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Sample records for 64-slice mdct study

  1. How reliable are 40 MHz IVUS and 64-slice MDCT in characterizing coronary plaque composition? An ex vivo study with histopathological comparison.

    PubMed

    Chopard, Romain; Boussel, Loic; Motreff, Pascal; Rioufol, Gilles; Tabib, Alain; Douek, Philippe; Meyronet, David; Revel, Didier; Finet, Gérard

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated whether IVUS could serve as a reliable reference in validating MDCT characterization of coronary plaque against a histological gold standard. Twenty-one specimens were postmortem human coronary arteries. Coronary cross-sections were imaged by 40 MHz IVUS and by 64-slice MDCT and characterized histologically as presenting calcified, fibrous or lipid-rich plaques. Plaque composition was analyzed visually and intra-plaque MDCT attenuation was measured in Hounsfield Units (HU). 83 atherosclerotic plaques were identified. IVUS failed to characterize calcified plaque accurately, with a positive predictive value (ppv) of 75% versus 100% for MDCT. Lipid-rich plaque was even less accurately characterized, with ppv of 60 and 68% for IVUS and MDCT respectively. Mean MDCT attenuation was 966 +/- 473 HU for calcified plaque, 83 +/- 35 HU for fibrous plaque and 70.92 HU +/- 41 HU for lipid-rich plaque. No significant difference in mean MDCT attenuation was found between fibrous and lipid-rich plaques (P = 0.276). In vivo validation of MDCT against an IVUS reference thus appears to be an unsuitable and unreliable approach: 40 MHz IVUS suffers from acoustic ambiguities in plaque characterization, and 64-slice MDCT fails to analyze plaque morphology and components accurately.

  2. In the workup of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleed, does 64-slice MDCT have a role?

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Sreekumar, Kp; Rajeshkannan, R; Nazar, Pk; Sandya, Cj; Sivasubramanian, S; Ramchandran, Pv

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to prospectively determine the sensitivity of 64-slice MDCT in detecting and diagnosing the cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB). Our study included 50 patients (male 30, female 20) in the age range of 3-82 years (average age: 58.52 years) who were referred to our radiology department as part of their workup for clinically evident gastrointestinal (GI) bleed or as part of workup for anemia (with and without positive fecal occult blood test). All patients underwent conventional upper endoscopy and colonoscopy before undergoing CT scan. Following a noncontrast scan, all patients underwent triple-phase contrast CT scan using a 64-slice CT scan system. The diagnostic performance of 64-slice MDCT was compared to the results of capsule endoscopy, 99m-technetium-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy (99mTc-RBC scintigraphy), digital subtraction angiography, and surgery whenever available. CT scan showed positive findings in 32 of 50 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of MDCT for detection of bleed were 72.2%, 42.8%, 81.2%, and 44.4%, respectively. Capsule endoscopy was done in 15 patients and was positive in 10 patients; it had a sensitivity of 71.4%. Eleven patients had undergone 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy prior to CT scan, and the result was positive in seven patients (sensitivity 70%). Digital subtraction angiography was performed in only eight patients and among them all except one patient showed findings consistent with the lesions detected on MDCT. MDCT is a sensitive and noninvasive tool that allows rapid detection and localization of OGIB. It can be used as the first-line investigation in patients with negative endoscopy and colonoscopy studies. MDCT and capsule endoscopy have complementary roles in the evaluation of OGIB.

  3. Fish bone foreign bodies in the pharynx and upper esophagus: evaluation with 64-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Hwa Seon; Cho, Jae Min; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Bae, Kyung-Soo; Koh, Eun Ha; Park, Jung Je

    2014-02-01

    Fish bone (FB) is one of the common causes of foreign body impaction in the pharynx and esophagus. To investigate the efficacy of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the evaluation of pharynx and upper esophageal FB foreign bodies. Sixty-six patients with suspected FB foreign body ingestion were examined by plain radiography (n = 40) and unenhanced MDCT (n = 66). We analyzed the presence, location, size, shape, and lying position of the foreign bodies. On MDCT, 46 foreign bodies were detected. Among them, 45 were confirmed by endoscopy. The sensitivity of MDCT for the detection of foreign bodies was 100%, which was superior to that of the plain radiography (51.7%). The location of the foreign bodies was most common in the upper esophagus (n = 22, 47.8%), followed by pharyngoesophageal junction (n = 10, 21.7%), transjunctional (n = 7, 15.2%), hypopharynx (n = 5, 10.9%), and oropharynx (n = 2, 4.3%). Their longest length was 5.3-40.1 mm (mean, 21.3 mm). Thirty-three FBs (71.7%) were linear and 13 (28.3%) were flat in shape. They showed transverse (n = 23, 50.0%), parallel (n = 13, 28.3%), and oblique positions (n = 10, 21.7%) to the long axis of the pharynx and esophagus, respectively. MDCT is useful for the evaluation of the pharynx and upper esophageal FB foreign bodies.

