ideal system for studying how bacteria cope with the many challenges of controlled and ordered amyloid assembly. Here, we review the recent progress in the curli field that has made curli biogenesis one of the best-understood functional amyloid assembly pathways. PMID:24080089

  13. The Circadian Clock Coordinates Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Symul, Laura; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a fundamental role in the physiology and behavior of most living organisms. Rhythmic circadian expression of clock-controlled genes is orchestrated by a molecular clock that relies on interconnected negative feedback loops of transcription regulators. Here we show that the circadian clock exerts its function also through the regulation of mRNA translation. Namely, the circadian clock influences the temporal translation of a subset of mRNAs involved in ribosome biogenesis by controlling the transcription of translation initiation factors as well as the clock-dependent rhythmic activation of signaling pathways involved in their regulation. Moreover, the circadian oscillator directly regulates the transcription of ribosomal protein mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs. Thus the circadian clock exerts a major role in coordinating transcription and translation steps underlying ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23300384

  14. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  15. Concerted removal of the Erb1–Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7–Erb1–Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1–Bop1–Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1–Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1–Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1–Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  16. Curli Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Michelle M.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Curli are the major proteinaceous component of a complex extra-cellular matrix produced by many Enterobacteriaceae. Curli were first discovered in the late 1980s on Escherichia coli strains that caused bovine mastitis, and have since been implicated in many physiological and pathogenic processes of E. coli and Salmonella spp. Curli fibers are involved in adhesion to surfaces, cell aggregation, and biofilm formation. Curli also mediate host cell adhesion and invasion, and they are potent inducers of the host inflammatory response. The structure and biogenesis of curli are unique among bacterial fibers that have been described to date. Structurally and biochemically, curli belong to a growing class of fibers known as amyloids. Amyloid fiber formation is responsible for several human diseases including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and prion diseases, although the process of in vivo amyloid formation is not well understood. Curli provide a unique system to study macromolecular assembly in bacteria and in vivo amyloid fiber formation. Here, we review curli biogenesis, regulation, role in biofilm formation, and role in pathogenesis. PMID:16704339

  17. Interaction between sulphur mobilisation proteins SufB and SufC: evidence for an iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis pathway in the apicoplast of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bijay; Chaubey, Sushma; Shah, Priyanka; Tanveer, Aiman; Charan, Manish; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Habib, Saman

    2011-08-01

    The plastid of Plasmodium falciparum, the apicoplast, performs metabolic functions essential to the parasite. Various reactions in the plastid require the assembly of [Fe-S] prosthetic groups on participating proteins as well as the reductant activity of ferredoxin that is converted from its apo-form by the assembly of [Fe-S] clusters inside the apicoplast. The [Fe-S] assembly pathway involving sulphur mobilising Suf proteins has been predicted to function in the apicoplast with one component (PfSufB) encoded by the plastid genome itself. We demonstrate the ATPase activity of recombinant P. falciparum nuclear-encoded SufC and its localisation in the apicoplast. Further, an internal region of apicoplast SufB was used to detect PfSufB-PfSufC interaction in vitro; co-elution of SufB from parasite lysate with recombinant PfSufC on an affinity column also indicated an interaction of the two proteins. As a departure from bacterial SufB and similar to reported plant plastid SufB, apicoplast SufB exhibited ATPase activity, suggesting the evolution of specialised functions in the plastid counterparts. Our results provide experimental evidence for an active Suf pathway in the Plasmodium apicoplast.

  18. The microRNA biogenesis machinery: regulation by steroid hormones and alterations in cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Duarte, Ramiro José; Cázares-Ordoñez, Verna; Ávila-Chávez, Euclides

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The major proteins of the canonical microRNA biogenesis pathway in human are: Drosha, DGCR8, DDX5, DDX17, Exportin 5, Dicer and Argonaute 2. Recent studies suggest that gene expression of some canonical microRNA biogenesis components could be regulated by steroid hormones. Furthermore, various alterations in microRNA biogenesis have been associated with diseases like cancer. Due to the importance of microRNAs in cell physiology, the study of the factors that regulate or affect their biogenesis is critical.

  19. Dynamic periplasmic chaperone reservoir facilitates biogenesis of outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Shawn M.; Plummer, Ashlee M.; Fleming, Patrick J.; Fleming, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is critical to bacterial physiology because the cellular envelope is vital to bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. The process of OMP biogenesis has been studied in vivo, and each of its components has been studied in isolation in vitro. This work integrates parameters and observations from both in vivo and in vitro experiments into a holistic computational model termed “Outer Membrane Protein Biogenesis Model” (OMPBioM). We use OMPBioM to assess OMP biogenesis mathematically in a global manner. Using deterministic and stochastic methods, we are able to simulate OMP biogenesis under varying genetic conditions, each of which successfully replicates experimental observations. We observe that OMPs have a prolonged lifetime in the periplasm where an unfolded OMP makes, on average, hundreds of short-lived interactions with chaperones before folding into its native state. We find that some periplasmic chaperones function primarily as quality-control factors; this function complements the folding catalysis function of other chaperones. Additionally, the effective rate for the β-barrel assembly machinery complex necessary for physiological folding was found to be higher than has currently been observed in vitro. Overall, we find a finely tuned balance between thermodynamic and kinetic parameters maximizes OMP folding flux and minimizes aggregation and unnecessary degradation. In sum, OMPBioM provides a global view of OMP biogenesis that yields unique insights into this essential pathway. PMID:27482090

  20. piRNA Biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiawei; Fejes Tóth, Katalin; Aravin, Alexei A

    2017-09-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is a conserved defense system that protects the genome integrity of the animal germline from deleterious transposable elements. Targets of silencing are recognized by small noncoding piRNAs that are processed from long precursor molecules. Although piRNAs and other classes of small noncoding RNAs, such as miRNAs and small interfering (si)RNAs, interact with members of the same family of Argonaute (Ago) proteins and their function in target repression is similar, the biogenesis of piRNAs differs from those of the other two small RNAs. Recently, many aspects of piRNA biogenesis have been revealed in Drosophila melanogaster. In this review, we elaborate on piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila somatic and germline cells. We focus on the mechanisms by which piRNA precursor transcription is regulated and highlight recent work that has advanced our understanding of piRNA precursor processing to mature piRNAs. We finish by discussing current models to the still unresolved question of how piRNA precursors are selected and channeled into the processing machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome comparative profiling of barley eibi1 mutant reveals pleiotropic effects of HvABCG31 gene on cuticle biogenesis and stress responsive pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Tao; Li, Guangrong; Chen, Guoxiong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-10-14

    Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  2. Poxvirus membrane biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Poxviruses differ from most DNA viruses by replicating entirely within the cytoplasm. The first discernible viral structures are crescents and spherical immature virions containing a single lipoprotein membrane bilayer with an external honeycomb lattice. Because this viral membrane displays no obvious continuity with a cellular organelle, a de novo origin was suggested. Nevertheless, transient connections between viral and cellular membranes could be difficult to resolve. Despite the absence of direct evidence, the intermediate compartment (ERGIC) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus and the ER itself were considered possible sources of crescent membranes. A break-through in understanding poxvirus membrane biogenesis has come from recent studies of the abortive replication of several vaccinia virus null mutants. Novel images showing continuity between viral crescents and the ER and the accumulation of immature virions in the expanded ER lumen provide the first direct evidence for a cellular origin of this poxvirus membrane.

  3. Biogenesis and Function of Ago-Associated RNAs.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Iben; Hansen, Thomas Birkballe

    2017-03-01

    Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing. We review here the current knowledge and most recent discoveries relating to alternative functions and biogenesis strategies for Ago-associated RNAs in mammals.

  4. Transcriptional repressor NIR functions in the ribosome RNA processing of both 40S and 60S subunits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yingshuang; Kong, Ruirui; Hu, Lelin; Schuele, Roland; Du, Xiaojuan; Ke, Yang

    2012-01-01

    NIR was identified as an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase and it represses transcriptional activation of p53. NIR is predominantly localized in the nucleolus and known as Noc2p, which is involved in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit. However, how NIR functions in the nucleolus remains undetermined. In the nucleolus, a 47S ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) is transcribed and processed to produce 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs. The 18S rRNA is incorporated into the 40S ribosomal subunit, whereas the 28S and 5.8S rRNAs are incorporated into the 60S subunit. U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) directs 18S rRNA processing and U8 snoRNA mediates processing of 28S and 5.8 S rRNAs. Functional disruption of nucleolus often causes p53 activation to inhibit cell proliferation. Western blotting showed that NIR is ubiquitously expressed in different human cell lines. Knock-down of NIR by siRNA led to inhibition of the 18S, 28S and 5.8S rRNAs evaluated by pulse-chase experiment. Pre-rRNA particles (pre-rRNPs) were fractionated from the nucleus by sucrose gradient centrifugation and analysis of the pre-RNPs components showed that NIR existed in the pre-RNPs of both the 60S and 40S subunits and co-fractionated with 32S and 12S pre-rRNAs in the 60S pre-rRNP. Protein-RNA binding experiments demonstrated that NIR is associated with the 32S pre-rRNA and U8 snoRNA. In addition, NIR bound U3 snoRNA. It is a novel finding that depletion of NIR did not affect p53 protein level but de-repressed acetylation of p53 and activated p21. We provide the first evidence for a transcriptional repressor to function in the rRNA biogenesis of both the 40S and 60S subunits. Our findings also suggested that a nucleolar protein may alternatively signal to p53 by affecting the p53 modification rather than affecting p53 protein level.

  5. Transcriptional Repressor NIR Functions in the Ribosome RNA Processing of Both 40S and 60S Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingshuang; Kong, Ruirui; Hu, Lelin; Schuele, Roland; Du, Xiaojuan; Ke, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background NIR was identified as an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase and it represses transcriptional activation of p53. NIR is predominantly localized in the nucleolus and known as Noc2p, which is involved in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit. However, how NIR functions in the nucleolus remains undetermined. In the nucleolus, a 47S ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) is transcribed and processed to produce 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs. The 18S rRNA is incorporated into the 40S ribosomal subunit, whereas the 28S and 5.8S rRNAs are incorporated into the 60S subunit. U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) directs 18S rRNA processing and U8 snoRNA mediates processing of 28S and 5.8 S rRNAs. Functional disruption of nucleolus often causes p53 activation to inhibit cell proliferation. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blotting showed that NIR is ubiquitously expressed in different human cell lines. Knock-down of NIR by siRNA led to inhibition of the 18S, 28S and 5.8S rRNAs evaluated by pulse-chase experiment. Pre-rRNA particles (pre-rRNPs) were fractionated from the nucleus by sucrose gradient centrifugation and analysis of the pre-RNPs components showed that NIR existed in the pre-RNPs of both the 60S and 40S subunits and co-fractionated with 32S and 12S pre-rRNAs in the 60S pre-rRNP. Protein-RNA binding experiments demonstrated that NIR is associated with the 32S pre-rRNA and U8 snoRNA. In addition, NIR bound U3 snoRNA. It is a novel finding that depletion of NIR did not affect p53 protein level but de-repressed acetylation of p53 and activated p21. Conclusions We provide the first evidence for a transcriptional repressor to function in the rRNA biogenesis of both the 40S and 60S subunits. Our findings also suggested that a nucleolar protein may alternatively signal to p53 by affecting the p53 modification rather than affecting p53 protein level. PMID:22363708

  6. Etoposide Induces ATM-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis through AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yi Lisa; Liu, Leroy F.; Qi, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA damage such as double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) has been reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The major player in response to DSBs is ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Upon sensing DSBs, ATM is activated through autophosphorylation and phosphorylates a number of substrates for DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. ATM has been reported to phosphorylate the α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses AMP/ATP ratio in cells, and can be activated by upstream kinases. Here we provide evidence for a novel role of ATM in mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Three pairs of human ATM+ and ATM- cells were employed. Cells treated with etoposide exhibited an ATM-dependent increase in mitochondrial mass as measured by 10-N-Nonyl-Acridine Orange and MitoTracker Green FM staining, as well as an increase in mitochondrial DNA content. In addition, the expression of several known mitochondrial biogenesis regulators such as the major mitochondrial transcription factor NRF-1, PGC-1α and TFAM was also elevated in response to etoposide treatment as monitored by RT-PCR. Three pieces of evidence suggest that etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis is due to ATM-dependent activation of AMPK. First, etoposide induced ATM-dependent phosphorylation of AMPK α subunit at Thr172, indicative of AMPK activation. Second, inhibition of AMPK blocked etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Third, activation of AMPK by AICAR (an AMP analogue) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an ATM-dependent manner, suggesting that ATM may be an upstream kinase of AMPK in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that activation of ATM by etoposide can lead to mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation. We propose that ATM-dependent mitochondrial

  7. Storage pool diseases illuminate platelet dense granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2016-11-16

    Platelet dense granules (DGs) are membrane bound compartments that store polyphosphate and small molecules such as ADP, ATP, Ca(2+), and serotonin. The release of DG contents plays a central role in platelet aggregation to form a hemostatic plug. Accordingly, congenital deficiencies in the biogenesis of platelet DGs underlie human genetic disorders that cause storage pool disease and manifest with prolonged bleeding. DGs belong to a family of lysosome-related organelles, which also includes melanosomes, the compartments where the melanin pigments are synthesized. These organelles share several characteristics including an acidic lumen and, at least in part, the molecular machinery involved in their biogenesis. As a result, many genes affect both DG and melanosome biogenesis and the corresponding patients present not only with bleeding but also with oculocutaneous albinism. The identification and characterization of such genes has been instrumental in dissecting the pathways responsible for organelle biogenesis. Because the study of melanosome biogenesis has advanced more rapidly, this knowledge has been extrapolated to explain how DGs are produced. However, some progress has recently been made in studying platelet DG biogenesis directly in megakaryocytes and megakaryocytoid cells. DGs originate from an endosomal intermediate compartment, the multivesicular body. Maturation and differentiation into a DG begins when newly synthesized DG-specific proteins are delivered from early/recycling endosomal compartments. The machinery that orchestrates this vesicular trafficking is composed of a combination of both ubiquitous and cell type-specific proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on DG biogenesis. In particular, we focus on the individual human and murine genes encoding the molecular machinery involved in this process and how their deficiencies result in disease.

  8. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vagin, Vasily V; Yu, Yang; Jankowska, Anna; Luo, Yicheng; Wasik, Kaja A; Malone, Colin D; Harrison, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam; Wakimoto, Barbara T; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    Piwi proteins and their associated small RNAs are essential for fertility in animals. In part, this is due to their roles in guarding germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA populations direct Piwi proteins to silence transposon targets and, as such, form a molecular code that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes. Information ultimately carried by piRNAs is encoded within genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters. These give rise to long, single-stranded, primary transcripts that are processed into piRNAs. Despite the biological importance of this pathway, neither the characteristics that define a locus as a source of piRNAs nor the mechanisms that catalyze primary piRNA biogenesis are well understood. We searched an EMS-mutant collection annotated for fertility phenotypes for genes involved in the piRNA pathway. Twenty-seven homozygous sterile strains showed transposon-silencing defects. One of these, which strongly impacted primary piRNA biogenesis, harbored a causal mutation in CG5508, a member of the Drosophila glycerol-3-phosphate O-acetyltransferase (GPAT) family. These enzymes catalyze the first acylation step on the path to the production of phosphatidic acid (PA). Though this pointed strongly to a function for phospholipid signaling in the piRNA pathway, a mutant form of CG5508, which lacks the GPAT active site, still functions in piRNA biogenesis. We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur.

  9. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Yu, Yang; Jankowska, Anna; Luo, Yicheng; Wasik, Kaja A.; Malone, Colin D.; Harrison, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam; Wakimoto, Barbara T.; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Piwi proteins and their associated small RNAs are essential for fertility in animals. In part, this is due to their roles in guarding germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA populations direct Piwi proteins to silence transposon targets and, as such, form a molecular code that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes. Information ultimately carried by piRNAs is encoded within genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters. These give rise to long, single-stranded, primary transcripts that are processed into piRNAs. Despite the biological importance of this pathway, neither the characteristics that define a locus as a source of piRNAs nor the mechanisms that catalyze primary piRNA biogenesis are well understood. We searched an EMS-mutant collection annotated for fertility phenotypes for genes involved in the piRNA pathway. Twenty-seven homozygous sterile strains showed transposon-silencing defects. One of these, which strongly impacted primary piRNA biogenesis, harbored a causal mutation in CG5508, a member of the Drosophila glycerol-3-phosphate O-acetyltransferase (GPAT) family. These enzymes catalyze the first acylation step on the path to the production of phosphatidic acid (PA). Though this pointed strongly to a function for phospholipid signaling in the piRNA pathway, a mutant form of CG5508, which lacks the GPAT active site, still functions in piRNA biogenesis. We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. PMID:23788724

  10. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel.

  11. De novo peroxisome biogenesis: evolving concepts and conundrums

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes proliferate by growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes or could arise de novo. Though the de novo pathway of peroxisome biogenesis is a more recent discovery, several recent studies have highlighted key mechanistic details of the pathway. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary source of lipids and proteins for the newly-formed peroxisomes. More recently, an intricate sorting process functioning at the ER has been proposed, that segregates specific set of PMPs first to peroxisome-specific ER domains (pER) and then assembles PMPs selectively into distinct pre-peroxisomal vesicles (ppVs) that later fuse to form import-competent peroxisomes. In addition, plausible roles of the three key peroxins Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19, which are also central to the growth and division pathway, have been suggested in the de novo process. In this review, we discuss key developments and highlight the unexplored avenues in de novo peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:26381541

  12. Mechanisms of organelle biogenesis govern stochastic fluctuations in organelle abundance.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Shankar; O'Shea, Erin K

    2014-06-10

    Fluctuations in organelle abundance can profoundly limit the precision of cell biological processes from secretion to metabolism. We modeled the dynamics of organelle biogenesis and predicted that organelle abundance fluctuations depend strongly on the specific mechanisms that increase or decrease the number of a given organelle. Our model exactly predicts the size of experimentally measured Golgi apparatus and vacuole abundance fluctuations, suggesting that cells tolerate the maximum level of variability generated by the Golgi and vacuole biogenesis pathways. We observe large increases in peroxisome abundance fluctuations when cells are transferred from glucose-rich to fatty acid-rich environments. These increased fluctuations are significantly diminished in mutants lacking peroxisome fission factors, leading us to infer that peroxisome biogenesis switches from de novo synthesis to primarily fission. Our work provides a general framework for exploring stochastic organelle biogenesis and using fluctuations to quantitatively unravel the biophysical pathways that control the abundance of subcellular structures.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02678.001. Copyright © 2014, Mukherji and O'Shea.

  13. Peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome-deficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    FUJIKI, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelle containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens. To investigate peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) including Zellweger syndrome, more than a dozen different complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants impaired in peroxisome biogenesis are isolated as a model experimental system. By taking advantage of rapid functional complementation assay of the CHO cell mutants, successful cloning of PEX genes encoding peroxins required for peroxisome assembly invaluably contributed to the accomplishment of cloning of pathogenic genes responsible for PBDs. Peroxins are divided into three groups: 1) peroxins including Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are responsible for peroxisome membrane biogenesis via Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I and Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathways; 2) peroxins that function in matrix protein import; 3) those such as Pex11pβ are involved in peroxisome division where DLP1, Mff, and Fis1 coordinately function. PMID:27941306

  14. Mechanisms of organelle biogenesis govern stochastic fluctuations in organelle abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mukherji, Shankar; O'Shea, Erin K

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in organelle abundance can profoundly limit the precision of cell biological processes from secretion to metabolism. We modeled the dynamics of organelle biogenesis and predicted that organelle abundance fluctuations depend strongly on the specific mechanisms that increase or decrease the number of a given organelle. Our model exactly predicts the size of experimentally measured Golgi apparatus and vacuole abundance fluctuations, suggesting that cells tolerate the maximum level of variability generated by the Golgi and vacuole biogenesis pathways. We observe large increases in peroxisome abundance fluctuations when cells are transferred from glucose-rich to fatty acid-rich environments. These increased fluctuations are significantly diminished in mutants lacking peroxisome fission factors, leading us to infer that peroxisome biogenesis switches from de novo synthesis to primarily fission. Our work provides a general framework for exploring stochastic organelle biogenesis and using fluctuations to quantitatively unravel the biophysical pathways that control the abundance of subcellular structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02678.001 PMID:24916159

  15. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis to overcome drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gao; Frederick, Dennie T.; Wu, Lawrence; Wei, Zhi; Krepler, Clemens; Srinivasan, Satish; Chae, Young Chan; Xu, Xiaowei; Choi, Harry; Dimwamwa, Elaida; Shannan, Batool; Basu, Devraj; Zhang, Dongmei; Guha, Manti; Xiao, Min; Randell, Sergio; Sproesser, Katrin; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jephrey; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Gu, Mengnan; Xu, Caiyue; Ghosh, Abheek; Xu, Weiting; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Zha, Shijie; Brafford, Patricia; Weeraratna, Ashani; Davies, Michael A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Avadhani, Narayan G.; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Altieri, Dario C.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi. PMID:27043285

  16. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac performance depends on a fine balance between the work the heart has to perform to satisfy the needs of the body and the energy that it is able to produce. Thus, energy production by oxidative metabolism, the main energy source of the cardiac muscle, has to be strictly regulated to adapt to cardiac work. Mitochondrial biogenesis is the mechanism responsible for mitochondrial component synthesis and assembly. This process controls mitochondrial content and thus correlates with energy production that, in turn, sustains cardiac contractility. Mitochondrial biogenesis should be finely controlled to match cardiac growth and cardiac work. When the heart is subjected to an increase in work in response to physiological and pathological challenges, it adapts by increasing its mass and expressing a new genetic program. In response to physiological stimuli such as endurance training, mitochondrial biogenesis seems to follow a program involving increased cardiac mass. But in the context of pathological hypertrophy, the modifications of this mechanism remain unclear. What appears clear is that mitochondrial biogenesis is altered in heart failure, and the imbalance between cardiac work demand and energy production represents a major factor in the development of heart failure.

  18. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  19. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Levofloxacin targets a panel of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Levofloxacin acts synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil in breast cancer. • Levofloxacin targets breast cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis. • Breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal cells. • Mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition lead to deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  20. Activation of the tumor suppressor p53 upon impairment of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bursac, Sladana; Brdovcak, Maja Cokaric; Donati, Giulio; Volarevic, Sinisa

    2014-06-01

    Errors in ribosome biogenesis can result in quantitative or qualitative defects in protein synthesis and consequently lead to improper execution of the genetic program and the development of specific diseases. Evidence has accumulated over the last decade suggesting that perturbation of ribosome biogenesis triggers a p53-activating checkpoint signaling pathway, often referred to as the ribosome biogenesis stress checkpoint pathway. Although it was originally suggested that p53 has a prominent role in preventing diseases by monitoring the fidelity of ribosome biogenesis, recent work has demonstrated that p53 activation upon impairment of ribosome biogenesis also mediates pathological manifestations in humans. Perturbations of ribosome biogenesis can trigger a p53-dependent checkpoint signaling pathway independent of DNA damage and the tumor suppressor ARF through inhibitory interactions of specific ribosomal components with the p53 negative regulator, Mdm2. Here we review the recent advances made toward understanding of this newly-recognized checkpoint signaling pathway, its role in health and disease, and discuss possible future directions in this exciting research field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. © 2013.

  1. Dbp7p, a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for 60S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Daugeron, M C; Linder, P

    1998-01-01

    Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicases are ubiquitous, highly conserved proteins that are found in most organisms and they are implicated in all aspects of cellular RNA metabolism. Here we present the functional characterization of the Dbp7 protein, a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The complete deletion of the DBP7 ORF causes a severe slow-growth phenotype. In addition, the absence of Dbp7p results in a reduced amount of 60S ribosomal subunits and an accumulation of halfmer polysomes. Subsequent analysis of pre-rRNA processing indicates that this 60S ribosomal subunit deficit is due to a strong decrease in the production of 27S and 7S precursor rRNAs, which leads to reduced levels of the mature 25S and 5.8S rRNAs. Noticeably, the overall decrease of the 27S pre-rRNA species is neither associated with the accumulation of preceding precursors nor with the emergence of abnormal processing intermediates, suggesting that these 27S pre-rRNA species are degraded rapidly in the absence of Dbp7p. Finally, an HA epitope-tagged Dbp7 protein is localized in the nucleolus. We propose that Dbp7p is involved in the assembly of the pre-ribosomal particle during the biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit. PMID:9582098

  2. Germ Plasm Biogenesis--An Oskar-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance, and protection of germ cells is well established, and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cdc48-associated complex bound to 60S particles is required for the clearance of aberrant translation products.

    PubMed

    Defenouillère, Quentin; Yao, Yanhua; Mouaikel, John; Namane, Abdelkader; Galopier, Aurélie; Decourty, Laurence; Doyen, Antonia; Malabat, Christophe; Saveanu, Cosmin; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline

    2013-03-26

    Ribosome stalling on eukaryotic mRNAs triggers cotranslational RNA and protein degradation through conserved mechanisms. For example, mRNAs lacking a stop codon are degraded by the exosome in association with its cofactor, the SKI complex, whereas the corresponding aberrant nascent polypeptides are ubiquitinated by the E3 ligases Ltn1 and Not4 and become proteasome substrates. How translation arrest is linked with polypeptide degradation is still unclear. Genetic screens with SKI and LTN1 mutants allowed us to identify translation-associated element 2 (Tae2) and ribosome quality control 1 (Rqc1), two factors that we found associated, together with Ltn1 and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48, to 60S ribosomal subunits. Translation-associated element 2 (Tae2), Rqc1, and Cdc48 were all required for degradation of polypeptides synthesized from Non-Stop mRNAs (Non-Stop protein decay; NSPD). Both Ltn1 and Rqc1 were essential for the recruitment of Cdc48 to 60S particles. Polysome gradient analyses of mutant strains revealed unique intermediates of this pathway, showing that the polyubiquitination of Non-Stop peptides is a progressive process. We propose that ubiquitination of the nascent peptide starts on the 80S and continues on the 60S, on which Cdc48 is recruited to escort the substrate for proteasomal degradation.

  4. Ubiquitylation by the Ltn1 E3 ligase protects 60S ribosomes from starvation-induced selective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ossareh-Nazari, Batool; Niño, Carlos A; Bengtson, Mario H; Lee, Joong-Won; Joazeiro, Claudio A P; Dargemont, Catherine

    2014-03-17

    Autophagy, the process by which proteins or organelles are engulfed by autophagosomes and delivered for vacuolar/lysosomal degradation, is induced to ensure survival under starvation and other stresses. A selective autophagic pathway for 60S ribosomal subunits elicited by nitrogen starvation in yeast-ribophagy-was recently described and requires the Ubp3-Bre5 deubiquitylating enzyme. This discovery implied that an E3 ligases act upstream, whether inhibiting the process or providing an initial required signal. In this paper, we show that Ltn1/Rkr1, a 60S ribosome-associated E3 implicated in translational surveillance, acts as an inhibitor of 60S ribosomal subunit ribophagy and is antagonized by Ubp3. The ribosomal protein Rpl25 is a relevant target. Its ubiquitylation is Ltn1 dependent and Ubp3 reversed, and mutation of its ubiquitylation site rendered ribophagy less dependent on Ubp3. Consistently, the expression of Ltn1-but not Ubp3-rapidly decreased after starvation, presumably to allow ribophagy to proceed. Thus, Ltn1 and Ubp3-Bre5 likely contribute to adapt ribophagy activity to both nutrient supply and protein translation.

  5. The structure of Rpf2–Rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kharde, Satyavati; Calviño, Fabiola R.; Gumiero, Andrea; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. The 5S RNP consisting of the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and RpL11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit. Rpf2 and Rrs1 have been implicated in 5S RNP biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex from Aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 Å resolution and describe it as Brix domain of Rpf2 completed by Rrs1 to form two anticodon-binding domains with functionally important tails. Fitting the X-ray structure into the cryo-EM density of a previously described pre-60S particle correlates with biochemical data. The heterodimer forms specific contacts with the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and the biogenesis factor Rsa4. The flexible protein tails of Rpf2–Rrs1 localize to the central protuberance. Two helices in the Rrs1 C-terminal tail occupy a strategic position to block the rotation of 25S rRNA and the 5S RNP. Our data provide a structural model for 5S RNP recruitment to the pre-60S particle and explain why removal of Rpf2–Rrs1 is necessary for rearrangements to drive 60S maturation. PMID:26117542

  6. Regulation of chloroplast biogenesis: the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodermel, Steven

    2015-11-16

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis is an ideal model to gain insight into factors that control chloroplast biogenesis. im defines the gene for PTOX, a plastoquinol terminal oxidase that participates in control of thylakoid redox. Here, we report that the im defect can be suppressed during the late stages of plant development by gigantea (gi2), which defines the gene for GIGANTEA (GI), a central component of the circadian clock that plays a poorly-understood role in diverse plant developmental processes. imgi2 mutants are late-flowering and display other well-known phenotypes associated with gi2, such as starch accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress. We show that the restoration of chloroplast biogenesis in imgi2 is caused by a developmental-specific de-repression of cytokinin signaling that involves crosstalk with signaling pathways mediated by gibberellin (GA) and SPINDLY (SPY), a GA response inhibitor. Suppression of the plastid defect in imgi2 is likely caused by a relaxation of excitation pressures in developing plastids by factors contributed by gi2, including enhanced rates of photosynthesis and increased resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the suppression phenotype of imgi can be mimicked by crossing im with the starch accumulation mutant, sex1, perhaps because sex1 utilizes pathways similar to gi. We conclude that our studies provide a direct genetic linkage between GIGANTEA and chloroplast biogenesis, and we construct a model of interactions between signaling pathways mediated by gi, GA, SPY, cytokinins, and sex1 that are required for chloroplast biogenesis.

  7. Potent, Reversible, and Specific Chemical Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Chen, Zhen; Aoi, Yuki; Patgiri, Anupam; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nurse, Paul; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2016-10-06

    All cellular proteins are synthesized by ribosomes, whose biogenesis in eukaryotes is a complex multi-step process completed within minutes. Several chemical inhibitors of ribosome function are available and used as tools or drugs. By contrast, we lack potent validated chemical probes to analyze the dynamics of eukaryotic ribosome assembly. Here, we combine chemical and genetic approaches to discover ribozinoindoles (or Rbins), potent and reversible triazinoindole-based inhibitors of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. Analyses of Rbin sensitivity and resistance conferring mutations in fission yeast, along with biochemical assays with recombinant proteins, provide evidence that Rbins' physiological target is Midasin, an essential ∼540-kDa AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein. Using Rbins to acutely inhibit or activate Midasin function, in parallel experiments with inhibitor-sensitive or inhibitor-resistant cells, we uncover Midasin's role in assembling Nsa1 particles, nucleolar precursors of the 60S subunit. Together, our findings demonstrate that Rbins are powerful probes for eukaryotic ribosome assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells.

  9. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon

    PubMed Central

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome–Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S–RQC and 80S–Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome–translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  10. Moesin and cortactin control actin-dependent multivesicular endosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muriel, Olivia; Tomas, Alejandra; Scott, Cameron C.; Gruenberg, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We used in vivo and in vitro strategies to study the mechanisms of multivesicular endosome biogenesis. We found that, whereas annexinA2 and ARP2/3 mediate F-actin nucleation and branching, respectively, the ERM protein moesin supports the formation of F-actin networks on early endosomes. We also found that moesin plays no role during endocytosis and recycling to the plasma membrane but is absolutely required, much like actin, for early-to-late-endosome transport and multivesicular endosome formation. Both actin network formation in vitro and early-to-late endosome transport in vivo also depend on the F-actin–binding protein cortactin. Our data thus show that moesin and cortactin are necessary for formation of F-actin networks that mediate endosome biogenesis or maturation and transport through the degradative pathway. We propose that the primary function of endosomal F-actin is to control the membrane remodeling that accompanies endosome biogenesis. We also speculate that this mechanism helps segregate tubular and multivesicular membranes along the recycling and degradation pathways, respectively. PMID:27605702

  11. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Shalon E; Sutherland, Molly C; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Kranz, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Cytochromes c (cyt c) and c1 are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cyt c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for the import of apocytochrome c (apocyt c). Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cyt c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles of heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways.

  12. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; Sutherland, Molly C.; Francisco, Brian San; Mendez, Deanna L.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochromes c and c1are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for import of apocytochrome c. Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cytochrome c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles played by heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways. PMID:26073510

  13. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  15. Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

  16. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  17. Disruption of ribosome assembly in yeast blocks cotranscriptional pre-rRNA processing and affects the global hierarchy of ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Talkish, Jason; Biedka, Stephanie; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Zhang, Jingyu; Tang, Lan; Strahler, John R.; Andrews, Philip C.; Maddock, Janine R.; Woolford, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, pre-rRNA processing occurs almost exclusively post-transcriptionally. This is not the case in rapidly dividing yeast, as the majority of nascent pre-rRNAs are processed cotranscriptionally, with cleavage at the A2 site first releasing a pre-40S ribosomal subunit followed by release of a pre-60S ribosomal subunit upon transcription termination. Ribosome assembly is driven in part by hierarchical association of assembly factors and r-proteins. Groups of proteins are thought to associate with pre-ribosomes cotranscriptionally during early assembly steps, whereas others associate later, after transcription is completed. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized phenotype observed upon disruption of ribosome assembly, in which normally late-binding proteins associate earlier, with pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA. As previously observed by many other groups, we show that disruption of 60S subunit biogenesis results in increased amounts of 35S pre-rRNA, suggesting that a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally. Surprisingly, we found that early pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA also contain proteins previously thought to only associate with pre-ribosomes after early pre-rRNA processing steps have separated maturation of the two subunits. We believe the shift to post-transcriptional processing is ultimately due to decreased cellular division upon disruption of ribosome assembly. When cells are grown under stress or to high density, a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally and follow an alternative processing pathway. Together, these results affirm the principle that ribosome assembly occurs through different, parallel assembly pathways and suggest that there is a kinetic foot-race between the formation of protein binding sites and pre-rRNA processing events. PMID:27036125

  18. Disruption of ribosome assembly in yeast blocks cotranscriptional pre-rRNA processing and affects the global hierarchy of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Talkish, Jason; Biedka, Stephanie; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Zhang, Jingyu; Tang, Lan; Strahler, John R; Andrews, Philip C; Maddock, Janine R; Woolford, John L

    2016-06-01

    In higher eukaryotes, pre-rRNA processing occurs almost exclusively post-transcriptionally. This is not the case in rapidly dividing yeast, as the majority of nascent pre-rRNAs are processed cotranscriptionally, with cleavage at the A2 site first releasing a pre-40S ribosomal subunit followed by release of a pre-60S ribosomal subunit upon transcription termination. Ribosome assembly is driven in part by hierarchical association of assembly factors and r-proteins. Groups of proteins are thought to associate with pre-ribosomes cotranscriptionally during early assembly steps, whereas others associate later, after transcription is completed. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized phenotype observed upon disruption of ribosome assembly, in which normally late-binding proteins associate earlier, with pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA. As previously observed by many other groups, we show that disruption of 60S subunit biogenesis results in increased amounts of 35S pre-rRNA, suggesting that a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally. Surprisingly, we found that early pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA also contain proteins previously thought to only associate with pre-ribosomes after early pre-rRNA processing steps have separated maturation of the two subunits. We believe the shift to post-transcriptional processing is ultimately due to decreased cellular division upon disruption of ribosome assembly. When cells are grown under stress or to high density, a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally and follow an alternative processing pathway. Together, these results affirm the principle that ribosome assembly occurs through different, parallel assembly pathways and suggest that there is a kinetic foot-race between the formation of protein binding sites and pre-rRNA processing events. © 2016 Talkish et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Ribosome biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Woolford, John L; Baserga, Susan J

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes.

  20. The fungal vacuole: composition, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, D J; Herman, P K; Emr, S D

    1990-01-01

    The fungal vacuole is an extremely complex organelle that is involved in a wide variety of functions. The vacuole not only carries out degradative processes, the role most often ascribed to it, but also is the primary storage site for certain small molecules and biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and polyphosphate, plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the precise homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino acid concentration and intracellular pH. These many functions necessitate an intricate interaction between the vacuole and the rest of the cell; the vacuole is part of both the secretory and endocytic pathways and is also directly accessible from the cytosol. Because of the various roles and properties of the vacuole, it has been possible to isolate mutants which are defective in various vacuolar functions including the storage and uptake of metabolites, regulation of pH, sorting and processing of vacuolar proteins, and vacuole biogenesis. These mutants show a remarkable degree of genetic overlap, suggesting that these functions are not individual, discrete properties of the vacuole but, rather, are closely interrelated. Images PMID:2215422

  1. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  2. Neisserial surface lipoproteins: structure, function and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyejin E; Bateman, Thomas J; Moraes, Trevor F

    2017-03-01

    The surface of many Gram-negative bacteria contains lipidated protein molecules referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. SLPs play critical roles in host immune evasion, nutrient acquisition and regulation of the bacterial stress response. The focus of this review is on the SLPs present in Neisseria, a genus of bacteria that colonise the mucosal surfaces of animals. Neisseria contains two pathogens of medical interest, namely Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Several SLPs have been identified in Neisseria and their study has elucidated key strategies used by these pathogens to survive inside the human body. Herein, we focus on the identification, structure and function of SLPs that have been identified in Neisseria. We also survey the translocation pathways used by these SLPs to reach the cell surface. Specifically, we elaborate on the strategies used by neisserial SLPs to translocate across the outer membrane with an emphasis on Slam, a novel outer membrane protein that has been implicated in SLP biogenesis. Taken together, the study of SLPs in Neisseria illustrates the widespread roles played by this family of proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Diet, energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Anthony E; Smith, Steven R; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-11-01

    This review highlights some recent findings regarding nutritional and endocrine regulators of mitochondrial mass and function and their association with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is central to many chronic metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with lower mitochondrial mass and reduced oxidative phosphorylation. Part of the mitochondrial dysfunction can be triggered by adverse nutrition. Increased fatty acid exposure, resulting from high fats diets or overfeeding, is linked to both decreased mitochondrial number and markers of oxidative phosphorylation. Caloric restriction and the adiponectin signaling pathway, however, can stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis by elevating the transcriptional machinery that regulates mitochondrial mass, improving mitochondrial efficiency, activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1alpha mediated reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism, and lowering reactive oxygen species production. States of insulin resistance are characterized by defects in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Abnormalities in oxidative capacity, however, can be partially normalized by caloric restriction by modulating mitochondrial mass in an insulin sensitizing manner.

  4. Secretory granule biogenesis: rafting to the SNARE.

    PubMed

    Tooze, S A; Martens, G J; Huttner, W B

    2001-03-01

    Regulated secretion of hormones occurs when a cell receives an external stimulus, triggering the secretory granules to undergo fusion with the plasma membrane and release their content into the extracellular milieu. The formation of a mature secretory granule (MSG) involves a series of discrete and unique events such as protein sorting, formation of immature secretory granules (ISGs), prohormone processing and vesicle fusion. Regulated secretory proteins (RSPs), the proteins stored and secreted from MSGs, contain signals or domains to direct them into the regulated secretory pathway. Recent data on the role of specific domains in RSPs involved in sorting and aggregation suggest that the cell-type-specific composition of RSPs in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) has an important role in determining how the RSPs get into ISGs. The realization that lipid rafts are implicated in sorting RSPs in the TGN and the identification of SNARE molecules represent further major advances in our understanding of how MSGs are formed. At the heart of these findings is the elucidation of molecular mechanisms driving protein--lipid and protein--protein interactions specific for secretory granule biogenesis.

  5. Multiple crosstalks between mRNA biogenesis and SUMO.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Jérôme O; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Palancade, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    mRNA metabolism involves the orchestration of multiple nuclear events, including transcription, processing (e.g., capping, splicing, polyadenylation), and quality control. This leads to the accurate formation of messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) that are finally exported to the cytoplasm for translation. The production of defined sets of mRNAs in given environmental or physiological situations relies on multiple regulatory mechanisms that target the mRNA biogenesis machineries. Among other regulations, post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, whose prominence in several cellular processes has been largely demonstrated, also plays a key role in mRNA biogenesis. Analysis of the multiple available SUMO proteomes and functional validations of an increasing number of sumoylated targets have revealed the key contribution of SUMO-dependent regulation in nuclear mRNA metabolism. While sumoylation of transcriptional activators and repressors is so far best documented, SUMO contribution to other stages of mRNA biogenesis is also emerging. Modification of mRNA metabolism factors by SUMO determine their subnuclear targeting and biological activity, notably by regulating their molecular interactions with nucleic acids or protein partners. In particular, sumoylation of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators interfere with their association to target sequences or chromatin modifiers. In addition, the recent identification of enzymes of the SUMO pathway within specialized mRNA biogenesis machineries may provide a further level of regulation to their specificity. These multiple crosstalks between mRNA metabolism and SUMO appear therefore as important players in cellular regulatory networks.

  6. How is mitochondrial biogenesis affected in mitochondrial disease?

    PubMed

    Chabi, Beatrice; Adhihetty, Peter J; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hood, David A

    2005-12-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs when the tissue energy demand is chronically increased to stress the ATP producing capacity of the preexisting mitochondria. In muscle, endurance training is a metabolic stress that is capable of inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, the consequence of which is improved performance during exercise. Expansion of the mitochondrial volume requires the coordinated response of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. During acute exercise, the initial signaling events are the perturbations in ATP turnover and calcium (Ca) concentrations caused by the contractile process. These alterations activate signal transduction pathways which target transcription factors involved in gene expression. Nuclear gene products are then posttranslationally imported into mitochondria. One of these, Tfam, is important for the regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene expression. In muscle, a broad range of mitochondrial-specific diseases due to mutations in nuclear DNA or mtDNA exist, termed mitochondrial myopathies. These mutations result in dysfunctional mitochondrial assembly which ultimately leads to reduced ATP production. Mitochondrial myopathy patients exhibit a variety of compensatory responses which attempt to reconcile this energy deficiency, but the extent and the type of compensatory adaptations are disease-specific. Understanding the role of exercise in mediating these compensatory responses leading to mitochondrial biogenesis could help us in prescribing exercise designed to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. In addition, numerous other diseases (e.g., neurological disorders, cancer, diabetes, and cardiomyopathies), as well as the aging process, have etiologies or consequences attributed, in part, to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, insight gained by investigating the steps involved in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis may help us to understand the underlying basis of these other disease states.