  4. Analyzing coronary artery disease in patients with low CAC scores by 64-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan-Han; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Chen, Tai-Been; Huang, Yung-Hui; Kuo, Chung-Ming; Ding, Hueisch-Jy

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are widely used to determine risk for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). A CAC score does not have the diagnostic accuracy needed for CAD. This work uses a novel efficient approach to predict CAD in patients with low CAC scores. The study group comprised 86 subjects who underwent a screening health examination, including laboratory testing, CAC scanning, and cardiac angiography by 64-slice multidetector computed tomographic angiography. Eleven physiological variables and three personal parameters were investigated in proposed model. Logistic regression was applied to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of when using individual variables and CAC score. Meta-analysis combined physiological and personal parameters by logistic regression. The diagnostic sensitivity of the CAC score was 14.3% when the CAC score was ≤30. Sensitivity increased to 57.13% using the proposed model. The statistically significant variables, based on beta values and P values, were family history, LDL-c, blood pressure, HDL-c, age, triglyceride, and cholesterol. The CAC score has low negative predictive value for CAD. This work applied a novel prediction method that uses patient information, including physiological and society parameters. The proposed method increases the accuracy of CAC score for predicting CAD.

  5. A new approach to the assessment of lumen visibility of coronary artery stent at various heart rates using 64-slice MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Groen, J. M.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.

    2007-01-01

    Coronary artery stent lumen visibility was assessed as a function of cardiac movement and temporal resolution with an automated objective method using an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom. Nine different coronary stents filled with contrast fluid and surrounded by fat were scanned using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) at 50–100 beats/min with the moving heart phantom. Image quality was assessed by measuring in-stent CT attenuation and by a dedicated tool in the longitudinal and axial plane. Images were scored by CT attenuation and lumen visibility and compared with theoretical scoring to analyse the effect of multi-segment reconstruction (MSR). An average increase in CT attenuation of 144 ± 59 HU and average diminished lumen visibility of 29 ± 12% was observed at higher heart rates in both planes. A negative correlation between image quality and heart rate was non-significant for the majority of measurements (P > 0.06). No improvement of image quality was observed in using MSR. In conclusion, in-stent CT attenuation increases and lumen visibility decreases at increasing heart rate. Results obtained with the automated tool show similar behaviour compared with attenuation measurements. Cardiac movement during data acquisition causes approximately twice as much blurring compared with the influence of temporal resolution on image quality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-007-0568-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17429648

  6. Comparison of 4- and 64-slice CT scanning in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Douma, Renée A; Hofstee, Herman M A; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein T M; Lely, Rutger J; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Gerdes, Victor E A; Kramer, Mark H H; Büller, Harry R

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of multi-detector row CT (MDCT), sensitivity to diagnose pulmonary embolism (PE) has greatly improved. The use of newer generation CT-scans may lead to a higher prevalence and a different distribution of PE. We compared 64-slice with 4-slice MDCT regarding prevalence and distribution of PE, the number of inconclusive test results and inter-reader variability. CT-scans from a random sample of 110 consecutive patients who underwent 4-slice CT-scanning were compared with 64-slice CT-scans from 107 patients from a second cohort. Three radiologists independently reassessed all CT-scans. Consensus was reached in case of disagreement between the readers. Final diagnosis of PE was categorised as central, segmental or subsegmental by the thrombus' most proximal end. The prevalence of PE was 24% (26/110, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17-32%) and 22% (24/107, 16-31%) for the 4-slice and 64-slice cohort, respectively. The prevalence of isolated subsegmental emboli was 2/26 (7.7%; 2.1-24%) and 5/24 (21%; 9.2-41%), respectively (p=0.424). The number of inconclusive scans was 10% in both cohorts, mostly due to movement artefacts and suboptimal intravascular contrast, respectively. The inter-reader agreement between the three readers was 0.70 for the 4-slice scans and 0.68 for the 64-slice scans. Although absolute prevalence of PE was equal in both cohorts, there was a trend towards more subsegmental PE with 64-slice CT. In a multi-reader setting, the number of inconclusive examinations was higher than quoted for clinical management studies, indicating that the diagnosis of PE with MDCT could be less straightforward than assumed.

  7. A jumping left atrial thrombus connected to a pulmonary vein thrombus using transthoracic echocardiography and 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hidekazu

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have reported the differences between transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 64-slice multidetector CT (64-MDCT) in identifying left atrium (LA) thrombi. I report the case of a 70 year old man with coronary artery disease and angina who was diagnosed with a thrombus in the left lower pulmonary vein extending to the LA using a non-invasive 64-MDCT scan and TTE. TTE was unable to clearly identify a thrombus in the pulmonary veins, whereas a 64-MDCT scan identified a thrombus in the pulmonary vein but was unable to detect a moving thrombus attached to the mitral valves. The 64-MDCT images of LA thrombi are smaller than those of TTE and the video created using TTE demonstrated a moving thrombus connected to the mitral valve, which was underdiagnosed by a 64-MDCT scan. This case illustrates the complementary role for both TTE and 64-MDCT in the noninvasive diagnosis of left atrial-pulmonary vein thrombi.

  8. Three-dimensional echocardiography in various types of heart disease: a comparison study of magnetic resonance imaging and 64-slice computed tomography in a real-world population.

    PubMed

    Squeri, Angelo; Censi, Stefano; Reverberi, Claudio; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Baldelli, Marco; Binno, Simone Maurizio; Properzi, Enrico; Bosi, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Accurate quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes [end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV)] and ejection fraction (EF) is of critical importance. The development of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) has shown better correlation than two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of RT3DE and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of LV volumes and function using MRI as the reference standard in a real-world population with various types of heart disease with different chamber geometry. The study population consisted of 66 patients referred for cardiac MRI for various pathologies. All patients underwent cardiac MRI, and RT3DE and 64 slices CT were then performed on a subsequent day. The study population was then divided into 5 clinical groups depending on the underlying heart disease. RT3DE volumes correlated well with MRI values (R (2) values: 0.90 for EDV and 0.94 for ESV). RT3DE measurements of EF correlated well with MRI values (R (2) = 0.86). RT3DE measurements resulted in slightly underestimated values of both EDV and ESV, as reflected by biases of -9.18 and -4.50 mL, respectively. Comparison of RT3DE and MRI in various types of cardiomyopathies showed no statistical difference between different LV geometrical patterns. These results confirm that RT3DE has good accuracy in everyday clinical practice and can be of clinical utility in all types of cardiomyopathy independently of LV geometric pattern, LV diameter or wall thickness, taking into account a slight underestimation of LV volumes and EF compared to MRI.

  9. Trabecular bone structure analysis in the osteoporotic spine using a clinical in vivo setup for 64-slice MDCT imaging: comparison to microCT imaging and microFE modeling.

    PubMed

    Issever, Ahi S; Link, Thomas M; Kentenich, Marie; Rogalla, Patrik; Schwieger, Karsten; Huber, Markus B; Burghardt, Andrew J; Majumdar, Sharmila; Diederichs, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    Assessment of trabecular microarchitecture may improve estimation of biomechanical strength, but visualization of trabecular bone structure in vivo is challenging. We tested the feasibility of assessing trabecular microarchitecture in the spine using multidetector CT (MDCT) on intact human cadavers in an experimental in vivo-like setup. BMD, bone structure (e.g., bone volume/total volume = BV/TV; trabecular thickness = Tb.Th; structure model index = SMI) and bone texture parameters were evaluated in 45 lumbar vertebral bodies using MDCT (mean in-plane pixel size, 274 microm(2); slice thickness, 500 microm). These measures were correlated with structure measures assessed with microCT at an isotropic spatial resolution of 16 microm and to microfinite element models (microFE) of apparent modulus and stiffness. MDCT-derived BMD and structure measures showed significant correlations to the density and structure obtained by microCT (BMD, R(2) = 0.86, p < 0.0001; BV/TV, R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.0001; Tb.Th, R(2) = 0.36, p < 0.01). When comparing microCT-derived measures with microFE models, the following correlations (p < 0.001) were found for apparent modulus and stiffness, respectively: BMD (R(2) = 0.58 and 0.66), BV/TV (R(2) = 0.44 and 0.58), and SMI (R(2) = 0.44 and 0.49). However, the overall highest correlation (p < 0.001) with microFE app. modulus (R(2) = 0.75) and stiffness (R(2) = 0.76) was achieved by the combination of QCT-derived BMD with the bone texture measure Minkowski Dimension. In summary, although still limited by its spatial resolution, trabecular bone structure assessment using MDCT is overall feasible. However, when comparing with microFE-derived bone properties, BMD is superior compared with single parameters for microarchitecture, and correlations further improve when combining with texture measures.

  10. 64-Slice multidetector row CT angiography of the abdomen: comparison of low versus high concentration iodinated contrast media in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Holalkere, N-S; Matthes, K; Kalva, S P; Brugge, W R; Sahani, D V

    2011-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to assess the image quality and degree of vascular enhancement using low-concentration contrast media (LCCM) (300 mg I ml–1) and high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) (370 mg I ml–1) on 64-slice multidetector row CT (MDCT) abdominal CT angiography (CTA). In addition, we aimed to study the feasibility of using HCCM with a reduced total iodine dose. Methods CTA of the abdomen on a 64-slice MDCT was performed on 15 anaesthetised pigs. Study pigs were divided into three groups of five each based on the iodine concentration and dose received: Group A (LCCM; 300 mg I ml–1), Group B (HCCM; 370 mg I ml–1) and Group C HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. The total iodine injected was kept constant (600 mg kg–1) in Groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to study and compare each group for image quality, visibility of the branch order of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), artefacts, degree of enhancement in the aorta and main stem arteries and uniformity of enhancement in the aorta. Groups were compared using the analysis of variance test. Results The image quality of 64-slice MDCT angiography was excellent with a mean score of 4.63 and confident visualisation of the third to fifth order branches of the SMA in all groups. Group B demonstrated superior vascular enhancement, as compared with Groups A and C (p≤0.05). Uniform aortic enhancement was achieved with the use of LCCM and HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. Conclusion 64-slice MDCT angiography of the abdomen was of excellent quality. HCCM improves contrast enhancement and overall CTA image quality and allows the iodine dose to be reduced. PMID:21081582

  11. 64-Slice multidetector row CT angiography of the abdomen: comparison of low versus high concentration iodinated contrast media in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Holalkere, N-S; Matthes, K; Kalva, S P; Brugge, W R; Sahani, D V