  7. A functional network involved in the recycling of nucleocytoplasmic pre-60S factors

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Alice; Saveanu, Cosmin; Decourty, Laurence; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic pre-ribosomes go through cytoplasmic maturation steps before entering translation. The nucleocytoplasmic proteins participating in these late stages of maturation are reimported to the nucleus. In this study, we describe a functional network focused on Rei1/Ybr267w, a strictly cytoplasmic pre-60S factor indirectly involved in nuclear 27S pre-ribosomal RNA processing. In the absence of Rei1, the nuclear import of at least three other pre-60S factors is impaired. The accumulation in the cytoplasm of a small complex formed by the association of Arx1 with a novel factor, Alb1/Yjl122w, inhibits the release of the putative antiassociation factor Tif6 from the premature large ribosomal subunits and its recycling to the nucleus. We propose a model in which Rei1 is a key factor for the coordinated dissociation and recycling of the last pre-60S factors before newly synthesized large ribosomal subunits enter translation. PMID:16651379

  8. Carbon fullerenes (C60s) can induce inflammatory responses in the lung of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hero; Kim, Younghun; Yi, Jongheop; Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Kwangsik

    2010-04-15

    Fullerenes (C60s) occur in the environment due to natural and anthropogenic sources such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and the combustion of carbon-based materials. Recently, production and application of engineered C60s have also rapidly increased in diverse industrial fields and biomedicine due to C60' unique physico-chemical properties, so toxicity assessment on environmental and human health is being evaluated as a valuable work. However, data related to the toxicity of C60s have not been abundant up to now. In this study, we studied the immunotoxic mechanism and change of gene expression caused by the instillation of C60s. As a result, C60s induced an increase in sub G1 and G1 arrest in BAL cells, an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, and an increase of Th1 cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-r in BAL fluid. In addition, IgE reached the maximum at 1 day after treatment in both BAL fluid and the blood, and decreased in a time-dependent manner. Gene expression of the MHC class II (H2-Eb1) molecule was stronger than that of the MHC class I (H2-T23), and an increase in T cell distribution was also observed during the experiment period. Furthermore, cell infiltration and expression of tissue damage related genes in lung tissue were constantly observed during the experiment period. Based on this, C60s may induce inflammatory responses in the lung of mice.

  9. The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael; Taskin, Asli A.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Guan, Xue Li; Prinz, Claudia; Opalińska, Magdalena; Zorzin, Carina; van der Laan, Martin; Wenk, Markus R.; Schubert, Rolf; Wiedemann, Nils; Holzer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein. PMID:26347140

  10. De novo peroxisome biogenesis: Evolving concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes proliferate by growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes or could arise de novo. Though the de novo pathway of peroxisome biogenesis is a more recent discovery, several studies have highlighted key mechanistic details of the pathway. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary source of lipids and proteins for the newly-formed peroxisomes. More recently, an intricate sorting process functioning at the ER has been proposed, that segregates specific PMPs first to peroxisome-specific ER domains (pER) and then assembles PMPs selectively into distinct pre-peroxisomal vesicles (ppVs) that later fuse to form import-competent peroxisomes. In addition, plausible roles of the three key peroxins Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19, which are also central to the growth and division pathway, have been suggested in the de novo process. In this review, we discuss key developments and highlight the unexplored avenues in de novo peroxisome biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end

    PubMed Central

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. PMID:26370942

  12. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-05

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis at a glance.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Emma; Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Hurt, Ed

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes play a pivotal role in the molecular life of every cell. Moreover, synthesis of ribosomes is one of the most energetically demanding of all cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis requires the coordinated activity of all three RNA polymerases and the orchestrated work of many (>200) transiently associated ribosome assembly factors. The biogenesis of ribosomes is a tightly regulated activity and it is inextricably linked to other fundamental cellular processes, including growth and cell division. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with several hereditary diseases. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we summarise the current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, with an emphasis on the yeast model system.

  14. Voyage out of the Interior: Amateur Historian's Films from '60s Stir Imagination at LCO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayquonabe, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the re-emergence of some historic films from the '60s which creates excitement amongst Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe people and inspires them to launch a project to digitize and edit the old media. The "Audio Visual Production Project" began to take shape in the fall of 2006 when the tribal vice chairman, Rusty Barber,…

  15. The synthesis of glutamic acid in the absence of enzymes: Implications for biogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morowitz, Harold; Peterson, Eta; Chang, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the non-enzymatic aqueous phase synthesis of amino acids from keto acids, ammonia and reducing agents. The facile synthesis of key metabolic intermediates, particularly in the glycolytic pathway, the citric acid cycle, and the first step of amino acid synthesis, lead to new ways of looking at the problem of biogenesis.

  16. The synthesis of glutamic acid in the absence of enzymes: Implications for biogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morowitz, Harold; Peterson, Eta; Chang, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the non-enzymatic aqueous phase synthesis of amino acids from keto acids, ammonia and reducing agents. The facile synthesis of key metabolic intermediates, particularly in the glycolytic pathway, the citric acid cycle, and the first step of amino acid synthesis, lead to new ways of looking at the problem of biogenesis.

  17. The synthesis of glutamic acid in the absence of enzymes: Implications for biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morowitz, Harold; Peterson, Eta; Chang, Sherwood

    1995-08-01

    This paper reports on the non-enzymatic aqueous phase synthesis of amino acids from keto acids, ammonia and reducing agents. The facile synthesis of key metabolic intermediates, particularly in the glycolytic pathway, the citric acid cycle, and the first step of amino acid synthesis, lead to new ways of looking at the problem of biogenesis.

  18. A novel mechanism involved in the coupling of mitochondrial biogenesis to oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Jelena; Rago, Jean-Paul; Dujardin, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that are central to a multitude of cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which produces most of the ATP in animal cells. Thus it is important to understand not only the mechanisms and biogenesis of this energy production machinery but also how it is regulated in both physiological and pathological contexts. A recent study by Ostojić et al. [Cell Metabolism (2013) 18, 567-577] has uncovered a regulatory loop by which the biogenesis of a major enzyme of the OXPHOS pathway, the respiratory complex III, is coupled to the energy producing activity of the mitochondria. PMID:28357209

  19. Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis machinery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akiko; Kashima, Risa

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are integral to the gene regulatory network. A single miRNA is capable of controlling the expression of hundreds of protein coding genes and modulate a wide spectrum of biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, stress responses, DNA repair, cell adhesion, motility, inflammation, cell survival, senescence and apoptosis, all of which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. Overexpression, genetic amplification, and gain-of-function mutation of oncogenic miRNAs ("onco-miRs") as well as genetic deletion and loss-of-function mutation of tumor suppressor miRNAs ("suppressor-miRs") are linked to human cancer. In addition to the dysregulation of a specific onco-miR or suppressor-miRs, changes in global miRNA levels resulting from a defective miRNA biogenesis pathway play a role in tumorigenesis. The function of individual onco-miRs and suppressor-miRs and their target genes in cancer has been described in many different articles elsewhere. In this review, we primarily focus on the recent development regarding the dysregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway and its contribution to cancer.

  20. Functional parameters of Dicer-independent microRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jr-Shiuan; Maurin, Thomas; Lai, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, a Dicer-class RNase III enzyme was believed to be essential for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in all animals. The conserved vertebrate locus mir-451 defies this expectation and instead matures by direct cleavage of its pre-miRNA hairpin via the Slicer activity of Argonaute2 (Ago2). In this study, we used structure–function analysis to define the functional parameters of Ago2-mediated miRNA biogenesis. These include (1) the requirement for base-pairing at most, but not all, positions within the pre-mir-451 stem; (2) surprisingly little influence of the 5′-nucleotide on Ago sorting; (3) substantial influence of Ago protein stoichiometry on mir-451 maturation; (4) strong influence of G:C content in the distal stem on 3′ resection of cleaved mir-451 substrates; and (5) the influence of hairpin length on substrate utilization by Ago2 and Dicer. Unexpectedly, we find that certain hairpin lengths confer competence to mature via both Dicer-mediated and Ago2-mediated pathways, and we show, in fact, that a conventional shRNA can traverse the Dicer-independent pathway. Altogether, these data inform the design of effective Dicer-independent substrates for gene silencing and reveal novel aspects of substrate handling by Ago proteins. PMID:22461413

  1. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-12-19

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner-this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.

  2. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner–this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging. PMID:27991496

  3. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-12-01

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner–this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.

  4. Acute and chronic mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency differentially regulate lysosomal biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mosquera, Lorena; Diogo, Cátia V.; Yambire, King Faisal; Santos, Gabriela L.; Luna Sánchez, Marta; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Lopez, Luis Carlos; Milosevic, Ira; Raimundo, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are key cellular signaling platforms, affecting fundamental processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. However, it remains unclear how mitochondrial signaling affects other organelles, particularly lysosomes. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) impairments elicit a stress signaling pathway that regulates lysosomal biogenesis via the microphtalmia transcription factor family. Interestingly, the effect of mitochondrial stress over lysosomal biogenesis depends on the timeframe of the stress elicited: while RC inhibition with rotenone or uncoupling with CCCP initially triggers lysosomal biogenesis, the effect peaks after few hours and returns to baseline. Long-term RC inhibition by long-term treatment with rotenone, or patient mutations in fibroblasts and in a mouse model result in repression of lysosomal biogenesis. The induction of lysosomal biogenesis by short-term mitochondrial stress is dependent on TFEB and MITF, requires AMPK signaling and is independent of calcineurin signaling. These results reveal an integrated view of how mitochondrial signaling affects lysosomes, which is essential to fully comprehend the consequences of mitochondrial malfunction, particularly in the context of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:28345620

  5. Arabidopsis small nucleolar RNA monitors the efficient pre-rRNA processing during ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pan; Wang, Yuqiu; Qin, Nanxun; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jia; Deng, Xing Wang; Zhu, Danmeng

    2016-10-18

    Ribosome production in eukaryotes requires the complex and precise coordination of several hundred assembly factors, including many small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). However, at present, the distinct role of key snoRNAs in ribosome biogenesis remains poorly understood in higher plants. Here we report that a previously uncharacterized C (RUGAUGA)/D (CUGA) type snoRNA, HIDDEN TREASURE 2 (HID2), acts as an important regulator of ribosome biogenesis through a snoRNA-rRNA interaction. Nucleolus-localized HID2 is actively expressed in Arabidopsis proliferative tissues, whereas defects in HID2 cause a series of developmental defects reminiscent of ribosomal protein mutants. HID2 associates with the precursor 45S rRNA and promotes the efficiency and accuracy of pre-rRNA processing. Intriguingly, disrupting HID2 in Arabidopsis appears to impair the integrity of 27SB, a key pre-rRNA intermediate that generates 25S and 5.8S rRNA and is known to be vital for the synthesis of the 60S large ribosomal subunit and also produces an imbalanced ribosome profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the antisense-box of HID2 is both functionally essential and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Overall, our study reveals the vital and possibly conserved role of a snoRNA in monitoring the efficiency of pre-rRNA processing during ribosome biogenesis.

  6. Arabidopsis small nucleolar RNA monitors the efficient pre-rRNA processing during ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pan; Wang, Yuqiu; Qin, Nanxun; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jia; Deng, Xing Wang; Zhu, Danmeng

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome production in eukaryotes requires the complex and precise coordination of several hundred assembly factors, including many small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). However, at present, the distinct role of key snoRNAs in ribosome biogenesis remains poorly understood in higher plants. Here we report that a previously uncharacterized C (RUGAUGA)/D (CUGA) type snoRNA, HIDDEN TREASURE 2 (HID2), acts as an important regulator of ribosome biogenesis through a snoRNA–rRNA interaction. Nucleolus-localized HID2 is actively expressed in Arabidopsis proliferative tissues, whereas defects in HID2 cause a series of developmental defects reminiscent of ribosomal protein mutants. HID2 associates with the precursor 45S rRNA and promotes the efficiency and accuracy of pre-rRNA processing. Intriguingly, disrupting HID2 in Arabidopsis appears to impair the integrity of 27SB, a key pre-rRNA intermediate that generates 25S and 5.8S rRNA and is known to be vital for the synthesis of the 60S large ribosomal subunit and also produces an imbalanced ribosome profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the antisense-box of HID2 is both functionally essential and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Overall, our study reveals the vital and possibly conserved role of a snoRNA in monitoring the efficiency of pre-rRNA processing during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27708161

  7. Getting ready for building: signaling and autophagosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Adi; Elazar, Zvulun

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is the main cellular catabolic process responsible for degrading organelles and large protein aggregates. It is initiated by the formation of a unique membrane structure, the phagophore, which engulfs part of the cytoplasm and forms a double-membrane vesicle termed the autophagosome. Fusion of the outer autophagosomal membrane with the lysosome and degradation of the inner membrane contents complete the process. The extent of autophagy must be tightly regulated to avoid destruction of proteins and organelles essential for cell survival. Autophagic activity is thus regulated by external and internal cues, which initiate the formation of well-defined autophagy-related protein complexes that mediate autophagosome formation and selective cargo recruitment into these organelles. Autophagosome formation and the signaling pathways that regulate it have recently attracted substantial attention. In this review, we analyze the different signaling pathways that regulate autophagy and discuss recent progress in our understanding of autophagosome biogenesis. PMID:25027988

  8. Getting ready for building: signaling and autophagosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abada, Adi; Elazar, Zvulun

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is the main cellular catabolic process responsible for degrading organelles and large protein aggregates. It is initiated by the formation of a unique membrane structure, the phagophore, which engulfs part of the cytoplasm and forms a double-membrane vesicle termed the autophagosome. Fusion of the outer autophagosomal membrane with the lysosome and degradation of the inner membrane contents complete the process. The extent of autophagy must be tightly regulated to avoid destruction of proteins and organelles essential for cell survival. Autophagic activity is thus regulated by external and internal cues, which initiate the formation of well-defined autophagy-related protein complexes that mediate autophagosome formation and selective cargo recruitment into these organelles. Autophagosome formation and the signaling pathways that regulate it have recently attracted substantial attention. In this review, we analyze the different signaling pathways that regulate autophagy and discuss recent progress in our understanding of autophagosome biogenesis.

  9. Mitochondrial biogenesis in plants during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon R; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria occupy a central role in the eukaryotic cell. In addition to being major sources of cellular energy, mitochondria are also involved in a diverse range of functions including signalling, the synthesis of many essential organic compounds and a role in programmed cell death. The active proliferation and differentiation of mitochondria is termed mitochondrial biogenesis and necessitates the coordinated communication of mitochondrial status within an integrated cellular network. Two models of mitochondrial biogenesis have been defined previously, the growth and division model and the maturation model. The former describes the growth and division of pre-existing mature organelles through a form of binary fission, while the latter describes the propagation of mitochondria from structurally and biochemically simple promitochondrial structures that upon appropriate stimuli, mature into fully functional mitochondria. In the last decade, a number of studies have utilised seed germination in plants as a platform for the examination of the processes occurring during mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies have revealed many new aspects of the tightly regulated procession of events that define mitochondrial biogenesis during this period of rapid development. A model for mitochondrial biogenesis that supports the maturation of mitochondria from promitochondrial structures has emerged, where mitochondrial signalling plays a crucial role in the early steps of seed germination.

  10. Insights into chloroplast biogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Barry J; Ganguly, Diep; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    In recent years many advances have been made to obtain insight into chloroplast biogenesis and development. In plants several plastids types exist such as the proplastid (which is the progenitor of all plastids), leucoplasts (group of colourless plastids important for storage including elaioplasts (lipids), amyloplasts (starch) or proteinoplasts (proteins)), chromoplasts (yellow to orange-coloured due to carotenoids, in flowers or in old leaves as gerontoplasts), and the green chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are indispensable for plant development; not only by performing photosynthesis and thus rendering the plant photoautotrophic, but also for biochemical processes (which in some instances can also take place in other plastids types), such as the synthesis of pigments, lipids, and plant hormones and sensing environmental stimuli. Although we understand many aspects of these processes there are gaps in our understanding of the establishment of functional chloroplasts and their regulation. Why is that so? Even though chloroplast function is comparable in all plants and most of the algae, ferns and moss, detailed analyses have revealed many differences, specifically with respect to its biogenesis. As an update to our prior review on the genetic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis and development [1] herein we will focus on recent advances in Angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants) that provide novel insights and highlight the challenges and prospects for unravelling the regulation of chloroplast biogenesis specifically during the establishment of the young plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  11. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 expression by exercise.

    PubMed

    Holloszy, John O

    2011-04-01

    Endurance exercise training can induce large increases mitochondria and the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. For a long time after the discovery in the 1960s that exercise results in an increase in muscle mitochondria, there was no progress in elucidation of the mechanisms involved. The reason for this lack of progress was that nothing was known regarding how expression of the genes-encoding mitochondrial proteins is coordinately regulated. This situation changed rapidly after discovery of transcription factors that control transcription of genes-encoding mitochondrial proteins and, most importantly, the discovery of peroxisome proliferator-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). This transcription coactivator binds to and activates transcription factors that regulate transcription of genes-encoding mitochondrial proteins. Thus, PGC-1α activates and coordinates mitochondrial biogenesis. It is now known that exercise rapidly activates and induces increased expression of PGC-1α. The exercise-generated signals that lead to PGC-1α activation and increased expression are the increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and decreases in ATP and creatine phosphate (∼P). Ca(2+) mediates its effect by activating CAMKII, while the decrease in ∼P mediates its effect via activation of AMPK. Expression of the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter is regulated in parallel with mitochondrial biogenesis via the same signaling pathways. This review describes what is known regarding the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 expression by exercise. A major component of this review deals with the physiological and metabolic consequences of the exercise-induced increase in mitochondria and GLUT4. © 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1:699-729, 2011.

  12. Evaluation of the role of the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transit in the biogenesis of peroxisomal membrane proteins in wild type and peroxisome biogenesis mutant CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Toro, Andrés; Arredondo, Cristian; Córdova, Gonzalo; Araya, Claudia; Palacios, José L; Venegas, Alejandro; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Santos, Manuel J

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisomes are thought to be formed by division of pre-existing peroxisomes after the import of newly synthesized proteins. However, it has been recently suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an alternative de novo mechanism for peroxisome biogenesis in some cells. To test a possible role of the ER-Golgi transit in peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells, we evaluated the biogenesis of three peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs): ALDRP (adrenoleukodystrophy related protein), PMP70 and Pex3p in CHO cells. We constructed chimeric genes encoding these PMPs and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and transiently transfected them to wild type and mutant CHO cells, in which normal peroxisomes were replaced by peroxisomal membrane ghosts. The expressed proteins were targeted to peroxisomes and peroxisomal ghosts correctly in the presence or absence of Brefeldin A (BFA), a drug known to block the ER-Golgi transit. Furthermore, low temperature did not disturb the targeting of Pex3p-GFP to peroxisomes. We also constructed two chimeric proteins of PMPs containing an ER retention signal "DEKKMP": GFP-ALDRP-DEKKMP and myc- Pex3p-DEKKMP. These proteins were mostly targeted to peroxisomes. No colocalization with an ER maker was found. These results suggest that the classical ER-Golgi pathway does not play a major role in the biogenesis of mammalian PMPs.

  13. Mitochondrial OXA Translocase Plays a Major Role in Biogenesis of Inner-Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Sebastian B; Höpker, Jan; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schütze, Conny; Schrempp, Sandra G; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Horvath, Susanne E; Frazier, Ann E; Gebert, Natalia; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria; Warscheid, Bettina; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils

    2016-05-10

    The mitochondrial inner membrane harbors three protein translocases. Presequence translocase and carrier translocase are essential for importing nuclear-encoded proteins. The oxidase assembly (OXA) translocase is required for exporting mitochondrial-encoded proteins; however, different views exist about its relevance for nuclear-encoded proteins. We report that OXA plays a dual role in the biogenesis of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins. First, a systematic analysis of OXA-deficient mitochondria led to an unexpected expansion of the spectrum of OXA substrates imported via the presequence pathway. Second, biogenesis of numerous metabolite carriers depends on OXA, although they are not imported by the presequence pathway. We show that OXA is crucial for the biogenesis of the Tim18-Sdh3 module of the carrier translocase. The export translocase OXA is thus required for the import of metabolite carriers by promoting assembly of the carrier translocase. We conclude that OXA is of central importance for the biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  14. Cilostazol promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through activating the expression of PGC-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Luning; Li, Qiang; Sun, Bei; Xu, Zhiying; Ge, Zhiming

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► First time to show that cilostazol promotes the expressions of PGC-1α. ► First time to show that cilostazol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in HUVECs. ► PKA/CREB pathway mediates the effect of cilostazol on PGC-1α expression. ► Suggesting the roles of cilostazol in mitochondrial dysfunction related disease. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently observed in vascular diseases. Cilostazol is a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Cilostazol increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels through inhibition of type III phosphodiesterase. The effects of cilostazol in mitochondrial biogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated in this study. Cilostazol treated HUVECs displayed increased levels of ATP, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio, expressions of cytochrome B, and mitochondrial mass, suggesting an enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis induced by cilostazol. The promoted mitochondrial biogenesis could be abolished by Protein kinase A (PKA) specific inhibitor H-89, implying that PKA pathway played a critical role in increased mitochondrial biogenesis after cilostazol treatment. Indeed, expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), NRF 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were significantly increased in HUVECs after incubation with cilostazol at both mRNA levels and protein levels. Importantly, knockdown of PGC-1α could abolish cilostazol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Enhanced expression of p-CREB and PGC-1α induced by cilostazol could be inhibited by H-89. Moreover, the increased expression of PGC-1α induced by cilostazol could be inhibited by downregulation of CREB using CREB siRNA at both mRNA and protein levels. All the results indicated that cilostazol promoted mitochondrial biogenesis through activating the expression of PGC-1α in

  15. Outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rollauer, Sarah E.; Sooreshjani, Moloud A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria contain a double membrane which serves for both protection and for providing nutrients for viability. The outermost of these membranes is called the outer membrane (OM), and it contains a host of fully integrated membrane proteins which serve essential functions for the cell, including nutrient uptake, cell adhesion, cell signalling and waste export. For pathogenic strains, many of these outer membrane proteins (OMPs) also serve as virulence factors for nutrient scavenging and evasion of host defence mechanisms. OMPs are unique membrane proteins in that they have a β-barrel fold and can range in size from 8 to 26 strands, yet can still serve many different functions for the cell. Despite their essential roles in cell survival and virulence, the exact mechanism for the biogenesis of these OMPs into the OM has remained largely unknown. However, the past decade has witnessed significant progress towards unravelling the pathways and mechanisms necessary for moulding a nascent polypeptide into a functional OMP within the OM. Here, we will review some of these recent discoveries that have advanced our understanding of the biogenesis of OMPs in Gram-negative bacteria, starting with synthesis in the cytoplasm to folding and insertion into the OM. PMID:26370935

  16. Vulnerability of microRNA biogenesis in FTD-ALS.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Chen; Hornstein, Eran

    2016-09-15

    The genetics of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) turn our attention to RNA metabolism, primarily because many of the identified diseases-associated genes encode for RNA-binding proteins. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in maintaining brain integrity. The current review sheds light on miRNA dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on FTD-ALS. We propose that miRNAs are susceptible to fail when protein factors that are critical for miRNA biogenesis malfunction. Accordingly, potential insufficiencies of the 'microprocessor' complex, the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of miRNA precursors or their processing by Dicer were recently reported. Furthermore, specific miRNAs are involved in the regulation of pathways that are essential for neuronal survival or function. Any change in the expression of these specific miRNAs or in their ability to recognize their target sequences will have negative consequences. Taken together, recent reports strengthens the hypothesis that dysregulation of miRNAs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and highlights the miRNA biogenesis machinery as an interesting target for therapeutic interventions for ALS as well as FTD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease.

  17. Investigating CRISPR RNA Biogenesis and Function Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Nadja; Dugar, Gaurav; Vogel, Jörg; Sharma, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    The development of deep sequencing technology has greatly facilitated transcriptome analyses of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), which is based on massively parallel sequencing of cDNAs, has been used to annotate transcript boundaries and revealed widespread antisense transcription as well as a wealth of novel noncoding transcripts in many bacteria. Moreover, RNA-seq is nowadays widely used for gene expression profiling and about to replace hybridization-based approaches such as microarrays. RNA-seq has also informed about the biogenesis and function of CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) of different types of bacterial RNA-based CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Here we describe several studies that employed RNA-seq for crRNA analyses, with a particular focus on a differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) approach, which can distinguish between primary and processed transcripts and allows for a genome-wide annotation of transcriptional start sites. This approach helped to identify a new crRNA biogenesis pathway of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems that involves a trans-encoded small RNA, tracrRNA, and the host factor RNase III.

  18. Biogenesis and functions of lipid droplets in plants

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kent D.; Dyer, John M.; Mullen, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The compartmentation of neutral lipids in plants is mostly associated with seed tissues, where triacylglycerols (TAGs) stored within lipid droplets (LDs) serve as an essential physiological energy and carbon reserve during postgerminative growth. However, some nonseed tissues, such as leaves, flowers and fruits, also synthesize and store TAGs, yet relatively little is known about the formation or function of LDs in these tissues. Characterization of LD-associated proteins, such as oleosins, caleosins, and sterol dehydrogenases (steroleosins), has revealed surprising features of LD function in plants, including stress responses, hormone signaling pathways, and various aspects of plant growth and development. Although oleosin and caleosin proteins are specific to plants, LD-associated sterol dehydrogenases also are present in mammals, and in both plants and mammals these enzymes have been shown to be important in (steroid) hormone metabolism and signaling. In addition, several other proteins known to be important in LD biogenesis in yeasts and mammals are conserved in plants, suggesting that at least some aspects of LD biogenesis and/or function are evolutionarily conserved. PMID:22045929

  19. Rationally designed small compounds inhibit pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pinkner, Jerome S; Remaut, Han; Buelens, Floris; Miller, Eric; Aberg, Veronica; Pemberton, Nils; Hedenström, Mattias; Larsson, Andreas; Seed, Patrick; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott J; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2006-11-21

    A chemical synthesis platform with broad applications and flexibility was rationally designed to inhibit biogenesis of adhesive pili assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway in Gram-negative pathogens. The activity of a family of bicyclic 2-pyridones, termed pilicides, was evaluated in two different pilus biogenesis systems in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Hemagglutination mediated by either type 1 or P pili, adherence to bladder cells, and biofilm formation mediated by type 1 pili were all reduced by approximately 90% in laboratory and clinical E. coli strains. The structure of the pilicide bound to the P pilus chaperone PapD revealed that the pilicide bound to the surface of the chaperone known to interact with the usher, the outer-membrane assembly platform where pili are assembled. Point mutations in the pilicide-binding site dramatically reduced pilus formation but did not block the ability of PapD to bind subunits and mediate their folding. Surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed that the pilicide interfered with the binding of chaperone-subunit complexes to the usher. These pilicides thus target key virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria and represent a promising proof of concept for developing drugs that function by targeting virulence factors.

  20. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections.

  1. DExD/H-box RNA helicases in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roman; Straub, Annika U.; Doebele, Carmen; Bohnsack, Markus T.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis requires a multitude of cofactors, among them DExD/H-box RNA helicases. Bacterial RNA helicases involved in ribosome assembly are not essential, while eukaryotes strictly require multiple DExD/H-box proteins that are involved in the much more complex ribosome biogenesis pathway. Here, RNA helicases are thought to act in structural remodeling of the RNPs including the modulation of protein binding, and they are required for allowing access or the release of specific snoRNPs from pre-ribosomes. Interestingly, helicase action is modulated by specific cofactors that can regulate recruitment and enzymatic activity. This review summarizes the current knowledge and focuses on recent findings and open questions on RNA helicase function and regulation in ribosome synthesis. PMID:22922795

  2. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloois, Edwin van; Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M. ten; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  3. Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Response to Chromium (VI) Toxicity in Human Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiali; de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Rita; Zhong, Caigao

    2017-09-14

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which poses a threat to human public health. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial biogenesis can be activated by inflammatory and oxidative stress. However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated the induction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as indicated by upregulation of inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, comprising the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass, was significantly increased in HepG2 cells exposed to low concentrations of Cr(VI). Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function complex I and complex V was upregulated at low concentrations of Cr(VI). mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2, respectively), kech like ECH associate protein 1 (KEAP1) and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), were also upregulated. Consistent with the above results, mRNA and protein levels of key transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis such as the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), NRF-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were increased by low concentrations of Cr(VI) in HepG2 cells. Moreover, we found that PGC-1α and NRF-1 tended to translocate into the nucleus. The expression of genes potentially involved in mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, including mRNA level of silent information regulator-1 (SIRT1), forkhead box class-O (FOXO1), threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB1), was also upregulated. In contrast, mitochondrial biogenesis was inhibited and the expression of its regulatory factors and antioxidants was downregulated at high and cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI) in HepG2 cells. It is believed that pretreatment with α-tocopherol could be acting

  4. Alternative NF-κB Regulates RANKL-induced Osteoclast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rong; Faccio, Roberta; Novack, Deborah V

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of new mitochondrial DNA and proteins, has been linked to osteoclast (OC) differentiation and function. In this study we used mice with mutations in key alternative NF-κB pathway proteins, RelB and NIK, to dissect the complex relationship between mitochondrial biogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. OC precursors lacking either NIK or RelB, RANKL were unable to increase mitochondrial DNA or OxPhos protein expression, associated with lower oxygen consumption rates. Transgenic OC precursors expressing constitutively active NIK showed normal RANKL-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (OxPhos expression and mitochondria copy number) compared to controls, but larger mitochondrial dimensions and increased oxygen consumption rates, suggesting increased mitochondrial function. To deduce the mechanism for mitochondrial biogenesis defects in NIK- and RelB-deficient precursors, we examined expression of genes known to control this process. PGC-1β (Ppargc1b) expression, but not PGC-1α, PPRC1 or ERRα, was significantly reduced in RelB−/− and NIK−/− OCs. Because PGC-1β has been reported to positively regulate both mitochondrial biogenesis and differentiation in OCs, we retrovirally overexpressed PGC-1β in RelB−/− cells, but surprisingly found that it did not affect differentiation, nor restore RANKL-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. To determine whether the blockade in osteoclastogenesis in RelB-deficient cells precludes mitochondrial biogenesis, we rescued RelB−/− differentiation via overexpression of NFATc1. Mitochondrial parameters in neither WT nor RelB-deficient cultures were affected by NFATc1 overexpression, and bone resorption in RelB −/− was not restored. Furthermore, NFATc1 co-overexpression with PGC-1β, while allowing OC differentiation, did not rescue mitochondrial biogenesis or bone resorption in RelB−/− OCs, by CTX-I levels. Thus, our results indicate that the alternative NF-κB pathway plays dual, but

  5. A Woman in Her 60s With Fever and Altered Mental Status in a Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Goodwin, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    A woman in her 60s with a history of hepatitis C with cirrhosis and major depressive disorder with psychotic features was admitted to the inpatient psychiatric unit for suicidal ideation. She was initially treated with a combination of sertraline and paliperidone. The paliperidone was subsequently changed to risperidone and ultimately to olanzapine. She developed worsening mental status and was then treated for catatonia with benzodiazepines. Over 2 days, her mental status continued to worsen and she developed fever and tachycardia. She was transferred to the ICU and endotracheally intubated for inability to protect her airway. She was started on lactulose via orogastric tube but showed no improvement in her mental status after 2 days despite having two or three bowel movements per day. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Satratoxin G interaction with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits precedes apoptosis in the macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Hee Kyong; Shinozuka, Junko; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J.

    2009-06-01

    Satratoxin G (SG) and other macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins are potent inhibitors of eukaryotic translation that are potentially immunosuppressive. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that SG-induced apoptosis in the macrophage correlates with binding of this toxin to the ribosome. Exposure of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages to SG at concentrations of 10 to 80 ng/ml induced DNA fragmentation within 4 h that was indicative of apoptosis. To relate these findings to ribosome binding of SG, RAW cells were exposed to different toxin concentrations for various time intervals, ribosomal fractions isolated by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and resultant fractions analyzed for SG by competitive ELISA. SG was found to specifically interact with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits as early as 5 min and that, at high concentrations or extended incubation times, the toxin induced polysome disaggregation. While co-incubation with the simple Type B trichothecene DON had no effect on SG uptake into cell cytoplasm, it inhibited SG binding to the ribosome, suggesting that the two toxins bound to identical sites and that SG binding was reversible. Although both SG and DON induced mobilization of p38 and JNK 1/2 to the ribosome, phosphorylation of ribosomal bound MAPKs occurred only after DON treatment. SG association with the 40S and 60S subunits was also observed in the PC-12 neuronal cell model which is similarly susceptible to apoptosis. To summarize, SG rapidly binds small and large ribosomal subunits in a concentration- and time-dependent manner that was consistent with induction of apoptosis.

  7. Effect of the ionic product of bioglass 60s on osteoblastic activity in canines.

    PubMed

    Alves, Endrigo G L; Serakides, Rogéria; Rosado, Isabel R; Pereira, Marivalda M; Ocarino, Natália M; Oliveira, Humberto P; Góes, Alfredo M; Rezende, Cleuza M F

    2015-09-30

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the ionic product (IP) of BG60S on osteoblastic activity. The following media groups were created: DMEM, which is formed by osteoblasts in basal medium; IP DMEM, which is formed by osteoblasts in IP with basal medium; OST, which is formed by osteoblasts in osteogenic medium; and IP OST, which is formed by osteoblasts in IP with osteogenic medium. The osteoblasts were cultivated in an incubator at 37 °C and 5 % CO2 for 7, 14 and 21 days. After each period, the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, mineralised area per field and expression of osterix (OSX), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON) and osteocalcin (OC) were evaluated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The IP significantly increased the AP activity in the IP DMEM group at 7 and 14 days and reduced the AP activity in the IP OST group at 14 and 21 days relative to their respective controls (DMEM and OST). The groups that received the IP displayed a significant increase in the percentage of mineralised area per field and more advance maturation of the extracellular matrix relative to those that did not receive IP. The IP significantly increased the expression of OSX, BSP and ON in osteoblast cultures maintained in IP DMEM compared with the control (DMEM) for the majority of studied periods. In osteogenic medium, IP also significantly increased OSX, BSP, ON and OC expression compared with the control (OST) for the majority of studied periods. The IP of BG60S alters the gene expression of canine osteoblasts, favouring the synthesis and mineralisation of the extracellular matrix.

  8. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  9. Tissue specific roles for the ribosome biogenesis factor Wdr43 in zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengtian; Andreeva, Viktoria; Gibert, Yann; LaBonty, Melissa; Lattanzi, Victoria; Prabhudesai, Shubhangi; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard; McCann, Kathleen L; Baserga, Susan; Yelick, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    During vertebrate craniofacial development, neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to most of the craniofacial pharyngeal skeleton. Defects in NCC specification, migration and differentiation resulting in malformations in the craniofacial complex are associated with human craniofacial disorders including Treacher-Collins Syndrome, caused by mutations in TCOF1. It has been hypothesized that perturbed ribosome biogenesis and resulting p53 mediated neuroepithelial apoptosis results in NCC hypoplasia in mouse Tcof1 mutants. However, the underlying mechanisms linking ribosome biogenesis and NCC development remain poorly understood. Here we report a new zebrafish mutant, fantome (fan), which harbors a point mutation and predicted premature stop codon in zebrafish wdr43, the ortholog to yeast UTP5. Although wdr43 mRNA is widely expressed during early zebrafish development, and its deficiency triggers early neural, eye, heart and pharyngeal arch defects, later defects appear fairly restricted to NCC derived craniofacial cartilages. Here we show that the C-terminus of Wdr43, which is absent in fan mutant protein, is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its nucleolar localization and protein interactions in metazoans. We demonstrate that Wdr43 functions in ribosome biogenesis, and that defects observed in fan mutants are mediated by a p53 dependent pathway. Finally, we show that proper localization of a variety of nucleolar proteins, including TCOF1, is dependent on that of WDR43. Together, our findings provide new insight into roles for Wdr43 in development, ribosome biogenesis, and also ribosomopathy-induced craniofacial phenotypes including Treacher-Collins Syndrome.

  10. Anticancer activity of CX-3543: a direct inhibitor of rRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Drygin, Denis; Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; O'Brien, Sean; Schwaebe, Michael; Lin, Amy; Bliesath, Josh; Ho, Caroline B; Proffitt, Chris; Trent, Katy; Whitten, Jeffrey P; Lim, John K C; Von Hoff, Daniel; Anderes, Kenna; Rice, William G

    2009-10-01

    Hallmark deregulated signaling in cancer cells drives excessive ribosome biogenesis within the nucleolus, which elicits unbridled cell growth and proliferation. The rate-limiting step of ribosome biogenesis is synthesis of rRNA (building blocks of ribosomes) by RNA Polymerase I (Pol I). Numerous kinase pathways and products of proto-oncogenes can up-regulate Pol I, whereas tumor suppressor proteins can inhibit rRNA synthesis. In tumorigenesis, activating mutations in certain cancer-associated kinases and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressors lead to deregulated signaling that stimulates Pol I transcription with resultant increases in ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Certain anticancer therapeutics, such as cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, reportedly exert, at least partially, their activity through disruption of ribosome biogenesis, yet many prime targets for anticancer drugs within the ribosome synthetic machinery of the nucleolus remain largely unexploited. Herein, we describe CX-3543, a small molecule nucleolus-targeting agent that selectively disrupts nucleolin/rDNA G-quadruplex complexes in the nucleolus, thereby inhibiting Pol I transcription and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. CX-3543 is the first G-quadruplex interactive agent to enter human clinical trials, and it is currently under evaluation against carcinoid/neuroendocrine tumors in a phase II clinical trial.

  11. Tdrkh is essential for spermatogenesis and participates in primary piRNA biogenesis in the germline

    PubMed Central

    Saxe, Jonathan P; Chen, Mengjie; Zhao, Hongyu; Lin, Haifan

    2013-01-01

    Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) repress transposition, regulate translation, and guide epigenetic programming in the germline. Here, we show that an evolutionarily conserved Tudor and KH domain-containing protein, Tdrkh (a.k.a. Tdrd2), is required for spermatogenesis and involved in piRNA biogenesis. Tdrkh partners with Miwi and Miwi2 via symmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in Miwi and Miwi2. Tdrkh is a mitochondrial protein often juxtaposed to pi-bodies and piP-bodies and is required for Tdrd1 cytoplasmic localization and Miwi2 nuclear localization. Tdrkh mutants display meiotic arrest at the zygotene stage, attenuate methylation of Line1 DNA, and upregulate Line1 RNA and protein, without inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, Tdrkh mutants have severely reduced levels of mature piRNAs but accumulate a distinct population of 1′U-containing, 2′O-methylated 31–37 nt RNAs that largely complement the missing mature piRNAs. Our results demonstrate that the primary piRNA biogenesis pathway involves 3′→5′ processing of 31–37 nt intermediates and that Tdrkh promotes this final step of piRNA biogenesis but not the ping-pong cycle. These results shed light on mechanisms underlying primary piRNA biogenesis, an area in which information is conspicuously absent. PMID:23714778

  12. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  13. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  14. Utilizing small nutrient compounds as enhancers of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Daniel M.; Ashcroft, Stephen P.; Belew, Micah Y.; Stocks, Ben; Currell, Kevin; Baar, Keith; Philp, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibers (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain), an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity) is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans. PMID:26578969

  15. Repeated sprints alter signaling related to mitochondrial biogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Serpiello, Fabio R; McKenna, Michael J; Bishop, David J; Aughey, Robert J; Caldow, Marissa K; Cameron-Smith, David; Stepto, Nigel K

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the effects of acute and chronic repeated-sprint exercise (RSE) on the skeletal muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein abundance/phosphorylation associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Ten healthy young adults (seven males, three females) performed the RSE trial, comprising three sets of 5 × 4-s maximal sprints on a nonmotorized treadmill, with a 20-s recovery between sprints and 4.5 min between sets. After 4 wk of repeated-sprint training, three times per week, participants repeated the RSE. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, immediately after, and 1 and 4 h after RSE, before and after training. Venous blood lactate and glucose were measured at rest and during recovery. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques were used to measure mRNA expression and protein abundance, respectively. Acute RSE increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (86%, effect size (ES) = 1.4 ± 0.8, P < 0.001) and Ca calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (69%, ES = 0.7 ± 0.6). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α; 208%, ES = 1.5 ± 0.7, P < 0.001) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (92%, ES = 0.7 ± 0.8) mRNA expression was increased after RSE. Four weeks of training increased the abundance of PGC-1α protein at rest (33%, ES = 0.9 ± 0.7). Both acute and chronic RSE, despite only 60 s and 12 min of exercise, respectively, altered the molecular signaling associated with mitochondrial adaptations and PGC-1α mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. However, the small-to-moderate changes in resting PGC-1α protein abundance after training, together with the absence of changes in aerobic fitness, require further research to understand the functional significance of PGC-1α in response to RSE.

  16. Centriole biogenesis and function in multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwei; Mitchell, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Xenopus embryonic skin as a model system for the development of ciliated epithelia is well established. This tissue is comprised of numerous cell types, most notably the multiciliated cells (MCCs) that each contain approximately 150 motile cilia. At the base of each cilium lies the centriole-based structure called the basal body. Centriole biogenesis is typically restricted to two new centrioles per cell cycle, each templating from an existing “mother” centriole. In contrast, MCCs are post-mitotic cells in which the majority of centrioles arise “de novo” without templating from a mother centriole, instead, these centrioles nucleate from an electron-dense structure termed the deuterostome. How centriole number is regulated in these cells and the mechanism by which the deuterosome templates nascent centrioles is still poorly understood. Here, we describe methods for regulating MCC cell fate as well as for visualizing and manipulating centriole biogenesis. PMID:26175436

  17. shutdown is a component of the Drosophila piRNA biogenesis machinery

    PubMed Central

    Preall, Jonathan B.; Czech, Benjamin; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In animals, the piRNA pathway preserves the integrity of gametic genomes, guarding them against the activity of mobile genetic elements. This innate immune mechanism relies on distinct genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters, to provide a molecular definition of transposons, enabling their discrimination from genes. piRNA clusters give rise to long, single-stranded precursors, which are processed into primary piRNAs through an unknown mechanism. These can engage in an adaptive amplification loop, the ping-pong cycle, to optimize the content of small RNA populations via the generation of secondary piRNAs. Many proteins have been ascribed functions in either primary biogenesis or the ping-pong cycle, though for the most part the molecular functions of proteins implicated in these pathways remain obscure. Here, we link shutdown (shu), a gene previously shown to be required for fertility in Drosophila, to the piRNA pathway. Analysis of knockdown phenotypes in both the germline and somatic compartments of the ovary demonstrate important roles for shutdown in both primary biogenesis and the ping-pong cycle. shutdown is a member of the FKBP family of immunophilins. Shu contains domains implicated in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and in the binding of HSP90-family chaperones, though the relevance of these domains to piRNA biogenesis is unknown. PMID:22753781

  18. Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain. PMID:22555867

  19. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  20. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  1. Role of molecular chaperones in biogenesis of the protein kinome.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Atin K; Theodoraki, Maria A; Nillegoda, Nadinath B; Caplan, Avrom J

    2011-01-01

    Molecular chaperones promote polypeptide folding in cells by protecting newly made and otherwise misfolded proteins against aggregation or degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc37 and Ydj1 molecular chaperones are described in this chapter. We focus on biogenesis of protein kinases that require several different molecular chaperones for their proper folding. Specific among these is Cdc37, which binds directly to its kinase clients either during or shortly after translation and protects them against rapid proteasomal degradation. Ydj1 has a similar role, but is less specific for protein kinases in its role as a molecular chaperone. The method that we describe uses pulse chase and immunoprecipitation to analyze the fate of newly made proteins. Two kinetically distinct pathways of degradation can be discerned using this methodology that is dependent on the presence of an Hsp90 inhibitor or occurs in mutants of the molecular chaperones under study. The first is "zero-point" degradation that occurs either during or immediately after translation. The second is a slower pathway, where the half-life of kinase is approximately 20 min after translation.