    2011-03-01

    In this study we aimed to assess the image quality and degree of vascular enhancement using low-concentration contrast media (LCCM) (300 mg I ml(-1)) and high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) (370 mg I ml(-1)) on 64-slice multidetector row CT (MDCT) abdominal CT angiography (CTA). In addition, we aimed to study the feasibility of using HCCM with a reduced total iodine dose. CTA of the abdomen on a 64-slice MDCT was performed on 15 anaesthetised pigs. Study pigs were divided into three groups of five each based on the iodine concentration and dose received: Group A (LCCM; 300 mg I ml(-1)), Group B (HCCM; 370 mg I ml(-1)) and Group C HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. The total iodine injected was kept constant (600 mg kg(-1)) in Groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to study and compare each group for image quality, visibility of the branch order of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), artefacts, degree of enhancement in the aorta and main stem arteries and uniformity of enhancement in the aorta. Groups were compared using the analysis of variance test. The image quality of 64-slice MDCT angiography was excellent with a mean score of 4.63 and confident visualisation of the third to fifth order branches of the SMA in all groups. Group B demonstrated superior vascular enhancement, as compared with Groups A and C (p≤0.05). Uniform aortic enhancement was achieved with the use of LCCM and HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. 64-slice MDCT angiography of the abdomen was of excellent quality. HCCM improves contrast enhancement and overall CTA image quality and allows the iodine dose to be reduced.

  12. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    artefacts by significantly reducing metal artefacts subsequently and increasing CNR on a 64 slice CT system in light and medium disturbance of the image.

  13. Acute chest pain in emergency room. Preliminary findings with 40-64-slice CT ECG-gated of the whole chest.

    PubMed

    Coche, E

    2007-01-01

    ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest represents the latest technical advance in the diagnostic work-up of atypical chest pain. The authors report their preliminary experience with the use of 40 and 64-slice CT in the emergency room and recommend to study only patients with moderate likelihood of coronary artery disease. ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest will be preferentially performed on 64-slice MDCT rather than 40-slice MDCT because it enable to reduce the scan time (18 seconds versus 28 seconds acquisition time), the volume of contrast medium (82 mL + 15 mL versus 97 mL + 15 mL of highly concentrated contrast agent for a patient of 70 kgs) and radiation exposure (17 mSv versus 19 mSv). Approximately 1500 to 2000 of images are produced and need to be analysed on a dedicated workstation by a radiologist expert in cardiac and thoracic disorders. At the present time, only a few studies exist in the literature showing some promising results but further large clinical studies are needed before to implement such sophisticated protocol in emergency room.

  14. Comparative dosimetry of dental CBCT devices and 64-slice CT for oral and maxillofacial radiology.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, John B; Ivanovic, Marija

    2008-07-01

    This study compares 2 measures of effective dose, E(1990) and E(2007), for 8 dentoalveolar and maxillofacial cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) unit. Average tissue-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, and effective dose were calculated using thermoluminescent dosimeter chips in a radiation analog dosimetry phantom. Effective doses were derived using 1990 and the superseding 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. Large-field of view (FOV) CBCT E(2007) ranged from 68 to 1,073 microSv. Medium-FOV CBCT E(2007) ranged from 69 to 560 microSv, whereas a similar-FOV MDCT produced 860 microSv. The E(2007) calculations were 23% to 224% greater than E(1990). The 2007 recommendations of the ICRP, which include salivary glands, extrathoracic region, and oral mucosa in the calculation of effective dose, result in an upward reassessment of fatal cancer risk from oral and maxillofacial radiographic examinations. Dental CBCT can be recommended as a dose-sparing technique in comparison with alternative medical CT scans for common oral and maxillofacial radiographic imaging tasks.

  15. Integrated assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion using a retractable SPECT camera combined with 64-slice CT: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Christian; Schoepf, U Joseph; Gordon, Leonie; Chiaramida, Salvatore; Serguson, Jill; Costello, Philip

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated a prototype SPECT system integrated with multidetector row CT (MDCT) for obtaining complementary information on coronary anatomy and hemodynamic lesion significance. Twenty-five consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent routine SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). All patients also underwent repeat MPI with a mobile SPECT unit which could be attached to a 64-slice MDCT system. Coronary CT angiography (cCTA) was performed without repositioning the patient. Investigational MPI was compared with routine MPI for detection of myocardial perfusion defects (PD). Two observers diagnosed presence or absence of CAD based on MPI alone, cCTA alone, and based on combined MPI and cCTA with fused image display. In 22/24 patients investigative MPI corresponded with routine MPI (r = 0.80). Stenosis >or= 50% at cCTA was detected in 6/24 patients. Six out of 24 patients had PD at regular MPI. Three of these six patients had no significant stenosis at cCTA. Three out of 19 patients with normal MPI studies had significant stenosis at cCTA. Our initial experience indicates that the integration of SPECT MPI with cCTA is technically feasible and enables the comprehensive evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and myocardial perfusion with a single instrumental setup.

  16. Heart rate recovery after exercise and coronary atheroma in asymptomatic individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a study using 64-slice coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Halon, David A; Dobrecky-Mery, Idit; Gaspar, Tamar; Azencot, Mali; Yaniv, Nisan; Peled, Nathan; Lewis, Basil S

    2010-11-05

    Impaired heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR) is a marker of autonomic dysfunction and a predictor of long-term mortality either directly or due to associated cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of 552 asymptomatic type 2 diabetics (age 63.2 ± 5.4 yr, 54.9% women) participating in a long-term prospective outcomes study, we examined the hypothesis that cardiac autonomic dysfunction, as demonstrated by HRR in the first minute after exercise, is an independent correlate of multivessel coronary artery atheroma. HRR1 was reduced in patients with any coronary plaque (p = 0.012), multivessel coronary plaque (p = 0.006), and coronary stenosis (p = 0.027). However, the association was not independent of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk score thus it appears to be related to the adverse risk profile of these patients.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography for the detection of in-stent restenosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carrabba, Nazario; Schuijf, Joanne D; de Graaf, Fleur R; Parodi, Guido; Maffei, Erica; Valenti, Renato; Palumbo, Alessandro; Weustink, Annick C; Mollet, Nico R; Accetta, Gabriele; Cademartiri, Filippo; Antoniucci, David; Bax, Jeroen J

    2010-06-01

    We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) compared with invasive coronary angiography for in-stent restenosis (ISR) detection. MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and BioMed Central database searches were performed until April 2009 for original articles. Inclusion criteria were (1) 64-MDCT was used as a diagnostic test for ISR, with >50% diameter stenosis selected as the cut-off criterion for significant ISR, using invasive coronary angiography and quantitative coronary angiography as the standard of reference; (2) absolute numbers of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative results could be derived. Standard meta-analytic methods were applied. Nine studies with a total of 598 patients with 978 stents included were considered eligible. On average, 9% of stents were unassessable (range 0-42%). Accuracy tests with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing 64-MDCT vs invasive coronary angiography showed that pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (random effect model) values were: 86% (95% CI 80-91%), 93% (95% CI 91-95%), 12.32 (95% CI 7.26-20.92), 0.18 (95% CI 0.12-0.28) for binary ISR detection. The symmetric area under the curve value was 0.94, indicating good agreement between 64-MDCT and invasive coronary angiography. 64-MDCT has a good diagnostic accuracy for ISR detection with a particularly high negative predictive value. However, still a relatively large proportion of stents remains uninterpretable. Accordingly, only in selected patients, 64-MDCT may serve as a potential alternative noninvasive method to rule out ISR.

  18. Hemodialysis fistula occlusion: demonstration with 64-slice CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2006-01-01

    The speed and resolution of 64-slice CT have resulted in new applications for CT angiography (CTA) owing to rapid data acquisition during the arterial phase, improved visualization of small vessels, and lengthened anatomic coverage. Extremity CT angiography is one such region. This case report shows the utility of multislice CTA for the evaluation of hemodialysis graft dysfunction.

  19. [Clinical value of 64-slice spiral 3-phase CT enhanced scanning for preoperative TNM staging assessment of gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bao-yuan; Liu, Yan-xiu; Huang, Wen-feng; Liu, Qing-quan; Liu, Shao-qiang; Liu, Yao

    2012-07-01

    To explore the clinical value of 64-slice spiral 3-phase CT enhanced scanning for preoperative TNM staging assessment of gastric carcinoma. A retrospective study was performed to review the 64-slice spiral 3-phase CT enhanced scanning of 120 patients with gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy prior to operation and postoperative pathological reports. All the findings were reviewed by two senior radiologic diagnosticians separately and compared with pathological findings. The accuracy of 64-slice spiral CT enhanced scan was 79.2%(95/120) for T staging, 66.7%(10/15) for T1, 66.7%(14/21) for T2, 84.0%(42/50) for T3, and 85.3%(29/34) for T4. For gastric wall with single layer and multiple layers, the accuracy of CT enhanced scanning was 59.4%(19/32) and 81.8%(72/88) for T staging, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). The accuracy of 64-slice spiral CT enhanced scan was 73.9%(85/115) for N staging, 75.5%(37/49) for N0, 70.3%(26/37) for N1, 75.9%(22/29) for N2. The accuracy of 64-slice spiral CT enhanced scanning was 89.2% for M staging. 64-slice spiral CT 3-phase enhanced scanning can monitor the invasion, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis of gastric cancer dynamically, which may become an important examination item for the preoperative evaluation of gastric cancer.

  20. Adolescent Kawasaki disease: usefulness of 64-slice CT coronary angiography for follow-up investigation.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Iacopo; Cannata, David; Algeri, Emanuela; Galea, Nicola; Napoli, Alessandro; De Zorzi, Andrea; Bosco, Giovanna; D'Agostino, Rita; Menezes, Leon; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto; Francone, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects coronary arteries in children, and requires regular follow-up from the time of diagnosis. To evaluate the feasibility of 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) for follow-up of patients with KD using previously performed invasive catheter coronary angiography (CCA) as reference standard. The study group comprised 12 patients (age 17.6 ± 2.9 years, mean ± SD) with a diagnosis of KD and a previously performed CCA (interval, 32.6 ± 13.5 months) who underwent 64-slice cardiac CTA. The quality of the images for establishing the presence of coronary abnormalities was determined by two observers. The CTA findings were compared with those from the prior CCA. Adequate image quality was obtained in all patients. Mean effective dose for CTA was 6.56 ± 0.95 mSv. CTA allowed accurate identification, characterization and measurement of all coronary aneurysms (n = 32), stenoses (n = 3) and occlusions (n = 9) previously demonstrated by CCA. One patient with disease progression went on to have percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary lesions were reliably evaluated by 64-slice CTA in the follow-up of compliant patients with KD, reducing the need for repeated diagnostic invasive CCA. Hence, in an adequately selected patient population, the role of CCA could be limited almost only to therapeutic procedures.