  2. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders: molecular basis for impaired peroxisomal membrane assembly: in metabolic functions and biogenesis of peroxisomes in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yukio; Yagita, Yuichi; Matsuzaki, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane organelle in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is highlighted by peroxisome-deficient peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS). Gene defects of peroxins required for both membrane assembly and matrix protein import are identified: ten mammalian pathogenic peroxins for ten complementation groups of PBDs, are required for matrix protein import; three, Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are shown to be essential for peroxisome membrane assembly and responsible for the most severe ZS in PBDs of three complementation groups 12, 9, and 14, respectively. Patients with severe ZS with defects of PEX3, PEX16, and PEX19 tend to carry severe mutation such as nonsense mutations, frameshifts and deletions. With respect to the function of these three peroxins in membrane biogenesis, two distinct pathways have been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins in mammalian cells: a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathway. In class II pathway, Pex19p also forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p as the chaperone for Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Pex16p functions as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. A model for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins is suggested, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p. Another model suggests that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes likely emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogenesis of a bacterial organelle: the carboxysome assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jeffrey C; Wilson, Steven C; Bernstein, Susan L; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-11-21

    The carboxysome is a protein-based organelle for carbon fixation in cyanobacteria, keystone organisms in the global carbon cycle. It is composed of thousands of subunits including hexameric and pentameric proteins that form a shell to encapsulate the enzymes ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and carbonic anhydrase. Here, we describe the stages of carboxysome assembly and the requisite gene products necessary for progression through each. Our results demonstrate that, unlike membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotes, in carboxysomes the interior of the compartment forms first, at a distinct site within the cell. Subsequently, shell proteins encapsulate this procarboxysome, inducing budding and distribution of functional organelles within the cell. We propose that the principles of carboxysome assembly that we have uncovered extend to diverse bacterial microcompartments.

  4. Architecture of the Rix1-Rea1 checkpoint machinery during pre-60S-ribosome remodeling.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Garcia, Clara; Thoms, Matthias; Flemming, Dirk; Kater, Lukas; Berninghausen, Otto; Baßler, Jochen; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is catalyzed by ∼200 assembly factors, which facilitate efficient production of mature ribosomes. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleoplasmic pre-60S particle containing the dynein-related 550-kDa Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase and the Rix1 subcomplex. This particle differs from its preceding state, the early Arx1 particle, by two massive structural rearrangements: an ∼180° rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein complex and the central protuberance (CP) rRNA helices, and the removal of the 'foot' structure from the 3' end of the 5.8S rRNA. Progression from the Arx1 to the Rix1 particle was blocked by mutational perturbation of the Rix1-Rea1 interaction but not by a dominant-lethal Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase-ring mutant. After remodeling, the Rix1 subcomplex and Rea1 become suitably positioned to sense correct structural maturation of the CP, which allows unidirectional progression toward mature ribosomes.

  5. Diurnal evolution of cycling biomechanical parameters during a 60-s Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Lericollais, R; Gauthier, A; Bessot, N; Davenne, D

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of pedaling kinetics and kinematics during a short-term fatigue cycling exercise at two times of day. Twenty active male subjects were asked to perform a 60-s Wingate test against a constant braking resistance during two experimental sessions at 06:00 and 18:00 hours, i.e., very close to the hours of core temperature values, which are, respectively, the lowest and the highest. The results showed that the fatigue index was higher (P<0.05) at 18:00 hours (71.4%) than at 06:00 hours (69.2%) and power output was higher (P<0.05) in the evening than in the morning during the first 20 s of the test, after which no difference was observed. Taken together, these results showed a greater progression of fatigue in the evening than in the morning. The diurnal variations in performance and fatigue were associated (P<0.001) with diurnal changes in cycling kinematic parameters, characterized by a reduction in the range of motion of the ankle angle in the evening. These findings show that a time-of-day effect on movement patterns occurs during an anaerobic cycling exercise and that this phenomenon has a direct influence on performance and fatigue.

  6. Myristoylated CIL-7 regulates ciliary extracellular vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Julie E.; Silva, Malan; Nguyen, Ken C.Q.; Hellen, Elizabeth; Kern, Andrew D.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    The cilium both releases and binds to extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs may be used by cells as a form of intercellular communication and mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. The mammalian polycystins (PCs) localize to cilia, as well as to urinary EVs released from renal epithelial cells. PC ciliary trafficking defects may be an underlying cause of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and ciliary–EV interactions have been proposed to play a central role in the biology of PKD. In Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals, PC1 and PC2 act in the same genetic pathway, act in a sensory capacity, localize to cilia, and are contained in secreted EVs, suggesting ancient conservation. However, the relationship between cilia and EVs and the mechanisms generating PC-containing EVs remain an enigma. In a forward genetic screen for regulators of C. elegans PKD-2 ciliary localization, we identified CIL-7, a myristoylated protein that regulates EV biogenesis. Loss of CIL-7 results in male mating behavioral defects, excessive accumulation of EVs in the lumen of the cephalic sensory organ, and failure to release PKD-2::GFP-containing EVs to the environment. Fatty acylation, such as myristoylation and palmitoylation, targets proteins to cilia and flagella. The CIL-7 myristoylation motif is essential for CIL-7 function and for targeting CIL-7 to EVs. C. elegans is a powerful model with which to study ciliary EV biogenesis in vivo and identify cis-targeting motifs such as myristoylation that are necessary for EV–cargo association and function. PMID:26041936

  7. Nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 proteins as a subfamily of YlqF/YawG GTPases function in pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation of mono- and dicotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Im, Chak Han; Hwang, Sung Min; Son, Young Sim; Heo, Jae Bok; Bang, Woo Young; Suwastika, I Nengah; Shiina, Takashi; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2011-03-11

    The YlqF/YawG families are important GTPases involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell proliferation, or cell growth, however, no plant homologs have yet to be characterized. Here we isolated rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 (OsNug2 and AtNug2, respectively) that belong to the YawG subfamily and characterized them for pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation. They showed typical intrinsic YlqF/YawG family GTPase activities in bacteria and yeasts with k(cat) values 0.12 ± 0.007 min(-1) (n = 6) and 0.087 ± 0.002 min(-1) (n = 4), respectively, and addition of 60S ribosomal subunits stimulated their activities in vitro. In addition, OsNug2 rescued the lethality of the yeast nug2 null mutant through recovery of 25S pre-rRNA processing. By yeast two-hybrid screening five clones, including a putative one of 60S ribosomal proteins, OsL10a, were isolated. Subcellular localization and pulldown assays resulted in that the N-terminal region of OsNug2 is sufficient for nucleolar/nuclear targeting and association with OsL10a. OsNug2 is physically associated with pre-60S ribosomal complexes highly enriched in the 25S, 5.8S, and 5S rRNA, and its interaction was stimulated by exogenous GTP. Furthermore, the AtNug2 knockdown mutant constructed by the RNAi method showed defective growth on the medium containing cycloheximide. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the distribution of AtNug2 mainly in the meristematic region underlies its potential role in active plant growth. Finally, it is concluded that Nug2/Nog2p GTPase from mono- and didicotyledonous plants is linked to the pre-60S ribosome complex and actively processed 27S into 25S during the ribosomal large subunit maturation process, i.e. prior to export to the cytoplasm.

  8. Myc controls transcriptional regulation of cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in response to pathological stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Preeti; Zhao, Peng; Angelis, Ekaterini; Ruan, Hongmei; Korge, Paavo; Olson, Aaron; Wang, Yibin; Jin, Eunsook S.; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Portman, Michael; MacLellan, W. Robb

    2010-01-01

    In the adult heart, regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial genes is controlled by the PPARγ coactivator–1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators. However, in response to pathological stressors such as hemodynamic load or ischemia, cardiac myocytes downregulate PGC-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation genes in preference for glucose metabolism pathways. Interestingly, despite the reduced PGC-1 activity, these pathological stressors are associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, at least initially. The transcription factors that regulate these changes in the setting of reduced PGC-1 are unknown, but Myc can regulate glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis during cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in cancer cells. Here we have demonstrated that Myc activation in the myocardium of adult mice increases glucose uptake and utilization, downregulates fatty acid oxidation by reducing PGC-1α levels, and induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Inactivation of Myc in the adult myocardium attenuated hypertrophic growth and decreased the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in response to hemodynamic load. Surprisingly, the Myc-orchestrated metabolic alterations were associated with preserved cardiac function and improved recovery from ischemia. Our data suggest that Myc directly regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac myocytes and is an important regulator of energy metabolism in the heart in response to pathologic stress. PMID:20364083

  9. miR-203 enhances let-7 biogenesis by targeting LIN28B to suppress tumor growth in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hongwei; Liao, Zhicong; Wang, Yanbo; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Xi; Xu, Lin; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Human cancers often exhibit increased microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global aberrant expression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-203 enhances the biogenesis of tumor suppressor let-7 in lung cancer by directly targeting LIN28B. Specially, we found that the LIN28B protein levels were dramatically increased in lung cancer tissues, but its mRNA levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in LIN28B regulation. Interestingly, miR-203 overexpression was accompanied by massive upregulation of a group of miRNAs, especially let-7, and the let-7 expression level was concordant with the miR-203 expression in lung cancer tissues, implying its biological relevance. Furthermore, we showed that miR-203 played a critical role in inhibiting the proliferation and promoting the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by suppressing LIN28B and enhancing let-7 biogenesis. In summary, our results establish a novel mechanism by which miR-203, LIN28B and let-7 are tightly linked to form a regulatory network in lung cancer cells. The findings shed light on the role of a specific miRNA as a modulator of miRNA biogenesis and provide basis for developing new strategies for lung cancer therapy. PMID:28218277

  10. Expression Profiling of Ribosome Biogenesis Factors Reveals Nucleolin as a Novel Potential Marker to Predict Outcome in AML Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Caroline M.; Perrial, Emeline; Plesa, Adriana; Thomas, Xavier; Mattei, Eve; Hayette, Sandrine; Saintigny, Pierre; Bouvet, Philippe; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Dumontet, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. Prognosis is mainly influenced by patient age at diagnosis and cytogenetic alterations, two of the main factors currently used in AML patient risk stratification. However, additional criteria are required to improve the current risk classification and better adapt patient care. In neoplastic cells, ribosome biogenesis is increased to sustain the high proliferation rate and ribosome composition is altered to modulate specific gene expression driving tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the usage of ribosome biogenesis factors as clinical markers in adult patients with AML. We showed that nucleoli, the nucleus compartments where ribosome production takes place, are modified in AML by analyzing a panel of AML and healthy donor cells using immunofluorescence staining. Using four AML series, including the TCGA dataset, altogether representing a total of about 270 samples, we showed that not all factors involved in ribosome biogenesis have clinical values although ribosome biogenesis is increased in AML. Interestingly, we identified the regulator of ribosome production nucleolin (NCL) as over-expressed in AML blasts. Moreover, we found in two series that high NCL mRNA expression level was associated with a poor overall survival, particular in elderly patients. Multivariate analyses taking into account age and cytogenetic risk indicated that NCL expression in blast cells is an independent marker of reduced survival. Our study identifies NCL as a potential novel prognostic factor in AML. Altogether, our results suggest that the ribosome biogenesis pathway may be of interest as clinical markers in AML. PMID:28103300

  11. miR-203 enhances let-7 biogenesis by targeting LIN28B to suppress tumor growth in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hongwei; Liao, Zhicong; Wang, Yanbo; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Xi; Xu, Lin; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-02-20

    Human cancers often exhibit increased microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global aberrant expression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-203 enhances the biogenesis of tumor suppressor let-7 in lung cancer by directly targeting LIN28B. Specially, we found that the LIN28B protein levels were dramatically increased in lung cancer tissues, but its mRNA levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in LIN28B regulation. Interestingly, miR-203 overexpression was accompanied by massive upregulation of a group of miRNAs, especially let-7, and the let-7 expression level was concordant with the miR-203 expression in lung cancer tissues, implying its biological relevance. Furthermore, we showed that miR-203 played a critical role in inhibiting the proliferation and promoting the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by suppressing LIN28B and enhancing let-7 biogenesis. In summary, our results establish a novel mechanism by which miR-203, LIN28B and let-7 are tightly linked to form a regulatory network in lung cancer cells. The findings shed light on the role of a specific miRNA as a modulator of miRNA biogenesis and provide basis for developing new strategies for lung cancer therapy.

  12. The Centriole Cartwheel Protein SAS-6 in Trypanosoma brucei Is Required for Probasal Body Biogenesis and Flagellum Assembly.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Qing; Siegel, Sara; Li, Ziyin

    2015-09-01

    The centriole in eukaryotes functions as the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to nucleate spindle assembly, and its biogenesis requires an evolutionarily conserved protein, SAS-6, which assembles the centriole cartwheel. Trypanosoma brucei, an early branching protozoan, possesses the basal body as its MTOC to nucleate flagellum biogenesis. However, little is known about the components of the basal body and their roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly. Here, we report that the T. brucei SAS-6 homolog, TbSAS-6, is localized to the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle. RNA interference (RNAi) of TbSAS-6 inhibited probasal body biogenesis, compromised flagellum assembly, and caused cytokinesis arrest. Surprisingly, overexpression of TbSAS-6 in T. brucei also impaired probasal body duplication and flagellum assembly, contrary to SAS-6 overexpression in humans, which produces supernumerary centrioles. Furthermore, we showed that depletion of T. brucei Polo-like kinase, TbPLK, or inhibition of TbPLK activity did not abolish TbSAS-6 localization to the basal body, in contrast to the essential role of Polo-like kinase in recruiting SAS-6 to centrioles in animals. Altogether, these results identified the essential role of TbSAS-6 in probasal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly and suggest the presence of a TbPLK-independent pathway governing basal body duplication in T. brucei.

  13. Expression Profiling of Ribosome Biogenesis Factors Reveals Nucleolin as a Novel Potential Marker to Predict Outcome in AML Patients.

    PubMed

    Marcel, Virginie; Catez, Frédéric; Berger, Caroline M; Perrial, Emeline; Plesa, Adriana; Thomas, Xavier; Mattei, Eve; Hayette, Sandrine; Saintigny, Pierre; Bouvet, Philippe; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Dumontet, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. Prognosis is mainly influenced by patient age at diagnosis and cytogenetic alterations, two of the main factors currently used in AML patient risk stratification. However, additional criteria are required to improve the current risk classification and better adapt patient care. In neoplastic cells, ribosome biogenesis is increased to sustain the high proliferation rate and ribosome composition is altered to modulate specific gene expression driving tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the usage of ribosome biogenesis factors as clinical markers in adult patients with AML. We showed that nucleoli, the nucleus compartments where ribosome production takes place, are modified in AML by analyzing a panel of AML and healthy donor cells using immunofluorescence staining. Using four AML series, including the TCGA dataset, altogether representing a total of about 270 samples, we showed that not all factors involved in ribosome biogenesis have clinical values although ribosome biogenesis is increased in AML. Interestingly, we identified the regulator of ribosome production nucleolin (NCL) as over-expressed in AML blasts. Moreover, we found in two series that high NCL mRNA expression level was associated with a poor overall survival, particular in elderly patients. Multivariate analyses taking into account age and cytogenetic risk indicated that NCL expression in blast cells is an independent marker of reduced survival. Our study identifies NCL as a potential novel prognostic factor in AML. Altogether, our results suggest that the ribosome biogenesis pathway may be of interest as clinical markers in AML.

  14. Peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells: The impact of genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rebecca L; Lismont, Celien; Terlecky, Stanley R; Fransen, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The initiation and progression of many human diseases are mediated by a complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. As all diseases begin with an imbalance at the cellular level, it is essential to understand how various types of molecular aberrations, metabolic changes, and environmental stressors function as switching points in essential communication networks. In recent years, peroxisomes have emerged as important intracellular hubs for redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and nucleic acid-mediated signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on how nature and nurture modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function in mammalian cells. First, we review emerging evidence that changes in peroxisome activity can be linked to the epigenetic regulation of cell function. Next, we outline how defects in peroxisome biogenesis may directly impact cellular pathways involved in the development of disease. In addition, we discuss how changes in the cellular microenvironment can modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function. Finally, given the importance of peroxisome function in multiple aspects of health, disease, and aging, we highlight the need for more research in this still understudied field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphorylation of αSNAP is Required for Secretory Organelle Biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rebecca J; Ferguson, David J P; Whitehead, Lachlan; Bradin, Clare H; Wu, Hong J; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, apicomplexan parasites quickly invade host cells and begin a replicative cycle rapidly increasing in number over a short period of time, leading to tissue lysis and disease. The secretory pathway of these highly polarized protozoan parasites tightly controls, in time and space, the biogenesis of specialized structures and organelles required for invasion and intracellular survival. In other systems, regulation of protein trafficking can occur by phosphorylation of vesicle fusion machinery. Previously, we have shown that Toxoplasma gondii αSNAP - a protein that controls the disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes--is phosphorylated. Here, we show that this post-translational modification is required for the correct function of αSNAP in controlling secretory traffic. We demonstrate that during intracellular development conditional expression of a non-phosphorylatable form of αSNAP results in Golgi fragmentation and vesiculation of all downstream secretory organelles. In addition, we show that the vestigial plastid (termed apicoplast), although reported not to be reliant on Golgi trafficking for biogenesis, is also affected upon overexpression of αSNAP and is much more sensitive to the levels of this protein than targeting to other organelles. This work highlights the importance of αSNAP and its phosphorylation in Toxoplasma organelle biogenesis and exposes a hereto fore-unexplored mechanism of regulation of vesicle fusion during secretory pathway trafficking in apicomplexan parasites. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interfacing mitochondrial biogenesis and elimination to enhance host pathogen defense and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Lionaki, Eirini; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic and semi-autonomous organelles, essential for many fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, metabolite synthesis and calcium homeostasis, among others. Alterations in mitochondrial activity not only influence individual cell function but also, through non-cell autonomous mechanisms, whole body metabolism, healthspan and lifespan. Energy homeostasis is orchestrated by the complex interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondria-selective autophagy (mitophagy). However, the cellular and molecular pathways that coordinate these 2 opposing processes remained obscure. In our recent study, we demonstrate that DCT-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the mammalian BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX, is a key mediator of mitophagy, and functions in the same genetic pathway with PINK-1 and PDR-1 (the nematode homologs of PINK1 and Parkin respectively) to promote longevity and prevent cell damage under stress conditions. Interestingly, accumulation of damaged mitochondria activates SKN-1 (SKiNhead-1), the nematode homolog of NRF2, which in turn initiates a compensatory retrograde signaling response that impinges on both mitochondrial biogenesis and removal. In this commentary, we discuss the implications of these new findings in the context of innate immunity and aging. Unraveling the regulatory network that governs the crosstalk between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that link aberrant energy metabolism to aging and disease. PMID:26430570

  17. Interfacing mitochondrial biogenesis and elimination to enhance host pathogen defense and longevity.

    PubMed

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Lionaki, Eirini; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic and semi-autonomous organelles, essential for many fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, metabolite synthesis and calcium homeostasis, among others. Alterations in mitochondrial activity not only influence individual cell function but also, through non-cell autonomous mechanisms, whole body metabolism, healthspan and lifespan. Energy homeostasis is orchestrated by the complex interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondria-selective autophagy (mitophagy). However, the cellular and molecular pathways that coordinate these 2 opposing processes remained obscure. In our recent study, we demonstrate that DCT-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the mammalian BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX, is a key mediator of mitophagy, and functions in the same genetic pathway with PINK-1 and PDR-1 (the nematode homologs of PINK1 and Parkin respectively) to promote longevity and prevent cell damage under stress conditions. Interestingly, accumulation of damaged mitochondria activates SKN-1 (SKiNhead-1), the nematode homolog of NRF2, which in turn initiates a compensatory retrograde signaling response that impinges on both mitochondrial biogenesis and removal. In this commentary, we discuss the implications of these new findings in the context of innate immunity and aging. Unraveling the regulatory network that governs the crosstalk between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that link aberrant energy metabolism to aging and disease.

  18. A Rab escort protein integrates the secretion system with TOR signaling and ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspal; Tyers, Mike

    2009-08-15

    The coupling of environmental conditions to cell growth and division is integral to cell fitness. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Sfp1 couples nutrient status to cell growth rate by controlling the expression of ribosome biogenesis (Ribi) and ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Sfp1 is localized to the nucleus in rich nutrients, but upon nutrient limitation or target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway inhibition by rapamycin, Sfp1 rapidly exits the nucleus, leading to repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. Through systematic cell-based screens we found that many components of the secretory system influence Sfp1 localization. Notably, the essential Rab escort protein Mrs6 exhibited a nutrient-sensitive interaction with Sfp1. Overexpression of Mrs6 prevented nuclear localization of Sfp1 in rich nutrients, whereas loss of Mrs6 resulted in nuclear Sfp1 localization in poor nutrients. These effects were specific to Sfp1 and independent of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, suggesting that Mrs6 lies in a distinct branch of TOR and ribosome biogenesis regulation. Rapamycin-resistant alleles of MRS6 were defective in the cytoplasmic retention of Sfp1, the control of cell size, and in the repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. The Sfp1-Mrs6 interaction is a nexus for growth regulation that links the secretory system and TOR-dependent nutrient signaling to ribosome biogenesis.

  19. A Rab escort protein integrates the secretion system with TOR signaling and ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspal; Tyers, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of environmental conditions to cell growth and division is integral to cell fitness. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Sfp1 couples nutrient status to cell growth rate by controlling the expression of ribosome biogenesis (Ribi) and ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Sfp1 is localized to the nucleus in rich nutrients, but upon nutrient limitation or target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway inhibition by rapamycin, Sfp1 rapidly exits the nucleus, leading to repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. Through systematic cell-based screens we found that many components of the secretory system influence Sfp1 localization. Notably, the essential Rab escort protein Mrs6 exhibited a nutrient-sensitive interaction with Sfp1. Overexpression of Mrs6 prevented nuclear localization of Sfp1 in rich nutrients, whereas loss of Mrs6 resulted in nuclear Sfp1 localization in poor nutrients. These effects were specific to Sfp1 and independent of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, suggesting that Mrs6 lies in a distinct branch of TOR and ribosome biogenesis regulation. Rapamycin-resistant alleles of MRS6 were defective in the cytoplasmic retention of Sfp1, the control of cell size, and in the repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. The Sfp1–Mrs6 interaction is a nexus for growth regulation that links the secretory system and TOR-dependent nutrient signaling to ribosome biogenesis. PMID:19684114

  20. Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis in Helminths: More than One Route to the Surface?

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Bennett, Adam P S; Clarke, Alexzandra; Brennan, Gerard P; Robinson, Mark W

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery that parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transfer a range of effector molecules to host cells has made us re-think our understanding of the host-parasite interface. In this opinion article we consider how recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies, together with ultrastructural observations, suggest that more than one mechanism of EV biogenesis can occur in helminths. We propose that distinct EV subtypes have roles in immune modulation and repair of drug-induced damage, and put forward the case for targeting EV biogenesis pathways to achieve parasite control. In doing so we raise a number of outstanding research questions that must be addressed before this can happen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A role for mRNA trafficking and localized translation in peroxisome biogenesis and function?

    PubMed

    Haimovich, Gal; Cohen-Zontag, Osnat; Gerst, Jeffrey E

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are distinct membrane-enclosed organelles involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids and synthesis of ether phospholipids (e.g. plasmalogens), as well as cholesterol and its derivatives (e.g. bile acids). Peroxisomes comprise a distinct and highly segregated subset of cellular proteins, including those of the peroxisome membrane and the interior matrix, and while the mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes have been extensively studied, they are not fully understood. Here we will examine the potential role of RNA trafficking and localized translation on protein import into peroxisomes and its role in peroxisome biogenesis and function. Given that RNAs encoding peroxisome biogenesis (PEX) and matrix proteins have been found in association with the endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, it suggests that localized translation may play a significant role in the import pathways of these different peroxisomal constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional link between ribosome formation and biogenesis of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Yarunin, Alexander; Panse, Vikram Govind; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Dez, Christophe; Tollervey, David; Hurt, Eduard C

    2005-02-09

    In genetic screens for ribosomal export mutants, we identified CFD1, NBP35 and NAR1 as factors involved in ribosome biogenesis. Notably, these components were recently reported to function in extramitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis. In particular, Nar1 was implicated to generate the Fe-S clusters within Rli1, a potential substrate protein of unknown function. We tested whether the Fe-S protein Rli1 functions in ribosome formation. We report that rli1 mutants are impaired in pre-rRNA processing and defective in the export of both ribosomal subunits. In addition, Rli1p is associated with both pre-40S particles and mature 40S subunits, and with the eIF3 translation initiation factor complex. Our data reveal an unexpected link between ribosome biogenesis and the biosynthetic pathway of cytoplasmic Fe-S proteins.

  3. Functional link between ribosome formation and biogenesis of iron–sulfur proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yarunin, Alexander; Panse, Vikram Govind; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Dez, Christophe; Tollervey, David; Hurt, Ed

    2005-01-01

    In genetic screens for ribosomal export mutants, we identified CFD1, NBP35 and NAR1 as factors involved in ribosome biogenesis. Notably, these components were recently reported to function in extramitochondrial iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster biosynthesis. In particular, Nar1 was implicated to generate the Fe–S clusters within Rli1, a potential substrate protein of unknown function. We tested whether the Fe–S protein Rli1 functions in ribosome formation. We report that rli1 mutants are impaired in pre-rRNA processing and defective in the export of both ribosomal subunits. In addition, Rli1p is associated with both pre-40S particles and mature 40S subunits, and with the eIF3 translation initiation factor complex. Our data reveal an unexpected link between ribosome biogenesis and the biosynthetic pathway of cytoplasmic Fe–S proteins. PMID:15660135

  4. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K; Osvath, Sarah R; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H; Charles, Ian G; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2016-04-14

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs.

  5. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L.; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K.; Osvath, Sarah R.; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G.; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H.; Charles, Ian G.; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs. PMID:27075392

  6. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  7. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species. PMID:26063571

  8. Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function in Arabidopsis†

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A. Harvey; Small, Ian D.; Day, David A.; Whelan, James

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria represent the powerhouse of cells through their synthesis of ATP. However, understanding the role of mitochondria in the growth and development of plants will rely on a much deeper appreciation of the complexity of this organelle. Arabidopsis research has provided clear identification of mitochondrial components, allowed wide-scale analysis of gene expression, and has aided reverse genetic manipulation to test the impact of mitochondrial component loss on plant function. Forward genetics in Arabidopsis has identified mitochondrial involvement in mutations with notable impacts on plant metabolism, growth and development. Here we consider the evidence for components involved in mitochondria biogenesis, metabolism and signalling to the nucleus. PMID:22303236

  9. Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Adipose Tissue in Acquired Obesity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Sini; Buzkova, Jana; Muniandy, Maheswary; Kaksonen, Risto; Ollikainen, Miina; Ismail, Khadeeja; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesse; Lundbom, Nina; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Moilanen, Eeva; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Suomalainen, Anu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2015-09-01

    Low mitochondrial number and activity have been suggested as underlying factors in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. However, the stage at which mitochondrial dysfunction manifests in adipose tissue after the onset of obesity remains unknown. Here we examined subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples from healthy monozygotic twin pairs, 22.8-36.2 years of age, who were discordant (ΔBMI >3 kg/m(2), mean length of discordance 6.3 ± 0.3 years, n = 26) and concordant (ΔBMI <3 kg/m(2), n = 14) for body weight, and assessed their detailed mitochondrial metabolic characteristics: mitochondrial-related transcriptomes with dysregulated pathways, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amount, mtDNA-encoded transcripts, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein levels. We report global expressional downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways with concomitant downregulation of mtDNA amount, mtDNA-dependent translation system, and protein levels of the OXPHOS machinery in the obese compared with the lean co-twins. Pathway analysis indicated downshifting of fatty acid oxidation, ketone body production and breakdown, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which inversely correlated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative metabolic pathways, and OXPHOS proteins in SAT are downregulated in acquired obesity, and are associated with metabolic disturbances already at the preclinical stage. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Order within a mosaic distribution of mitochondrial c-type cytochrome biogenesis systems?

    PubMed

    Allen, James W A; Jackson, Andrew P; Rigden, Daniel J; Willis, Antony C; Ferguson, Stuart J; Ginger, Michael L

    2008-05-01

    Mitochondrial cytochromes c and c(1) are present in all eukaryotes that use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in the respiratory chain. Maturation of c-type cytochromes requires covalent attachment of the heme cofactor to the protein, and there are at least five distinct biogenesis systems that catalyze this post-translational modification in different organisms and organelles. In this study, we use biochemical data, comparative genomic and structural bioinformatics investigations to provide a holistic view of mitochondrial c-type cytochrome biogenesis and its evolution. There are three pathways for mitochondrial c-type cytochrome maturation, only one of which is present in prokaryotes. We analyze the evolutionary distribution of these biogenesis systems, which include the Ccm system (System I) and the enzyme heme lyase (System III). We conclude that heme lyase evolved once and, in many lineages, replaced the multicomponent Ccm system (present in the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont), probably as a consequence of lateral gene transfer. We find no evidence of a System III precursor in prokaryotes, and argue that System III is incompatible with multi-heme cytochromes common to bacteria, but absent from eukaryotes. The evolution of the eukaryotic-specific protein heme lyase is strikingly unusual, given that this protein provides a function (thioether bond formation) that is also ubiquitous in prokaryotes. The absence of any known c-type cytochrome biogenesis system from the sequenced genomes of various trypanosome species indicates the presence of a third distinct mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, this system attaches heme to mitochondrial cytochromes c that contain only one cysteine residue, rather than the usual two, within the heme-binding motif. The isolation of single-cysteine-containing mitochondrial cytochromes c from free-living kinetoplastids, Euglena and the marine flagellate Diplonema papillatum suggests that this unique form of heme attachment

  11. Identification and expression profiles of sRNAs and their biogenesis and action-related genes in male and female cones of Pinus tabuliformis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shi-Hui; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Hu-Wei; Li, Pei; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2015-09-15

    Small RNA (sRNA) play pivotal roles in reproductive development, and their biogenesis and action mechanisms are well characterised in angiosperm plants; however, corresponding studies in conifers are very limited. To improve our understanding of the roles of sRNA pathways in the reproductive development of conifers, the genes associated with sRNA biogenesis and action pathways were identified and analysed, and sRNA sequencing and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) were performed in male and female cones of the Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis). Based on high-quality reference transcriptomic sequences, 21 high-confidence homologues involved in sRNA biogenesis and action in P. tabuliformis were identified, including two different DCL3 genes and one AGO4 gene. More than 75 % of genes involved in sRNA biogenesis and action have higher expression levels in female than in male cones. Twenty-six microRNA (miRNA) families and 74 targets, including 46 24-nt sRNAs with a 5' A, which are specifically expressed in male cones or female cones and probably bind to AGO4, were identified. The sRNA pathways have higher activity in female than in male cones, and the miRNA pathways are the main sRNA pathways in P. tabuliformis. The low level of 24-nt short-interfering RNAs in conifers is not caused by the absence of biogenesis-related genes or AGO-binding proteins, but most likely caused by the low accumulation of these key components. The identification of sRNAs and their targets, as well as genes associated with sRNA biogenesis and action, will provide a good starting point for investigations into the roles of sRNA pathways in cone development in conifers.

  12. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Blamowska, Marta; Neupert, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Chaperones mediate protein folding and prevent deleterious protein aggregation in the cell. However, little is known about the biogenesis of chaperones themselves. In this study, we report on the biogenesis of the yeast mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70) chaperone, which is essential for the functionality of mitochondria. We show in vivo and in organello that mtHsp70 rapidly folds after its import into mitochondria, with its ATPase domain and peptide-binding domain (PBD) adopting their structures independently of each other. Importantly, folding of the ATPase domain but not of the PBD was severely affected in the absence of the Hsp70 escort protein, Hep1. We reconstituted the folding of mtHsp70, demonstrating that Hep1 and ATP/ADP were required and sufficient for its de novo folding. Our data show that Hep1 bound to a folding intermediate of mtHsp70. Binding of an adenine nucleotide triggered release of Hep1 and folding of the intermediate into native mtHsp70. Thus, Hep1 acts as a specialized chaperone mediating the de novo folding of an Hsp70 chaperone. PMID:23007651

  13. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in mammalian cells: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cluster delivery

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Nunziata; Rouault, Tracey. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient, ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. The combination of the chemical reactivity of iron and sulfur, together with many variations of cluster composition, oxidation states and protein environments, enables Fe-S clusters to participate in numerous biological processes. Fe-S clusters are essential to redox catalysis in nitrogen fixation, mitochondrial respiration and photosynthesis, to regulatory sensing in key metabolic pathways (i. e. cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response), and to the replication and maintenance of the nuclear genome. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is a multistep process that involves a complex sequence of catalyzed protein- protein interactions and coupled conformational changes between the components of several dedicated multimeric complexes. Intensive studies of the assembly process have clarified key points in the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins. However several critical questions still remain, such as: what is the role of frataxin? Why do some defects of Fe-S cluster biogenesis cause mitochondrial iron overload? How are specific Fe-S recipient proteins recognized in the process of Fe-S transfer? This review focuses on the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis, drawing attention to recent advances achieved on the identification of molecular features that guide selection of specific subsets of nascent Fe-S recipients by the cochaperone HSC20. Additionally, it outlines the distinctive phenotypes of human diseases due to mutations in the components of the basic pathway. PMID:25245479

  14. The telomerase inhibitor Gno1p/PINX1 activates the helicase Prp43p during ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Capeyrou, Régine; Humbert, Odile; Mouffok, Saïda; Kadri, Yasmine Al; Lebaron, Simon; Henras, Anthony K.; Henry, Yves

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that a central player in ribosome synthesis, the ribonucleic acid helicase Prp43p, can be activated by yeast Gno1p and its human ortholog, the telomerase inhibitor PINX1. Gno1p and PINX1 expressed in yeast interact with Prp43p and the integrity of their G-patch domain is required for this interaction. Moreover, PINX1 interacts with human PRP43 (DHX15) in HeLa cells. PINX1 directly binds to yeast Prp43p and stimulates its adenosine triphosphatase activity, while alterations of the G patch abolish formation of the PINX1/Prp43p complex and the stimulation of Prp43p. In yeast, lack of Gno1p leads to a decrease in the levels of pre-40S and intermediate pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles, defects that can be corrected by PINX1 expression. We show that Gno1p associates with 90S and early pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles and is released from intermediate pre-60S particles. G-patch alterations in Gno1p or PINX1 that inhibit their interactions with Prp43p completely abolish their function in yeast ribosome biogenesis. Altogether, our results suggest that activation of Prp43p by Gno1p/PINX1 within early pre-ribosomal particles is crucial for their subsequent maturation. PMID:24823796

  15. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviño, Fabiola R.; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  16. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Calviño, Fabiola R.; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1–RpL5-N–RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1–RpL5–RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP. PMID:25849277

  17. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-07

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  18. Emerging roles of mitochondria in the evolution, biogenesis, and function of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Abhishek; McBride, Heidi M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last century peroxisomes were thought to have an endosymbiotic origin. Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. These features were considered unique to endosymbiotic organelles, prompting the idea that peroxisomes were key cellular elements that helped facilitate the evolution of multicellular organisms. The functional similarities to mitochondria within mammalian systems expanded these ideas, as both organelles scavenge peroxide and reactive oxygen species, both organelles oxidize fatty acids, and at least in higher eukaryotes, the biogenesis of both organelles is controlled by common nuclear transcription factors of the PPAR family. Over the last decade it has been demonstrated that the fission machinery of both organelles is also shared, and that both organelles act as critical signaling platforms for innate immunity and other pathways. Taken together it is clear that the mitochondria and peroxisomes are functionally coupled, regulating cellular metabolism and signaling through a number of common mechanisms. However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing the critical importance of the mitochondria as a functional partner. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of functional coupling of the peroxisomes to the mitochondria/ER networks, providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis. PMID:24133452

  19. The Role of Mitochondria in Cellular Iron–Sulfur Protein Biogenesis: Mechanisms, Connected Processes, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stehling, Oliver; Lill, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe/S) clusters belong to the most ancient protein cofactors in life, and fulfill functions in electron transport, enzyme catalysis, homeostatic regulation, and sulfur activation. The synthesis of Fe/S clusters and their insertion into apoproteins requires almost 30 proteins in the mitochondria and cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This review summarizes our current biochemical knowledge of mitochondrial Fe/S protein maturation. Because this pathway is essential for various extramitochondrial processes, we then explain how mitochondria contribute to the mechanism of cytosolic and nuclear Fe/S protein biogenesis, and to other connected processes including nuclear DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, and transcription. We next describe how the efficiency of mitochondria to assemble Fe/S proteins is used to regulate cellular iron homeostasis. Finally, we briefly summarize a number of mitochondrial “Fe/S diseases” in which various biogenesis components are functionally impaired owing to genetic mutations. The thorough understanding of the diverse biochemical disease phenotypes helps with testing the current working model for the molecular mechanism of Fe/S protein biogenesis and its connected processes. PMID:23906713

  20. Small molecule inhibition of apicomplexan FtsH1 disrupts plastid biogenesis in human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amberg-Johnson, Katherine; Hari, Sanjay B; Ganesan, Suresh M; Lorenzi, Hernan A; Sauer, Robert T; Niles, Jacquin C; Yeh, Ellen

    2017-08-18

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan pathogens contain an essential plastid organelle, the apicoplast, which is a key anti-parasitic target. Derived from secondary endosymbiosis, the apicoplast depends on novel, but largely cryptic, mechanisms for protein/lipid import and organelle inheritance during parasite replication. These critical biogenesis pathways present untapped opportunities to discover new parasite-specific drug targets. We used an innovative screen to identify actinonin as having a novel mechanism-of-action inhibiting apicoplast biogenesis. Resistant mutation, chemical-genetic interaction, and biochemical inhibition demonstrate that the unexpected target of actinonin in P. falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii is FtsH1, a homolog of a bacterial membrane AAA+ metalloprotease. PfFtsH1 is the first novel factor required for apicoplast biogenesis identified in a phenotypic screen. Our findings demonstrate that FtsH1 is a novel and, importantly, druggable antimalarial target. Development of FtsH1 inhibitors will have significant advantages with improved drug kinetics and multistage efficacy against multiple human parasites.

  1. Emerging roles of mitochondria in the evolution, biogenesis, and function of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Abhishek; McBride, Heidi M

    2013-09-26

    In the last century peroxisomes were thought to have an endosymbiotic origin. Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. These features were considered unique to endosymbiotic organelles, prompting the idea that peroxisomes were key cellular elements that helped facilitate the evolution of multicellular organisms. The functional similarities to mitochondria within mammalian systems expanded these ideas, as both organelles scavenge peroxide and reactive oxygen species, both organelles oxidize fatty acids, and at least in higher eukaryotes, the biogenesis of both organelles is controlled by common nuclear transcription factors of the PPAR family. Over the last decade it has been demonstrated that the fission machinery of both organelles is also shared, and that both organelles act as critical signaling platforms for innate immunity and other pathways. Taken together it is clear that the mitochondria and peroxisomes are functionally coupled, regulating cellular metabolism and signaling through a number of common mechanisms. However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing the critical importance of the mitochondria as a functional partner. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of functional coupling of the peroxisomes to the mitochondria/ER networks, providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis.

  2. Rab11A Controls the Biogenesis of Birbeck Granules by Regulating Langerin Recycling and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Uzan-Gafsou, Stéphanie; Bausinger, Huguette; Proamer, Fabienne; Monier, Solange; Lipsker, Dan; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Goud, Bruno; de la Salle, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which Rab GTPases, Rab-interacting proteins, and cargo molecules cooperate in the dynamic organization of membrane architecture remains to be clarified. Langerin, a recycling protein accumulating in the Rab11-positive compartments of Langerhans cells, induces the formation of Birbeck granules (BGs), which are membrane subdomains of the endosomal recycling network. We investigated the role of Rab11A and two members of the Rab11 family of interacting proteins, Rip11 and RCP, in Langerin traffic and the biogenesis of BGs. The overexpression of a dominant-negative Rab11A mutant or Rab11A depletion strongly influenced Langerin traffic and stability and the formation of BGs, whereas modulation of other Rab proteins involved in dynamic regulation of the endocytic-recycling pathway had no effect. Impairment of Rab11A function led to a missorting of Langerin to lysosomal compartments, but inhibition of Langerin degradation by chloroquine did not restore the formation of BGs. Loss of RCP, but not of Rip11, also had a modest, but reproducible effect on Langerin stability and BG biogenesis, pointing to a role for Rab11A–RCP complexes in these events. Our results show that Rab11A and Langerin are required for BG biogenesis, and they illustrate the role played by a Rab GTPase in the formation of a specialized subcompartment within the endocytic-recycling system. PMID:17538027

  3. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. AP-1 and clathrin are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jason; Jauregui, Miluska; Tan, Julie; Rollins, Janet; Lallet, Sylvie; Leventis, Peter A.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Chang, Henry C.; Le Borgne, Roland; Krämer, Helmut; Brill, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

     Regulated secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active molecules requires the formation of secretory granules. Clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) are necessary for maturation of exocrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine secretory granules. However, the initial steps of secretory granule biogenesis are only minimally understood. Powerful genetic approaches available in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were used to investigate the molecular pathway for biogenesis of the mucin-containing “glue granules” that form within epithelial cells of the third-instar larval salivary gland. Clathrin and AP-1 colocalize at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and clathrin recruitment requires AP-1. Furthermore, clathrin and AP-1 colocalize with secretory cargo at the TGN and on immature granules. Finally, loss of clathrin or AP-1 leads to a profound block in secretory granule formation. These findings establish a novel role for AP-1– and clathrin-dependent trafficking in the biogenesis of mucin-containing secretory granules. PMID:21490149

  5. The Potential of Targeting Ribosome Biogenesis in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunfei; Frank, Daniel; Son, Jinbae; Hannan, Katherine M.; Hannan, Ross D.; Chan, Keefe T.; Pearson, Richard B.; Sanij, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer (OC) has shown little improvement for decades meaning new therapeutic options are critical. OC comprises multiple histological subtypes, of which the most common and aggressive subtype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC is characterized by genomic structural variations with relatively few recurrent somatic mutations or dominantly acting oncogenes that can be targeted for the development of novel therapies. However, deregulation of pathways controlling homologous recombination (HR) and ribosome biogenesis has been observed in a high proportion of HGSOC, raising the possibility that targeting these basic cellular processes may provide improved patient outcomes. The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib has been approved to treat women with defects in HR due to germline BRCA mutations. Recent evidence demonstrated the efficacy of targeting ribosome biogenesis with the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis, CX-5461 in v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC)-driven haematological and prostate cancers. CX-5461 has now progressed to a phase I clinical trial in patients with haematological malignancies and phase I/II trial in breast cancer. Here we review the currently available targeted therapies for HGSOC and discuss the potential of targeting ribosome biogenesis as a novel therapeutic approach against HGSOC. PMID:28117679

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis related endurance genotype score and sports performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Meckel, Yoav; Morán, María; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the probability of individuals having the 'optimal' mitochondrial biogenesis related endurance polygenic profile, and compared the endurance polygenic profile of Israeli (Caucasian) endurance athletes (n = 74), power athletes (n = 81), and non-athletes (n = 240). We computed a mitochondrial biogenesis related 'endurance genotype score' (EGS, scoring from 0 to 100) from the accumulated combination of six polymorphisms in the PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway. Some of the variant alleles of the polymorphisms studied were so infrequent, that the probability of possessing an 'optimal' EGS (= 100) was 0% in the entire study population. However, the EGS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in endurance athletes (38.9 ± 17.1) compared with controls (30.6 ± 12.4) or power athletes (29.0 ± 11.2). In summary, although the probability of an individual possessing a theoretically 'optimal' genetic background for endurance sports is very low, in general endurance athletes have a polygenic profile that is more suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  7. cDNA Cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic 60s ribosomal protein of almond (prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Mohsen; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-06-01

    Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis) are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP) was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control) possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  8. Ribosomal proteins L7 and L8 function in concert with six A3 assembly factors to propagate assembly of domains I and II of 25S rRNA in yeast 60S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ohmayer, Uli; Gamalinda, Michael; Talkish, Jason; Alexander, Lisa; Linnemann, Jan; Milkereit, Philipp; Woolford, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a complex multistep process that involves alternating steps of folding and processing of pre-rRNAs in concert with assembly of ribosomal proteins. Recently, there has been increased interest in the roles of ribosomal proteins in eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis in vivo, focusing primarily on their function in pre-rRNA processing. However, much less is known about participation of ribosomal proteins in the formation and rearrangement of preribosomal particles as they mature to functional subunits. We have studied ribosomal proteins L7 and L8, which are required for the same early steps in pre-rRNA processing during assembly of 60S subunits but are located in different domains within ribosomes. Depletion of either leads to defects in processing of 27SA3 to 27SB pre-rRNA and turnover of pre-rRNAs destined for large ribosomal subunits. A specific subset of proteins is diminished from these residual assembly intermediates: six assembly factors required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA and four ribosomal proteins bound to domain I of 25S and 5.8S rRNAs surrounding the polypeptide exit tunnel. In addition, specific sets of ribosomal proteins are affected in each mutant: In the absence of L7, proteins bound to domain II, L6, L14, L20, and L33 are greatly diminished, while proteins L13, L15, and L36 that bind to domain I are affected in the absence of L8. Thus, L7 and L8 might establish RNP structures within assembling ribosomes necessary for the stable association and function of the A3 assembly factors and for proper assembly of the neighborhoods containing domains I and II. PMID:22893726

  9. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-09-02

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  10. A role for Yip1p in COPII vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heidtman, Matthew; Chen, Catherine Z.; Collins, Ruth N.; Barlowe, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Yeast Ypt1p-interacting protein (Yip1p) belongs to a conserved family of transmembrane proteins that interact with Rab GTPases. We encountered Yip1p as a constituent of ER-derived transport vesicles, leading us to hypothesize a direct role for this protein in transport through the early secretory pathway. Using a cell-free assay that recapitulates protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, we find that affinity-purified antibodies directed against the hydrophilic amino terminus of Yip1p potently inhibit transport. Surprisingly, inhibition is specific to the COPII-dependent budding stage. In support of this in vitro observation, strains bearing the temperature-sensitive yip1-4 allele accumulate ER membranes at a nonpermissive temperature, with no apparent accumulation of vesicle intermediates. Genetic interaction analyses of the yip1-4 mutation corroborate a function in ER budding. Finally, ordering experiments show that preincubation of ER membranes with COPII proteins decreases sensitivity to anti-Yip1p antibodies, indicating an early requirement for Yip1p in vesicle formation. We propose that Yip1p has a previously unappreciated role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. PMID:14557247

  11. A role for Yip1p in COPII vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heidtman, Matthew; Chen, Catherine Z; Collins, Ruth N; Barlowe, Charles

    2003-10-13

    Yeast Ypt1p-interacting protein (Yip1p) belongs to a conserved family of transmembrane proteins that interact with Rab GTPases. We encountered Yip1p as a constituent of ER-derived transport vesicles, leading us to hypothesize a direct role for this protein in transport through the early secretory pathway. Using a cell-free assay that recapitulates protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, we find that affinity-purified antibodies directed against the hydrophilic amino terminus of Yip1p potently inhibit transport. Surprisingly, inhibition is specific to the COPII-dependent budding stage. In support of this in vitro observation, strains bearing the temperature-sensitive yip1-4 allele accumulate ER membranes at a nonpermissive temperature, with no apparent accumulation of vesicle intermediates. Genetic interaction analyses of the yip1-4 mutation corroborate a function in ER budding. Finally, ordering experiments show that preincubation of ER membranes with COPII proteins decreases sensitivity to anti-Yip1p antibodies, indicating an early requirement for Yip1p in vesicle formation. We propose that Yip1p has a previously unappreciated role in COPII vesicle biogenesis.