  1. A new method for experimental characterisation of scattered radiation in 64-slice CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, A; Ay, MR; Ghadiri, H; Sarkar, S; Zaidi, H

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The consummate 64-slice CT scanner that spawns a new generation of non-invasive diagnostic tool, however revolutionary, brings with it the incidental by-product that is scattered radiation. The extended detector aperture capability in the 64-slcie CT scanner allows the effects of scattered radiation to be more pronounced and therefore demands that the magnitude and spatial distribution of scatter component be addressed during the imaging process. To this end, corrective algorithms need to be formulated on a basis of a precise understanding of scatter distribution. Relative to a 64-slice CT scanner, here now a unique solution is based upon dedicated blockers operative within various detector rows, calculating scatter profiles and scatter to primary ratios (SPR). Materials and methods: A single dimension blocker array was installed beneath the collimator, and the extrapolated shadow area on the detectors revealed the scatter radiation after exposure. The experiment was conducted using a 64-slice CT scanner manufactured by GE Healthcare Technologies. Results: Variables such as tube voltage, phantom size and phantom-off centring on the scatter profile and the SPR was measured using the dedicated blocker method introduced above. When tube voltage is increased from 80kVp to 140kVp in a 21.5 cm water phantom, the SPR is found to reduce from 219.9 to 39.9 respectively. Conclusion: The method developed within this study is applicable to any measurement and is direct with minimal complexity. PMID:21611063

  2. Detection and quantification of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by 64-slice multidetector CT: a systematic head-to-head comparison with intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Stella-Lida; Neefjes, Lisan A; Schaap, Michiel; Li, Hui-Ling; Capuano, Ermanno; van der Giessen, Alina G; Schuurbiers, Johan C H; Gijsen, Frank J H; Dharampal, Anoeshka S; Nieman, Koen; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Mollet, Nico R; de Feyter, Pim J

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated the ability of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)-derived plaque parameters to detect and quantify coronary atherosclerosis, using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as the reference standard. In 32 patients, IVUS and 64-MDCT was performed. The MDCT and IVUS datasets of 44 coronary arteries were co-registered using a newly developed fusion technique and quantitative parameters were derived from both imaging modalities. The threshold of >0.5 mm of maximum wall thickness was used to establish plaque presence on MDCT and IVUS. We analyzed 1364 coregistered 1-mm coronary cross-sections and 255 segments of 5-mm length. Compared with IVUS, 64-MDCT enabled correct detection in 957 of 1109 cross-sections containing plaque (sensitivity 86%). In 180 of 255 cross-sections atherosclerosis was correctly excluded (specificity 71%). On the segmental level, MDCT detected 213 of 220 segments with any atherosclerotic plaque (sensitivity 96%), whereas the presence of any plaque was correctly ruled out in 28 of 32 segments (specificity 88%). Interobserver agreement for the detection of atherosclerotic cross-sections was moderate (Cohen's kappa coefficient K=0.51), but excellent for the atherosclerotic segments (K=1.0). Pearson's correlation coefficient for vessel plaque volumes measured by MDCT and IVUS was r=0.91 (p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a slight non-significant underestimation of any plaque volume by MDCT (p=0.5), with a trend to underestimate noncalcified and overestimate mixed/calcified plaque volumes (p=0.22 and p=0.87 respectively). MDCT is able to detect and quantify atherosclerotic plaque. Further improvement in CT resolution is necessary for more reliable assessment of very small and distal coronary plaques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotid stenosis evaluation by 64-slice CTA: comparison of NASCET, ECST and CC grading methods.

    PubMed

    Kılıçkap, Gülsüm; Ergun, Elif; Başbay, Elif; Koşar, Pınar; Kosar, Uğur

    2012-06-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET), European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and Common Carotid (CC) methods, which are used to measure the degree of ICA stenosis, using 64-slice CT angiography and to compare the measurements made by these three methods. 88 cases (111 carotid arteries) were included in the study. Carotid CTA was performed by a 64 slice scanner (Toshiba, Aqullion 64).Two radiologists measured the degree of carotid stenosis by using NASCET, ECST and CC methods. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of each method was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots and kappa and linear weighted kappa statistics. The relation between the measurements was assessed by correlation coefficient (with linear and quadratic methods). Correlation coefficients showed that there is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods. The degree of stenosis measured with the NASCET method had the lowest value, while the corresponding values measured with the ECST and CC methods were close to each other. ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed high intra and inter observer agreement for NASCET, ECST and CC methods whereas kappa statistics showed moderate to substantial agreement. CC method had slightly higher agreement when compared with the other two methods. Intra and interobserver agreement is high for NASCET, ECST and CC methods however CC method has a slightly higher reproducibility. There is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods.

  4. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Falcão, João L A A; Falcão, Breno A A; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Campos, Carlos M; Silva, Expedito R; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E; Shiozaki, Afonso A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Lemos, Pedro A

    2015-01-27

    Background: The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives: We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. Methods: The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. Results: At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. Conclusions: In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  5. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A.; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. Methods The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. Results At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. Conclusions In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25993595

  6. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Falcão, João L A A; Falcão, Breno A A; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Campos, Carlos M; Silva, Expedito R; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E; Shiozaki, Afonso A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Lemos, Pedro A

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  7. Estimating risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Andrew J; Henzlova, Milena J; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2007-07-18

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has become a common diagnostic test, yet there are little data on its associated cancer risk. The recent Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII Phase 2 report provides a framework for estimating lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from a CTCA study, using the most current data available on health effects of radiation. To determine the LAR of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from a 64-slice CTCA study and to evaluate the influence of age, sex, and scan protocol on cancer risk. Organ doses from 64-slice CTCA to standardized phantom (computational model) male and female patients were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods, using standard spiral CT protocols. Age- and sex-specific LARs of individual cancers were estimated using the approach of BEIR VII and summed to obtain whole-body LARs. Whole-body and organ LARs of cancer incidence. Organ doses ranged from 42 to 91 mSv for the lungs and 50 to 80 mSv for the female breast. Lifetime cancer risk estimates for standard cardiac scans varied from 1 in 143 for a 20-year-old woman to 1 in 3261 for an 80-year-old man. Use of simulated electrocardiographically controlled tube current modulation (ECTCM) decreased these risk estimates to 1 in 219 and 1 in 5017, respectively. Estimated cancer risks using ECTCM for a 60-year-old woman and a 60-year-old man were 1 in 715 and 1 in 1911, respectively. A combined scan of the heart and aorta had higher LARs, up to 1 in 114 for a 20-year-old woman. The highest organ LARs were for lung cancer and, in younger women, breast cancer. These estimates derived from our simulation models suggest that use of 64-slice CTCA is associated with a nonnegligible LAR of cancer. This risk varies markedly and is considerably greater for women, younger patients, and for combined cardiac and aortic scans.

  8. Slope on proximal tibiofibular articular surface with 3-D reconstruction by 64-slice computed tomography on human.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-wang; Deng, Hong-zhen; Zhu, Hai-bo; Zhu, Yi; Zhu, Jian-ming

    2012-05-01

    Using 64-slice spiral CT to reconstruct virtual knee joints of adults, we measured the gradient of proximal tibia-fibular joint and compared this result with bare joint measurement. We then discuss the accuracy of these measurements using a 64-slice spiral CT. Two hundred healthy adults were selected, including 100 males and 100 females, aged from 18 to 90 years. The gradient of the longitudinal axis of the fibula and the articular surface, and the angle of horizon of the proximal tibia-fibular articular surface and the horizontal line were measured by using a 64-slice spiral CT scan. The angle between the longitudinal axis of the fibula and the articular surface (angle A) was 56.80° ± 6.59°, both the left and the right fibula showed no significant difference (t = 0.308, P = 0.758). The angle between horizontal line and the articular surface (angle B) was 32.80° ± 6.49°. The regression or correlation analysis findings showed that there is a negative relationship (r = -0.952, P = 0.000), and there is significant difference (t = 51.87, P < 0.01) between the angle A and the angle B. The measurement value of using 64-slice spiral CT to reconstruct the slope of proximal tibia-fibular joints has no difference compared to the measurement value of the slope of bare proximal tibia-fibular joints. It is a precise, convenient method and is easy to apply for clinical study. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: using 64-slice multidetector CT angiography to "triage" patients' treatment.

    PubMed

    Agid, R; Lee, S K; Willinsky, R A; Farb, R I; terBrugge, K G

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical role of CT angiography (CTA) in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for treatment decision-making. Consecutive patients with acute SAH had CTA using a 64-slice scanner for initial clinical decision-making. Image processing included multiplanar volume reformatted (MPVR) maximum intensity projections (MIP) and 3D volume-rendered reconstructions. CTAs were used for (1) evaluating the cause of SAH, and (2) triaging aneurysm-bearing patients to the more appropriate management, either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. CTA findings were confirmed by neurosurgical exploration or catheter angiography (digital subtraction angiography, DSA). Successful coiling provided evidence that triaging to endovascular treatment was correct. Included in the study were 73 patients. CTA findings were confirmed by DSA or neurosurgical operation in 65 patients, and of these 65, 47 had aneurysmal SAH, 3 had vasculitis, 1 had arterial dissection and 14 had no underlying arterial abnormality. The cause of SAH was detected with CTA in 62 out of the 65 patients (95.4%, sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%). CTA revealed the aneurysm in 46 of 47 patients (98%, sensitivity 98%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82.3%), 1 of 3 vasculitides and 1 of 1 dissection. Of the 46 patients with aneurysm, 44 (95.7%) were referred for treatment based on CTA. In 2 patients (2 of 46, 4.4%) CTA was not informative enough to choose treatment requiring DSA. Of the 44 patients, 27 (61.4%) were referred to endovascular treatment and successful coiling was achieved in 25 (25 of 27, 92.6%). CTA using a 64-slice scanner is an accurate tool for detecting and characterizing aneurysms in acute SAH. CTA is useful in the decision process whether to coil or clip an aneurysm.