  12. Divergent Mitochondrial Biogenesis Responses in Human Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Preeti; Wanagat, Jonathan; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Yibin; Liem, David A.; Ping, Peipei; Antoshechkin, Igor A.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; MacLellan, W. Robb

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are key players in the development and progression of heart failure (HF). Mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction leads to diminished energy production and increased cell death contributing to the progression of left ventricular (LV) failure. The fundamental mechanisms that underlie mt dysfunction in HF have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results To characterize mt morphology, biogenesis and genomic integrity in human HF, we investigated LV tissue from non-failing (NF) hearts and end-stage ischemic (ICM) or dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathic hearts. Although mt dysfunction was present in both types of cardiomyopathy, mt were smaller and increased in number in DCM compared to ICM or NF hearts. Mt volume density and mtDNA copy number was increased by ~2-fold (P<0.001) in DCM hearts in comparison to ICM hearts. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes in DCM versus no change in ICM. mtDNA repair and antioxidant genes were reduced in failing hearts suggestive of a defective repair and protection system, which may account for the 4.1-fold increase in mtDNA deletion mutations in DCM (P<0.05 vs NF hearts, P<0.05 vs ICM). Conclusions In DCM, mt dysfunction is associated with mtDNA damage and deletions, which could be a consequence of mutating stress coupled with a PGC-1α-dependent stimulus for mt biogenesis. However, this maladaptive compensatory response contributes to additional oxidative damage. Thus, our findings support further investigations into novel mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for mt dysfunction in DCM. PMID:23589024

  13. Study of Phagolysosome Biogenesis in Live Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bronietzki, Marc; Kasmapour, Bahram; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytic cells play a major role in the innate immune system by removing and eliminating invading microorganisms in their phagosomes. Phagosome maturation is the complex and tightly regulated process during which a nascent phagosome undergoes drastic transformation through well-orchestrated interactions with various cellular organelles and compartments in the cytoplasm. This process, which is essential for the physiological function of phagocytic cells by endowing phagosomes with their lytic and bactericidal properties, culminates in fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes and biogenesis of phagolysosomes which is considered to be the last and critical stage of maturation for phagosomes. In this report, we describe a live cell imaging based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamic process of lysosome to phagosome content delivery, which is a hallmark of phagolysosome biogenesis. This approach uses IgG-coated microbeads as a model for phagocytosis and fluorophore-conjugated dextran molecules as a luminal lysosomal cargo probe, in order to follow the dynamic delivery of lysosmal content to the phagosomes in real time in live macrophages using time-lapse imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Here we describe in detail the background, the preparation steps and the step-by-step experimental setup to enable easy and precise deployment of this method in other labs. Our described method is simple, robust, and most importantly, can be easily adapted to study phagosomal interactions and maturation in different systems and under various experimental settings such as use of various phagocytic cells types, loss-of-function experiments, different probes, and phagocytic particles. PMID:24638150

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Induces Early Renal Mitochondrial DNA Repair and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Raquel R.; Fu, Ping; Suliman, Hagir B.; Crowley, Stephen D.; MacGarvey, Nancy Chou; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of multi-system organ failure in sepsis. However, recovery of renal function after sepsis-induced AKI suggests active repair of energy-producing pathways. Here, we tested the hypothesis in mice that Staphyloccocus aureus sepsis damages mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the kidney and activates mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sepsis was induced in wild-type C57Bl/6J and Cox-8 Gfp-tagged mitochondrial-reporter mice via intraperitoneal fibrin clots embedded with S. aureus. Kidneys from surviving mice were harvested at time zero (control), 24, or 48 hours after infection and evaluated for renal inflammation, oxidative stress markers, mtDNA content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers, and OGG1 and UDG mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes. We examined the kidneys of the mitochondrial reporter mice for changes in staining density and distribution. S. aureus sepsis induced sharp amplification of renal Tnf, Il-10, and Ngal mRNAs with decreased renal mtDNA content and increased tubular and glomerular cell death and accumulation of protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG. Subsequently, mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis was evidenced by elevated OGG1 levels and significant increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, and mtTFA expression. Overall, renal mitochondrial mass, tracked by citrate synthase mRNA and protein, increased in parallel with changes in mitochondrial GFP-fluorescence especially in proximal tubules in the renal cortex and medulla. Sub-lethal S. aureus sepsis thus induces widespread renal mitochondrial damage that triggers the induction of the renal mtDNA repair protein, OGG1, and mitochondrial biogenesis as a conspicuous resolution mechanism after systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24988481

  15. Hydroxytyrosol promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiejie; Shen, Weili; Yu, Guangli; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Feng, Zhihui; Wang, Ying; Weber, Peter; Wertz, Karin; Sharman, Edward; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) in extra-virgin olive oil is considered one of the most important polyphenolic compounds responsible for the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet for lowering incidence of cardiovascular disease, the most common and most serious complication of diabetes. We propose that HT may prevent these diseases by a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis that leads to enhancement of mitochondrial function and cellular defense systems. In the present study, we investigated effects of HT that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. HT over the concentration range of 0.1-10 micromol/L stimulated the promoter transcriptional activation and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1 alpha, the central factor for mitochondrial biogenesis) and its downstream targets; these included nuclear respiration factors 1 and 2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, which leads to an increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the number of mitochondria. Knockdown of Ppargc1 alpha by siRNA blocked HT's stimulating effect on Complex I expression and mtDNA copy number. The HT treatment resulted in an enhancement of mitochondrial function, including an increase in activity and protein expression of Mitochondrial Complexes I, II, III and V; increased oxygen consumption; and a decrease in free fatty acid contents in the adipocytes. The mechanistic study of the PPARGC1 alpha activation signaling pathway demonstrated that HT is an activator of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and also up-regulates gene expression of PPAR alpha, CPT-1 and PPAR gamma. These data suggest that HT is able to promote mitochondrial function by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flavivirus Infection Impairs Peroxisome Biogenesis and Early Antiviral Signaling.

    PubMed

    You, Jaehwan; Hou, Shangmei; Malik-Soni, Natasha; Xu, Zaikun; Kumar, Anil; Rachubinski, Richard A; Frappier, Lori; Hobman, Tom C

    2015-12-01

    Flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that have an enormous impact on the global health burden. Currently, there are very few vaccines against or therapeutic treatments for flaviviruses, and our understanding of how these viruses cause disease is limited. Evidence suggests that the capsid proteins of flaviviruses play critical nonstructural roles during infection, and therefore, elucidating how these viral proteins affect cellular signaling pathways could lead to novel targets for antiviral therapy. We used affinity purification to identify host cell proteins that interact with the capsid proteins of West Nile and dengue viruses. One of the cellular proteins that formed a stable complex with flavivirus capsid proteins is the peroxisome biogenesis factor Pex19. Intriguingly, flavivirus infection resulted in a significant loss of peroxisomes, an effect that may be due in part to capsid expression. We posited that capsid protein-mediated sequestration and/or degradation of Pex19 results in loss of peroxisomes, a situation that could result in reduced early antiviral signaling. In support of this hypothesis, we observed that induction of the lambda interferon mRNA in response to a viral RNA mimic was reduced by more than 80%. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of peroxisome biogenesis may be a novel mechanism by which flaviviruses evade the innate immune system during early stages of infection. RNA viruses infect hundreds of millions of people each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Chief among these pathogens are the flaviviruses, which include dengue virus and West Nile virus. Despite their medical importance, there are very few prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for these viruses. Moreover, the manner in which they subvert the innate immune response in order to establish infection in mammalian cells is not well understood. Recently, peroxisomes were reported to function in early antiviral signaling, but very little is known

  17. PID-1 is a novel factor that operates during 21U-RNA biogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Bruno F.M.; Luteijn, Maartje J.; Cordeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo J.; van Bergeijk, Petra; Waaijers, Selma; Kaaij, Lucas J.T.; Klein, Holger; Boxem, Mike; Ketting, René F.

    2014-01-01

    The Piwi–piRNA pathway represents a small RNA-based mechanism responsible for the recognition and silencing of invading DNA. Biogenesis of piRNAs (21U-RNAs) is poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the piRNA-binding Argonaute protein PRG-1 is the only known player acting downstream from precursor transcription. From a screen aimed at the isolation of piRNA-induced silencing-defective (Pid) mutations, we identified, among known Piwi pathway components, PID-1 as a novel player. PID-1 is a mostly cytoplasmic, germline-specific factor essential for 21U-RNA biogenesis, affecting an early step in the processing or transport of 21U precursor transcripts. We also show that maternal 21U-RNAs are essential to initiate silencing. PMID:24696453

  18. Regulation of exercise-induced fiber type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Akhtar, Yasir N.; Lira, Vitor A.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibits superb plasticity in response to changes in functional demands. Chronic increases of skeletal muscle contractile activity, such as endurance exercise, lead to a variety of physiological and biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle, including mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and fiber type transformation. These adaptive changes are the basis for the improvement of physical performance and other health benefits. This review focuses on recent findings in genetically engineered animal models designed to elucidate the mechanisms and functions of various signal transduction pathways and gene expression programs in exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations. PMID:21030673

  19. Review: biogenesis of the multifunctional lipid droplet: lipids, proteins, and sites.

    PubMed

    Pol, Albert; Gross, Steven P; Parton, Robert G

    2014-03-03

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous dynamic organelles that store and supply lipids in all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells for energy metabolism, membrane synthesis, and production of essential lipid-derived molecules. Interest in the organelle's cell biology has exponentially increased over the last decade due to the link between LDs and prevalent human diseases and the discovery of new and unexpected functions of LDs. As a result, there has been significant recent progress toward understanding where and how LDs are formed, and the specific lipid pathways that coordinate LD biogenesis.

  20. Hippo signaling regulates Microprocessor and links cell density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masaki; Triboulet, Robinson; Mohseni, Morvarid; Schlegelmilch, Karin; Shrestha, Kriti; Camargo, Fernando D.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding post-transcriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer. PMID:24581491

  1. 13-Deoxytedanolide, a marine sponge-derived antitumor macrolide, binds to the 60S large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Yoshida, Minoru; Hirota, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-17

    13-Deoxytedanolide is a potent antitumor macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Mycale adhaerens. In spite of its remarkable activity, the mode of action of 13-deoxytedanolide has not been elucidated. [11-3H]-(11S)-13-Deoxydihydrotedanolide derived from the macrolide was used for identifying the target molecule from the yeast cell lysate. Fractionation of the binding protein revealed that the labeled 13-deoxytedanolide derivative strongly bound to the 80S ribosome as well as to the 60S large subunit, but not to the 40S small subunit. In agreement with this observation, 13-deoxytedanolide efficiently inhibited the polypeptide elongation. Interestingly, competition studies demonstrated that 13-deoxytedanolide shared the binding site on the 60S large subunit with pederin and its marine-derived analogues. These results indicate that 13-deoxytedanolide is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor and is the first macrolide to inhibit the eukaryotic ribosome.

  2. A Synergistic Antiobesity Effect by a Combination of Capsinoids and Cold Temperature Through Promoting Beige Adipocyte Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Shinoda, Kosaku; Suzuki, Katsuya; Bannai, Makoto; Kajimura, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    Beige adipocytes emerge postnatally within the white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure. Because of its highly recruitable nature and relevance to adult humans, beige adipocytes have gained much attention as an attractive cellular target for antiobesity therapy. However, molecular circuits that preferentially promote beige adipocyte biogenesis remain poorly understood. We report that a combination of mild cold exposure at 17°C and capsinoids, a nonpungent analog of capsaicin, synergistically and preferentially promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies show that the combination of capsinoids and cold exposure synergistically promotes beige adipocyte development through the β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway. This synergistic effect on beige adipocyte biogenesis occurs through an increased half-life of PRDM16, a dominant transcriptional regulator of brown/beige adipocyte development. We document a previously unappreciated molecular circuit that controls beige adipocyte biogenesis and suggest a plausible approach to increase whole-body energy expenditure by combining dietary components and environmental cues. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Autophagy induction is a Tor- and Tp53-independent cell survival response in a zebrafish model of disrupted ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P; Trotter, Andrew J; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J; Parslow, Adam C; Markmiller, Sebastian J; Hall, Nathan E; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Ng, Annie Y; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H; Hannan, Katherine M; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (tti(s450)), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In tti(s450), the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in tti(s450) larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in tti(s450) larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death.

  4. Autophagy Induction Is a Tor- and Tp53-Independent Cell Survival Response in a Zebrafish Model of Disrupted Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P.; Trotter, Andrew J.; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J.; Parslow, Adam C.; Markmiller, Sebastian J.; Hall, Nathan E.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Ng, Annie Y.; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A.; Field, Holly A.; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H.; Hannan, Katherine M.; Hannan, Ross D.; Pearson, Richard B.; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C.; Lieschke, Graham J.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Heath, Joan K.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (ttis450), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In ttis450, the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in ttis450 larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in ttis450 larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death. PMID:23408911

  5. Dietary isoflavone daidzein promotes Tfam expression that increases mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Makiko; Naka, Ayano; Sakamoto, Yuri; Shibasaki, Ayako; Toh, Mariko; Tsukamoto, Sakuka; Kondo, Kazuo; Iida, Kaoruko

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscles leads to a wide range of metabolic and age-related disorders. Recently, it has been reported that a natural polyphenol, resveratrol, affects mitochondrial biogenesis. This study aimed to identify other natural polyphenolic compounds that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis in muscles. For this purpose, we used the C2C12 murine muscle cell line. Screening involved a reporter assay based on the promoter of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). We found that several polyphenols exhibited the ability to increase Tfam promoter activity and that the soy isoflavone daidzein was a most potent candidate that regulated mitochondrial biogenesis. When C2C12 myotubes were treated with 25-50 μM daidzein for 24h, there were significant increases in the expression of Tfam and mitochondrial genes such as COX1 and Cytb as well as the mitochondrial content. Using several mutant Tfam promoter fragments, we found that the transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor (NRF) and its coactivator, PGC1α, were necessary for the effect of daidzein on Tfam expression. Finally, silencing of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) by shRNA resulted in inhibition of the daidzein effects on mitochondrial gene expression. In conclusion, daidzein regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells by regulating transcriptional networks through a SIRT1-associated pathway. These results suggest that daidzein would be beneficial to protect against a wide range of diseases caused by muscle mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Random mutagenesis of yeast 25S rRNA identify bases critical for 60S subunit structural integrity and function

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Naoki; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Chowdhury, Wasimul; Kitabatake, Makoto; Shin, Byung-shik; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Wang, Suzhi; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Brown, Susan J.; Ohno, Mutsuhito; Asano, Katsura

    2013-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 25S rRNA makes up the major mass and shape of the 60S ribosomal subunit. During translation initiation, the 60S subunit joins the 40S initiation complex, producing the 80S initiation complex. During elongation, the 60S subunit binds the CCA-ends of aminoacyl- and peptidyl-tRNAs at the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, transferring the peptide onto the α-amino group of the aminoacyl-tRNA. To study the role of 25S rRNA in translation in vivo, we randomly mutated 25S rRNA and isolated and characterized seven point mutations that affected yeast cell growth and polysome profiles. Four of these mutations, G651A, A1435U, A1446G and A1587G, change a base involved in base triples crucial for structural integrity. Three other mutations change bases near the ribosomal surface: C2879U and U2408C alter the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, and G1735A maps near a Eukarya-specific bridge to the 40S subunit. By polysome profiling in mmslΔ mutants defective in nonfunctional 25S rRNA decay, we show that some of these mutations are defective in both the initiation and elongation phases of translation. Of the mutants characterized, C2879U displays the strongest defect in translation initiation. The ribosome transit-time assay directly shows that this mutation is also defective in peptide elongation/termination. Thus, our genetic analysis not only identifies bases critical for structural integrity of the 60S subunit, but also suggests a role for bases near the peptidyl transferase center in translation initiation. PMID:26824023

  7. Diabetes regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J.L.; Quattrini, A.; Lentz, S.I.; Figueroa-Romero, C.; Cerri, F.; Backus, C.; Hong, Y.; Feldman, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Normal mitochondrial (Mt) activity is a critical component of neuronal metabolism and function. Disruption of Mt activity by altered Mt fission and fusion is the root cause of both neurodegenerative disorders and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2A inherited neuropathy. The current study addressed the role of Mt fission in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods Mt biogenesis and fission were assayed in both in vivo and in vitro models of DN. Gene, protein, mitochondrial DNA and ultrastructural analyses were used to assess Mt biogenesis and fission. Results Our data reveal increased Mt biogenesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from diabetic compared to non-diabetic mice. An essential step in Mt biogenesis is Mt fission, regulated by the Mt fission protein Drp1. Evaluation of in vivo diabetic neurons indicated small, fragmented Mt, suggesting increased fission. In vitro studies reveal short-term hyperglycemic exposure increased expression of Drp1. The influence of hyperglycemia-mediated Mt fission on cellular viability was evaluated by knockdown of Drp1. Knockdown of Drp1 resulted in decreased susceptibility to hyperglycemic damage. Conclusions We propose that: 1) Mt undergo biogenesis in response to hyperglycemia, but the increased biogenesis is insufficient to accommodate the metabolic load; 2) hyperglycemia causes an excess of Mt fission, creating small, damaged mitochondria; and 3) reduction of aberrant Mt fission increases neuronal survival and indicates an important role for the fission-fusion equilibrium in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:19847394

  8. MicroRNA-761 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle in response to exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanli; Zhao, Chaoxian; Sun, Xuewen; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-11-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play critical roles in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Previous study has shown that miR-761 was involved in a novel model regulating the mitochondrial network. However, its role in mitochondrial biogenesis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-761 on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that aberrantly expressed miR-761 is involved in exercise activity and miR-761 is decreased by exercise training compared with the sedentary control mice. miR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes by targeting the 3′-UTR of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1α). Overexpression of miR-761 was capable of inhibiting the protein expression levels of PGC-1α. Moreover, miR-761 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P-MK2), a downstream kinase of p38 MAPK. The phosphorylation of activating transcription factors 2 (ATF2) that plays a functional role in linking the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway to enhanced transcription of the PGC-1α was also inhibited by the overexpression of miR-761. These findings revealed a novel regulation mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes, and contributed to a better understanding of the modulation of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. - Highlights: • Endurance exercise decreases miR-761 expression in skeletal muscle. • MiR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • MiR-761 directly targeted PGC-1α expression. • MiR-761 suppresses p38 MAPK signaling pathways in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • A novel mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes is demonstrated.

  9. Inherited Variants in Mitochondrial Biogenesis Genes May Influence Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Chen, Y. Ann; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chen, Zhihua; Qu, Xiaotao; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Stockwell, Heather; Dagne, Getachew; Iversen, Edwin; Risch, Harvey; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Sutphen, Rebecca; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Fenstermacher, David; Phelan, Catherine M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondria contribute to oxidative stress, a phenomenon implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that inherited variants in mitochondrial-related genes influence epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility. Methods Through a multi-center study of 1,815 Caucasian EOC cases and 1,900 controls, we investigated associations between EOC risk and 128 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 22 genes/regions within the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and 2,839 nuclear-encoded SNPs localized to 138 genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (BIO, n=35), steroid hormone metabolism (HOR, n=13), and oxidative phosphorylation (OXP, n=90) pathways. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between genotype and case status. Overall significance of each gene and pathway was evaluated using Fisher’s method to combine SNP-level evidence. At the SNP-level, we investigated whether lifetime ovulation, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and cigarette smoking were confounders or modifiers of associations. Results Inter-individual variation involving BIO was most strongly associated with EOC risk (empirical P=0.050), especially for NRF1, MTERF, PPARGC1A, ESRRA, and CAMK2D. Several SNP-level associations strengthened after adjustment for non-genetic factors, particularly for MTERF. Statistical interactions with cigarette smoking and HRT use were observed with MTERF and CAMK2D SNPs, respectively. Overall variation within mtDNA, HOR, and OXP was not statistically significant (empirical P >0.10). Conclusion We provide novel evidence to suggest that variants in mitochondrial biogenesis genes may influence EOC susceptibility. Impact A deeper understanding of the complex mechanisms implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress may aid in developing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from EOC. PMID:21447778

  10. Biogenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pheromone a-Factor, from Yeast Mating to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barrowman, Jemima

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The mating pheromone a-factor secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a farnesylated and carboxylmethylated peptide and is unusually hydrophobic compared to other extracellular signaling molecules. Mature a-factor is derived from a precursor with a C-terminal CAAX motif that directs a series of posttranslational reactions, including prenylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxylmethylation. Historically, a-factor has served as a valuable model for the discovery and functional analysis of CAAX-processing enzymes. In this review, we discuss the three modules comprising the a-factor biogenesis pathway: (i) the C-terminal CAAX-processing steps carried out by Ram1/Ram2, Ste24 or Rce1, and Ste14; (ii) two sequential N-terminal cleavage steps, mediated by Ste24 and Axl1; and (iii) export by a nonclassical mechanism, mediated by the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Ste6. The small size and hydrophobicity of a-factor present both challenges and advantages for biochemical analysis, as discussed here. The enzymes involved in a-factor biogenesis are conserved from yeasts to mammals. Notably, studies of the zinc metalloprotease Ste24 in S. cerevisiae led to the discovery of its mammalian homolog ZMPSTE24, which cleaves the prenylated C-terminal tail of the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. Mutations that alter ZMPSTE24 processing of lamin A in humans cause the premature-aging disease progeria and related progeroid disorders. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that the entire a-factor pathway, including all three biogenesis modules, may be used to produce a prenylated, secreted signaling molecule involved in germ cell migration in Drosophila. Thus, additional prenylated signaling molecules resembling a-factor, with as-yet-unknown roles in metazoan biology, may await discovery. PMID:22933563

  11. Structure and function of Zucchini endoribonuclease in piRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Ishizu, Hirotsugu; Saito, Kuniaki; Fukuhara, Satoshi; Kamatani, Miharu K; Bonnefond, Luc; Matsumoto, Naoki; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Nakanaga, Keita; Aoki, Junken; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C; Nureki, Osamu

    2012-11-08

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons to maintain genome integrity in animal germ lines. piRNAs are classified as primary and secondary piRNAs, depending on their biogenesis machinery. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters in the genome through the primary processing pathway. Although the existence of a ribonuclease participating in this pathway has been predicted, its molecular identity remained unknown. Here we show that Zucchini (Zuc), a mitochondrial phospholipase D (PLD) superfamily member, is an endoribonuclease essential for primary piRNA biogenesis. We solved the crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster Zuc (DmZuc) at 1.75 Å resolution. The structure revealed that DmZuc has a positively charged, narrow catalytic groove at the dimer interface, which could accommodate a single-stranded, but not a double-stranded, RNA. DmZuc and the mouse homologue MmZuc (also known as Pld6 and MitoPLD) showed endoribonuclease activity for single-stranded RNAs in vitro. The RNA cleavage products bear a 5'-monophosphate group, a hallmark of mature piRNAs. Mutational analyses revealed that the conserved active-site residues of DmZuc are critical for the ribonuclease activity in vitro, and for piRNA maturation and transposon silencing in vivo. We propose a model for piRNA biogenesis in animal germ lines, in which the Zuc endoribonuclease has a key role in primary piRNA maturation.

  12. Biology and biogenesis of shed microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Christopher; Clancy, James; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2016-08-05

    The ability of cells to transmit bioactive molecules to recipient cells and the extracellular environment is a fundamental requirement for both normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. It has traditionally been thought that soluble factors released from cells were responsible for this cellular signaling but recent research has revealed a fundamental role for microvesicles in this process. Microvesicles are heterogeneous membrane-bound sacs that are shed from the surface of cells into the extracellular environment in a highly regulated process. They are shed following the selective incorporation of a host of molecular cargo including multiple types of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to providing new insight into the etiology of complex human diseases, microvesicles also show great promise as a tool for advanced diagnosis and therapy as we move forward into a new age of personalized medicine. Here we review current status of the rapidly evolving field of microvesicle biology, highlighting critical regulatory roles for several small GTPases in the biology and biogenesis of shed microvesicles.

  13. Chloroplast RNA polymerases: Role in chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Thomas; Aleynikova, Anastasia Yu; Zubo, Yan O; Kusnetsov, Victor V

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genes are transcribed by two types of RNA polymerase in angiosperms: the bacterial type plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) and one (RPOTp in monocots) or two (RPOTp and RPOTmp in dicots) nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase(s) (NEP). PEP is a bacterial-type multisubunit enzyme composed of core subunits (coded for by the plastid rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2 genes) and additional protein factors (sigma factors and polymerase associated protein, PAPs) encoded in the nuclear genome. Sigma factors are required by PEP for promoter recognition. Six different sigma factors are used by PEP in Arabidopsis plastids. NEP activity is represented by phage-type RNA polymerases. Only one NEP subunit has been identified, which bears the catalytic activity. NEP and PEP use different promoters. Many plastid genes have both PEP and NEP promoters. PEP dominates in the transcription of photosynthesis genes. Intriguingly, rpoB belongs to the few genes transcribed exclusively by NEP. Both NEP and PEP are active in non-green plastids and in chloroplasts at all stages of development. The transcriptional activity of NEP and PEP is affected by endogenous and exogenous factors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro-hormone secretogranin II regulates dense core secretory granule biogenesis in catecholaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Courel, Maïté; Soler-Jover, Alex; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mahata, Sushil K; Elias, Salah; Montero-Hadjadje, Maïté; Anouar, Youssef; Giuly, Richard J; O'Connor, Daniel T; Taupenot, Laurent

    2010-03-26

    Processes underlying the formation of dense core secretory granules (DCGs) of neuroendocrine cells are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that DCG biogenesis is dependent on the secretory protein secretogranin (Sg) II, a member of the granin family of pro-hormone cargo of DCGs in neuroendocrine cells. Depletion of SgII expression in PC12 cells leads to a decrease in both the number and size of DCGs and impairs DCG trafficking of other regulated hormones. Expression of SgII fusion proteins in a secretory-deficient PC12 variant rescues a regulated secretory pathway. SgII-containing dense core vesicles share morphological and physical properties with bona fide DCGs, are competent for regulated exocytosis, and maintain an acidic luminal pH through the V-type H(+)-translocating ATPase. The granulogenic activity of SgII requires a pH gradient along this secretory pathway. We conclude that SgII is a critical factor for the regulation of DCG biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells, mediating the formation of functional DCGs via its pH-dependent aggregation at the trans-Golgi network.

  15. Pro-hormone Secretogranin II Regulates Dense Core Secretory Granule Biogenesis in Catecholaminergic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Courel, Maïté; Soler-Jover, Alex; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Elias, Salah; Montero-Hadjadje, Maïté; Anouar, Youssef; Giuly, Richard J.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Taupenot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Processes underlying the formation of dense core secretory granules (DCGs) of neuroendocrine cells are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that DCG biogenesis is dependent on the secretory protein secretogranin (Sg) II, a member of the granin family of pro-hormone cargo of DCGs in neuroendocrine cells. Depletion of SgII expression in PC12 cells leads to a decrease in both the number and size of DCGs and impairs DCG trafficking of other regulated hormones. Expression of SgII fusion proteins in a secretory-deficient PC12 variant rescues a regulated secretory pathway. SgII-containing dense core vesicles share morphological and physical properties with bona fide DCGs, are competent for regulated exocytosis, and maintain an acidic luminal pH through the V-type H+-translocating ATPase. The granulogenic activity of SgII requires a pH gradient along this secretory pathway. We conclude that SgII is a critical factor for the regulation of DCG biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells, mediating the formation of functional DCGs via its pH-dependent aggregation at the trans-Golgi network. PMID:20061385

  16. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α Induces Lysosomal Biogenesis in Brain Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Sims, Katherine B.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPARα, but not PPARβ and PPARγ, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor α, PPARα, and PGC1α on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role. PMID:25750174

  17. A dynamin is required for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Breinich, Manuela S; Ferguson, David J P; Foth, Bernardo J; van Dooren, Giel G; Lebrun, Maryse; Quon, Doris V; Striepen, Boris; Bradley, Peter J; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Carruthers, Vern B; Meissner, Markus

    2009-02-24

    Apicomplexans contain only a core set of factors involved in vesicular traffic. Yet these obligate intracellular parasites evolved a set of unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, and dense granules) that are required for invasion and modulation of the host cell. Apicomplexa replicate by budding from or within a single mother cell, and secretory organelles are synthesized de novo at the final stage of division. To date, the molecular basis for their biogenesis is unknown. We demonstrate that the apicomplexan dynamin-related protein B (DrpB) belongs to an alveolate specific family of dynamins that is expanded in ciliates. DrpB accumulates in a cytoplasmic region close to the Golgi that breaks up during replication and reforms after assembly of the daughter cells. Conditional ablation of DrpB function results in mature daughter parasites that are devoid of micronemes and rhoptries. In the absence of these organelles, invasion-related secretory proteins are mistargeted to the constitutive secretory pathway. Mutant parasites are able to replicate but are unable to escape from or invade into host cells. DrpB is the essential mechanoenzyme for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Apicomplexa. We suggest that DrpB is required during replication to generate vesicles for the regulated secretory pathway that form the unique secretory organelles. Our study supports a role of an alveolate-specific dynamin that was required for the evolution of novel, secretory organelles. In the case of Apicomplexa, these organelles further evolved to enable a parasitic lifestyle.

  18. Mitochondrial iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and human disease.

    PubMed

    Stehling, Oliver; Wilbrecht, Claudia; Lill, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Work during the past 14 years has shown that mitochondria are the primary site for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. In fact, it is this process that renders mitochondria essential for viability of virtually all eukaryotes, because they participate in the synthesis of the Fe/S clusters of key nuclear and cytosolic proteins such as DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and ABCE1 (Rli1), an ATPase involved in protein synthesis. As a consequence, mitochondrial function is crucial for nuclear DNA synthesis and repair, ribosomal protein synthesis, and numerous other extra-mitochondrial pathways including nucleotide metabolism and cellular iron regulation. Within mitochondria, the synthesis of Fe/S clusters and their insertion into apoproteins is assisted by 17 proteins forming the ISC (iron-sulfur cluster) assembly machinery. Biogenesis of mitochondrial Fe/S proteins can be dissected into three main steps: First, a Fe/S cluster is generated de novo on a scaffold protein. Second, the Fe/S cluster is dislocated from the scaffold and transiently bound to transfer proteins. Third, the latter components, together with specific ISC targeting factors insert the Fe/S cluster into client apoproteins. Disturbances of the first two steps impair the maturation of extra-mitochondrial Fe/S proteins and affect cellular and systemic iron homeostasis. In line with the essential function of mitochondria, genetic mutations in a number of ISC genes lead to severe neurological, hematological and metabolic diseases, often with a fatal outcome in early childhood. In this review we briefly summarize our current functional knowledge on the ISC assembly machinery, and we present a comprehensive overview of the various Fe/S protein assembly diseases.

  19. Placeholder factors in ribosome biogenesis: please, pave my way

    PubMed Central

    Espinar-Marchena, Francisco J.; Babiano, Reyes; Cruz, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes is an extraordinarily energy-demanding cellular activity that occurs progressively from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In the nucleolus, precursor rRNAs associate with a myriad of trans-acting factors and some ribosomal proteins to form pre-ribosomal particles. These factors include snoRNPs, nucleases, ATPases, GTPases, RNA helicases, and a vast list of proteins with no predicted enzymatic activity. Their coordinate activity orchestrates in a spatiotemporal manner the modification and processing of precursor rRNAs, the rearrangement reactions required for the formation of productive RNA folding intermediates, the ordered assembly of the ribosomal proteins, and the export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm; thus, providing speed, directionality and accuracy to the overall process of formation of translation-competent ribosomes. Here, we review a particular class of trans-acting factors known as "placeholders". Placeholder factors temporarily bind selected ribosomal sites until these have achieved a structural context that is appropriate for exchanging the placeholder with another site-specific binding factor. By this strategy, placeholders sterically prevent premature recruitment of subsequently binding factors, premature formation of structures, avoid possible folding traps, and act as molecular clocks that supervise the correct progression of pre-ribosomal particles into functional ribosomal subunits. We summarize the current understanding of those factors that delay the assembly of distinct ribosomal proteins or subsequently bind key sites in pre-ribosomal particles. We also discuss recurrent examples of RNA-protein and protein-protein mimicry between rRNAs and/or factors, which have clear functional implications for the ribosome biogenesis pathway. PMID:28685141

  20. Directing experimental biology: a case study in mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Matthew A; Myers, Chad L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Hess, David C; Li, Kai; Caudy, Amy A; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2009-03-01

    Computational approaches have promised to organize collections of functional genomics data into testable predictions of gene and protein involvement in biological processes and pathways. However, few such predictions have been experimentally validated on a large scale, leaving many bioinformatic methods unproven and underutilized in the biology community. Further, it remains unclear what biological concerns should be taken into account when using computational methods to drive real-world experimental efforts. To investigate these concerns and to establish the utility of computational predictions of gene function, we experimentally tested hundreds of predictions generated from an ensemble of three complementary methods for the process of mitochondrial organization and biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biological data with respect to the mitochondria are presented in a companion manuscript published in PLoS Genetics (doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000407). Here we analyze and explore the results of this study that are broadly applicable for computationalists applying gene function prediction techniques, including a new experimental comparison with 48 genes representing the genomic background. Our study leads to several conclusions that are important to consider when driving laboratory investigations using computational prediction approaches. While most genes in yeast are already known to participate in at least one biological process, we confirm that genes with known functions can still be strong candidates for annotation of additional gene functions. We find that different analysis techniques and different underlying data can both greatly affect the types of functional predictions produced by computational methods. This diversity allows an ensemble of techniques to substantially broaden the biological scope and breadth of predictions. We also find that performing prediction and validation steps iteratively allows us to more completely characterize a biological

  1. Drosophila Low Temperature Viability Protein 1 (LTV1) Is Required for Ribosome Biogenesis and Cell Growth Downstream of Drosophila Myc (dMyc)*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonho; Kim, Hag Dong; Jung, Youjin; Kim, Joon; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-01-01

    During animal development, various signaling pathways converge to regulate cell growth. In this study, we identified LTV1 as a novel cell growth regulator in Drosophila. LTV1 mutant larvae exhibited developmental delays and lethality at the second larval stage. Using biochemical studies, we discovered that LTV1 interacted with ribosomal protein S3 and co-purified with free 40S ribosome subunits. We further demonstrated that LTV1 is crucial for ribosome biogenesis through 40S ribosome subunit synthesis and preribosomal RNA processing, suggesting that LTV1 is required for cell growth by regulating protein synthesis. We also demonstrated that Drosophila Myc (dMyc) directly regulates LTV1 transcription and requires LTV1 to stimulate ribosome biogenesis. Importantly, the loss of LTV1 blocked the cell growth and endoreplication induced by dMyc. Combined, these results suggest that LTV1 is a key downstream factor of dMyc-induced cell growth by properly maintaining ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25858587

  2. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  3. Final Pre-40S Maturation Depends on the Functional Integrity of the 60S Subunit Ribosomal Protein L3

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Juan J.; Rosado, Iván V.; Tollervey, David; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L3 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in the assembly of early pre-60S particles. We report that the rpl3[W255C] allele, which affects the affinity and function of translation elongation factors, impairs cytoplasmic maturation of 20S pre-rRNA. This was not seen for other mutations in or depletion of L3 or other 60S ribosomal proteins. Surprisingly, pre-40S particles containing 20S pre-rRNA form translation-competent 80S ribosomes, and translation inhibition partially suppresses 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The GTP-dependent translation initiation factor Fun12 (yeast eIF5B) shows similar in vivo binding to ribosomal particles from wild-type and rpl3[W255C] cells. However, the GTPase activity of eIF5B failed to stimulate processing of 20S pre-rRNA when assayed with ribosomal particles purified from rpl3[W255C] cells. We conclude that L3 plays an important role in the function of eIF5B in stimulating 3′ end processing of 18S rRNA in the context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation. These findings indicate that the correct conformation of the GTPase activation region is assessed in a quality control step during maturation of cytoplasmic pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:24603549

  4. Protein synthesis. Rqc2p and 60S ribosomal subunits mediate mRNA-independent elongation of nascent chains.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peter S; Park, Joseph; Qin, Yidan; Li, Xueming; Parsawar, Krishna; Larson, Matthew H; Cox, James; Cheng, Yifan; Lambowitz, Alan M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Brandman, Onn; Frost, Adam

    2015-01-02

    In Eukarya, stalled translation induces 40S dissociation and recruitment of the ribosome quality control complex (RQC) to the 60S subunit, which mediates nascent chain degradation. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures revealing that the RQC components Rqc2p (YPL009C/Tae2) and Ltn1p (YMR247C/Rkr1) bind to the 60S subunit at sites exposed after 40S dissociation, placing the Ltn1p RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain near the exit channel and Rqc2p over the P-site transfer RNA (tRNA). We further demonstrate that Rqc2p recruits alanine- and threonine-charged tRNA to the A site and directs the elongation of nascent chains independently of mRNA or 40S subunits. Our work uncovers an unexpected mechanism of protein synthesis, in which a protein--not an mRNA--determines tRNA recruitment and the tagging of nascent chains with carboxy-terminal Ala and Thr extensions ("CAT tails").

  5. Rqc2p and 60S ribosomal subunits mediate mRNA-independent elongation of nascent chains

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Peter S.; Park, Joseph; Qin, Yidan; Li, Xueming; Parsawar, Krishna; Larson, Matthew H.; Cox, James; Cheng, Yifan; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Brandman, Onn; Frost, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In Eukarya, stalled translation induces 40S dissociation and recruitment of the Ribosome Quality control Complex (RQC) to the 60S subunit, which mediates nascent chain degradation. Here, we report cryoEM structures revealing that the RQC components Rqc2p (YPL009C/Tae2) and Ltn1p (YMR247C/Rkr1) bind to the 60S at sites exposed after 40S dissociation, placing the Ltn1p RING domain near the exit channel and Rqc2p over the P-site tRNA. We further demonstrate that Rqc2p recruits alanine and threonine charged tRNA to the A-site and directs elongation of nascent chains independently of mRNA or 40S subunits. Our work uncovers an unexpected mechanism of protein synthesis in which a protein—not an mRNA—determines tRNA recruitment and the tagging of nascent chains with Carboxy-terminal Ala and Thr extensions (“CAT tails”). PMID:25554787

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis and proteome remodeling promotes one carbon metabolism for T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Ron-Harel, Noga; Santos, Daniel; Ghergurovich, Jonathan M.; Sage, Peter T.; Reddy, Anita; Lovitch, Scott B.; Dephoure, Noah; Satterstrom, F. Kyle; Sheffer, Michal; Spinelli, Jessica B.; Gygi, Steven; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Haigis, Marcia C.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Naïve T cell stimulation activates anabolic metabolism to fuel the transition from quiescence to growth and proliferation. Here we show that naïve CD4+ T cell activation induces a unique program of mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified protein dynamics during T cell activation. We identified substantial remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome over the first 24 hr of T cell activation to generate mitochondria with a distinct metabolic signature, with one carbon metabolism as the most induced pathway. Salvage pathways and mitochondrial one carbon metabolism, fed by serine, contribute to purine and thymidine synthesis to enable T cell proliferation and survival. Genetic inhibition of the mitochondrial serine catabolic enzyme SHMT2 impaired T cell survival in culture, and antigen-specific T cell abundance in vivo. Thus, during T cell activation, mitochondrial proteome remodeling generates specialized mitochondria with enhanced one carbon metabolism that is critical for T cell activation and survival. PMID:27411012

  7. A high throughput respirometric assay for mitochondrial biogenesis and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Craig C.; Beeson, Gyda C.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are a common target of toxicity for drugs and other chemicals, and results in decreased aerobic metabolism and cell death. In contrast, mitochondrial biogenesis restores cell vitality and there is a need for new agents to induce biogenesis. Current cell-based models of mitochondrial biogenesis or toxicity are inadequate because cultured cell lines are highly glycolytic with minimal aerobic metabolism and altered mitochondrial physiology. In addition, there are no high-throughput, real-time assays that assess mitochondrial function. We adapted primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) that exhibit in vivo levels of aerobic metabolism, are not glycolytic, and retain higher levels of differentiated functions and used the Seahorse Biosciences analyzer to measure mitochondrial function in real time in multi-well plates. Using uncoupled respiration as a marker of electron transport chain (ETC) integrity, the nephrotoxicants cisplatin, HgCl2 and gentamicin exhibited mitochondrial toxicity prior to decreases in basal respiration and cell death. Conversely, using FCCP-uncoupled respiration as a marker of maximal ETC activity, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), SRT1720, resveratrol, daidzein, and metformin produced mitochondrial biogenesis in RPTC. The merger of the RPTC model and multi-well respirometry results in a single high throughput assay to measure mitochondrial biogenesis and toxicity, and nephrotoxic potential. PMID:20465991

  8. Over-Expression of 60s Ribosomal L23a Is Associated with Cellular Proliferation in SAG Resistant Clinical Isolates of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sanchita; Shah, Priyanka; Baharia, Rajendra K.; Tandon, Rati; Khare, Prashant; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Siddiqi, M. I.; Dube, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Background Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld) had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a), identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism. Methodology and principal findings The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a) was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III) and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode. Conclusion/Significance This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism. PMID:24340105

  9. Over-expression of 60s ribosomal L23a is associated with cellular proliferation in SAG resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanchita; Shah, Priyanka; Baharia, Rajendra K; Tandon, Rati; Khare, Prashant; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Siddiqi, M I; Dube, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld) had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a), identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism. The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a) was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III) and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode. This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism.

  10. The impact of age, biogenesis, and genomic clustering on Drosophila microRNA evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Jaaved; Flynt, Alex S.; Siepel, Adam; Lai, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular evolutionary signatures of miRNAs inform our understanding of their emergence, biogenesis, and function. The known signatures of miRNA evolution have derived mostly from the analysis of deeply conserved, canonical loci. In this study, we examine the impact of age, biogenesis pathway, and genomic arrangement on the evolutionary properties of Drosophila miRNAs. Crucial to the accuracy of our results was our curation of high-quality miRNA alignments, which included nearly 150 corrections to ortholog calls and nucleotide sequences of the global 12-way Drosophilid alignments currently available. Using these data, we studied primary sequence conservation, normalized free-energy values, and types of structure-preserving substitutions. We expand upon common miRNA evolutionary patterns that reflect fundamental features of miRNAs that are under functional selection. We observe that melanogaster-subgroup-specific miRNAs, although recently emerged and rapidly evolving, nonetheless exhibit evolutionary signatures that are similar to well-conserved miRNAs and distinct from other structured noncoding RNAs and bulk conserved non-miRNA hairpins. This provides evidence that even young miRNAs may be selected for regulatory activities. More strikingly, we observe that mirtrons and clustered miRNAs both exhibit distinct evolutionary properties relative to solo, well-conserved miRNAs, even after controlling for sequence depth. These studies highlight the previously unappreciated impact of biogenesis strategy and genomic location on the evolutionary dynamics of miRNAs, and affirm that miRNAs do not evolve as a unitary class. PMID:23882112

  11. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Nebivolol may act as a partial agonist of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR). •Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial DNA replication and protein expression. •Nebivolol promotes mitochondrial synthesis via activation of eNOS by β3-AR. -- Abstract: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol’s role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24 h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and β3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1α, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of β3-AR receptors.

  12. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A.; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J.; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L.; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  13. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bielczyk-Maczyńska, Ewa; Lam Hung, Laure; Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate.

  14. Ribosome biogenesis adaptation in resistance training-induced human skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Vandre C; Caldow, Marissa K; Massie, Vivien; Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Resistance training (RT) has the capacity to increase skeletal muscle mass, which is due in part to transient increases in the rate of muscle protein synthesis during postexercise recovery. The role of ribosome biogenesis in supporting the increased muscle protein synthetic demands is not known. This study examined the effect of both a single acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) and a chronic RT program on the muscle ribosome biogenesis response. Fourteen healthy young men performed a single bout of RE both before and after 8 wk of chronic RT. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased by 6 ± 4.5% in response to 8 wk of RT. Acute RE-induced activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways were similar before and after RT, as assessed by phosphorylation of ERK, MNK1, p70S6K, and S6 ribosomal protein 1 h postexercise. Phosphorylation of TIF-IA was also similarly elevated following both RE sessions. Cyclin D1 protein levels, which appeared to be regulated at the translational rather than transcriptional level, were acutely increased after RE. UBF was the only protein found to be highly phosphorylated at rest after 8 wk of training. Also, muscle levels of the rRNAs, including the precursor 45S and the mature transcripts (28S, 18S, and 5.8S), were increased in response to RT. We propose that ribosome biogenesis is an important yet overlooked event in RE-induced muscle hypertrophy that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Mechanisms of calcium-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, David C

    2007-10-01

    Regularly performed aerobic exercise leads to increases in skeletal muscle mitochondria and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content, resulting in an enhanced capacity to oxidize substrates and improvements in insulin- and contraction-mediated glucose uptake. Although the specific mechanisms governing these adaptive responses have not been fully elucidated, accumulating evidence suggests that the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that occurs with each wave of sacrolemmal depolarization is a key component of these processes. Treating L6 muscle cells with agents that increase Ca2+ without causing reductions in ~P or the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase leads to increases in GLUT4 and mitochondrial protein contents. This effect is likely controlled through calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), since KN93, a specific CaMK inhibitor, blocks these adaptive responses. Recent findings provide evidence that the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the pathway through which Ca2+/CaMK mediates mitochondrial and GLUT4 biogenesis. p38 MAPK initiates GLUT4 and mitochondrial biogenesis through the activation of transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators such as myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha). Subsequent increases in the content of these proteins further enhance Ca2+-induced GLUT4 and mitochondrial biogenesis. Since decreases in mitochondrial and GLUT4 contents are associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which these processes can be normalized will aid in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Lithium increases PGC-1alpha expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Struewing, Ian T; Barnett, Corey D; Tang, Tao; Mao, Catherine D

    2007-06-01

    Lithium is a therapeutic agent commonly used to treat bipolar disorder and its beneficial effects are thought to be due to a combination of activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and depletion of the inositol pool via inhibition of the inositol monophosphatase-1. We demonstrated that lithium in primary endothelial cells induced an increase in mitochondrial mass leading to an increase in ATP production without any significant change in mitochondrial efficiency. This increase in mitochondrial mass was associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors: nuclear respiratory factor-1 and -2beta, as well as mitochondrial transcription factors A and B2, which lead to the coordinated upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation components encoded by either the nuclear or mitochondrial genome. These effects of lithium on mitochondrial biogenesis were independent of the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and independent of inositol depletion. Also, expression of the coactivator PGC-1alpha was increased, whereas expression of the coactivator PRC was not affected. Lithium treatment rapidly induced a decrease in activating Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation and inhibitory Forkhead box class O (FOXO1)-Thr24 phosphorylation, as well as an increase in activating c-AMP responsive element binding (CREB)-Ser133 phosphorylation, two mechanisms known to control PGC-1alpha expression. Together, our results show that lithium induces mitochondrial biogenesis via CREB/PGC-1alpha and FOXO1/PGC-1alpha cascades, which highlight the pleiotropic effects of lithium and reveal also novel beneficial effects via preservation of mitochondrial functions.

  17. Mitochondrial disease genes COA6, COX6B and SCO2 have overlapping roles in COX2 biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Alok; Pratt, Anthony T.; Soma, Shivatheja; Theriault, Sarah G.; Griffin, Aaron T.; Trivedi, Prachi P.; Gohil, Vishal M.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a complex process facilitated by several assembly factors. Pathogenic mutations were recently reported in one such assembly factor, COA6, and our previous work linked Coa6 function to mitochondrial copper metabolism and expression of Cox2, a copper-containing subunit of CcO. However, the precise role of Coa6 in Cox2 biogenesis remained unknown. Here we show that yeast Coa6 is an orthologue of human COA6, and like Cox2, is regulated by copper availability, further implicating it in copper delivery to Cox2. In order to place Coa6 in the Cox2 copper delivery pathway, we performed a comprehensive genetic epistasis analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that simultaneous deletion of Coa6 and Sco2, a mitochondrial copper metallochaperone, or Coa6 and Cox12/COX6B, a structural subunit of CcO, completely abrogates Cox2 biogenesis. Unlike Coa6 deficient cells, copper supplementation fails to rescue Cox2 levels of these double mutants. Overexpression of Cox12 or Sco proteins partially rescues the coa6Δ phenotype, suggesting their overlapping but non-redundant roles in copper delivery to Cox2. These genetic data are strongly corroborated by biochemical studies demonstrating physical interactions between Coa6, Cox2, Cox12 and Sco proteins. Furthermore, we show that patient mutations in Coa6 disrupt Coa6–Cox2 interaction, providing the biochemical basis for disease pathogenesis. Taken together, these results place COA6 in the copper delivery pathway to CcO and, surprisingly, link it to a previously unidentified function of CcO subunit Cox12 in Cox2 biogenesis. PMID:26669719

  18. Mitochondrial biogenesis is required for the anchorage-independent survival and propagation of stem-like cancer cells.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Arianna; Fiorillo, Marco; Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Smith, Duncan L; Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Cappello, Anna Rita; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2015-06-20

    Here, we show that new mitochondrial biogenesis is required for the anchorage independent survival and propagation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). More specifically, we used the drug XCT790 as an investigational tool, as it functions as a specific inhibitor of the ERRα-PGC1 signaling pathway, which governs mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, our results directly demonstrate that XCT790 efficiently blocks both the survival and propagation of tumor initiating stem-like cells (TICs), using the MCF7 cell line as a model system. Mechanistically, we show that XCT790 suppresses the activity of several independent signaling pathways that are normally required for the survival of CSCs, such as Sonic hedgehog, TGFβ-SMAD, STAT3, and Wnt signaling. We also show that XCT790 markedly reduces oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) and that XCT790-mediated inhibition of CSC propagation can be prevented or reversed by Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR), a mitochondrial fuel. Consistent with our findings, over-expression of ERRα significantly enhances the efficiency of mammosphere formation, which can be blocked by treatment with mitochondrial inhibitors. Similarly, mammosphere formation augmented by FOXM1, a downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, can also be blocked by treatment with three different classes of mitochondrial inhibitors (XCT790, oligomycin A, or doxycycline). In this context, our unbiased proteomics analysis reveals that FOXM1 drives the expression of >90 protein targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, glycolysis, the EMT and protein synthesis in MCF7 cells, processes which are characteristic of an anabolic CSC phenotype. Finally, doxycycline is an FDA-approved antibiotic, which is very well-tolerated in patients. As such, doxycycline could be re-purposed clinically as a 'safe' mitochondrial inhibitor, to target FOXM1 and mitochondrial biogenesis in CSCs, to prevent tumor recurrence and distant metastasis, thereby avoiding patient relapse.

  19. p53 and ribosome biogenesis stress: the essentials.

    PubMed

    Golomb, Lior; Volarevic, Sinisa; Oren, Moshe

    2014-08-19

    Cell proliferation and cell growth are two tightly linked processes, as the proliferation program cannot be executed without proper accumulation of cell mass, otherwise endangering the fate of the two daughter cells. It is therefore not surprising that ribosome biogenesis, a key element in cell growth, is regulated by many cell cycle regulators. This regulation is exerted transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally, in conjunction with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Those signals eventually converge at the nucleolus, the cellular compartment that is not only responsible for executing the ribosome biogenesis program, but also serves as a regulatory hub, responsible for integrating and transmitting multiple stress signals to the omnipotent cell fate gatekeeper, p53. In this review we discuss when, how and why p53 is activated upon ribosomal biogenesis stress, and how perturbation of this critical regulatory interplay may impact human disease.

  20. Prokaryotic membrane vesicles: new insights on biogenesis and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Haurat, M Florencia; Elhenawy, Wael; Feldman, Mario F

    2015-02-01

    Biogenesis and trafficking of membrane vesicles are essential and well-studied processes in eukaryotes. In contrast, vesiculation in bacteria is not well understood. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in Gram-negative bacteria by blebbing of the outer membrane. In addition to the roles in pathogenesis, cell-to-cell communication and stress response, recent work has suggested that OMVs play important roles in immunomodulation and the establishment and balance of the gut microbiota. In this review we discuss the known and novel roles of OMVs and the different biogenesis models proposed, and address the evidence for cargo selection into OMVs. We also discuss the growing evidence for the existence of membrane vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria and Archaea. Due to their biological importance and promising applications in vaccinology, the biogenesis of OMVs is an important topic in microbiology.

  1. Mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercises.

    PubMed

    Freyssenet, D; Berthon, P; Denis, C

    1996-01-01

    Repeated bouts of endurance exercise stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The synthesis of mitochondrial proteins involves a coordinated expression of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. During this process, multiples sites of regulation have been identified at the transcriptional and translational levels. After their synthesis, mitochondrial proteins originating from the nuclear genome are imported into newly synthesized preexisting membranes and directed to one of the four mitochondrial subcompartments. The detailed mechanisms of the endurance training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis are still poorly understood. In particular, much work is needed to identify the molecular signals able to stimulate and coordinate the expression of mitochondrial proteins in response to endurance training. This will be a great help in the future to understand clearly the intimate mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and the factors involved in endurance exercise performance.

  2. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site

    PubMed Central

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J.; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  3. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  4. Salidroside Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Protects against H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Shasha; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Wenjing; Bian, Fang; Wu, Dan; Chi, Jiangyang; Xu, Gao; Zhang, Yonghui; Jin, Si

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside (SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2∙−) production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB). SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways. PMID:24868319

  5. Role of membrane glycerolipids in photosynthesis, thylakoid biogenesis and chloroplast development.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    The lipid bilayer of the thylakoid membrane in plant chloroplasts and cyanobacterial cells is predominantly composed of four unique lipid classes; monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). MGDG and DGDG are uncharged galactolipids that constitute the bulk of thylakoid membrane lipids and provide a lipid bilayer matrix for photosynthetic complexes as the main constituents. The glycolipid SQDG and phospholipid PG are anionic lipids with a negative charge on their head groups. SQDG and PG substitute for each other to maintain the amount of total anionic lipids in the thylakoid membrane, with PG having indispensable functions in photosynthesis. In addition to biochemical studies, extensive analyses of mutants deficient in thylakoid lipids have revealed important roles of these lipids in photosynthesis and thylakoid membrane biogenesis. Moreover, recent studies of Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that thylakoid lipid biosynthesis triggers the expression of photosynthesis-associated genes in both the nucleus and plastids and activates the formation of photosynthetic machineries and chloroplast development. Meanwhile, galactolipid biosynthesis is regulated in response to chloroplast functionality and lipid metabolism at transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review summarizes the roles of thylakoid lipids with their biosynthetic pathways in plants and discusses the coordinated regulation of thylakoid lipid biosynthesis with the development of photosynthetic machinery during chloroplast biogenesis.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions within the CSD Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis System

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Heather M.; Botelho, Danielle J.; Wood, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Fe-S cluster biogenesis is of interest to many fields, including bioenergetics and gene regulation. The CSD system is one of three Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems in E. coli and is comprised of the cysteine desulfurase CsdA, the sulfur acceptor protein CsdE, and the E1-like protein CsdL. The biological role, biochemical mechanism, and protein targets of the system remain uncharacterized. Here we present that the active site CsdE C61 has a lowered pKa value of 6.5, which is nearly identical to that of C51 in the homologous SufE protein and which is likely critical for its function. We observed that CsdE forms disulfide bonds with multiple proteins and identified the proteins that copurify with CsdE. The identification of Fe-S proteins and both putative and established Fe-S cluster assembly (ErpA, glutaredoxin-3, glutaredoxin-4) and sulfur trafficking (CsdL, YchN) proteins supports the two-pathway model, in which the CSD system is hypothesized to synthesize both Fe-S clusters and other sulfur-containing cofactors. We suggest that the identified Fe-S cluster assembly proteins may be the scaffold and/or shuttle proteins for the CSD system. By comparison with previous analysis of SufE, we demonstrate that there is some overlap in the CsdE and SufE interactomes. PMID:20734996

  7. Deacetylation of TFEB promotes fibrillar Aβ degradation by upregulating lysosomal biogenesis in microglia.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jintao; Zheng, Liangjun; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinya; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Zeyang; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Zhong; Huo, Wei; Zhao, Xuyang; Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Qingsong; Zhang, Chen; Ji, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    Microglia play a pivotal role in clearance of Aβ by degrading them in lysosomes, countering amyloid plaque pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that lysosomal dysfunction leads to insufficient elimination of toxic protein aggregates. We tested whether enhancing lysosomal function with transcription factor EB (TFEB), an essential regulator modulating lysosomal pathways, would promote Aβ clearance in microglia. Here we show that microglial expression of TFEB facilitates fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) degradation and reduces deposited amyloid plaques, which are further enhanced by deacetylation of TFEB. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we firstly confirmed acetylation as a previously unreported modification of TFEB and found that SIRT1 directly interacted with and deacetylated TFEB at lysine residue 116. Subsequently, SIRT1 overexpression enhanced lysosomal function and fAβ degradation by upregulating transcriptional levels of TFEB downstream targets, which could be inhibited when TFEB was knocked down. Furthermore, overexpression of deacetylated TFEB at K116R mutant in microglia accelerated intracellular fAβ degradation by stimulating lysosomal biogenesis and greatly reduced the deposited amyloid plaques in the brain slices of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our findings reveal that deacetylation of TFEB could regulate lysosomal biogenesis and fAβ degradation, making microglial activation of TFEB a possible strategy for attenuating amyloid plaque deposition in AD.

  8. Toward a Whole-Cell Model of Ribosome Biogenesis: Kinetic Modeling of SSU Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Lai, Jonathan; Chen, Ke; Hallock, Michael J.; Williamson, James R.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    Central to all life is the assembly of the ribosome: a coordinated process involving the hierarchical association of ribosomal proteins to the RNAs forming the small and large ribosomal subunits. The process is further complicated by effects arising from the intracellular heterogeneous environment and the location of ribosomal operons within the cell. We provide a simplified model of ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing Escherichia coli. Kinetic models of in vitro small-subunit reconstitution at the level of individual protein/ribosomal RNA interactions are developed for two temperature regimes. The model at low temperatures predicts the existence of a novel 5′→3′→central assembly pathway, which we investigate further using molecular dynamics. The high-temperature assembly network is incorporated into a model of in vivo ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing E. coli. The model, described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations, contains 1336 reactions and 251 species that dynamically couple transcription and translation to ribosome assembly. We use the Lattice Microbes software package to simulate the stochastic production of mRNA, proteins, and ribosome intermediates over a full cell cycle of 120 min. The whole-cell model captures the correct growth rate of ribosomes, predicts the localization of early assembly intermediates to the nucleoid region, and reproduces the known assembly timescales for the small subunit with no modifications made to the embedded in vitro assembly network. PMID:26333594

  9. Suppression of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by the transcriptional corepressor RIP140 in mouse adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Powelka, Aimee M.; Seth, Asha; Virbasius, Joseph V.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Guilherme, Adilson; Tang, Xiaoqing; Straubhaar, Juerg; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Parker, Malcolm G.; Czech, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Using an siRNA-based screen, we identified the transcriptional corepressor RIP140 as a negative regulator of insulin-responsive hexose uptake and oxidative metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Affymetrix GeneChip profiling revealed that RIP140 depletion upregulates the expression of clusters of genes in the pathways of glucose uptake, glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative phosphorylation in these cells. Conversely, we show that reexpression of RIP140 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from RIP140-null mice downregulates expression of many of these same genes. Consistent with these microarray data, RIP140 gene silencing in cultured adipocytes increased both conversion of [14C]glucose to CO2 and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. RIP140-null mice, previously reported to resist weight gain on a high-fat diet, are shown here to display enhanced glucose tolerance and enhanced responsiveness to insulin compared with matched wild-type mice upon high-fat feeding. Mechanistically, RIP140 was found to require the nuclear receptor ERRα to regulate hexose uptake and mitochondrial proteins SDHB and CoxVb, although it likely acts through other nuclear receptors as well. We conclude that RIP140 is a major suppressor of adipocyte oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as a negative regulator of whole-body glucose tolerance and energy expenditure in mice. PMID:16374519

  10. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tanya C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT2 PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27478826

  11. Complete topology inversion can be part of normal membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Nicholas B; Hadley, Sarah; Yin, Ying; Bowie, James U

    2017-02-07

    The topology of helical membrane proteins is generally defined during insertion of the transmembrane helices, yet it is now clear that it is possible for topology to change under unusual circumstances. It remains unclear, however, if topology reorientation is part of normal biogenesis. For dual topology dimer proteins such as the multidrug transporter EmrE, there may be evolutionary pressure to allow topology flipping so that the populations of both orientations can be equalized. We previously demonstrated that when EmrE is forced to insert in a distorted topology, topology flipping of the first transmembrane helix can occur during translation. Here, we show that topological malleability also extends to the C-terminal helix and that even complete topology inversion of the entire EmrE protein can occur after the full protein is translated and inserted. Thus, topology rearrangements are possible during normal biogenesis. Wholesale topology flipping is remarkable given the physical constraints of the membrane and expands the range of possible membrane protein folding pathways, both productive and detrimental.

  12. VPS36-Dependent Multivesicular Bodies Are Critical for Plasmamembrane Protein Turnover and Vacuolar Biogenesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huei-Jing; Guo, Cian-Ling; Jane, Wann-Neng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Liwen

    2017-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells target ubiquitinated plasma membrane (PM) proteins for vacuolar degradation in response to environmental and developmental cues. This process involves endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT). However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms of ESCRTs in plants. Here, we studied the function of one ESCRT-II component, VPS36, which shows ubiquitin-binding activity and may form a putative ESCRT-II with VPS22 and VPS25 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Recessive mutation of the ubiquitously expressed VPS36 causes multiple defects, including delayed embryogenesis, defective root elongation, and limited expansion of cotyledons, and these effects can be complemented by its genomic DNA. Abnormal intracellular compartments containing several membrane transporters, including members of the PIN-FORMEDs, AUXIN RESISTANT 1, and PIP1 families, were found in vps36-1 plants. Employing a genetic approach to cross vps36-1/+ with transgenic plants harboring various fluorescent protein-tagged organelle markers, as well as fluorescent probe and ultrastructural approaches, revealed PM proteins in microsomal fractions from vps36-1 seedlings and demonstrated that VPS36 is critical for forming multivesicular bodies and vacuolar biogenesis for protein degradation. Our study shows that functional VPS36 is essential for a proper endosomal sorting pathway and for vacuolar biogenesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27879389

  13. Biogenesis, Function, and Applications of Virus-Derived Small RNAs in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zujian; Li, Yi; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing, an evolutionarily conserved and sequence-specific gene-inactivation system, has a pivotal role in antiviral defense in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, a class of exogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) originating from the infecting virus called virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are predominantly responsible for RNA silencing-mediated antiviral immunity. Nowadays, the process of vsiRNA formation and the role of vsiRNAs in plant viral defense have been revealed through deep sequencing of sRNAs and diverse genetic analysis. The biogenesis of vsiRNAs is analogous to that of endogenous sRNAs, which require diverse essential components including dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. vsiRNAs trigger antiviral defense through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of viral RNA, and they hijack the host RNA silencing system to target complementary host transcripts. Additionally, several applications that take advantage of the current knowledge of vsiRNAs research are being used, such as breeding antiviral plants through genetic engineering technology, reconstructing of viral genomes, and surveying viral ecology and populations. Here, we will provide an overview of vsiRNA pathways, with a primary focus on the advances in vsiRNA biogenesis and function, and discuss their potential applications as well as the future challenges in vsiRNAs research. PMID:26617580

  14. LC3 and GATE-16 N termini mediate membrane fusion processes required for autophagosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Weidberg, Hilla; Shpilka, Tomer; Shvets, Elena; Abada, Adi; Shimron, Frida; Elazar, Zvulun

    2011-04-19

    Autophagy is a unique membrane trafficking pathway describing the formation and targeting of double membrane autophagosomes to the vacuole/lysosome. The biogenesis of autophagosomes and their delivery to the vacuole/lysosome depend on multiple membrane fusion events. Using a cell-free system, we have investigated the ability of LC3 and GATE-16, two mammalian Atg8 orthologs, to mediate membrane fusion. We found that both proteins promote tethering and membrane fusion, mediated by the proteins' N-terminal α helices. We further show that short, 10 amino acid long synthetic peptides derived from the N terminus of LC3 or GATE-16 are sufficient to promote membrane fusion. Our data indicate that the fusion activity of LC3 is mediated by positively charged amino acids, whereas the activity of GATE-16 is mediated by hydrophobic interactions. Finally, we demonstrate that LC3 and GATE-16 N termini in general and specific residues needed for the fusion activity are essential for the proteins role in autophagosome biogenesis.

  15. Rev-erb-α modulates skeletal muscle oxidative capacity by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Woldt, Estelle; Sebti, Yasmine; Solt, Laura A.; Duhem, Christian; Lancel, Steve; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Paquet, Charlotte; Delhaye, Stéphane; Shin, Youseung; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Schaart, Gert; Lefebvre, Philippe; Nevière, Rémi; Burris, Thomas P.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Duez, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear receptor Rev-erb-α modulates hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, adipogenesis and the inflammatory response in macrophages. We show here that Rev-erb-α is highly expressed in oxidative skeletal muscle and plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, in gain- and loss-of function studies. Rev-erb-α-deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mitochondrial content and oxidative function, resulting in compromised exercise capacity. This phenotype was recapitulated in isolated fibers and in muscle cells upon Rev-erbα knock-down, while Rev-erb-α over-expression increased the number of mitochondria with improved respiratory capacity. Rev-erb-α-deficiency resulted in deactivation of the Stk11–Ampk–Sirt1–Ppargc1-α signaling pathway, whereas autophagy was up-regulated, resulting in both impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and increased clearance. Muscle over-expression or pharmacological activation of Rev-erb-α increased respiration and exercise capacity. This study identifies Rev-erb-α as a pharmacological target which improves muscle oxidative function by modulating gene networks controlling mitochondrial number and function. PMID:23852339

  16. Mitochondrial Biogenesis: A Therapeutic Target for Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In the developing and mature brain, mitochondria act as central hubs for distinct but interwined pathways, necessary for neural development, survival, activity, connectivity and plasticity. In neurons, mitochondria assume diverse functions, such as energy production in the form of ATP, calcium buffering and generation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to a range of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, making mitochondria a potential target for pharmacological-based therapies. Pathogenesis associated with these diseases is accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial mass, a quantitative increase to overcome a qualitative deficiency due to mutated mitochondrial proteins that are either nuclear- or mitochondrial-encoded. This compensatory biological response is maladaptive, as it fails to sufficiently augment the bioenergetically functional mitochondrial mass and correct for the ATP deficit. Since regulation of neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis has been scantily investigated, our current understanding on the network of transcriptional regulators, co-activators and signaling regulators mainly derives from other cellular systems. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of our knowledge and understanding of the transcriptional and signaling cascades controlling neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis and the various therapeutic approaches to enhance the functional mitochondrial mass in the context of neurodevelopmental disorders and adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24606804

  17. Rab11a Is Essential for Lamellar Body Biogenesis in the Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Marie; Allart, Sophie; Gaspard, Elise; Moga, Alain; Goudounèche, Dominique; Serre, Guy; Simon, Michel; Leprince, Corinne

    2016-06-01

    Most of the skin barrier function is attributable to the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, which is composed of flattened, anucleated cells called corneocytes surrounded by a lipid-enriched lamellar matrix. The composition of the stratum corneum is directly dependent on the underlying granular keratinocytes, which are the last living cells in the stratified epidermis. Many components present in the intercorneocyte matrix are delivered by the underlying granular keratinocytes through a secretion process dependent on lysosome-related organelles called lamellar bodies. Because of the importance of lamellar bodies in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier, the mechanisms regulating their biogenesis must be better understood. In this study, we show that the Rab11a GTPase is highly expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes, where it is partly associated with lamellar bodies. Rab11a silencing in three-dimensional in vitro reconstructed human epidermis induces a barrier defect, a decrease in the amount of lipid found in the stratum corneum, a reduction in lamellar body density and secretion areas in granular keratinocytes, and the mis-sorting of lamellar body cargoes being driven to the lysosomal degradation pathway. Our results highlight the importance of Rab11a-dependent regulation of lamellar body biogenesis in keratinocytes and consequently on epidermal barrier homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins.

    PubMed

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-10-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A μ1A subunit. A twofold reduction in μ1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced μ1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-μ1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition.

  19. Multiple in vivo pathways for E. coli small ribosomal subunit assembly occur on one pre-rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Processing of transcribed precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) to a mature state is a conserved aspect of ribosome biogenesis in vivo. We developed an affinity purification system to isolate and analyze in vivo formed pre-rRNA containing ribonucleoprotein particles (rRNPs) from wild-type E. coli. We observed that the first processing intermediate of pre-SSU rRNA is a platform for biogenesis. These pre-SSU containing RNPs have differing ribosomal protein and auxiliary factors association and rRNA folding. Each RNP lacks the proper architecture in functional regions suggesting that checkpoints preclude immature subunits from entering the translational cycle. This work offers in vivo snapshots of SSU biogenesis and reveals that multiple pathways exist for the entire SSU biogenesis process in wild-type E. coli. These findings have important implications in understanding SSU biogenesis in vivo and offer a general strategy for analysis of RNP biogenesis. PMID:25195050

  20. The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:23637287

  1. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum in peroxisome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-05-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis.

  2. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  3. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  4. PLK4 trans-Autoactivation Controls Centriole Biogenesis in Space.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla A M; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Zitouni, Sihem; Bento, Inês; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Freixo, Francisco; Guerrero, Adán; Francia, Maria; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Carneiro, Jorge; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2015-10-26

    Centrioles are essential for cilia and centrosome assembly. In centriole-containing cells, centrioles always form juxtaposed to pre-existing ones, motivating a century-old debate on centriole biogenesis control. Here, we show that trans-autoactivation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the trigger of centriole biogenesis, is a critical event in the spatial control of that process. We demonstrate that centrioles promote PLK4 activation through its recruitment and local accumulation. Though centriole removal reduces the proportion of active PLK4, this is rescued by concentrating PLK4 to the peroxisome lumen. Moreover, while mild overexpression of PLK4 only triggers centriole amplification at the existing centriole, higher PLK4 levels trigger both centriolar and cytoplasmatic (de novo) biogenesis. Hence, centrioles promote their assembly locally and disfavor de novo synthesis. Similar mechanisms enforcing the local concentration and/or activity of other centriole components are likely to contribute to the spatial control of centriole biogenesis under physiological conditions.

  5. The β2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Beeson, Gyda C; Lindsey, Christopher C; Peterson, Yuri K; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common mediator of disease and organ injury. Although recent studies show that inducing mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) stimulates cell repair and regeneration, only a limited number of chemicals are known to induce MB. To examine the impact of the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling pathway on MB, primary renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) and adult feline cardiomyocytes were exposed for 24 h to multiple β-AR agonists: isoproterenol (nonselective β-AR agonist), (±)-(R*,R*)-[4-[2-[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]propyl]phenoxy] acetic acid sodium hydrate (BRL 37344) (selective β(3)-AR agonist), and formoterol (selective β(2)-AR agonist). The Seahorse Biosciences (North Billerica, MA) extracellular flux analyzer was used to quantify carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP)-uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a marker of maximal electron transport chain activity. Isoproterenol and BRL 37244 did not alter mitochondrial respiration at any of the concentrations examined. Formoterol exposure resulted in increases in both FCCP-uncoupled OCR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. The effect of formoterol on OCR in RPTC was inhibited by the β-AR antagonist propranolol and the β(2)-AR inverse agonist 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol hydrochloride (ICI-118,551). Mice exposed to formoterol for 24 or 72 h exhibited increases in kidney and heart mtDNA copy number, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, and multiple genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (F0 subunit 6 of transmembrane F-type ATP synthase, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1β subcomplex subunit 8). Cheminformatic modeling, virtual chemical library screening, and experimental validation identified nisoxetine from the Sigma Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and two compounds from the ChemBridge DIVERSet

  6. Oncogene dependent control of miRNA biogenesis and metastatic progression in a model of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Jeffrey K.; Min, Hooney D.; Ma, Yan; Carter, Jessica E.; Brigman, Brian E.; Dodd, Leslie; Dankort, David; McMahon, Martin; Kirsch, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue malignancies. Patients with large, high grade sarcomas often develop fatal lung metastases. Understanding the mechanisms underlying sarcoma metastasis are needed to improve treatment of these patients. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Global alterations in miRNAs are frequently observed in a number of disease states including cancer. The signaling pathways that regulate miRNA biogenesis are beginning to emerge. To test the relevance of specific oncogenic mutations on miRNA biogenesis in sarcoma, we used primary soft tissue sarcomas expressing either BrafV600E or KrasG12D. We find that BrafV600E mutant tumors, which have increased MAPK signaling, have higher levels of mature miRNAs and enhanced miRNA processing. To investigate the relevance of oncogene dependent alterations in miRNA biogenesis, we introduce conditional mutations in Dicer and show that Dicer haploinsufficiency promotes the development of distant metastases in an oncogene dependent manner. These results demonstrate that a specific oncogenic mutation can cooperate with mutation in Dicer to promote tumor progression in vivo. PMID:22951975

  7. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    PubMed

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  8. An in vivo RNAi assay identifies major genetic and cellular requirements for primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Daniel; Sykora, Martina M; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Mechtler, Karl; Brennecke, Julius

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, PIWI proteins and bound PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) form the core of a small RNA-mediated defense system against selfish genetic elements. Within germline cells, piRNAs are processed from piRNA clusters and transposons to be loaded into Piwi/Aubergine/AGO3 and a subset of piRNAs undergoes target-dependent amplification. In contrast, gonadal somatic support cells express only Piwi, lack signs of piRNA amplification and exhibit primary piRNA biogenesis from piRNA clusters. Neither piRNA processing/loading nor Piwi-mediated target silencing is understood at the genetic, cellular or molecular level. We developed an in vivo RNAi assay for the somatic piRNA pathway and identified the RNA helicase Armitage, the Tudor domain containing RNA helicase Yb and the putative nuclease Zucchini as essential factors for primary piRNA biogenesis. Lack of any of these proteins leads to transposon de-silencing, to a collapse in piRNA levels and to a failure in Piwi-nuclear accumulation. We show that Armitage and Yb interact physically and co-localize in cytoplasmic Yb bodies, which flank P bodies. Loss of Zucchini leads to an accumulation of Piwi and Armitage in Yb bodies, indicating that Yb bodies are sites of primary piRNA biogenesis. PMID:20818334

  9. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Johnson, Matthew C; Dattolo, Maria D; Young-Erdos, Crystal L; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed "helicases," their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked.

  10. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Dattolo, Maria D.; Young-Erdos, Crystal L.; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed “helicases,” their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked. PMID:27280440

  11. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Daniel G.; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (∼5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ∼1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.—Corum, D. G., Tsichlis, P. N., Muise-Helmericks, R. C. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1. PMID:24081905

  12. An AP-3-dependent mechanism drives synaptic-like microvesicle biogenesis in pancreatic islet beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Arthur T; Craige, Branch; Faundez, Victor; Cain, William J; Chessler, Steven D

    2010-07-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmission and reduced neuronal vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) content. Since beta-cell maturation and exocytotic function seem to parallel that of the inhibitory synapse, we predicted that AP-3B-associated vesicles would be present in beta-cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that AP-3B is expressed in islets and mediates beta-cell SLMV biogenesis. A secondary aim was to test whether the sedimentation properties of INS-1 beta-cell microvesicles are identical to those of bona fide SLMVs isolated from PC12 cells. Our results show that the two neuron-specific AP-3 subunits beta3B and mu3B are expressed in beta-cells, the first time these proteins have been found to be expressed outside the nervous system. We found that beta-cell SLMVs share the same sedimentation properties as PC12 SLMVs and contain SV proteins that sort specifically to AP-3B-associated vesicles in the brain. Brefeldin A, a drug that interferes with AP-3-mediated SV biogenesis, inhibits the delivery of AP-3 cargoes to beta-cell SLMVs. Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in beta-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 delta-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that beta-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation.

  13. The H-NS protein is involved in the biogenesis of flagella in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, P; Terao, E; Lee, E H; Lejeune, P; Colson, C; Danchin, A; Collatz, E

    1994-01-01

    The function of the flagellum-chemotaxis regulon requires the expression of many genes and is positively regulated by the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein (cAMP-CAP) complex. In this paper, we show that motile behavior was affected in Escherichia coli hns mutants. The loss of motility resulted from a complete lack of flagella. A decrease in the level of transcription of the flhD and fliA genes, which are both required for the synthesis of flagella, was observed in the presence of an hns mutation. Furthermore, the Fla- phenotype was not reversed to the wild type in the presence of a cfs mutation which renders the flagellum synthesis independent of the cAMP-CAP complex. These results suggest that the H-NS protein acts as a positive regulator of genes involved in the biogenesis of flagella by a mechanism independent of the cAMP-CAP pathway. Images PMID:8071234

  14. The Mechanism of Variegation in immutans Provides Insight into Chloroplast Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Foudree, Andrew; Putarjunan, Aarthi; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Fussell, Jenna; Pogorelko, Gennady; Rodermel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis has green and white-sectored leaves due to the absence of fully functional plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), a plastoquinol oxidase in thylakoid membranes. PTOX appears to be at the nexus of a growing number of biochemical pathways in the plastid, including carotenoid biosynthesis, PSI cyclic electron flow, and chlororespiration. During the early steps of chloroplast biogenesis, PTOX serves as an alternate electron sink and is a prime determinant of the redox poise of the developing photosynthetic apparatus. Whereas a lack of PTOX causes the formation of photooxidized plastids in the white sectors of im, compensating mechanisms allow the green sectors to escape the effects of the mutation. This manuscript provides an update on PTOX, the mechanism of im variegation, and findings about im compensatory mechanisms. PMID:23205022

  15. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Bauerly, Kathryn A; Tchaparian, Eskouhie; Wong, Alice; Cortopassi, Gino A; Rucker, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore, we hypothesized that PQQ can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse hepatocytes. Exposure of mouse Hepa1-6 cells to 10-30 microm PQQ for 24-48 h resulted in increased citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity, Mitotracker staining, mitochondrial DNA content, and cellular oxygen respiration. The induction of this process occurred through the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a pathway known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. PQQ exposure stimulated phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133, activated the promoter of PGC-1alpha, and increased PGC-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. PQQ did not stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis after small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in either PGC-1alpha or CREB expression. Consistent with activation of the PGC-1alpha pathway, PQQ increased nuclear respiratory factor activation (NRF-1 and NRF-2) and Tfam, TFB1M, and TFB2M mRNA expression. Moreover, PQQ protected cells from mitochondrial inhibition by rotenone, 3-nitropropionic acid, antimycin A, and sodium azide. The ability of PQQ to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis accounts in part for action of this compound and suggests that PQQ may be beneficial in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. The unique regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in a Gram-positive bacterium.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana A; Alonso-García, Noelia; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-06-03

    Iron-sulfur clusters function as cofactors of a wide range of proteins, with diverse molecular roles in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Dedicated machineries assemble the clusters and deliver them to the final acceptor molecules in a tightly regulated process. In the prototypical Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, the two existing iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems, iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and sulfur assimilation (SUF) pathways, are closely interconnected. The ISC pathway regulator, IscR, is a transcription factor of the helix-turn-helix type that can coordinate a [2Fe-2S] cluster. Redox conditions and iron or sulfur availability modulate the ligation status of the labile IscR cluster, which in turn determines a switch in DNA sequence specificity of the regulator: cluster-containing IscR can bind to a family of gene promoters (type-1) whereas the clusterless form recognizes only a second group of sequences (type-2). However, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria is not so well characterized, and most organisms of this group display only one of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. A notable exception is the unique Gram-positive dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Thermincola potens, where genes from both systems could be identified, albeit with a diverging organization from that of Gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrated that one of these genes encodes a functional IscR homolog and is likely involved in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in T. potens. Structural and biochemical characterization of T. potens and E. coli IscR revealed a strikingly similar architecture and unveiled an unforeseen conservation of the unique mechanism of sequence discrimination characteristic of this distinctive group of transcription regulators.

  17. The unique regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in a Gram-positive bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joana A.; Alonso-García, Noelia; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters function as cofactors of a wide range of proteins, with diverse molecular roles in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Dedicated machineries assemble the clusters and deliver them to the final acceptor molecules in a tightly regulated process. In the prototypical Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, the two existing iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems, iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and sulfur assimilation (SUF) pathways, are closely interconnected. The ISC pathway regulator, IscR, is a transcription factor of the helix-turn-helix type that can coordinate a [2Fe-2S] cluster. Redox conditions and iron or sulfur availability modulate the ligation status of the labile IscR cluster, which in turn determines a switch in DNA sequence specificity of the regulator: cluster-containing IscR can bind to a family of gene promoters (type-1) whereas the clusterless form recognizes only a second group of sequences (type-2). However, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria is not so well characterized, and most organisms of this group display only one of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. A notable exception is the unique Gram-positive dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Thermincola potens, where genes from both systems could be identified, albeit with a diverging organization from that of Gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrated that one of these genes encodes a functional IscR homolog and is likely involved in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in T. potens. Structural and biochemical characterization of T. potens and E. coli IscR revealed a strikingly similar architecture and unveiled an unforeseen conservation of the unique mechanism of sequence discrimination characteristic of this distinctive group of transcription regulators. PMID:24847070

  18. Distinct roles of molecular chaperones HSP90α and HSP90β in the biogenesis of KCNQ4 channels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhong; Yechikov, Sergey; Vazquez, Ana E; Chen, Dongyang; Nie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ4 channel cause DFNA2, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic deafness that is characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Previous studies have demonstrated that the majority of the pathogenic KCNQ4 mutations lead to trafficking deficiency and loss of KCNQ4 currents. Over the last two decades, various strategies have been developed to rescue trafficking deficiency of pathogenic mutants; the most exciting advances have been made by manipulating activities of molecular chaperones involved in the biogenesis and quality control of the target protein. However, such strategies have not been established for KCNQ4 mutants and little is known about the molecular chaperones governing the KCNQ4 biogenesis. To identify KCNQ4-associated molecular chaperones, a proteomic approach was used in this study. As a result, two major molecular chaperones, HSP70 and HSP90, were identified and then confirmed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that the HSP90 chaperone pathway might be involved in the KCNQ4 biogenesis. Manipulating chaperone expression further revealed that two different isoforms of HSP90, the inducible HSP90α and the constitutive HSP90β, had opposite effects on the cellular level of the KCNQ4 channel; that HSP40, HSP70, and HOP, three key components of the HSP90 chaperone pathway, were crucial in facilitating KCNQ4 biogenesis. In contrast, CHIP, a major E3 ubiquitin ligase, had an opposite effect. Collectively, our data suggest that HSP90α and HSP90β play key roles in controlling KCNQ4 homeostasis via the HSP40-HSP70-HOP-HSP90 chaperone pathway and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Most importantly, we found that over-expression of HSP90β significantly improved cell surface expression of the trafficking-deficient, pathogenic KCNQ4 mutants L274H and W276S. KCNQ4 surface expression was restored by HSP90β in cells mimicking heterozygous conditions of the DFNA2 patients, even though it was

  19. Cell-specific transcriptional profiling of ciliated sensory neurons reveals regulators of behavior and extracellular vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Kaletsky, Rachel; Silva, Malan; Williams, April; Haas, Leonard; Androwski, Rebecca; Landis, Jessica; Patrick, Cory; Rashid, Alina; Santiago-Martinez, Dianaliz; Gravato-Nobre, Maria; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Hall, David H.; Murphy, Coleen T.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cilia and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are signaling organelles[1]. Cilia act as cellular sensory antennae, with defects resulting in human ciliopathies. Cilia both release and bind to EVs[1]. EVs are submicron-sized particles released by cells and function in both short and long range intercellular communication. In C. elegans and mammals, the Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) gene products polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 localize to both cilia and EVs, act in the same genetic pathway, and function in a sensory capacity, suggesting ancient conservation[2]. A fundamental understanding of EV biology and the relationship between the polycystins, cilia, and EVs is lacking. To define properties of a ciliated EV-releasing cell, we performed RNAseq on 27 GFP-labeled EV releasing neurons (EVNs) isolated from adult C. elegans. We identified 335 significantly overrepresented genes, of which 61 were validated by GFP reporters. The EVN transcriptional profile uncovered new pathways controlling EV biogenesis and polycystin signaling and also identified EV cargo, which included an antimicrobial peptide and ASIC channel. Tumor necrosis associated factor (TRAF) homologues trf-1 and trf-2 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pmk-1 acted in polycystin signaling pathways controlling male mating behaviors. pmk-1 was also required for EV biogenesis, independent of the innate immunity MAPK signaling cascade. This first high-resolution transcriptome profile of a subtype of ciliated sensory neurons isolated from adult animals reveals the functional components of an EVN. PMID:26687621

  20. Human nucleolar protein Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) is involved in site 2 cleavage in internal transcribed spacer 1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Miura, Yutaka; Hayano, Toshiya; Isobe, Toshiaki; Simpson, Richard J; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-23

    During the early steps of ribosome biogenesis in mammals, the two ribosomal subunits 40S and 60S are produced via splitting of the large 90S pre-ribosomal particle (90S) into pre-40S and pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles (pre-40S and pre-60S). We previously proposed that replacement of fibrillarin by Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) for the binding to p32 (C1QBP) is a key event that drives this splitting process. However, how the replacement by RRP1 is coupled with the endo- and/or exo-ribonucleolytic cleavage of pre-rRNA remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RRP1 deficiency suppressed site 2 cleavage on ITS1 of 47S/45S, 41S and 36S pre-rRNAs in human cells. RRP1 was also present in 90S and was localized in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus dependently on active RNA polymerase I transcription. In addition, double knockdown of XRN2 and RRP1 revealed that RRP1 accelerated the site 2 cleavage of 47S, 45S and 41S pre-rRNAs. These data suggest that RRP1 is involved not only in competitive binding with fibrillarin to C1QBP on 90S but also in site 2 cleavage in ITS1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of human ribosome biogenesis; thus, it is likely that RRP1 integrates the cleavage of site 2 with the physical split of 90S into pre-40S and pre-60S. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Human nucleolar protein Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) is involved in site 2 cleavage in internal transcribed spacer 1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Miura, Yutaka; Hayano, Toshiya; Isobe, Toshiaki; Simpson, Richard J.; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    During the early steps of ribosome biogenesis in mammals, the two ribosomal subunits 40S and 60S are produced via splitting of the large 90S pre-ribosomal particle (90S) into pre-40S and pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles (pre-40S and pre-60S). We previously proposed that replacement of fibrillarin by Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) for the binding to p32 (C1QBP) is a key event that drives this splitting process. However, how the replacement by RRP1 is coupled with the endo- and/or exo-ribonucleolytic cleavage of pre-rRNA remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RRP1 deficiency suppressed site 2 cleavage on ITS1 of 47S/45S, 41S and 36S pre-rRNAs in human cells. RRP1 was also present in 90S and was localized in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus dependently on active RNA polymerase I transcription. In addition, double knockdown of XRN2 and RRP1 revealed that RRP1 accelerated the site 2 cleavage of 47S, 45S and 41S pre-rRNAs. These data suggest that RRP1 is involved not only in competitive binding with fibrillarin to C1QBP on 90S but also in site 2 cleavage in ITS1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of human ribosome biogenesis; thus, it is likely that RRP1 integrates the cleavage of site 2 with the physical split of 90S into pre-40S and pre-60S. PMID:25969445

  2. Identification of the binding site of Rlp7 on assembling 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dembowski, Jill A.; Ramesh, Madhumitha; McManus, C. Joel; Woolford, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome assembly requires over 200 assembly factors that facilitate rRNA folding, ribosomal protein binding, and pre-rRNA processing. One such factor is Rlp7, an essential RNA binding protein required for consecutive pre-rRNA processing steps for assembly of yeast 60S ribosomal subunits: exonucleolytic processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to generate the 5′ end of 5.8S rRNA and endonucleolytic cleavage of the 27SB pre-rRNA to initiate removal of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). To better understand the functions of Rlp7 in 27S pre-rRNA processing steps, we identified where it crosslinks to pre-rRNA. We found that Rlp7 binds at the junction of ITS2 and the ITS2-proximal stem, between the 3′ end of 5.8S rRNA and the 5′ end of 25S rRNA. Consistent with Rlp7 binding to this neighborhood during assembly, two-hybrid and affinity copurification assays showed that Rlp7 interacts with other assembly factors that bind to or near ITS2 and the proximal stem. We used in vivo RNA structure probing to demonstrate that the proximal stem forms prior to Rlp7 binding and that Rlp7 binding induces RNA conformational changes in ITS2 that may chaperone rRNA folding and regulate 27S pre-rRNA processing. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that Rlp7 functions as a placeholder for ribosomal protein L7, from which Rlp7 is thought to have evolved in yeast. The binding site of Rlp7 is within eukaryotic-specific RNA elements, which are not found in bacteria. Thus, we propose that Rlp7 coevolved with these RNA elements to facilitate eukaryotic-specific functions in ribosome assembly and pre-rRNA processing. PMID:24129494

  3. Pex19p, a Farnesylated Protein Essential for Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Klaudia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Linkert, Michael; Baumgart, Evelyn; Kammerer, Stefan; Kunau, Wolf-Hubert; Erdmann, Ralf

    1998-01-01

    We report the identification and molecular characterization of Pex19p, an oleic acid-inducible, farnesylated protein of 39.7 kDa that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells lacking Pex19p are characterized by the absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes and mislocalization of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol. The human HK33 gene product was identified as the putative human ortholog of Pex19p. Evidence is provided that farnesylation of Pex19p takes place at the cysteine of the C-terminal CKQQ amino acid sequence. Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p. PMID:9418908

  4. Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jonathan M; Davis, Joseph H; Mangat, Chand S; Williamson, James R; Brown, Eric D

    2014-09-18

    While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Lamotrigine treatment resulted in the rapid accumulation of immature 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits at 15 °C. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro. This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. coli IF2 in ribosome assembly.

  5. New Insights on Thylakoid Biogenesis in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Olivier; Botella, César; Chevalier, Florian; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette; Breton, Christelle; Girard-Egrot, Agnès; Maréchal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic membranes, or thylakoids, are the most extensive membrane system found in the biosphere. They form flattened membrane cisternae in the cytosol of cyanobacteria and in the stroma of chloroplasts. The efficiency of light energy capture and conversion, critical for primary production in ecosystems, relies on the rapid expansion of thylakoids and their versatile reorganization in response to light changes. Thylakoid biogenesis results from the assembly of a lipid matrix combined with the incorporation of protein components. Four lipid classes are conserved from cyanobacteria to chloroplasts: mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and phosphatidyldiacylglycerol. This review focuses on the production and biophysical properties of galactolipids, making them determinant factors for the nonvesicular/nonlamellar biogenesis and for the three-dimensional architecture of nascent thylakoids. The regulation of MGD1, the committing enzyme of galactolipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, via feedback regulatory loops and control of protein binding to membranes, is also detailed.

  6. The SSU Processome in Ribosome Biogenesis – Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Kathleen R.; Charette, J. Michael; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The small subunit (SSU) processome is a 2.2 MDa ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing, assembly and maturation of the SSU of eukaryotic ribosomes. The identities of many of the factors involved in SSU biogenesis have been elucidated over the past 40 years. However, as our understanding increases, so do the number of questions about the nature of this complicated process. Cataloguing the components is the first step towards understanding the molecular workings of a system. This review will focus on how identifying components of ribosome biogenesis has led to the knowledge of how these factors, protein and RNA alike, associate with one another into sub-complexes, with a concentration on the small ribosomal subunit. We will also explore how this knowledge of sub-complex assembly has informed our understanding of the workings of the ribosome synthesis system as a whole. PMID:21318072

  7. Biogenesis (trade name) soil washing technology: Innovative technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannerjee, P.

    1993-09-02

    Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. The BioGenesis Soil Washing Technology uses soil washing with a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soils to wastewater. The BioGenesis soil washing process was evaluated under the SITE program at a refinery where soils were contaminated with crude oil. Results of chemical analyses show that levels of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH), an indicator of degraded crude oil, decreased by 65 to 73 percent in washed soils. The TRPH in residual soils were allowed to biodegrade for an additional 120 days. Results indicate that soil washing and biodegradation removed 85 to 88 percent of TRPH in treated soils. The Innovative Technology Evaluation Report provides information on the technology applicability, economic analysis, technology limitations, a technology description, process residuals, site requirements, latest performance data, the technology status, vendors claims, and the source of further information.

  8. Impaired biosynthesis of the non-bilayer lipids phosphatidylethanolamine or cardiolipin does not affect peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kawałek, Adam; Jagadeesan, Chandhuru; van der Klei, Ida J

    2016-11-11

    The non-bilayer forming lipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) modulate membrane curvature, facilitate membrane fusion and affect the stability and function of membrane proteins. Yeast peroxisomal membranes contain significant amounts of CL and PE. We analysed the effect of CL deficiency and PE depletion on peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that deletion of CRD1, which encodes cardiolipin synthase, does not affect peroxisome biogenesis or abundance, both at peroxisome repressing (glucose) or inducing (oleate) growth conditions. Analysis of strains deficient in one of the three PE biosynthesis pathways (psd1, psd2 or the triple deletion strain eki1 cki1 dpl1) revealed that in all three strains peroxisome numbers were reduced upon growth of cells on oleic acid, whereas the psd1 strain also showed a reduction in peroxisome abundance upon growth on glucose. Because PE is an intermediate of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis pathway, PE depletion affects PC formation. PC however can be synthesized by an alternative pathway when choline is supplemented to the growth medium. Because the addition of choline resulted in suppression of the peroxisome phenotypes in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase mutant strains, we conclude that peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation are not crucially dependent on CL or PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by flotation using polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and carbonate ion as activator.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, S E; Mahmoud, I A; Ragab, A H

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a separation technology for removing toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Here a simple and rapid flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. It is based on the use of polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and flocculent, carbonate ion as activator and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. Both ion and precipitate flotation are included depending on the solution pH. Ion and precipitate flotation in the aqueous HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+-CO3(2-) system gave powerful preferential removal of Cu2+ (F -100%) over the HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+ system containing no CO3(2+) ion (F approximately 86%). The role of CO3(2-) ion is also evident from decreasing the dose of PAX-XL60 S from 700 mg l(-1) to 200 mg l(-1). The other parameters, influencing the flotation process, namely: metal ion, surfactant and PAX-XL60 S concentrations, ionic strength, temperature and foreign ions were examined. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu2+ ions from different volumes up to 11 and from natural water samples.

  10. Structure and function of the yeast listerin (Ltn1) conserved N-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Lee, Joong-Won; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Wu, Cheng; Charenton, Clement; Leonard, Marilyn; Bengtson, Mario H; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Sachs, Matthew S; Lima, Christopher D; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2016-07-19

    The Ltn1 E3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. Ltn1 binds to 60S ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among Ltn1's substrates are aberrant products of mRNA lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (NSPs)]. Here, we report the reconstitution of NSP ubiquitylation in Neurospora crassa cell extracts. Upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled NSPs were ubiquitylated in an Ltn1-dependent manner, while still ribosome-associated. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that the conserved N-terminal domain (NTD) plays a significant role in the binding of Ltn1 to 60S ribosomal subunits and that NTD mutations causing defective 60S binding also lead to defective NSP ubiquitylation, without affecting Ltn1's intrinsic E3 ligase activity. Finally, we report the crystal structure of the Ltn1 NTD at 2.4-Å resolution. The structure, combined with additional mutational studies, provides insight to NTD's role in binding stalled 60S subunits. Our findings show that Neurospora extracts can be used as a tool to dissect mechanisms underlying ribosome-associated protein quality control and are consistent with a model in which Ltn1 uses 60S subunits as adapters, at least in part via its NTD, to target stalled NSPs for ubiquitylation.

  11. Structure and function of the yeast listerin (Ltn1) conserved N-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Lee, Joong-Won; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.; Wu, Cheng; Charenton, Clement; Leonard, Marilyn; Bengtson, Mario H.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Sachs, Matthew S.; Lima, Christopher D.; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ltn1 E3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. Ltn1 binds to 60S ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among Ltn1’s substrates are aberrant products of mRNA lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (NSPs)]. Here, we report the reconstitution of NSP ubiquitylation in Neurospora crassa cell extracts. Upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled NSPs were ubiquitylated in an Ltn1-dependent manner, while still ribosome-associated. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that the conserved N-terminal domain (NTD) plays a significant role in the binding of Ltn1 to 60S ribosomal subunits and that NTD mutations causing defective 60S binding also lead to defective NSP ubiquitylation, without affecting Ltn1’s intrinsic E3 ligase activity. Finally, we report the crystal structure of the Ltn1 NTD at 2.4-Å resolution. The structure, combined with additional mutational studies, provides insight to NTD’s role in binding stalled 60S subunits. Our findings show that Neurospora extracts can be used as a tool to dissect mechanisms underlying ribosome-associated protein quality control and are consistent with a model in which Ltn1 uses 60S subunits as adapters, at least in part via its NTD, to target stalled NSPs for ubiquitylation. PMID:27385828

  12. Utility of transplantation in studying adipocyte biogenesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiying

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. Two features distinguish adipose tissue from other organs - the ability to greatly expand its mass, via increases in cell size and/or number, and the wide anatomical distribution. While adipose tissue function is greatly affected by adipocyte size and anatomic location, regulations of adipocyte size, number, and body fat distribution are poorly understood. Transplantation of either mature adipose tissue or adipocyte progenitor cells has been used in studying adipocyte function and biogenesis. In this review, we will attempt to summarize methodological considerations for transplantation, including selections of donor material, transplantation site and the length of transplantation study, as well as effects of these factors and vascularization and innervation on the function of transplants. Specific studies are also reviewed to illustrate the utility of adipose tissue transplants in studying adipose tissue function and biogenesis. The focus is on studies in three areas: 1) use of transplants in demonstrating adipose tissue function, such as effects of adipose tissue transplants on metabolism and energy homeostasis of the recipient animals and depot-specific differences in adipose tissue function; 2) use of transplantation to dissect direct or cell-autonomous from indirect or non cell-autonomous effects of leptin signaling and sex on adipocyte size; 3) use of transplantation in the identification of adipocyte progenitor cells and lineage analysis. Finally, future applications of transplantation in studying depot-specific adipocyte biogenesis, and genetic and hormonal effects of sex and age on adipocyte biogenesis and function are discussed. PMID:19733623

  13. Primary piRNA biogenesis: caught up in a Maelstrom

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Radha Raman; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Precursors for most Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are indistinguishable from other RNA polymerase II-transcribed long non-coding RNAs. So, it is currently unclear how they are recognized as substrates by the piRNA processing machinery that resides in cytoplasmic granules called nuage. In this issue, Castaneda et al (2014) reveal a role for the nuage component and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein Maelstrom in mouse piRNA biogenesis. PMID:25149904

  14. Primary piRNA biogenesis: caught up in a Maelstrom.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Radha Raman; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-09-17

    Precursors for most Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are indistinguishable from other RNA polymerase II-transcribed long noncoding RNAs. So, it is currently unclear how they are recognized as substrates by the piRNA processing machinery that resides in cytoplasmic granules called nuage. In this issue, Castaneda et al (2014) reveal a role for the nuage component and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein Maelstrom in mouse piRNA biogenesis.

  15. Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Murphy, E Angela; Carmichael, Martin D; Davis, Ben

    2009-04-01

    Quercetin is one of a broad group of natural polyphenolic flavonoid substances that are being investigated for their widespread health benefits. These benefits have generally been ascribed to its combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but recent in vitro evidence suggests that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could play an important role. In addition, the in vivo effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis exercise tolerance are unknown. We examined the effects of 7 days of quercetin feedings in mice on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance. Mice were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: placebo, 12.5 mg/kg quercetin, or 25 mg/kg quercetin. Following 7 days of treatment, mice were killed, and soleus muscle and brain were analyzed for mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome c. Additional mice underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue or were placed in voluntary activity wheel cages, and their voluntary activity (distance, time, and peak speed) was recorded. Quercetin increased mRNA expression of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1 (P < 0.05), mtDNA (P < 0.05) and cytochrome c concentration (P < 0.05). These changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with an increase in both maximal endurance capacity (P < 0.05) and voluntary wheel-running activity (P < 0.05). These benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases.

  16. Regulation of ribosome biogenesis in maize embryonic axes during germination.

    PubMed

    Villa-Hernández, J M; Dinkova, T D; Aguilar-Caballero, R; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Sánchez de Jiménez, E; Pérez-Flores, L J

    2013-10-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a pre-requisite for cell growth and proliferation; it is however, a highly regulated process that consumes a great quantity of energy. It requires the coordinated production of rRNA, ribosomal proteins and non-ribosomal factors which participate in the processing and mobilization of the new ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis has been studied in yeast and animals; however, there is little information about this process in plants. The objective of the present work was to study ribosome biogenesis in maize seeds during germination, a stage characterized for its fast growth, and the effect of insulin in this process. Insulin has been reported to accelerate germination and to induce seedling growth. It was observed that among the first events reactivated just after 3 h of imbibition are the rDNA transcription and the pre-rRNA processing and that insulin stimulates both of them (40-230%). The transcript of nucleolin, a protein which regulates rDNA transcription and pre-rRNA processing, is among the messages stored in quiescent dry seeds and it is mobilized into the polysomal fraction during the first hours of imbibition (6 h). In contrast, de novo ribosomal protein synthesis was low during the first hours of imbibition (3 and 6 h) increasing by 60 times in later stages (24 h). Insulin increased this synthesis (75%) at 24 h of imbibition; however, not all ribosomal proteins were similarly regulated. In this regard, an increase in RPS6 and RPL7 protein levels was observed, whereas RPL3 protein levels did not change even though its transcription was induced. Results show that ribosome biogenesis in the first stages of imbibition is carried out with newly synthesized rRNA and ribosomal proteins translated from stored mRNA.

  17. A More Flexible Lipoprotein Sorting Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chahales, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria occurs by a conserved pathway, each step of which is considered essential. In contrast to this model, LoVullo and colleagues demonstrate that the N-acyl transferase Lnt is not required in Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This suggests the existence of a more flexible lipoprotein pathway, likely due to a modified Lol transporter complex, and raises the possibility that pathogens may regulate lipoprotein processing to modulate interactions with the host. PMID:25755190

  18. Altered Endosome Biogenesis in Prostate Cancer has Biomarker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian R D; Parkinson-Lawrence, Emma J; Shandala, Tetyana; Weigert, Roberto; Butler, Lisa M; Brooks, Doug A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in males, affecting one in eight men by the time they reach the age of 70. Current diagnostic tests for prostate cancer have significant problems with both false negatives and false positives, necessitating the search for new molecular markers. A recent investigation of endosomal and lysosomal proteins revealed that the critical process of endosomal biogenesis might be altered in prostate cancer. Here, a panel of endosomal markers was evaluated in prostate cancer and non-malignant cells and a significant increase in gene and protein expression was found for early, but not late endosomal proteins. There was also a differential distribution of early endosomes, and altered endosomal traffic and signalling of the transferrin receptors (TFRC and TFR2) in prostate cancer cells. These findings support the concept that endosome biogenesis and function is altered in prostate cancer. Microarray analysis of a clinical cohort confirmed the altered endosomal gene expression observed in cultured prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, in prostate cancer patient tissue specimens, the early endosomal marker and adaptor protein APPL1 showed consistently altered basement membrane histology in the vicinity of tumours and concentrated staining within tumour masses. These novel observations on altered early endosome biogenesis provide a new avenue for prostate cancer biomarker investigation and suggest new methods for the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of prostate cancer. PMID:25080433

  19. The miRNA biogenesis in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Rosani, Umberto; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs include powerful regulators of gene expression, transposon mobility and virus activity. Among the various categories, mature microRNAs (miRNAs) guide the translational repression and decay of several targeted mRNAs. The biogenesis of miRNAs depends on few gene products, essentially conserved from basal to higher metazoans, whose protein domains allow specific interactions with dsRNA. Here, we report the identification of key genes responsible of the miRNA biogenesis in 32 bivalves, with particular attention to the aquaculture species Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. In detail, we have identified and phylogenetically compared eight evolutionary conserved proteins: DROSHA, DGCR8, EXP5, RAN, DICER TARBP2, AGO and PIWI. In mussels, we recognized several other proteins participating in the miRNA biogenesis or in the subsequent RNA silencing. According to digital expression analysis, these genes display low and not inducible expression levels in adult mussels and oysters whereas they are considerably expressed during development. As miRNAs play an important role also in the antiviral responses, knowledge on their production and regulative effects can shed light on essential molecular processes and provide new hints for disease prevention in bivalves. PMID:26989613

  20. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K.; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C.; Wek, Ronald C.; Ellis, Steven R.; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in down-regulation of transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including diamond blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494

  1. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C; Wek, Ronald C; Ellis, Steven R; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in decreased transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Microprocessor activity controls differential miRNA biogenesis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Marsico, Annalisa; Gehre, Maja; Orom, Ulf Andersson

    2014-10-23

    In miRNA biogenesis, pri-miRNA transcripts are converted into pre-miRNA hairpins. The in vivo properties of this process remain enigmatic. Here, we determine in vivo transcriptome-wide pri-miRNA processing using next-generation sequencing of chromatin-associated pri-miRNAs. We identify a distinctive Microprocessor signature in the transcriptome profile from which efficiency of the endogenous processing event can be accurately quantified. This analysis reveals differential susceptibility to Microprocessor cleavage as a key regulatory step in miRNA biogenesis. Processing is highly variable among pri-miRNAs and a better predictor of miRNA abundance than primary transcription itself. Processing is also largely stable across three cell lines, suggesting a major contribution of sequence determinants. On the basis of differential processing efficiencies, we define functionality for short sequence features adjacent to the pre-miRNA hairpin. In conclusion, we identify Microprocessor as the main hub for diversified miRNA output and suggest a role for uncoupling miRNA biogenesis from host gene expression.

  3. Cell wall biogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana elongating cells: transcriptomics complements proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Roujol, David; San-Clemente, Hélène; Irshad, Muhammad; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2009-10-31

    Plant growth is a complex process involving cell division and elongation. Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls undergo a 100-fold length increase mainly by cell elongation. Cell enlargement implicates significant changes in the composition and structure of the cell wall. In order to understand cell wall biogenesis during cell elongation, mRNA profiling was made on half- (active elongation) and fully-grown (after growth arrest) etiolated hypocotyls. Transcriptomic analysis was focused on two sets of genes. The first set of 856 genes named cell wall genes (CWGs) included genes known to be involved in cell wall biogenesis. A significant proportion of them has detectable levels of transcripts (55.5%), suggesting that these processes are important throughout hypocotyl elongation and after growth arrest. Genes encoding proteins involved in substrate generation or in synthesis of polysaccharides, and extracellular proteins were found to have high transcript levels. A second set of 2927 genes labeled secretory pathway genes (SPGs) was studied to search for new genes encoding secreted proteins possibly involved in wall expansion. Based on transcript level, 433 genes were selected. Genes not known to be involved in cell elongation were found to have high levels of transcripts. Encoded proteins were proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins with interacting domains, and proteins involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, 125 of them encoded proteins with yet unknown function. Finally, comparison with results of a cell wall proteomic study on the same material revealed that 48 out of the 137 identified proteins were products of the genes having high or moderate level of transcripts. About 15% of the genes encoding proteins identified by proteomics showed levels of transcripts below background. Members of known multigenic families involved in cell wall biogenesis, and new genes that might participate in cell elongation were identified. Significant differences were shown in the

  4. Cell wall biogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana elongating cells: transcriptomics complements proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Roujol, David; San-Clemente, Hélène; Irshad, Muhammad; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant growth is a complex process involving cell division and elongation. Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls undergo a 100-fold length increase mainly by cell elongation. Cell enlargement implicates significant changes in the composition and structure of the cell wall. In order to understand cell wall biogenesis during cell elongation, mRNA profiling was made on half- (active elongation) and fully-grown (after growth arrest) etiolated hypocotyls. Results Transcriptomic analysis was focused on two sets of genes. The first set of 856 genes named cell wall genes (CWGs) included genes known to be involved in cell wall biogenesis. A significant proportion of them has detectable levels of transcripts (55.5%), suggesting that these processes are important throughout hypocotyl elongation and after growth arrest. Genes encoding proteins involved in substrate generation or in synthesis of polysaccharides, and extracellular proteins were found to have high transcript levels. A second set of 2927 genes labeled secretory pathway genes (SPGs) was studied to search for new genes encoding secreted proteins possibly involved in wall expansion. Based on transcript level, 433 genes were selected. Genes not known to be involved in cell elongation were found to have high levels of transcripts. Encoded proteins were proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins with interacting domains, and proteins involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, 125 of them encoded proteins with yet unknown function. Finally, comparison with results of a cell wall proteomic study on the same material revealed that 48 out of the 137 identified proteins were products of the genes having high or moderate level of transcripts. About 15% of the genes encoding proteins identified by proteomics showed levels of transcripts below background. Conclusion Members of known multigenic families involved in cell wall biogenesis, and new genes that might participate in cell elongation were identified. Significant

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α induces lysosomal biogenesis in brain cells: implications for lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sims, Katherine B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-04-17

    Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPARα, but not PPARβ and PPARγ, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor α, PPARα, and PGC1α on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role.

  6. Regulation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Biogenesis by Estrogens/Estrogen Receptors and Physiological, Pathological and Pharmacological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Qiang; Cammarata, Patrick R.; Baines, Christopher P.; Yager, James D.

    2009-01-01

    There has been increasing evidence pointing to the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) as a novel and important target for the actions of 17β-estradiol(E2) and estrogen receptors (ER) in a number of cell types and tissues that have high demands for mitochondrial energy metabolism. This novel E2-mediated mitochondrial pathway involves the cooperation of both nuclear and mitochondrial ERα and ERβ and their co-activators on the coordinate regulation of both nuclear DNA- and mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes for MRC proteins. In this paper, we have: 1) comprehensively reviewed studies that reveal a novel role of estrogens and ERs in the regulation of MRC biogenesis; 2) discussed their physiological, pathological and pharmacological implications in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis in relation to estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis, anticancer drug resistance in human breast cancer cells, neuro-protection for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease in brain, cardiovascular protection in human heart and their beneficial effects in lens physiology related to cataract in the eye; and 3) pointed out new research directions to address the key questions in this important and newly emerging area. We also suggest a novel conceptual approach that will contribute to innovative regimines for the prevention or treatment of a wide variety of medical complications based on E2/ER-mediated MRC biogenesis pathway. PMID:19559056

  7. Synthetic Lethality with Conditional dbp6 Alleles Identifies Rsa1p, a Nucleoplasmic Protein Involved in the Assembly of 60S Ribosomal Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Kressler, Dieter; Doère, Monique; Rojo, Manuel; Linder, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Dbp6p is an essential putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is required for 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D. Kressler, J. de la Cruz, M. Rojo, and P. Linder, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:1855–1865, 1998). To identify factors that are functionally interacting with Dbp6p, we have performed a synthetic lethal screen with conditional dbp6 mutants. Here, we describe the cloning and the phenotypic analysis of the previously uncharacterized open reading frame YPL193W, which we renamed RSA1 (ribosome assembly 1). Rsa1p is not essential for cell viability; however, rsa1 null mutant strains display a slow-growth phenotype, which is exacerbated at elevated temperatures. The rsa1 null allele synthetically enhances the mild growth defect of weak dbp6 alleles and confers synthetic lethality when combined with stronger dbp6 alleles. Polysome profile analysis shows that the absence of Rsa1p results in the accumulation of half-mer polysomes. However, the pool of free 60S ribosomal subunits is only moderately decreased; this is reminiscent of polysome profiles from mutants defective in 60S-to-40S subunit joining. Pulse-chase labeling of pre-rRNA in the rsa1 null mutant strain indicates that formation of the mature 25S rRNA is decreased at the nonpermissive temperature. Interestingly, free 60S ribosomal subunits of a rsa1 null mutant strain that was grown for two generations at 37°C are practically devoid of the 60S-ribosomal-subunit protein Qsr1p/Rpl10p, which is required for joining of 60S and 40S subunits (D. P. Eisinger, F. A. Dick, and B. L. Trumpower, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:5136–5145, 1997). Moreover, the combination of the Δrsa1 and qsr1-1 mutations leads to a strong synthetic growth inhibition. Finally, a hemagglutinin epitope-tagged Rsa1p localizes predominantly to the nucleoplasm. Together, these results point towards a function for Rsa1p in a late nucleoplasmic step of 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly. PMID:10567587

  8. Clusterin facilitates stress-induced lipidation of LC3 and autophagosome biogenesis to enhance cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Kumano, Masafumi; Beraldi, Eliana; Fazli, Ladan; Du, Caigan; Moore, Susan; Sorensen, Poul; Zoubeidi, Amina; Gleave, Martin E.

    2014-01-01

    We define stress-induced adaptive survival pathways linking autophagy with the molecular chaperone clusterin (CLU) that function to promote anticancer treatment resistance. During treatment stress, CLU co-localizes with LC3 via an LIR-binding sequence within autophagosome membranes, functioning to facilitate LC3–Atg3 heterocomplex stability and LC3 lipidation, and thereby enhance autophagosome biogenesis and autophagy activation. Stress-induced autophagy is attenuated with CLU silencing in CLU−/− mice and human prostate cancer cells. CLU-enhanced cell survival occurs via autophagy-dependent pathways, and is reduced following autophagy inhibition. Combining CLU inhibition with anticancer treatments attenuates autophagy activation, increases apoptosis and reduces prostate cancer growth. This study defines a novel adaptor protein function for CLU under stress conditions, and highlights how co-targeting CLU and autophagy can amplify proteotoxic stress to delay cancer progression. PMID:25503391

  9. α-granule biogenesis: from disease to discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang Hua; Lo, Richard W; Urban, Denisa; Pluthero, Fred G; Kahr, Walter H A

    2017-03-01

    Platelets are critical to hemostasis and thrombosis. Upon detecting injury, platelets show a range of responses including the release of protein cargo from α-granules. This cargo is synthesized by platelet precursor megakaryocytes or endocytosed by megakaryocytes and/or platelets. Insights into α-granule biogenesis have come from studies of hereditary conditions where these granules are immature, deficient or absent. Studies of Arthrogryposis, Renal dysfunction, and Cholestasis (ARC) syndrome identified the first proteins essential to α-granule biogenesis: VPS33B and VPS16B. VPS33B and VPS16B form a complex, and in the absence of either, platelets lack α-granules and the granule-specific membrane protein P-selectin. Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS) platelets also lack conventionally recognizable α-granules, although P-selectin containing structures are present. GPS arises from mutations affecting NBEAL2. The GPS phenotype is more benign than ARC syndrome, but it can cause life-threatening bleeding, progressive thrombocytopenia, and myelofibrosis. We review the essential roles of VPS33B, VPS16B, and NBEAL2 in α-granule development. We also examine the existing data on their mechanisms of action, where many details remain poorly understood. VPS33B and VPS16B are ubiquitously expressed and ARC syndrome is a multisystem disorder that causes lethality early in life. Thus, VPS33B and VPS16B are clearly involved in other processes besides α-granule biogenesis. Studies of their involvement in vesicular trafficking and protein interactions are reviewed to gain insights into their roles in α-granule formation. NBEAL2 mutations primarily affect megakaryocytes and platelets, and while little is known about NBEAL2 function some insights can be gained from studies of related proteins, such as LYST.

  10. Ribosome biogenesis in replicating cells: Integration of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Tyler M; Cole, John A; Peterson, Joseph R; Hallock, Michael J; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-10-01

    Ribosomes-the primary macromolecular machines responsible for translating the genetic code into proteins-are complexes of precisely folded RNA and proteins. The ways in which their production and assembly are managed by the living cell is of deep biological importance. Here we extend a recent spatially resolved whole-cell model of ribosome biogenesis in a fixed volume [Earnest et al., Biophys J 2015, 109, 1117-1135] to include the effects of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. All biological processes are described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations and solved stochastically using the Lattice Microbes simulation software. In order to determine the replication parameters, we construct and analyze a series of Escherichia coli strains with fluorescently labeled genes distributed evenly throughout their chromosomes. By measuring these cells' lengths and number of gene copies at the single-cell level, we could fit a statistical model of the initiation and duration of chromosome replication. We found that for our slow-growing (120 min doubling time) E. coli cells, replication was initiated 42 min into the cell cycle and completed after an additional 42 min. While simulations of the biogenesis model produce the correct ribosome and mRNA counts over the cell cycle, the kinetic parameters for transcription and degradation are lower than anticipated from a recent analytical time dependent model of in vivo mRNA production. Describing expression in terms of a simple chemical master equation, we show that the discrepancies are due to the lack of nonribosomal genes in the extended biogenesis model which effects the competition of mRNA for ribosome binding, and suggest corrections to parameters to be used in the whole-cell model when modeling expression of the entire transcriptome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 735-751, 2016.

  11. Successive bouts of cycling stimulates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Charles L; Mark Davis, J; Angela Murphy, E; Nieman, David C; Carmichael, Martin D; Quindry, John C; Travis Triplett, N; Utter, Alan C; Gross Gowin, Sarah J; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; McAnulty, Lisa S

    2009-11-01

    Exercise increases mRNA for genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative enzyme capacity. However, little is known about how these genes respond to consecutive bouts of prolonged exercise. We examined the effects of 3 h of intensive cycling performed on three consecutive days on the mRNA associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in trained human subjects. Forty trained cyclists were tested for VO(2max) (54.7 +/- 1.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The subjects cycled at 57% watts(max) for 3 h using their own bicycles on CompuTrainer Pro Model trainers (RacerMate, Seattle, WA) on three consecutive days. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis pre- and post-exercise on days one and three. Muscle samples were analyzed for mRNA content of peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha), sirtuin 1 (Sirt-1), cytochrome c, and citrate synthase. Data were analyzed using a 2 (time) x 2 (day) repeated measures ANOVA. Of the mRNA analyzed, the following increased from pre to post 3 h rides: cytochrome c (P = 0.006), citrate synthase (P = 0.03), PGC-1alpha (P < 0.001), and Sirt-1 (P = 0.005). The following mRNA showed significant effects from days one to three: cytochrome c (P < 0.001) and citrate synthase (P = 0.01). These data show that exhaustive cycling performed on three consecutive days resulted in both acute and chronic stimuli for mRNA associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in already trained subjects. This is the first study to illustrate an increase in sirtuin-1 mRNA with acute and chronic exercise. These data contribute to the understanding of mRNA expression during both acute and successive bouts of prolonged exercise.

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle by endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Irrcher, Isabella; Adhihetty, Peter J; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hood, David A

    2003-01-01

    Behavioural and hereditary conditions are known to decrease mitochondrial volume and function within skeletal muscle. This reduces endurance performance, and is manifest both at high- and low-intensity levels of exertion. A programme of regular endurance exercise, undertaken over a number of weeks, produces significant adaptations within skeletal muscle such that noticeable improvements in oxidative capacity are evident, and the related decline in endurance performance can be attenuated. Notwithstanding the important implications that this has for the highly trained endurance athlete, an improvement in mitochondrial volume and function through regular physical activity also endows the previously sedentary and/or aging population with an improved quality of life, and a greater functional independence. An understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern the increases in mitochondrial volume with repeated bouts of exercise can provide insights into possible therapeutic interventions to care for those with mitochondrially-based diseases, and those unable to withstand regular physical activity. This review focuses on the recent developments in the molecular aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis in chronically exercising muscle. Specifically, we discuss the initial signalling events triggered by muscle contraction, the activation of transcription factors involved in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription, as well as the post-translational import mechanisms required for mitochondrial biogenesis. We consider the importance and relevance of chronic physical activity in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, with particular emphasis on how an endurance training programme could positively affect the age-related decline in mitochondrial content and delay the progression of age- and physical inactivity-related diseases.

  13. The Role of Rho-GTPases and actin polymerization during Macrophage Tunneling Nanotube Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Samer J; McCoy-Simandle, Kessler; Miskolci, Veronika; Guo, Peng; Cammer, Michael; Hodgson, Louis; Cox, Dianne

    2017-08-17

    Macrophage interactions with other cells, either locally or at distances, are imperative in both normal and pathological conditions. While soluble means of communication can transmit signals between different cells, it does not account for all long distance macrophage interactions. Recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are membranous channels that connect cells together and allow for transfer of signals, vesicles, and organelles. However, very little is known about the mechanism by which these structures are formed. Here we investigated the signaling pathways involved in TNT formation by macrophages using multiple imaging techniques including super-resolution microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging including the use of FRET-based Rho GTPase biosensors. We found that formation of TNTs required the activity and differential localization of Cdc42 and Rac1. The downstream Rho GTPase effectors mediating actin polymerization through Arp2/3 nucleation, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP family verprolin-homologous 2 (WAVE2) proteins are also important, and both pathways act together during TNT biogenesis. Finally, TNT function as measured by transfer of cellular material between cells was reduced following depletion of a single factor demonstrating the importance of these factors in TNTs. Given that the characterization of TNT formation is still unclear in the field; this study provides new insights and would enhance the understanding of TNT formation towards investigating new markers.

  14. The type II secretion system: biogenesis, molecular architecture and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sandkvist, Maria; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-04-02

    Many gram-negative bacteria use the sophisticated type II secretion system (T2SS) to translocate a wide range of proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The inner-membrane platform of the T2SS is the nexus of the system and orchestrates the secretion process through its interactions with the periplasmic filamentous pseudopilus, the dodecameric outer-membrane complex and a cytoplasmic secretion ATPase. Here, recent structural and biochemical information is reviewed to describe our current knowledge of the biogenesis and architecture of the T2SS and its mechanism of action.

  15. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Luzio, J Paul; Hackmann, Yvonne; Dieckmann, Nele M G; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-09-02

    Lysosomes were once considered the end point of endocytosis, simply used for macromolecule degradation. They are now recognized to be dynamic organelles, able to fuse with a variety of targets and to be re-formed after fusion events. They are also now known to be the site of nutrient sensing and signaling to the cell nucleus. In addition, lysosomes are secretory organelles, with specialized machinery for regulated secretion of proteins in some cell types. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles is discussed, taking into account their dynamic nature and multiple roles. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. MicroRNA-directed siRNA biogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Régis L; Steiner, Florian A; Berezikov, Eugene; Ketting, René F

    2010-04-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional silencing process, triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), leading to the destabilization of homologous mRNAs. A distinction has been made between endogenous RNAi-related pathways and the exogenous RNAi pathway, the latter being essential for the experimental use of RNAi. Previous studies have shown that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex containing the enzymes Dicer and the Argonaute RDE-1 process dsRNA. Dicer is responsible for cleaving dsRNA into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) while RDE-1 acts as the siRNA acceptor. RDE-1 then guides a multi-protein complex to homologous targets to trigger mRNA destabilization. However, endogenous role(s) for RDE-1, if any, have remained unexplored. We here show that RDE-1 functions as a scavenger protein, taking up small RNA molecules from many different sources, including the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. This is in striking contrast to Argonaute proteins functioning directly in the miRNA pathway, ALG-1 and ALG-2: these proteins exclusively bind miRNAs. While playing no significant role in the biogenesis of the main pool of miRNAs, RDE-1 binds endogenous miRNAs and triggers RdRP activity on at least one perfectly matching, endogenous miRNA target. The resulting secondary siRNAs are taken up by a set of Argonaute proteins known to act as siRNA acceptors in exogenous RNAi, resulting in strong mRNA destabilization. Our results show that RDE-1 in an endogenous setting is actively screening the transcriptome using many different small RNAs, including miRNAs, as a guide, with implications for the evolution of transcripts with a potential to be recognized by Dicer.

  17. Re-evaluation of the roles of DROSHA, Exportin 5, and DICER in microRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kook; Kim, Boseon; Kim, V. Narry

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) involves multiple steps: nuclear processing of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) by DROSHA, nuclear export of precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) by Exportin 5 (XPO5), and cytoplasmic processing of pre-miRNA by DICER. To gain a deeper understanding of the contribution of each of these maturation steps, we deleted DROSHA, XPO5, and DICER in the same human cell line, and analyzed their effects on miRNA biogenesis. Canonical miRNA production was completely abolished in DROSHA-deleted cells, whereas we detected a few DROSHA-independent miRNAs including three previously unidentified noncanonical miRNAs (miR-7706, miR-3615, and miR-1254). In contrast to DROSHA knockout, many canonical miRNAs were still detected without DICER albeit at markedly reduced levels. In the absence of DICER, pre-miRNAs are loaded directly onto AGO and trimmed at the 3′ end, yielding miRNAs from the 5′ strand (5p miRNAs). Interestingly, in XPO5 knockout cells, most miRNAs are affected only modestly, suggesting that XPO5 is necessary but not critical for miRNA maturation. Our study demonstrates an essential role of DROSHA and an important contribution of DICER in the canonical miRNA pathway, and reveals that the function of XPO5 can be complemented by alternative mechanisms. Thus, this study allows us to understand differential contributions of key biogenesis factors, and provides with valuable resources for miRNA research. PMID:26976605

  18. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate

    PubMed Central

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:27557515

  19. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization involves IGF1 signaling: implications in ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-10-01

    One of the most fundamental biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth. In fish, skeletal muscle accounts for the largest proportion of body mass, and the growth of this tissue is mainly controlled by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. By using the carp (Cyprinus carpio), a fish that inhabits extreme conditions during winter and summer, we assessed the skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization and the relation of IGF signaling with protein synthesis and ribosomal biogenesis. The expression of igf1 in muscle decreased during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the expression for both paralogues of igf2 did not change significantly between seasons. The expression of igf1 receptor a (igf1ra), but not of igf1rb, was down-regulated in muscle during the winter as compared to the summer. A decrease in protein contents and protein phosphorylation for IGF signaling molecules in muscle was observed in winter-acclimatized carp. This was related with a decreased expression in muscle for markers of myogenesis (myoblast determination factor (myod), myogenic factor 5 (myf5), and myogenin (myog)); protein synthesis (myosin heavy chain (mhc) and myosin light chain (mlc3 and mlc1b)); and ribosomal biogenesis (pre-rRNA and ribosomal proteins). IGF signaling, and key markers of ribosomal biogenesis, protein synthesis, and myogenesis were affected by seasonal acclimatization, with differential regulation in gene expression and signaling pathway activation observed in muscle between both seasons. This suggests that these molecules are responsible for the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mascher, Henrik; Psilander, Niklas; Blomstrand, Eva; Sahlin, Kent

    2011-11-01

    Combining endurance and strength training (concurrent training) may change the adaptation compared with single mode training. However, the site of interaction and the mechanisms are unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis after endurance exercise is impaired by resistance exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed either only endurance exercise (E; 1-h cycling at ∼65% of maximal oxygen uptake), or endurance exercise followed by resistance exercise (ER; 1-h cycling + 6 sets of leg press at 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum) in a randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (1 and 3 h postcycling). The mRNA of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1)α, PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC)] related coactivator) and substrate regulation (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4) increased after both E and ER, but the mRNA levels were about twofold higher after ER (P < 0.01). Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the signaling cascade of protein synthesis [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2] was altered after ER but not after E. Moreover, ER induced a larger increase in mRNA of genes associated with positive mTOR signaling (cMyc and Rheb). Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and Akt increased similarly at 1 h postcycling (P < 0.01) after both types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that ER, performed after E, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a cross talk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.

  1. Suppression of sorbitol dependence in a strain bearing a mutation in the SRB1/PSA1/VIG9 gene encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase by PDE2 overexpression suggests a role for the Ras/cAMP signal-transduction pathway in the control of yeast cell-wall biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, G C; Hamilton, G E; Gardner, D C; Walmsley, R M; Stateva, L I; Oliver, S G

    2000-09-01

    Complementation studies and allele replacement in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that PSA1/VIG9, an essential gene that encodes GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, is the wild-type SRB1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of the srb1-1 allele showed that it determines a single amino acid change from glycine to aspartic acid at residue 276 (srb1(D276)). Genetic evidence is presented showing that at least one further mutation is required for the sorbitol dependence of srb1(D276). A previously reported complementing gene, which this study has now identified as PDE2, is a multi-copy suppressor of sorbitol dependence and is not, as was previously suggested, the SRB1 gene. srb and pde2 mutants share a number of phenotypes, including lysis upon hypotonic shock and enhanced transformability. These data are consistent with the idea that the Ras/cAMP pathway might modulate cell-wall construction.

  2. Biogenesis, maintenance and dynamics of glycosomes in trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Haanstra, Jurgen R; González-Marcano, Eglys B; Gualdrón-López, Melisa; Michels, Paul A M

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes of organisms belonging to the protist group Kinetoplastea, which include trypanosomatid parasites of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania, are unique in playing a crucial role in glycolysis and other parts of intermediary metabolism. They sequester the majority of the glycolytic enzymes and hence are called glycosomes. Their glycosomal enzyme content can vary strongly, particularly quantitatively, between different trypanosomatid species, and within each species during its life cycle. Turnover of glycosomes by autophagy of redundant ones and biogenesis of a new population of organelles play a pivotal role in the efficient adaptation of the glycosomal metabolic repertoire to the sudden, major nutritional changes encountered during the transitions in their life cycle. The overall mechanism of glycosome biogenesis is similar to that of peroxisomes in other organisms, but the homologous peroxins involved display low sequence conservation as well as variations in motifs mediating crucial protein-protein interactions in the process. The correct compartmentalisation of enzymes is essential for the regulation of the trypanosomatids' metabolism and consequently for their viability. For Trypanosoma brucei it was shown that glycosomes also play a crucial role in its life-cycle regulation: a crucial developmental control switch involves the translocation of a protein phosphatase from the cytosol into the organelles. Many glycosomal proteins are differentially phosphorylated in different life-cycle stages, possibly indicative of regulation of enzyme activities as an additional means to adapt the metabolic network to the different environmental conditions encountered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computationally Driven, Quantitative Experiments Discover Genes Required for Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, David C.; Hayes, Alicia P.; Paw, Jadine; Clore, John J.; Mendoza, Rosa M.; Luis, Bryan San; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Costanzo, Michael; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Caudy, Amy A.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are central to many cellular processes including respiration, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. Using computational predictions combined with traditional quantitative experiments, we have identified 100 proteins whose deficiency alters mitochondrial biogenesis and inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, we used computational predictions to perform targeted double-mutant analysis detecting another nine genes with synthetic defects in mitochondrial biogenesis. This represents an increase of about 25% over previously known participants. Nearly half of these newly characterized proteins are conserved in mammals, including several orthologs known to be involved in human disease. Mutations in many of these genes demonstrate statistically significant mitochondrial transmission phenotypes more subtle than could be detected by traditional genetic screens or high-throughput techniques, and 47 have not been previously localized to mitochondria. We further characterized a subset of these genes using growth profiling and dual immunofluorescence, which identified genes specifically required for aerobic respiration and an uncharacterized cytoplasmic protein required for normal mitochondrial motility. Our results demonstrate that by leveraging computational analysis to direct quantitative experimental assays, we have characterized mutants with subtle mitochondrial defects whose phenotypes were undetected by high-throughput methods. PMID:19300474

  4. Biogenesis of Yeast Telomerase Depends on the Importin Mtr10

    PubMed Central

    Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Steiner, Barbara; Aldea, Martí; Futcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) involved in chromosome end replication, but its biogenesis is poorly understood. The RNA component of yeast telomerase (Tlc1) is synthesized as a polyadenylated precursor and then processed to a mature poly(A)− form. We report here that the karyopherin Mtr10p is required for the normal accumulation of mature Tlc1 and its proper localization to the nucleus. Neither TLC1 transcription nor the stability of poly(A)− Tlc1 is significantly affected in mtr10Δ cells. Tlc1 was mostly nuclear in a wild-type background, and this localization was not affected by mutations in other telomerase components. Strikingly, in the absence of Mtr10p, Tlc1 was found dispersed throughout the entire cell. Our results are compatible with two alternative models. First, Mtr10p may import a cytoplasmic complex containing Tlc1 and perhaps other components of telomerase, and shuttling of Tlc1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and back may be necessary for the biogenesis of telomerase (the “shuttling” model). Second, Mtr10p may be necessary for the nuclear import of some enzyme needed for the nuclear processing and maturation of Tlc1, and in the absence of this maturation, poly(A)+ Tlc1 is aberrantly exported to the cytoplasm (the “processing enzyme” model). PMID:12167699

  5. Biogenesis and Function of T Cell-Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ventimiglia, Leandro N.; Alonso, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are a particular type of extracellular vesicle, characterized by their endosomal origin as intraluminal vesicles present in large endosomes with a multivesicular structure. After these endosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space. The ability of exosomes to carry and selectively deliver bioactive molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) confers on them the capacity to modulate the activity of receptor cells, even if these cells are located in distant tissues or organs. Since exosomal cargo depends on cell type, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the biochemical composition of exosomes is fundamental to a comprehensive view of exosome function. Here, we review the latest advances concerning exosome function and biogenesis in T cells, with particular focus on the mechanism of protein sorting at multivesicular endosomes. Exosomes secreted by specific T-cell subsets can modulate the activity of immune cells, including other T-cell subsets. Ceramide, tetraspanins and MAL have been revealed to be important in exosome biogenesis by T cells. These molecules, therefore, constitute potential molecular targets for artificially modulating exosome production and, hence, the immune response for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27583248

  6. Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Jonathan M; Davis, Joseph H; Mangat, Chand S; Williamson, James R; Brown, Eric D

    2014-01-01

    While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Lamotrigine treatment resulted in the rapid accumulation of immature 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits at 15°C. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro. This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. coli IF2 in ribosome assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03574.001 PMID:25233066

  7. Does calorie restriction induce mitochondrial biogenesis? A reevaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Chad R.; Han, Dong-Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kim, Sang Hyun; Holloszy, John O.

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that 30% calorie restriction (CR) for 3 mo results in large increases in mitochondrial biogenesis in heart, brain, liver, and adipose tissue, with concomitant increases in respiration and ATP synthesis. We found these results surprising, and performed this study to determine whether 30% CR does induce an increase in mitochondria in heart, brain, liver, adipose tissue, and/or skeletal muscle. To this end, we measured the levels of a range of mitochondrial proteins, and mRNAs. With the exception of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase protein level, which was increased ∼60% in adipose tissue, none of the mitochondrial proteins or mRNAs that we measured were increased in rats subjected to 30% CR for 14 wk. There was also no increase in citrate synthase activity. Because it is not possible to have an increase in mitochondria without any increase in key mitochondrial proteins, we conclude that 30% CR does not induce an increase in mitochondria in heart, brain, liver, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle in laboratory rodents.—Hancock, C. R., Han, D.-H., Higashida, K., Kim, S. H., Holloszy, J. O. Does calorie restriction induce mitochondrial biogenesis? A reevaluation. PMID:21048043

  8. Microalgal lipid droplets: composition, diversity, biogenesis and functions.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    Lipid droplet is the major site of neutral lipid storage in eukaryotic cells, and increasing evidence show its involvement in numerous cellular processes such as lipid homeostasis, signaling, trafficking and inter-organelle communications. Although the biogenesis, structure, and functions of lipid droplets have been well documented for seeds of vascular plants, mammalian adipose tissues, insects and yeasts, relative little is known about lipid droplets in microalgae. Over the past 5 years, the growing interest of microalgae as a platform for biofuel, green chemicals or value-added polyunsaturated fatty acid production has brought algal lipid droplets into spotlight. Studies conducted on the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other model microalgae such as Haematococcus and Nannochloropsis species have led to the identification of proteins associated with lipid droplets, which include putative structural proteins different from plant oleosins and animal perilipins, as well as candidate proteins for lipid biosynthesis, mobilization, trafficking and homeostasis. Biochemical and microscopy studies have also started to shed light on the role of chloroplasts in the biogenesis of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas.

  9. Biogenesis and Function of T Cell-Derived Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Leandro N; Alonso, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are a particular type of extracellular vesicle, characterized by their endosomal origin as intraluminal vesicles present in large endosomes with a multivesicular structure. After these endosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space. The ability of exosomes to carry and selectively deliver bioactive molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) confers on them the capacity to modulate the activity of receptor cells, even if these cells are located in distant tissues or organs. Since exosomal cargo depends on cell type, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the biochemical composition of exosomes is fundamental to a comprehensive view of exosome function. Here, we review the latest advances concerning exosome function and biogenesis in T cells, with particular focus on the mechanism of protein sorting at multivesicular endosomes. Exosomes secreted by specific T-cell subsets can modulate the activity of immune cells, including other T-cell subsets. Ceramide, tetraspanins and MAL have been revealed to be important in exosome biogenesis by T cells. These molecules, therefore, constitute potential molecular targets for artificially modulating exosome production and, hence, the immune response for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Progranulin regulates lysosomal function and biogenesis through acidification of lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Genjiro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Hosokawa, Masato; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Hasegawa, Masato; Nishihara, Masugi

    2017-01-10

    Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the PGRN gene causes frontotemporal lobar degeneration accompanied by TDP-43 accumulation, and patients with homozygous mutations in the PGRN gene present with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although it remains unknown why PGRN deficiency causes neurodegenerative diseases, there is increasing evidence that PGRN is implicated in lysosomal functions. Here, we show PGRN is a secretory lysosomal protein that regulates lysosomal function and biogenesis by controlling the acidification of lysosomes. PGRN gene expression and protein levels increased concomitantly with the increase of lysosomal biogenesis induced by lysosome alkalizers or serum starvation. Down-regulation or insufficiency of PGRN led to the increased lysosomal gene expression and protein levels, while PGRN overexpression led to the decreased lysosomal gene expression and protein levels. In particular, the level of mature cathepsin D (CTSDmat) dramatically changed depending upon PGRN levels. The acidification of lysosomes was facilitated in cells transfected with PGRN. Then, this caused degradation of CTSDmat by cathepsin B. Secreted PGRN is incorporated into cells via sortilin or cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and facilitated the acidification of lysosomes and degradation of CTSDmat Moreover, the change of PGRN levels led to a cell-type-specific increase of insoluble TDP-43. In the brain tissue of FTLD-TDP patients with PGRN deficiency, CTSD and phosphorylated TDP-43 accumulated in neurons. Our study provides new insights into the physiological function of PGRN and the role of PGRN insufficiency in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Probing peroxisome dynamics and biogenesis by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Miluska; Kim, Peter K

    2014-03-03

    Peroxisomes are the most recently discovered classical organelles, and only lately have their diverse functions been truly recognized. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic structures, changing both morphologically and in number in response to both extracellular and intracellular signals. This metabolic organelle came to prominence due to the many genetic disorders caused by defects in its biogenesis or enzymatic functions. There is now growing evidence that suggests peroxisomes are involved in lipid biosynthesis, innate immunity, redox homeostasis, and metabolite scavenging, among other functions. Therefore, it is important to have available suitable methods and techniques to visualize and quantify peroxisomes in response to various cellular signals. This unit includes a number of protocols that will enable researchers to image, qualify, and quantify peroxisome numbers and morphology-with both steady-state and time-lapse imaging using mammalian cells. The use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to detect and measure peroxisome biogenesis is also described. Altogether, the protocols described here will facilitate understanding of the dynamic changes that peroxisomes undergo in response to various cellular signals.

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  14. Scrutiny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19 kDa antigen proteoforms provides new insights in the lipoglycoprotein biogenesis paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Julien; Marcoux, Julien; Poncin, Isabelle; Canaan, Stéphane; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Nigou, Jérôme; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Rivière, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are essential processes conditioning the biophysical properties and biological activities of the vast majority of mature proteins. However, occurrence of several distinct PTMs on a same protein dramatically increases its molecular diversity. The comprehensive understanding of the functionalities resulting from any particular PTM association requires a highly challenging full structural description of the PTM combinations. Here, we report the in-depth exploration of the natural structural diversity of the M. tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence associated 19 kDa lipoglycoprotein antigen (LpqH) using intact protein high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Combined top-down and bottom-up HR-MS analyses of the purified Mtb LpqH protein allow, for the first time, to uncover a complex repertoire of about 130 molecular species resulting from the intrinsically heterogeneous combination of lipidation and glycosylation together with some truncations. Direct view on the co-occurring PTMs stoichiometry reveals the presence of functionally distinct LpqH lipidation states and indicates that glycosylation is independent from lipidation. This work allowed the identification of a novel unsuspected phosphorylated form of the unprocessed preprolipoglycoprotein totally absent from the current lipoglycoprotein biogenesis pathway and providing new insights into the biogenesis and functional determinants of the mycobacterial lipoglycoprotein interacting with the host immune PRRs. PMID:28272507

  15. Mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in pyramidal neurons are decreased and mitochondrial biogenesis transcriptome signaling is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease hippocampi.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ann C; Keeney, Paula M; Algarzae, Norah K; Ladd, Amy C; Thomas, Ravindar R; Bennett, James P

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of adult-onset dementia and is characterized in its pre-diagnostic stage by reduced cerebral cortical glucose metabolism and in later stages by reduced cortical oxygen uptake, implying reduced mitochondrial respiration. Using quantitative PCR we determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene copy numbers from multiple groups of 15 or 20 pyramidal neurons, GFAP(+) astrocytes and dentate granule neurons isolated using laser capture microdissection, and the relative expression of mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) genes in hippocampi from 10 AD and 9 control (CTL) cases. AD pyramidal but not dentate granule neurons had significantly reduced mtDNA copy numbers compared to CTL neurons. Pyramidal neuron mtDNA copy numbers in CTL, but not AD, positively correlated with cDNA levels of multiple mitobiogenesis genes. In CTL, but not in AD, hippocampal cDNA levels of PGC1α were positively correlated with multiple downstream mitobiogenesis factors. Mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in pyramidal neurons did not correlate with hippocampal Aβ1-42 levels. After 48 h exposure of H9 human neural stem cells to the neurotoxic fragment Aβ25-35, mtDNA copy numbers were not significantly altered. In summary, AD postmortem hippocampal pyramidal neurons have reduced mtDNA copy numbers. Mitochondrial biogenesis pathway signaling relationships are disrupted in AD, but are mostly preserved in CTL. Our findings implicate complex alterations of mitochondria-host cell relationships in AD.

  16. Methylene blue improves sensorimotor phenotype and decreases anxiety in parallel with activating brain mitochondria biogenesis in mid-age mice.

    PubMed

    Gureev, Artem P; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Yu; Gorbacheva, Tatyana M; Starkov, Anatoly A; Popov, Vasily N

    2016-12-01

    Age-related brain dysfunctions are associated with mitochondria malfunctions and increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Recently, a mitochondria-targeting drug methylene blue has been drawing considerable interest as a potential treatment for ND. We found that aged mice manifested a decrease in physical endurance, spontaneous locomotor activity, and exploration concomitant with an increase in anxiety-related behavior, as compared to adult mice. Treating mice for 60 days with MB slowed down these changes. There were no significant changes in the animals' body weight, oxygen consumption rates, or respiratory quotient index, in adult or aged MB-treated mice. However, MB treatment significantly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species in brain mitochondria. The expression of several genes relevant to mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and antioxidant defense (NRF1, MTCOX1, TFAM, and SOD2) was greatly suppressed in aged mice; it was restored by MB treatment. It seems plausible that the effects of MB could be mediated by its ability to increase H2O2 production in brain mitochondria, thereby activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and mitochondria biogenesis. Our data and earlier findings support the idea that MB can be an attractive prototype drug for developing safe and efficient gerontoprotective compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Mia40 and MINOS act in parallel with Ccs1 in the biogenesis of mitochondrial Sod1.

    PubMed

    Varabyova, Aksana; Topf, Ulrike; Kwiatkowska, Paulina; Wrobel, Lidia; Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) is a major superoxide-scavenging enzyme in the eukaryotic cell, and is localized in the cytosol and intermembrane space of mitochondria. Sod1 requires its specific chaperone Ccs1 and disulfide bond formation in order to be retained in the intermembrane space. Our study identified a pool of Sod1 that is present in the reduced state in mitochondria that lack Ccs1. We created yeast mutants with mutations in highly conserved amino acid residues corresponding to human mutations that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and found that some of the mutant proteins were present in the reduced state. These mutant variants of Sod1 were efficiently localized in mitochondria. Localization of the reduced, Ccs1-independent forms of Sod1 relied on Mia40, an essential component of the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly pathway that is responsible for the biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. Furthermore, the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS), which is responsible for mitochondrial membrane architecture, differentially modulated the presence of reduced Sod1 in mitochondria. Thus, we identified novel mitochondrial players that are possibly involved in pathological conditions caused by changes in the biogenesis of Sod1. © 2013 FEBS.

  18. Biogenesis and functions of lipid droplets in plants: Thematic Review Series: Lipid Droplet Synthesis and Metabolism: from Yeast to Man.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kent D; Dyer, John M; Mullen, Robert T

    2012-02-01

    The compartmentation of neutral lipids in plants is mostly associated with seed tissues, where triacylglycerols (TAGs) stored within lipid droplets (LDs) serve as an essential physiological energy and carbon reserve during postgerminative growth. However, some nonseed tissues, such as leaves, flowers and fruits, also synthesize and store TAGs, yet relatively little is known about the formation or function of LDs in these tissues. Characterization of LD-associated proteins, such as oleosins, caleosins, and sterol dehydrogenases (steroleosins), has revealed surprising features of LD function in plants, including stress responses, hormone signaling pathways, and various aspects of plant growth and development. Although oleosin and caleosin proteins are specific to plants, LD-associated sterol dehydrogenases also are present in mammals, and in both plants and mammals these enzymes have been shown to be important in (steroid) hormone metabolism and signaling. In addition, several other proteins known to be important in LD biogenesis in yeasts and mammals are conserved in plants, suggesting that at least some aspects of LD biogenesis and/or function are evolutionarily conserved.

  19. MRM2 and MRM3 are involved in biogenesis of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Rorbach, Joanna; Boesch, Pierre; Gammage, Payam A.; Nicholls, Thomas J. J.; Pearce, Sarah F.; Patel, Dipali; Hauser, Andreas; Perocchi, Fabiana; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Defects of the translation apparatus in human mitochondria are known to cause disease, yet details of how protein synthesis is regulated in this organelle remain to be unveiled. Ribosome production in all organisms studied thus far entails a complex, multistep pathway involving a number of auxiliary factors. This includes several RNA processing and modification steps required for correct rRNA maturation. Little is known about the maturation of human mitochondrial 16S rRNA and its role in biogenesis of the mitoribosome. Here we investigate two methyltransferases, MRM2 (also known as RRMJ2, encoded by FTSJ2) and MRM3 (also known as RMTL1, encoded by RNMTL1), that are responsible for modification of nucleotides of the 16S rRNA A-loop, an essential component of the peptidyl transferase center. Our studies show that inactivation of MRM2 or MRM3 in human cells by RNA interference results in respiratory incompetence as a consequence of diminished mitochondrial translation. Ineffective translation in MRM2- and MRM3-depleted cells results from aberrant assembly of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome (mt-LSU). Our findings show that MRM2 and MRM3 are human mitochondrial methyltransferases involved in the modification of 16S rRNA and are important factors for the biogenesis and function of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. PMID:25009282

  20. PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells to promote metastasis.

    PubMed

    LeBleu, Valerie S; O'Connell, Joyce T; Gonzalez Herrera, Karina N; Wikman, Harriet; Pantel, Klaus; Haigis, Marcia C; de Carvalho, Fernanda Machado; Damascena, Aline; Domingos Chinen, Ludmilla Thome; Rocha, Rafael M; Asara, John M; Kalluri, Raghu

    2014-10-01

    Cancer cells can divert metabolites into anabolic pathways to support their rapid proliferation and to accumulate the cellular building blocks required for tumour growth. However, the specific bioenergetic profile of invasive and metastatic cancer cells is unknown. Here we report that migratory/invasive cancer cells specifically favour mitochondrial respiration and increased ATP production. Invasive cancer cells use the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A, also known as PGC-1α) to enhance oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis and the oxygen consumption rate. Clinical analysis of human invasive breast cancers revealed a strong correlation between PGC-1α expression in invasive cancer cells and the formation of distant metastases. Silencing of PGC-1α in cancer cells suspended their invasive potential and attenuated metastasis without affecting proliferation, primary tumour growth or the epithelial-to-mesenchymal program. Inherent genetics of cancer cells can determine the transcriptome framework associated with invasion and metastasis, and mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration induced by PGC-1α are also essential for functional motility of cancer cells and metastasis.

  1. Supplementing the maternal diet of rats with butyrate enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles of weaned offspring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Jun, Guo; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents oxidative phosphorylation deficit and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in human cells from subjects with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Rossi, Leonardo; de Bari, Lidia; Scala, Iris; Granese, Barbara; Papa, Sergio; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2013-04-01

    A critical role for mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenesis of Down's syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, associated with mental retardation and early neurodegeneration. Previous studies from our group demonstrated in DS cells a decreased capacity of the mitochondrial ATP production system and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. In this study we have tested the potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) - a natural polyphenol component of green tea - to counteract the mitochondrial energy deficit found in DS cells. We found that EGCG, incubated with cultured lymphoblasts and fibroblasts from DS subjects, rescued mitochondrial complex I and ATP synthase catalytic activities, restored oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and counteracted oxidative stress. These effects were associated with EGCG-induced promotion of PKA activity, related to increased cellular levels of cAMP and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NDUFS4 subunit of complex I. In addition, EGCG strongly promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, as associated with increase in Sirt1-dependent PGC-1α deacetylation, NRF-1 and T-FAM protein levels and mitochondrial DNA content. In conclusion, this study shows that EGCG is a promoting effector of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, acting through modulation of the cAMP/PKA- and sirtuin-dependent pathways. EGCG treatment promises thus to be a therapeutic approach to counteract mitochondrial energy deficit and oxidative stress in DS.

  3. Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Cordero, Mario D; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Astolfi, Paola; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been recently proposed as activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and this fact might explain the relationship between the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and the slowdown of the progression of aging. In the present work, the effects of strawberry consumption were evaluated on biomarkers of oxidative damage and on aging-associated reductions in mitochondrial function and biogenesis for 8weeks in old rats. Strawberry supplementation increased antioxidant enzyme activities, mitochondrial biomass and functionality, and decreased intracellular ROS levels and biomarkers of protein, lipid and DNA damage (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant (P<0.05) increase in the expression of the AMPK cascade genes, involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defences, was also detected after strawberry intake. These in vivo results were then verified in vitro on HepG2 cells, confirming the involvement of AMPK in the beneficial effects exerted by strawberry against aging progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical characterization of 60S acidic ribosomal P proteins associated with CK-II from bamboo shoots and potent inhibitors of their phosphorylation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, T; Kosuge, S; Sakamoto, S; Funayama, S; Komiyama, K; Ohtsuki, K

    1999-07-01

    Three effective phosphate acceptors (35, 15 and 13 kDa polypeptides) for casein kinase II (CK-II) in the Superdex CK-II fraction prepared from a 0.5 M NaCl extract of bamboo shoots were selectively purified by glycyrrhizin (GL)-affinity column chromatography (HPLC). These three proteins (p35, p15 and p13) were identified as 60S acidic ribosomal P proteins by determination of their partial N-terminal sequences. CK-II was associated with p35 since the GL-affinity fraction was coprecipitated with an anti-serum against Drosophila CK-IIbeta. Moreover, a derivative (oGA) of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and several polyphenol-containing anti-oxidative compounds [quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and two isoflavones, i.e., 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone (3',4',7-THI) and 8-chloro-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (8C-3',4',5,7-THI)] inhibited the CK-II-mediated phosphorylation of 60S acidic ribosomal P proteins in vitro. Quercetin was found to be the most effective compound on CK-II activity since its ID50 was approx. 50 nM. These results suggest that (i) GL-affinity column chromatography is useful for the selective purification of 60S acidic ribosomal P proteins as a heterocomplex associated with CK-II from various cell sources; (ii) natural anti-oxidative compounds with polyphenols, but not GL and GA, act as potent CK-II suppressors; and (iii) CK-II mediates the regulation of the physiological functions of 60S acidic ribosomal P proteins in growing plant cells.

  5. MicroRNA-149 inhibits PARP-2 and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT-1/PGC-1α network in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Junaith S; Hajira, Ameena; Pardo, Patricia S; Boriek, Aladin M

    2014-05-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) plays a central role in the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction that significantly contributes to skeletal muscle metabolic disorders in obesity. However, the mechanism by which HFD weakens skeletal muscle metabolism by altering mitochondrial function and biogenesis is unknown. Given the emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, we sought to determine whether activation of a specific miRNA pathway would rescue the HFD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via the sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1)/ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway, a pathway that governs genes necessary for mitochondrial function. We here report that miR-149 strongly controls SIRT-1 expression and activity. Interestingly, miR-149 inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) and so increased cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT-1 activity that subsequently increases mitochondrial function and biogenesis via PGC-1α activation. In addition, skeletal muscles from HFD-fed obese mice exhibit low levels of miR-149 and high levels of PARP-2, and they show reduced mitochondrial function and biogenesis due to a decreased activation of the SIRT-1/PGC-1α pathway, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle of obese mice may be because of, at least in part, miR-149 dysregulation. Overall, miR-149 may be therapeutically useful for treating HFD-induced skeletal muscle metabolic disorders in such pathophysiological conditions as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Spb4p, an essential putative RNA helicase, is required for a late step in the assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, J; Kressler, D; Rojo, M; Tollervey, D; Linder, P

    1998-01-01

    Spb4p is a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is required for synthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits. Polysome analyses of strains genetically depleted of Spb4p or carrying the cold-sensitive spb4-1 mutation revealed an underaccumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits. Analysis of pre-rRNA processing by pulse-chase labeling, northern hybridization, and primer extension indicated that these strains exhibited a reduced synthesis of the 25S/5.8S rRNAs, due to inhibition of processing of the 27SB pre-rRNAs. At later times of depletion of Spb4p or following transfer of the spb4-1 strain to more restrictive temperatures, the early pre-rRNA processing steps at sites A0, Al, and A2 were also inhibited. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that the accumulated 27SB pre-rRNAs are associated with a high-molecular-weight complex, most likely the 66S pre-ribosomal particle. An HA epitope-tagged Spb4p is localized to the nucleolus and the adjacent nucleoplasmic area. On sucrose gradients, HA-Spb4p was found almost exclusively in rapidly sedimenting complexes and showed a peak in the fractions containing the 66S pre-ribosomes. We propose that Spb4p is involved directly in a late and essential step during assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits, presumably by acting as an rRNA helicase. PMID:9769101

  7. Dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and its requirement for organelle biogenesis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Macro, Laura; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Simon, Sanford M

    2012-12-01

    The protein clathrin mediates one of the major pathways of endocytosis from the extracellular milieu and plasma membrane. In single-cell eukaryotes, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding clathrin is not an essential gene, raising the question of whether clathrin conveys specific advantages for multicellularity. Furthermore, in contrast to mammalian cells, endocytosis in S. cerevisiae is not dependent on either clathrin or adaptor protein 2 (AP2), an endocytic adaptor molecule. In this study, we investigated the requirement for components of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in another unicellular organism, the amoeba Dictyostelium. We identified a heterotetrameric AP2 complex in Dictyostelium that is similar to that which is found in higher eukaryotes. By simultaneously imaging fluorescently tagged clathrin and AP2, we found that, similar to higher eukaryotes, these proteins colocalized to membrane puncta that move into the cell together. In addition, the contractile vacuole marker protein, dajumin-green fluorescent protein (GFP), is trafficked via the cell membrane and internalized by CME in a clathrin-dependent, AP2-independent mechanism. This pathway is distinct from other endocytic mechanisms in Dictyostelium. Our finding that CME is required for the internalization of contractile vacuole proteins from the cell membrane explains the contractile vacuole biogenesis defect in Dictyostelium cells lacking clathrin. Our results also suggest that the machinery for CME and its role in organelle maintenance appeared early during eukaryotic evolution. We hypothesize that dependence of endocytosis on specific components of the CME pathway evolved later, as demonstrated by internalization independent of AP2 function.

  8. Dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and its requirement for organelle biogenesis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Macro, Laura; Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The protein clathrin mediates one of the major pathways of endocytosis from the extracellular milieu and plasma membrane. In single-cell eukaryotes, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding clathrin is not an essential gene, raising the question of whether clathrin conveys specific advantages for multicellularity. Furthermore, in contrast to mammalian cells, endocytosis in S. cerevisiae is not dependent on either clathrin or adaptor protein 2 (AP2), an endocytic adaptor molecule. In this study, we investigated the requirement for components of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in another unicellular organism, the amoeba Dictyostelium. We identified a heterotetrameric AP2 complex in Dictyostelium that is similar to that which is found in higher eukaryotes. By simultaneously imaging fluorescently tagged clathrin and AP2, we found that, similar to higher eukaryotes, these proteins colocalized to membrane puncta that move into the cell together. In addition, the contractile vacuole marker protein, dajumin-green fluorescent protein (GFP), is trafficked via the cell membrane and internalized by CME in a clathrin-dependent, AP2-independent mechanism. This pathway is distinct from other endocytic mechanisms in Dictyostelium. Our finding that CME is required for the internalization of contractile vacuole proteins from the cell membrane explains the contractile vacuole biogenesis defect in Dictyostelium cells lacking clathrin. Our results also suggest that the machinery for CME and its role in organelle maintenance appeared early during eukaryotic evolution. We hypothesize that dependence of endocytosis on specific components of the CME pathway evolved later, as demonstrated by internalization independent of AP2 function. PMID:22992464

  9. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, a nuclear ribosome biogenesis-related protein in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ji, M-M; Liu, A-Q; Sima, Y-H; Xu, S-Q

    2016-10-01

    The pathway of communication between endocrine hormones and ribosome biogenesis critical for physiological adaptation is largely unknown. Nucleolar essential protein 1 (Nep1) is an essential gene for ribosome biogenesis and is functionally conserved in many in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we cloned Bombyx mori Nep1 (BmNep1) due to its high expression in silk glands of silkworms on day 3 of the fifth instar. We found that BmNep1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in silk glands during fourth-instar ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis. By immunoprecipitation with the anti-BmNep1 antibody and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses, it was shown that BmNep1 probably interacts with proteins related to ribosome structure formation. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that BmNep1 is localized to the nuclei in Bombyx cells. Using BmN cells originally derived from ovaries, we demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced BmNep1 expression and stimulated nuclear accumulation of BmNep1. Under physiological conditions, BmNep1 was also upregulated in ovaries during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Overall, our results indicate that the endocrine hormone 20E facilitates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, which is involved in nuclear ribosome biogenesis in Bombyx. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. β2-Adrenoceptor agonists in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Yuri K; Cameron, Robert B; Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Lindsey, Chris C; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-10-01

    The stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) via cell surface G-protein coupled receptors is a promising strategy for cell repair and regeneration. Here we report the specificity and chemical rationale of a panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists with regards to MB. Using primary cultures of renal cells, a diverse panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists elicited three distinct phenotypes: full MB, partial MB, and non-MB. Full MB compounds had efficacy in the low nanomolar range and represent two chemical scaffolds containing three distinct chemical clusters. Interestingly, the MB phenotype did not correlate with reported receptor affinity or chemical similarity. Chemical clusters were then subjected to pharmacophore modeling creating two models with unique and distinct features, consisting of five conserved amongst full MB compounds were identified. The two discrete pharmacophore models were coalesced into a consensus pharmacophore with four unique features elucidating the spatial and chemical characteristics required to stimulate MB.

  11. Biogenesis of the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Sara D; Liu, Jun; Ton-That, Hung

    2016-12-01

    The Gram-positive cell envelope serves as a molecular platform for surface display of capsular polysaccharides, wall teichoic acids (WTAs), lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), lipoproteins, surface proteins and pili. WTAs, LTAs, and sortase-assembled pili are a few features that make the Gram-positive cell envelope distinct from the Gram-negative counterpart. Interestingly, a set of LytR-CpsA-Psr family proteins, found in all Gram-positives but limited to a minority of Gram-negative organisms, plays divergent functions, while decorating the cell envelope with glycans. Furthermore, a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria, the actinobacteria, appear to employ oxidative protein folding as the major folding mechanism, typically occurring in an oxidizing environment of the Gram-negative periplasm. These distinctive features will be highlighted, along with recent findings in the cell envelope biogenesis.

  12. Senataxin suppresses the antiviral transcriptional response and controls viral biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew S; Rialdi, Alexander; Ho, Jessica Sook Yuin; Tilove, Micah; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Moshkina, Natasha P; Peralta, Zuleyma; Noel, Justine; Melegari, Camilla; Maestre, Ana M; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Madrenas, Joaquín; Heinz, Sven; Benner, Chris; Young, John A T; Feagins, Alicia R; Basler, Christopher F; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Becherel, Olivier J; Lavin, Martin F; van Bakel, Harm; Marazzi, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The human helicase senataxin (SETX) has been linked to the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Here we identified a role for SETX in controlling the antiviral response. Cells that had undergone depletion of SETX and SETX-deficient cells derived from patients with AOA2 had higher expression of antiviral mediators in response to infection than did wild-type cells. Mechanistically, we propose a model whereby SETX attenuates the activity of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at genes stimulated after a virus is sensed and thus controls the magnitude of the host response to pathogens and the biogenesis of various RNA viruses (e.g., influenza A virus and West Nile virus). Our data indicate a potentially causal link among inborn errors in SETX, susceptibility to infection and the development of neurologic disorders.

  13. The emerging roles of ribosome biogenesis in craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Adam P.; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient, migratory cell population, which originates during neurulation at the neural folds and contributes to the majority of tissues, including the mesenchymal structures of the craniofacial skeleton. The deregulation of the complex developmental processes that guide migration, proliferation, and differentiation of NCCs may result in a wide range of pathological conditions grouped together as neurocristopathies. Recently, due to their multipotent properties neural crest stem cells have received considerable attention as a possible source for stem cell based regenerative therapies. This exciting prospect underlines the need to further explore the developmental programs that guide NCC differentiation. This review explores the particular importance of ribosome biogenesis defects in this context since a specific interface between ribosomopathies and neurocristopathies exists as evidenced by disorders such as Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCS) and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). PMID:24550838

  14. Blue Native PAGE: Applications to Study Peroxisome Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okumoto, Kanji; Tamura, Shigehiko; Fujiki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is one of the useful methods to isolate protein complexes including membrane proteins under native conditions. In BN-PAGE, Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 binds to proteins and provides a negative charge for the electrophoretic separation without denaturing at neutral pH, allowing the analysis of molecular mass, oligomeric state, and composition of native protein complexes. BN-PAGE is widely applied to the characterization of soluble protein complexes as well as isolation of membrane protein complexes from biological membranes such as the complexes I-V of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and subcomplexes of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. BN-PAGE has also been introduced in the field of peroxisome research, for example, analysis of translocation machinery for peroxisomal matrix proteins embedded in the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we describe a basic protocol of BN-PAGE and its application to the study of peroxisome biogenesis.

  15. The Virus-Host Interplay: Biogenesis of +RNA Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Colleen R.; Airo, Adriana M.; Hobman, Tom C.

    2015-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses are an important group of human and animal pathogens that have significant global health and economic impacts. Notable members include West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Chikungunya, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and enteroviruses of the Picornaviridae family.Unfortunately, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments against these pathogens are limited. +RNA viruses have limited coding capacity and thus rely extensively on host factors for successful infection and propagation. A common feature among these viruses is their ability to dramatically modify cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions. These viral replication complexes (VRCs) serve two main functions: To increase replication efficiency by concentrating critical factors and to protect the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. This review summarizes current knowledge of critical host factors recruited to or demonstrated to be involved in the biogenesis and stabilization of +RNA virus VRCs. PMID:26287230

  16. ABCA1-dependent sterol release: sterol molecule specificity and potential membrane domain for HDL biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells synthesize various sterol molecules, including the C30 sterol, lanosterol, as cholesterol precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum. The build-up of precursor sterols, including lanosterol, displays cellular toxicity. Precursor sterols are found in plasma HDL. How these structurally different sterols are released from cells is poorly understood. Here, we show that newly synthesized precursor sterols arriving at the plasma membrane (PM) are removed by extracellular apoA-I in a manner dependent on ABCA1, a key macromolecule for HDL biogenesis. Analysis of sterol molecules by GC-MS and tracing the fate of radiolabeled acetate-derived sterols in normal and mutant Niemann-Pick type C cells reveal that ABCA1 prefers newly synthesized sterols, especially lanosterol, as the substrates before they are internalized from the PM. We also show that ABCA1 resides in a cholesterol-rich membrane domain resistant to the mild detergent, Brij 98. Blocking ACAT activity increases the cholesterol contents of this domain. Newly synthesized C29/C30 sterols are transiently enriched within this domain, but rapidly disappear from this domain with a half-life of less than 1 h. Our work shows that substantial amounts of precursor sterols are transported to a certain PM domain and are removed by the ABCA1-dependent pathway. PMID:26497474

  17. Cytochrome c Biogenesis Genes Involved in Arsenate Respiration by Shewanella trabarsenatis ANA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. K.

    2002-12-01

    Arsenate can be used as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration by diverse bacteria. The detection of these bacteria in numerous contaminated environments suggests that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Arsenate-respiring bacteria have been implicated in the mobilization of arsenic from arsenic-contaminated sediments. However, the enzymatic mechanisms supporting arsenate respiration are largely unknown. Here, we describe c-type cytochromes that are involved in arsenate respiration by the bacterium Shewanella trabarsenatis strain ANA-3, a facultative anaerobe that is able to use a variety of electron acceptors for growth. We performed transposon mutagenesis to study the electron transport pathway in ANA-3 during arsenate respiration. 10 arsenate-respiration deficient mutants were found after screening up to 7,000 mutants, and 4 were shown to have unique transposon insertions through Southern Blot analysis. The physiological properties of these mutants were determined, including characterization of their growth on different electron acceptors. The genes flanking the transposon insertions were sequenced for each mutant, and several were found to encode c-type cytochrome biogenesis genes. UV/VIS spectra and SDS/PAGE were used to confirm the absence of c-type cytochromes in the mutants. Based on these findings, we proposed a model for respiratory electron transport to arsenate.

  18. Metastasis suppressor KISS1 appears to reverse the Warburg effect by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Beck, Benjamin H.; Vaidya, Kedar S.; Nash, Kevin T.; Feeley, Kyle P.; Ballinger, Scott W.; Pounds, Keke M.; Denning, Warren L.; Diers, Anne R.; Landar, Aimee; Dhar, Animesh; Iwakuma, Tomoo; Welch, Danny R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, commonly called the “Warburg Effect.” Aerobic glycolysis often directly correlates with malignancy, but its purpose, if any, in metastasis remains unclear. When wild-type KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed, aerobic glycolysis decreases and oxidative phosphorylation predominates. However, when KISS1 is missing the secretion signal peptide (ΔSS), invasion and metastasis are no longer suppressed and cells continue to metabolize using aerobic glycolysis. KISS1-expressing cells have 30–50% more mitochondrial mass than ΔSS-expressing cells, which is accompanied by correspondingly increased mitochondrial gene expression and higher expression of PGC1α, a master co-activator that regulates mitochondrial mass and metabolism. PGC1α-mediated downstream pathways (i.e. fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation) are differentially regulated by KISS1, apparently reliant upon direct KISS1 interaction with NRF1, a major transcription factor involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Since the downstream effects could be reversed using shRNA to KISS1 or PGC1α, these data appear to directly connect changes in mitochondria mass, cellular glucose metabolism and metastasis. PMID:24351292

  19. The 5S RNP Couples p53 Homeostasis to Ribosome Biogenesis and Nucleolar Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Katherine E.; Bohnsack, Markus T.; Watkins, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14ARF, a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production. PMID:24120868

  20. STX13 regulates cargo delivery from recycling endosomes during melanosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Riddhi Atul; Purushothaman, Latha Kallur; Rani, Shikha; Bergam, Ptissam; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-09-01

    Melanosomes are a class of lysosome-related organelles produced by melanocytes. Biogenesis of melanosomes requires the transport of melanin-synthesizing enzymes from tubular recycling endosomes to maturing melanosomes. The SNARE proteins involved in these transport or fusion steps have been poorly studied. We found that depletion of syntaxin 13 (STX13, also known as STX12), a recycling endosomal Qa-SNARE, inhibits pigment granule maturation in melanocytes by rerouting the melanosomal proteins such as TYR and TYRP1 to lysosomes. Furthermore, live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies showed that STX13 co-distributed with melanosomal cargo in the tubular-vesicular endosomes that are closely associated with the maturing melanosomes. STX family proteins contain an N-terminal regulatory domain, and deletion of this domain in STX13 increases both the SNARE activity in vivo and melanosome cargo transport and pigmentation, suggesting that STX13 acts as a fusion SNARE in melanosomal trafficking pathways. In addition, STX13-dependent cargo transport requires the melanosomal R-SNARE VAMP7, and its silencing blocks the melanosome maturation, reflecting a defect in endosome-melanosome fusion. Moreover, we show mutual dependency between STX13 and VAMP7 in regulating their localization for efficient cargo delivery to melanosomes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Chloroplast biogenesis: The use of mutants to study the etioplast–chloroplast transition

    PubMed Central

    Philippar, Katrin; Geis, Tina; Ilkavets, Iryna; Oster, Ulrike; Schwenkert, Serena; Meurer, Jörg; Soll, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    In angiosperm plants, the etioplast–chloroplast transition is light-dependent. A key factor in this process is the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA), which catalyzes the light-induced reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. The import pathway of the precursor protein prePORA into chloroplasts was analyzed in vivo and in vitro by using homozygous loss-of-function mutants in genes coding for chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO) or for members of the outer-envelope solute-channel protein family of 16 kDa (OEP16), both of which have been implied to be key factors for the import of prePORA. Our in vivo analyses show that cao or oep16 mutants contain a normally structured prolamellar body that contains the protochlorophyllide holochrome. Furthermore, etioplasts from cao and oep16 mutants contain PORA protein as found by mass spectrometry. Our data demonstrate that both CAO and OEP16 are dispensable for chloroplast biogenesis and play no central role in the import of prePORA in vivo and in vitro as further indicated by protein import studies. PMID:17202255

  2. Chloroplast biogenesis: the use of mutants to study the etioplast-chloroplast transition.

    PubMed

    Philippar, Katrin; Geis, Tina; Ilkavets, Iryna; Oster, Ulrike; Schwenkert, Serena; Meurer, Jörg; Soll, Jürgen

    2007-01-09

    In angiosperm plants, the etioplast-chloroplast transition is light-dependent. A key factor in this process is the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA), which catalyzes the light-induced reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. The import pathway of the precursor protein prePORA into chloroplasts was analyzed in vivo and in vitro by using homozygous loss-of-function mutants in genes coding for chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO) or for members of the outer-envelope solute-channel protein family of 16 kDa (OEP16), both of which have been implied to be key factors for the import of prePORA. Our in vivo analyses show that cao or oep16 mutants contain a normally structured prolamellar body that contains the protochlorophyllide holochrome. Furthermore, etioplasts from cao and oep16 mutants contain PORA protein as found by mass spectrometry. Our data demonstrate that both CAO and OEP16 are dispensable for chloroplast biogenesis and play no central role in the import of prePORA in vivo and in vitro as further indicated by protein import studies.

  3. The Forkhead Transcription Factor Hcm1 Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Stress Resistance in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Colman, Maria José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Sorolla, M. Alba; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 is involved in chromosome segregation, spindle pole dynamics, and budding. We found that Hcm1 interacts with the histone deacetylase Sir2 and shifts from cytoplasm to the nucleus in the G1/S phase or in response to oxidative stress stimuli. The nuclear localization of Hcm1 depends on the activity of Sir2 as revealed by activators and inhibitors of the sirtuins and the Δsir2 mutant. Hcm1-overexpressing cells display more mitochondria that can be attributed to increased amounts of Abf2, a protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. These cells also show higher rates of oxygen consumption and improved resistance to oxidative stress that would be explained by increased catalase and Sod2 activities and molecular chaperones such as Hsp26, Hsp30, and members of Hsp70 family. Microarray analyses also reveal increased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy pathways and those allowing the transition from the exponential to the stationary phase. Taken together, these results describe a new and relevant role of Hcm1 for mitochondrial functions, suggesting that this transcription factor would participate in the adaptation of cells from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. PMID:20847055

  4. The forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and stress resistance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Colman, Maria José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Sorolla, M Alba; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2010-11-19

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 is involved in chromosome segregation, spindle pole dynamics, and budding. We found that Hcm1 interacts with the histone deacetylase Sir2 and shifts from cytoplasm to the nucleus in the G(1)/S phase or in response to oxidative stress stimuli. The nuclear localization of Hcm1 depends on the activity of Sir2 as revealed by activators and inhibitors of the sirtuins and the Δsir2 mutant. Hcm1-overexpressing cells display more mitochondria that can be attributed to increased amounts of Abf2, a protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. These cells also show higher rates of oxygen consumption and improved resistance to oxidative stress that would be explained by increased catalase and Sod2 activities and molecular chaperones such as Hsp26, Hsp30, and members of Hsp70 family. Microarray analyses also reveal increased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy pathways and those allowing the transition from the exponential to the stationary phase. Taken together, these results describe a new and relevant role of Hcm1 for mitochondrial functions, suggesting that this transcription factor would participate in the adaptation of cells from fermentative to respiratory metabolism.

  5. KETCH1 imports HYL1 to nucleus for miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Guo, Xinwei; Ge, Chunxiao; Ma, Zeyang; Jiang, Mengqiu; Li, Tianhong; Koiwa, Hisashi; Yang, Seong Wook; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-03-27

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is processed from primary transcripts with hairpin structures (pri-miRNAs) by microprocessors in the nucleus. How cytoplasmic-borne microprocessor components are transported into the nucleus to fulfill their functions remains poorly understood. Here, we report KETCH1 (karyopherin enabling the transport of the cytoplasmic HYL1) as a partner of hyponastic leaves 1 (HYL1) protein, a core component of microprocessor in Arabidopsis and functional counterpart of DGCR8/Pasha in animals. Null mutation of ketch1 is embryonic-lethal, whereas knockdown mutation of ketch1 caused morphological defects, reminiscent of mutants in the miRNA pathway. ketch1 knockdown mutation also substantially reduced miRNA accumulation, but did not alter nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of miRNAs. Rather, the mutation significantly reduced nuclear portion of HYL1 protein and correspondingly compromised the pri-miRNA processing in the nucleus. We propose that KETCH1 transports HYL1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to constitute functional microprocessor in Arabidopsis This study provides insight into the largely unknown nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking process of miRNA biogenesis components through eukaryotes.

  6. Metastasis suppressor KISS1 seems to reverse the Warburg effect by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Beck, Benjamin H; Vaidya, Kedar S; Nash, Kevin T; Feeley, Kyle P; Ballinger, Scott W; Pounds, Keke M; Denning, Warren L; Diers, Anne R; Landar, Aimee; Dhar, Animesh; Iwakuma, Tomoo; Welch, Danny R

    2014-02-01

    Cancer cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, commonly called the "Warburg effect." Aerobic glycolysis often directly correlates with malignancy, but its purpose, if any, in metastasis remains unclear. When wild-type KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed, aerobic glycolysis decreases and oxidative phosphorylation predominates. However, when KISS1 is missing the secretion signal peptide (ΔSS), invasion and metastasis are no longer suppressed and cells continue to metabolize using aerobic glycolysis. KISS1-expressing cells have 30% to 50% more mitochondrial mass than ΔSS-expressing cells, which are accompanied by correspondingly increased mitochondrial gene expression and higher expression of PGC1α, a master coactivator that regulates mitochondrial mass and metabolism. PGC1α-mediated downstream pathways (i.e., fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation) are differentially regulated by KISS1, apparently reliant upon direct KISS1 interaction with NRF1, a major transcription factor involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Since the downstream effects could be reversed using short hairpin RNA to KISS1 or PGC1α, these data appear to directly connect changes in mitochondria mass, cellular glucose metabolism, and metastasis.

  7. MKK3 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in sepsis-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Praveen; Shinn, Amanda S; Srivastava, Anup; Neamu, Radu F; Walker, Wendy E; Bohanon, Michael; Merkel, Jane; Kang, Min-Jong; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Ahasic, Amy M; Pisani, Margaret A; Trentalange, Mark; West, A Phillip; Shadel, Gerald S; Elias, Jack A; Lee, Patty J

    2014-04-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and a major cause of death worldwide. Because specific therapies to treat sepsis are limited, and underlying pathogenesis is unclear, current medical care remains purely supportive. Therefore targeted therapies to treat sepsis need to be developed. Although an important mediator of sepsis is thought to be mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Modulation of mitochondrial processes may be an effective therapeutic strategy in sepsis. Here, we investigated the role of the kinase MKK3 in regulation of mitochondrial function in sepsis. Using clinically relevant animal models, we examined mitochondrial function in primary mouse lung endothelial cells exposed to LPS. MKK3 deficiency reduces lethality of sepsis in mice and by lowering levels of lung and mitochondrial injury as well as reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, MKK3 deficiency appeared to simultaneously increase mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy through the actions of Sirt1, Pink1, and Parkin. This led to a more robust mitochondrial network, which we propose provides protection against sepsis. We also detected higher MKK3 activation in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from septic patients compared with nonseptic controls. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for mitochondria in the pathogenesis of sepsis that involves a previously unrecognized function of MKK3 in mitochondrial quality control. This mitochondrial pathway may help reveal new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets against sepsis.

  8. Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vural, Ali; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Shi, Chong-Shan; Srinivasan, Lalitha; McQuiston, Travis J; Hwang, Il-Young; Yeh, Anthony J; Blumer, Joe B; Briken, Volker; Williamson, Peter R; Otto, Michael; Fraser, Iain D C; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-15

    Many intracellular pathogens cause disease by subverting macrophage innate immune defense mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. In this article, we demonstrate that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3), an LPS-inducible protein in macrophages, affects both lysosomal biogenesis and activity. AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the Gα subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. Elevated AGS3 levels in macrophages limited the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a sensor of cellular nutritional status. This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. In contrast, AGS3-deficient macrophages had increased mammalian target of rapamycin activity, reduced transcription factor EB activity, and a lower lysosomal mass. High levels of AGS3 in macrophages enhanced their resistance to infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas AGS3-deficient macrophages were more susceptible. We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

  9. The 5S RNP couples p53 homeostasis to ribosome biogenesis and nucleolar stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Bohnsack, Markus T; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-10-17

    Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14(ARF), a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alenquer, Marta; Amorim, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the cellular plasma membrane. They originate as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) during the process of MVB formation. Exosomes were shown to contain selectively sorted functional proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating cell-to-cell communications and hence playing a role in the physiology of the healthy and diseased organism. Challenges in the field include the identification of mechanisms sustaining packaging of membrane-bound and soluble material to these vesicles and the understanding of the underlying processes directing MVBs for degradation or fusion with the plasma membrane. The investigation into the formation and roles of exosomes in viral infection is in its early years. Although still controversial, exosomes can, in principle, incorporate any functional factor, provided they have an appropriate sorting signal, and thus are prone to viral exploitation. This review initially focuses on the composition and biogenesis of exosomes. It then explores the regulatory mechanisms underlying their biogenesis. Exosomes are part of the endocytic system, which is tightly regulated and able to respond to several stimuli that lead to alterations in the composition of its sub-compartments. We discuss the current knowledge of how these changes affect exosomal release. We then summarize how different viruses exploit specific proteins of endocytic sub-compartments and speculate that it could interfere with exosome function, although no direct link between viral usage of the endocytic system and exosome release has yet been reported. Many recent reports have ascribed functions to exosomes released from cells infected with a variety of animal viruses, including viral spread, host immunity, and manipulation of the microenvironment, which are discussed. Given the ever-growing roles and importance of exosomes in viral infections, understanding what regulates their composition and levels, and

  11. Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Alenquer, Marta; Amorim, Maria João

    2015-09-17

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies(MVBs) with the cellular plasma membrane. They originate as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) during the process of MVB formation. Exosomes were shown to contain selectively sorted functional proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating cell-to-cell communications and hence playing a role in the physiology of the healthy and diseased organism. Challenges in the field include the identification of mechanisms sustaining packaging of membrane-bound and soluble material to these vesicles and the understanding of the underlying processes directing MVBs for degradation or fusion with the plasma membrane. The investigation into the formation and roles of exosomes in viral infection is in its early years. Although still controversial, exosomes can, in principle, incorporate any functional factor, provided they have an appropriate sorting signal, and thus are prone to viral exploitation.This review initially focuses on the composition and biogenesis of exosomes. It then explores the regulatory mechanisms underlying their biogenesis. Exosomes are part of the endocytic system,which is tightly regulated and able to respond to several stimuli that lead to alterations in the composition of its sub-compartments. We discuss the current knowledge of how these changes affect exosomal release. We then summarize how different viruses exploit specific proteins of endocytic sub-compartments and speculate that it could interfere with exosome function, although no direct link between viral usage of the endocytic system and exosome release has yet been reported. Many recent reports have ascribed functions to exosomes released from cells infected with a variety of animal viruses, including viral spread, host immunity, and manipulation of the microenvironment, which are discussed. Given the ever-growing roles and importance of exosomes in viral infections, understanding what regulates their composition and levels, and

  12. Assembly-induced folding regulates interleukin 12 biogenesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Reitberger, Susanne; Haimerl, Pascal; Aschenbrenner, Isabel; Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Feige, Matthias J

    2017-05-12

    Members of the IL-12 family perform essential functions in immunoregulation by connecting innate and adaptive immunity and are emerging therapeutic targets. They are unique among other interleukins in forming heterodimers that arise from extensive subunit sharing within the family, leading to the production of at least four functionally distinct heterodimers from only five subunits. This raises important questions about how the assembly of IL-12 family members is regulated and controlled in the cell. Here, using cell-biological approaches, we have dissected basic principles that underlie the biogenesis of the founding member of the family, IL-12. Within the native IL-12 heterodimer, composed of IL-12α and IL-12β, IL-12α possesses three intramolecular and one intermolecular disulfide bridges. We show that, in isolation, IL-12α fails to form its native structure but, instead, misfolds, forming incorrect disulfide bonds. Co-expression of its β subunit inhibits misfolding and thus allows secretion of biologically active heterodimeric IL-12. On the basis of these findings, we identified the disulfide bonds in IL-12α that are critical for assembly-induced secretion and biological activity of IL-12 versus misfolding and degradation of IL-12α. Surprisingly, two of the three disulfide bridges in IL-12α are dispensable for IL-12 secretion, stability, and biological activity. Extending our findings, we show that misfolding also occurs for IL-23α, another IL-12 family protein. Our results indicate that assembly-induced folding is key in IL-12 family biogenesis and secretion. The identification of essential disulfide bonds that underlie this process lays the basis for a simplified yet functional IL-12 cytokine. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Promise of Neurorestoration and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Parkinson's Disease with Multi Target Drugs: An Alternative to Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young J.

    2013-01-01

    There is an unmet need in progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The present therapeutics for these diseases at best is symptomatic and is not able to delay disease or possess disease modifying activity. Thus an approach to drug design should be made to slow or halt progressive course of a neurological disorder by interfering with a disease-specific pathogenetic process. This would entail the ability of the drug to protect neurons by blocking the common pathway for neuronal injury and cell death and the ability to promote regeneration of neurons and restoration of neuronal function. We have now developed a number of multi target drugs which possess neuroprotective, and neurorestorative activity as well as being able to active PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α), SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase protein) and NTF (mitochondrial transcription factor) that are intimately associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:24167412

  14. Phenol oxidative coupling in the biogenesis of the macrocyclic spermine alkaloids aphelandrine and orantine in Aphelandra sp.

    PubMed

    Nezbedová, L; Hesse, M; Drandarov, K; Bigler, L; Werner, C

    2001-07-01

    A crucial step in the biosynthesis of the spermine alkaloid aphelandrine and its diastereoisomer orantine is an intramolecular cyclization of the intermediate (S)-dihydroxyverbacine. In order to elucidate this step of the biosynthetic pathway, microsomes from the roots of Aphelandra squarrosa Nees were incubated with unlabeled and (D8)-labeled (S)-dihydroxyverbacine. It was shown that the microsomal fraction catalyzes the intramolecular coupling of (S)-dihydroxyverbacine to aphelandrine. This was proven by microsomal transformation of (D8)-labeled (S)-dihydroxyverbacine to (D8)-labeled aphelandrine. The reaction absolutely requires NAPDH and O2. The underlying reaction mechanism is probably an oxidative phenol coupling catalyzed by an aphelandrine synthase. This enzyme is proposed to be a cytochrome P-450 oxidase. The intramolecular cyclization of (S)-dihydroxyverbacine represents an important point in the biogenesis of the aphelandrine-type alkaloids.

  15. A Time to Reap, a Time to Sow: Mitophagy and Biogenesis in Cardiac Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Stotland, Aleksandr; Queliconi, Bruno B.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria and cellular homeostasis. Coordinated interplay between these two forces that govern mitochondrial turnover plays an important role as an adaptive response against various cellular stresses that can compromise cell survival. Failure to maintain the critical balance between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis or homeostatic turnover of mitochondria results in a population of dysfunctional mitochondria that contribute to various disease processes. In this review we outline the mechanics and relationships between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and discuss the implications of a disrupted balance between these two forces, with an emphasis on cardiac physiology. PMID:25444712

  16. Current topics in bioenergetics: Structure, biogenesis, and assembly of energy transducing enzyme systems. Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. The chapter titles are: Structure of NADH-Ubiquinone Reductase (Complex I); Structure of the Succinate-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex II); Structure of Mitochondrial Ubiquinol-Cytochrome-c Redutase (Complex III); Structure of Cytochrome-c Oxidase; Evolution of a Regulatory Enzyme: Cytochrome-c Oxidase (Complex IV); The Assembly of F/sub 1/F/sub 0/-ATPase in Escherichia coli; Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Energy Transducing Complexes; Biogenesis of Mammalian Mitochondria; Structure and Biogenesis of Chloroplast Coupling Factor (CF/sub 0/CF/sub 1/)-ATPase; Mitochondrial Gene Products; and Overview: Bioenergetics between Chemistry, Genetics, and Physics.

  17. New tricks for an old dog: ribosome biogenesis contributes to stem cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brombin, Alessandro; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Jamen, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Although considered a 'house-keeping' function, ribosome biogenesis is regulated differently between cells and can be modulated in a cell-type-specific manner. These differences are required to generate specialized ribosomes that contribute to the translational control of gene expression by selecting mRNA subsets to be translated. Thus, differences in ribosome biogenesis between stem and differentiated cells indirectly contribute to determine cell identity. The concept of the existence of stem cell-specific mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis has progressed from an attractive theory to a useful working model with important implications for basic and medical research.

  18. MH-60S Fleet Combat Support Helicopter (MH-60S)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng...Current estimate for AMCM IOC has changed from Oct 2014 to Sep 2015. This will align AMCM IOC with the LCS Mine Countermeasures Mission Package IOT &E...20A - Sonar Mine Detection Set IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation LCS - Littoral Combat Ship MS - Milestone NAV SAE FRP - Navy Service

  19. The Copper Transporter RAN1 Is Essential for Biogenesis of Ethylene Receptors in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Brad M.; Rodríguez, Fernando I.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    Plants utilize ethylene as a hormone to regulate multiple developmental processes and to coordinate responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a small family of five receptor proteins typified by ETR1 mediates ethylene perception. Our previous work suggested that copper ions likely play a role in ethylene binding. An independent study indicated that the ran1 mutants, which display ethylene-like responses to the ethylene antagonist trans-cyclooctene, have mutations in the RAN1 copper-transporting P-type ATPase, once again linking copper ions to the ethylene-response pathway. The results presented herein indicate that genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing ETR1 but lacking the RAN1 homolog Ccc2p (Δccc2) lacks ethylene-binding activity. Ethylene-binding activity was restored when copper ions were added to the Δccc2 mutants, showing that it is the delivery of copper that is important. Additionally, transformation of the Δccc2 mutant yeast with RAN1 rescued ethylene-binding activity. Analysis of plants carrying loss-of-function mutations in ran1 showed that they lacked ethylene-binding activity, whereas seedlings carrying weak alleles of ran1 had normal ethylene-binding activity but were hypersensitive to copper-chelating agents. Altogether, the results show an essential role for RAN1 in the biogenesis of the ethylene receptors and copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedlings. Furthermore, the results indicate cross-talk between the ethylene-response pathway and copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedling development. PMID:20876528

  20. The Core Components of Organelle Biogenesis and Membrane Transport in the Hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Petr; Doležal, Pavel; Jedelský, Petr L.; Bursac, Dejan; Perry, Andrew J.; Šedinová, Miroslava; Smíšková, Kateřina; Novotný, Marian; Beltrán, Neritza Campo; Hrdý, Ivan; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protist of the Excavata group. It contains an anaerobic form of mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen and ATP; the majority of mitochondrial pathways and the organellar genome were lost during the mitochondrion-to-hydrogenosome transition. Consequently, all hydrogenosomal proteins are encoded in the nucleus and imported into the organelles. However, little is known about the membrane machineries required for biogenesis of the organelle and metabolite exchange. Using a combination of mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro import assays and reverse genetics, we characterized the membrane proteins of the hydrogenosome. We identified components of the outer membrane (TOM) and inner membrane (TIM) protein translocases include multiple paralogs of the core Tom40-type porins and Tim17/22/23 channel proteins, respectively, and uniquely modified small Tim chaperones. The inner membrane proteins TvTim17/22/23-1 and Pam18 were shown to possess conserved information for targeting to mitochondrial inner membranes, but too divergent in sequence to support the growth of yeast strains lacking Tim17, Tim22, Tim23 or Pam18. Full complementation was seen only when the J-domain of hydrogenosomal Pam18 was fused with N-terminal region and transmembrane segment of the yeast homolog. Candidates for metabolite exchange across the outer membrane were identified including multiple isoforms of the β-barrel proteins, Hmp35 and Hmp36; inner membrane MCF-type metabolite carriers were limited to five homologs of the ATP/ADP carrier, Hmp31. Lastly, hydrogenosomes possess a pathway for the assembly of C-tail-anchored proteins into their outer membrane with several new tail-anchored proteins being identified. These results show that hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share common core membrane components required for protein import and metabolite exchange; however, they also reveal remarkable differences that reflect the

  1. Resveratrol Regulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Fission/Fusion to Attenuate Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kaige; Tao, Yuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong; Zhao, Yuanpeng; Cai, Ying; Zhao, Jiqing; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zhongmin; Cao, Jia; Sai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    It has been confirmed that mitochondrial impairment may underlie both sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial fission/fusion and biogenesis are key processes in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Therefore, we explored whether the protective effect of resveratrol in rotenone-induced neurotoxicity was associated with mitochondrial fission/fusion and biogenesis. The results showed that resveratrol could not only promote mitochondrial mass and DNA copy number but also improve mitochondrial homeostasis and neuron function in rats and PC12 cells damaged by rotenone. We also observed effects with alterations in proteins known to regulate mitochondrial fission/fusion and biogenesis in rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, our findings suggest that resveratrol may prevent rotenone-induced neurotoxicity through regulating mitochondrial fission/fusion and biogenesis. PMID:26770656

  2. Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Lionaki, Eirini; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-05-28

    Impaired mitochondrial maintenance in disparate cell types is a shared hallmark of many human pathologies and ageing. How mitochondrial biogenesis coordinates with the removal of damaged or superfluous mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis is not well understood. Here we show that mitophagy, a selective type of autophagy targeting mitochondria for degradation, interfaces with mitochondrial biogenesis to regulate mitochondrial content and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that DCT-1 is a key mediator of mitophagy and longevity assurance under conditions of stress in C. elegans. Impairment of mitophagy compromises stress resistance and triggers mitochondrial retrograde signalling through the SKN-1 transcription factor that regulates both mitochondrial biogenesis genes and mitophagy by enhancing DCT-1 expression. Our findings reveal a homeostatic feedback loop that integrates metabolic signals to coordinate the biogenesis and turnover of mitochondria. Uncoupling of these two processes during ageing contributes to overproliferation of damaged mitochondria and decline of cellular function.

  3. The mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP) coordinates mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis with iron sulfur cluster biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Jeong, Mi-Young; Wei, Peng; Chen, Yu-Chan; Gygi, Steven P; Winge, Dennis R; Rutter, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FASII) and iron sulfur cluster (FeS) biogenesis are both vital biosynthetic processes within mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), which has a well-known role in FASII, plays an unexpected and evolutionarily conserved role in FeS biogenesis. ACP is a stable and essential subunit of the eukaryotic FeS biogenesis complex. In the absence of ACP, the complex is destabilized resulting in a profound depletion of FeS throughout the cell. This role of ACP depends upon its covalently bound 4’-phosphopantetheine (4-PP)-conjugated acyl chain to support maximal cysteine desulfurase activity. Thus, it is likely that ACP is not simply an obligate subunit but also exploits the 4-PP-conjugated acyl chain to coordinate mitochondrial fatty acid and FeS biogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17828.001 PMID:27540631

  4. Studying Factors Involved in Biogenesis of Lysobacter sp. XL1 Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kudryakova, I V; Suzina, N E; Vinokurova, N G; Shishkova, N A; Vasilyeva, N V

    2017-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 produces outer membrane vesicles that are heterogeneous in size, density, and protein composition. One of the subpopulations is secretory vesicles for lytic protease L5 of Lysobacter sp. XL1 (Kudryakova et al. (2015) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 362, fnv137). Protein L5 was assumed to influence biogenesis of these secretory vesicles that contain it. Using a Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87/B expression system, it was shown that the recombinant L5 protein may act as a factor of vesicle biogenesis. This points to a possible involvement of L5 protein in Lysobacter sp. XL1 vesicle biogenesis. Furthermore, it was established that the main phospholipid of Lysobacter sp. XL1 vesicles is cardiolipin, and vesicles are formed predominantly of outer membrane regions enriched with this phospholipid. This indicates that cardiolipin participates in biogenesis of all vesicle subpopulations in Lysobacter sp. XL1.

  5. The influence of sex, body mass and body mass index on plantar soft-tissue stiffness in healthy people in their 60s.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Dong Yeon; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-09-06

    Foot abnormality has become a public health concern. Early detection of pathological soft tissue is therefore an important preventive measure, especially in older people who generally have a higher risk of foot pathology. However, the interpretation of plantar tissue stiffness data - whether to normalize the data or to separate the data on the basis of sex- remains questionable. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of sex and physical attributes such as body mass (BM) and body mass index (BMI) on plantar soft-tissue stiffness, and to evaluate whether it is necessary to isolate the differences in sex, BM and BMI in the data analysis. One hundred healthy subjects in their 60s were recruited for the experiment. Localized force response was obtained underneath the second metatarsal head (MTH) pad at three different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. No significant relationship was found between the independent variables and plantar stiffness. From the experimental results, it can be deduced that BM and BMI are weakly associated with plantar tissue stiffness, and that there is no significant difference in stiffness between male and female participants. No difference was found between left and right foot measurements. This suggests that normalizing of plantar tissue stiffness by BM and BMI is not necessary in healthy people in their 60s. The data can be pooled and treated equally regardless of sex.

  6. Sizing up the 60s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parini, Jay

    2008-01-01

    For the author, the 1960s was a tumultuous era which he associates with a feeling of freedom from old pieties and a sense of fresh possibilities. It was a time of self-indulgence coupled with flamboyance that annoyed many of those in authority, including parents, professors, and politicians. In this article, the author discusses how a new book by…

  7. Impaired Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Myogenesis in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ripolone, Michela; Ronchi, Dario; Violano, Raffaella; Vallejo, Dionis; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Barca, Emanuele; Lucchini, Valeria; Colombo, Irene; Villa, Luisa; Berardinelli, Angela; Balottin, Umberto; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina; Bordoni, Andreina; Fortunato, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Parisi, Daniela; Toscano, Antonio; Sciacco, Monica; DiMauro, Salvatore; Comi, Giacomo P.; Moggio, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    , implying depression of the entire mitochondrial biogenesis. Results of Western blot analysis confirmed the reduced levels of the respiratory chain subunits that included mitochondrially encoded COX1 (47.5%; P = .004), COX2 (32.4%; P < .001), COX4 (26.6%; P < .001), and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (65.8%; P = .03) as well as the structural outer membrane mitochondrial porin (33.1%; P < .001). Conversely, the levels of expression of 3 myogenic regulatory factors—muscle-specificmyogenic factor 5, myoblast determination 1, and myogenin—were higher in muscles from patients with SMA compared with muscles from age-matched controls (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our results strongly support the conclusion that an altered regulation of myogenesis and a downregulated mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to pathologic change in the muscle of patients with SMA. Therapeutic strategies should aim at counteracting these changes. PMID:25844556

  8. Quercetin induces mitochondrial biogenesis in experimental traumatic brain injury via the PGC-1α signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Yang, Youqing; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, has been found to have protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism mediating these effects in the weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administration 30 min after TBI. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment upregulated the expression of PGC-1α and restored the level of cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These results demonstrate that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in mice by improving the level of PGC-1α following TBI. PMID:27648146

  9. Quercetin induces mitochondrial biogenesis in experimental traumatic brain injury via the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Yang, Youqing; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, has been found to have protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism mediating these effects in the weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administration 30 min after TBI. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment upregulated the expression of PGC-1α and restored the level of cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These results demonstrate that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in mice by improving the level of PGC-1α following TBI.

  10. Chemical Inhibition of Bacterial Ribosome Biogenesis Shows Efficacy in a Worm Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Jonathan M.; Selin, Carrie; Cardona, Silvia T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of antibacterial compounds that perturb novel processes is an imperative in the challenge presented by widespread antibiotic resistance. While many antibiotics target the ribosome, molecules that inhibit ribosome assembly have yet to be used in this manner. Here we show that a novel inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis, lamotrigine, is capable of rescuing Caenorhabditis elegans from an established Salmonella infection, revealing that ribosome biogenesis is a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. PMID:25712357

  11. NAMPT regulates mitochondria biogenesis via NAD metabolism and calcium binding proteins during skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Seok; Yoon, Chung-Su; Park, Dae Ryoung

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that muscle contraction induced NAD metabolism via NAMPT has on mitochondrial biogenesis. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated from the gastrocnemius in C57BL/6 mice. The muscle cells were stimulated by electrical current at 1Hz for 3 minutes in conditions of normal or NAD metabolism related inhibitor treatment. NAD/NADH level, Sirt1 and mitochondria biogenesis related signal factor's changes were examined in normal or NAD metabolism related inhibitor treated cells. Electrical stimulation (ES) induced muscle contractions significantly increased NAD/NADH levels, NAMPT inhibitor FK-866 inhibited ES-induced NAD formation, which caused SIRT1 expression and PGC-1α deacetylation to decrease. Moreover, NAMPT inhibition decreased mitochondrial biogenesis related mRNA, COX-1 and Tfam levels. Along with AMPK inhibitor, compound C decreases SIRT1 expression, PGC-1α deacetylation and muscle contraction induced mitochondrial biogenesis related mRNA increment. These results indicated that the AMPK-NAMPT signal is a key player for muscle contraction induced SIRT1 expression and PGC-1α deacetylation, which influences mitochondrial biogenesis. Inhibition of the AMPK upregulator, Camkkβ, STO-609 decreased AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 expression but did not decrease PGC-1α deacetylation. However, CAMKII inhibition via AIP decreased PGC-1α deacetylation. In conclusion, the results indicate that NAMPT plays an important role in NAD metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is also controlled by different calcium binding protein signals including Camkkβ and CAMKII. [Keyword] Muscle contraction, NAD metabolism, SIRT1, PGC-1 α, mitochondria biogenesis.

  12. Mutations that affect vacuole biogenesis inhibit proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Ann J; Larson, Lynnelle L; Cadera, Emily J; Parrish, Mark L; Wright, Robin L

    2002-01-01

    In yeast, increased levels of the sterol biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase isozyme, Hmg1p, induce assembly of nuclear-associated ER membranes called karmellae. To identify additional genes involved in karmellae assembly, we screened temperature-sensitive mutants for karmellae assembly defects. Two independently isolated, temperature-sensitive strains that were also defective for karmellae biogenesis carried mutations in VPS16, a gene involved in vacuolar protein sorting. Karmellae biogenesis was defective in all 13 other vacuole biogenesis mutants tested, although the severity of the karmellae assembly defect varied depending on the particular mutation. The hypersensitivity of 14 vacuole biogenesis mutants to tunicamycin was well correlated with pronounced defects in karmellae assembly, suggesting that the karmellae assembly defect reflected alteration of ER structure or function. Consistent with this hypothesis, seven of eight mutations causing defects in secretion also affected karmellae assembly. However, the vacuole biogenesis mutants were able to proliferate their ER in response to Hmg2p, indicating that the mutants did not have a global defect in the process of ER biogenesis. PMID:11973291

  13. Synchronized translation programs across compartments during mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Couvillion, Mary T.; Soto, Iliana C.; Shipkovenska, Gergana; Churchman, L. Stirling

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is fundamental for life. OXPHOS complexes pose a unique challenge for the cell, because their subunits are encoded on two different genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome. Genomic approaches designed to study nuclear/cytosolic and bacterial gene expression have not been broadly applied to the mitochondrial system; thus the co-regulation of OXPHOS genes remains largely unexplored. Here we globally monitored mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mitochondrial biogenesis, when OXPHOS complexes are synthesized. Nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS transcript levels do not increase concordantly. Instead, we observe that mitochondrial and cytosolic translation are rapidly and dynamically regulated in a strikingly synchronous fashion. Furthermore, the coordinated translation programs are controlled unidirectionally through the intricate and dynamic control of cytosolic translation. Thus the nuclear genome carefully directs the coordination of mitochondrial and cytosolic translation to orchestrate the timely synthesis of each OXPHOS complex, representing an unappreciated regulatory layer shaping the mitochondrial proteome. Our whole-cell genomic profiling approach establishes a foundation for global gene regulatory studies of mitochondrial biology. PMID:27225121

  14. Autophagy-mediated longevity is modulated by lipoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Nicole E.; de Magalhaes Filho, C. Daniel; Petrashen, Anna P.; Henderson, Hope R.; Laguer, Jade; Gonzalez, Julissa; Dillin, Andrew; Hansen, Malene; Lapierre, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy-dependent longevity models in C. elegans display altered lipid storage profiles, but the contribution of lipid distribution to life-span extension is not fully understood. Here we report that lipoprotein production, autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis are linked to modulate life span in a conserved fashion. We find that overexpression of the yolk lipoprotein VIT/vitellogenin reduces the life span of long-lived animals by impairing the induction of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes necessary for longevity. Accordingly, reducing vitellogenesis increases life span via induction of autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. Life-span extension due to reduced vitellogenesis or enhanced lysosomal lipolysis requires nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) NHR-49 and NHR-80, highlighting novel roles for these NHRs in lysosomal lipid signaling. In dietary-restricted worms and mice, expression of VIT and hepatic APOB (apolipoprotein B), respectively, are significantly reduced, suggesting a conserved longevity mechanism. Altogether, our study demonstrates that lipoprotein biogenesis is an important mechanism that modulates aging by impairing autophagy and lysosomal lipolysis. PMID:26671266

  15. Lipid partitioning at the nuclear envelope controls membrane biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Antonio Daniel; Sembongi, Hiroshi; Su, Wen-Min; Abreu, Susana; Reggiori, Fulvio; Carman, George M.; Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Partitioning of lipid precursors between membranes and storage is crucial for cell growth, and its disruption underlies pathologies such as cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms and signals that regulate this process are largely unknown. In yeast, lipid precursors are mainly used for phospholipid synthesis in nutrient-rich conditions in order to sustain rapid proliferation but are redirected to triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in lipid droplets during starvation. Here we investigate how cells reprogram lipid metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that the conserved phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase Pah1, which generates diacylglycerol from PA, targets a nuclear membrane subdomain that is in contact with growing lipid droplets and mediates TAG synthesis. We find that cytosol acidification activates the master regulator of Pah1, the Nem1-Spo7 complex, thus linking Pah1 activity to cellular metabolic status. In the absence of TAG storage capacity, Pah1 still binds the nuclear membrane, but lipid precursors are redirected toward phospholipids, resulting in nuclear deformation and a proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We propose that, in response to growth signals, activation of Pah1 at the nuclear envelope acts as a switch to control the balance between membrane biogenesis and lipid storage. PMID:26269581

  16. A conserved phosphatase cascade that regulates nuclear membrane biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Gentry, Matthew S; Harris, Thurl E; Wiley, Sandra E; Lawrence, John C; Dixon, Jack E

    2007-04-17

    A newly emerging family of phosphatases that are members of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily contains the catalytic motif DXDX(T/V). A member of this DXDX(T/V) phosphatase family known as Dullard was recently shown to be a potential regulator of neural tube development in Xenopus [Satow R, Chan TC, Asashima M (2002) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:85-91]. Herein, we demonstrate that human Dullard and the yeast protein Nem1p perform similar functions in mammalian cells and yeast cells, respectively. In addition to similarity in primary sequence, Dullard and Nem1p possess similar domains and show similar substrate preferences, and both localize to the nuclear envelope. Additionally, we show that human Dullard can rescue the aberrant nuclear envelope morphology of nem1Delta yeast cells, functionally replacing Nem1p. Finally, Nem1p, has been shown to deposphorylate the yeast phosphatidic acid phosphatase Smp2p [Santos-Rosa H, Leung J, Grimsey N, Peak-Chew S, Siniossoglou S (2005) EMBO J 24:1931-1941], and we show that Dullard dephosphorylates the mammalian phospatidic acid phosphatase, lipin. Therefore, we propose that Dullard participates in a unique phosphatase cascade regulating nuclear membrane biogenesis, and that this cascade is conserved from yeast to mammals.

  17. Regulation of Mitoflash Biogenesis and Signaling by Mitochondrial Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenwen; Sun, Tao; Liu, Beibei; Wu, Di; Qi, Wenfeng; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing constant network reorganization and exhibiting stochastic signaling events in the form of mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes). Here we investigate whether and how mitochondrial network dynamics regulate mitoflash biogenesis and signaling. We found that mitoflash frequency was largely invariant when network fragmentized or redistributed in the absence of mitofusin (Mfn) 1, Mfn2, or Kif5b. However, Opa1 deficiency decreased spontaneous mitoflash frequency due to superimposing changes in respiratory function, whereas mitoflash response to non-metabolic stimulation was unchanged despite network fragmentation. In Drp1- or Mff-deficient cells whose mitochondria hyperfused into a single whole-cell reticulum, the frequency of mitoflashes of regular amplitude and duration was again unaltered, although brief and low-amplitude “miniflashes” emerged because of improved detection ability. As the network reorganized, however, the signal mass of mitoflash signaling was dynamically regulated in accordance with the degree of network connectivity. These findings demonstrate a novel functional role of mitochondrial network dynamics and uncover a magnitude- rather than frequency-modulatory mechanism in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. In addition, our data support a stochastic trigger model for the ignition of mitoflashes. PMID:27623243

  18. Extracellular Streptomyces lividans vesicles: composition, biogenesis and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Schrempf, Hildgund; Merling, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    We selected Streptomyces lividans to elucidate firstly the biogenesis and antimicrobial activities of extracellular vesicles that a filamentous and highly differentiated Gram-positive bacterium produces. Vesicle types range in diameter from 110 to 230 nm and 20 to 60 nm, respectively; they assemble to clusters, and contain lipids and phospholipids allowing their in situ imaging by specific fluorescent dyes. The presence of the identified secondary metabolite undecylprodigiosin provokes red fluorescence of a portion of the heterogeneous vesicle populations facilitating in vivo monitoring. Protuberances containing vesicles generate at tips, and alongside of substrate hyphae, and enumerate during late vegetative growth to droplet-like exudates. Owing to in situ imaging in the presence and absence of a green fluorescent vancomycin derivative, we conclude that protuberances comprising vesicles arise at sites with enhanced levels of peptidoglycan subunits [pentapeptide of lipid II (C55)-linked disaccharides], and reduced levels of polymerized and cross-linked peptidoglycan within hyphae. These sites correlate with enhanced levels of anionic phospholipids and lipids. Vesicles provoke pronounced damages of Aspergillus proliferans, Verticillium dahliae and induced clumping and distortion of Escherichia coli. These harmful effects are likely attributable to the action of the identified vesicular compounds including different enzyme types, components of signal transduction cascades and undecylprodigiosin. Based on our pioneering findings, we highlight novel clues with environmental implications and application potential.

  19. Activated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells regulate Beige Fat Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Odegaard, Justin I.; Mukundan, Lata; Qiu, Yifu; Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Yun, Karen; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), an innate source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and -13, participate in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although type 2 immunity is critically important for mediating metabolic adaptations to environmental cold, the functions of ILC2s in beige or brown fat development are poorly defined. We report here that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 is sufficient to promote the growth of functional beige fat in thermoneutral mice. Mechanistically, ILC2 activation results in the proliferation of bipotential adipocyte precursors (APs) and their subsequent commitment to the beige fat lineage. Loss- and gain-of-function studies reveal that ILC2-and eosinophil-derived type 2 cytokines stimulate signaling via the IL-4Rα in PDGFRα+ APs to promote beige fat biogenesis. Together, our results highlight a critical role for ILC2s and type 2 cytokines in the regulation of adipocyte precursor numbers and fate, and as a consequence, adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:25543153

  20. Genetics and molecular basis of human peroxisome biogenesis disorders.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ebberink, Merel S

    2012-09-01

    Human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprised of two clinically distinct subtypes: the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) type 1. PBDs are caused by defects in any of at least 14 different PEX genes, which encode proteins involved in peroxisome assembly and proliferation. Thirteen of these genes are associated with ZSS disorders. The genetic heterogeneity among PBDs and the inability to predict from the biochemical and clinical phenotype of a patient with ZSS which of the currently known 13 PEX genes is defective, has fostered the development of different strategies to identify the causative gene defects. These include PEX cDNA transfection complementation assays followed by sequencing of the thus identified PEX genes, and a PEX gene screen in which the most frequently mutated exons of the different PEX genes are analyzed. The benefits of DNA testing for PBDs include carrier testing of relatives, early prenatal testing or preimplantation genetic diagnosis in families with a recurrence risk for ZSS disorders, and insight in genotype-phenotype correlations, which may eventually assist to improve patient management. In this review we describe the current status of genetic analysis and the molecular basis of PBDs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondria: biogenesis, structure, and function--symposium introduction.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2003-01-01

    During the past three to four decades, a significant amount of data was collected to reinforce the notion that mitochondrial function is irrevocably linked to mitochondrial structure. Indeed, data from numerous studies have revealed several salient points of mitochondrial biology that include the following: 1). mitochondria exist as a reticulum rather than as single entities, 2). different mitochondrial populations identified by their cellular location are characterized by different structural and functional characteristics, and 3). muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity readily adapts to changes in muscle use and disuse by adjusting tissue metabolic capacity to match functional demands. More recently, research in the area of mitochondrial biology has focused on uncovering 1). the cellular signals responsible for the control of mitochondrial biogenesis via coordinate regulation of nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression, 2). the mechanisms by which mitochondrial respiration is regulated, and 3). the role of mitochondria in apoptotic cell death. The most current knowledge in these areas of mitochondrial biology will be addressed in the following symposium papers.

  2. Hoxa10 null animals exhibit reduced platelet biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Iwona M.; DeLuca, Teresa A.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.; Miller, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor HOXA10 is an important regulator of myelopoiesis. Engineered over-expression of Hoxa10 in mice results in a myeloproliferative disorder that progresses to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) over time, and in humans over-expression is associated with poor outcomes in AML. Here, we report that loss of Hoxa10 expression in mice results in reduced platelet count and platelet production, but does not affect clotting efficiency. About 40% fewer platelets were found in Hoxa10 null animals in comparison to wild type littermates