  10. Performance evaluation of a 64-slice CT system with z-flying focal spot.

    PubMed

    Flohr, T; Stierstorfer, K; Raupach, R; Ulzheimer, S; Bruder, H

    2004-12-01

    The meanwhile established generation of 16-slice CT systems enables routine sub-millimeter imaging at short breath-hold times. Clinical progress in the development of multidetector row CT (MDCT) technology beyond 16 slices can more likely be expected from further improvement in spatial and temporal resolution rather than from a mere increase in the speed of volume coverage. We present an evaluation of a recently introduced 64-slice CT system (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany), which uses a periodic motion of the focal spot in longitudinal direction (z-flying focal spot) to double the number of simultaneously acquired slices. This technique acquires 64 overlapping 0.6 mm slices per rotation. The sampling scheme corresponds to that of a 64 x 0.3 mm detector, with the goal of improved longitudinal resolution and reduced spiral artifacts. After an introduction to the detector design, we discuss the basics of z-flying focal spot technology (z-Sharp). We present phantom and specimen scans for performance evaluation. The measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the thinnest spiral slice is 0.65 mm. All spiral slice widths are almost independent of the pitch, with deviations of less than 0.1 mm from the nominal value. Using a high-resolution bar pattern phantom (CATPHAN, Phantom Laboratories, Salem, NY), the longitudinal resolution can be demonstrated to be up to 15 lp/cm at the isocenter independent of the pitch, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.33 mm. Longitudinal resolution is only slightly degraded for off-center locations. At a distance of 100 mm from the isocenter, 14 lp/cm can be resolved in the z-direction, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.36 mm. Spiral "windmill" artifacts presenting as hyper- and hypodense structures around osseous edges are effectively reduced by the z-flying focal spot technique. Cardiac scanning benefits from the short gantry rotation time of 0.33 s, providing up to 83 ms temporal resolution with 2-segment ECG

  11. 64 slice-coronary computed tomography sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of coronary artery bypass graft stenosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Umberto; Iannaccone, Mario; d'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Barbero, Cristina; Mohamed, Abdirashid; Annone, Umberto; Benedetto, Sara; Celentani, Dario; Gagliardi, Marco; Moretti, Claudio; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-08-01

    A non-invasive approach to define grafts patency and stenosis in the follow-up of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients may be an interesting alternative to coronary angiography. 64-slice-coronary computed tomography is nowadays a diffused non-invasive method that permits an accurate evaluation of coronary stenosis, due to a high temporal and spatial resolution. However, its sensitivity and specificity in CABG evaluation has to be clearly defined, since published studies used different protocols and scanners. We collected all studies investigating patients with stable symptoms and previous CABG and reporting the comparison between diagnostic performances of invasive coronary angiography and 64-slice-coronary computed tomography. As a result, sensitivity and specificity of 64-slice-coronary computed tomography for CABG occlusion were 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99. 64-slice-coronary computed tomography sensitivity and specificity for the presence of any CABG stenosis >50% were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98), while AUC was 0.99. At meta-regression, neither the age nor the time from graft implantation had effect on sensitivity and specificity of 64-slice-coronary computed tomography detection of significant CABG stenosis or occlusion. In conclusion 64-slice-coronary computed tomography confirmed its high sensitivity and specificity in CABG stenosis or occlusion evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A 64-slice multi-detector CT scan could evaluate the change of the left atrial appendage thrombi of the atrial fibrillation patient, which was reduced by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hidekazu

    2011-08-19

    Curable cause of stroke is the left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Some AF patients have the LAA thrombi. It is very important to cure AF patients by warfarin. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is the usual clinical tool to detect the LAA thrombi. Recently, a 64-slice multi-detector CT (64-MDCT) scan enables us to display the LAA thrombi more easily than TOE. I reported a case that a 64-MDCT scan had been used successfully in displaying the change of the LAA thrombi reduced by warfarin therapy. The size of the LAA thrombi was reduced from 25.2 mm × 19.3 mm (figure 1) to 22.1 mm × 14.8 mm (figure 2) after the 3-month warfarin therapy. It was useful to estimate the LAA thrombi by a 64-MDCT scan to estimate LAA thrombi itself and the change of LAA thrombi to evaluate the effectiveness of warfarin therapy.

  13. Diagnostic performance of 64-MDCT and 1.5-T MRI with high-resolution sequences in the T staging of gastric cancer: a comparative analysis with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Zini, C; Cavallo Marincola, B; Geiger, D; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2009-10-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) in the T staging of gastric carcinoma in comparison with histopathology. Forty patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of gastric carcinoma underwent preoperative MR imaging and 64-MDCT, both of which were performed after i.v. injection of scopolamine and water distension of the stomach. In the MR imaging protocol, we acquired T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences, true fast imaging steady-state free precession (true-FISP) and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) 3D sequences. Contrastenhanced CT scans were obtained in the arterial and venous phases. Two groups of radiologists independently reviewed the MR and 64-MDCT images. The results were compared with pathology findings. In the evaluation of T stage, 64-MDCT had 82.5% and MR imaging had 80% sensitivity. Accuracy of MR imaging was slightly higher than that of 64-MDCT in identifying T1 lesions (50% vs 37.5%), whereas the accuracy of 64-MDCT was higher in differentiating T2 lesions (81.2% vs 68.7%). The accuracy of MR imaging and 64-MDCT did not differ significantly in the evaluation of T3-T4 lesions (p>0.05). Understaging was observed in 20% of cases with MR imaging and in 17.5% with 64-MDCT. MR imaging and 64-MDCT accuracy levels did not differ in advanced stages of disease, whereas MR imaging was superior in identifying early stages of gastric cancer and can be considered a valid alternative to MDCT in clinical practice.

  14. Non-invasive Detection of Aortic and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia by 64 Slice Multi-detector Row Computed Tomography Angiography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disorder characterized by the early onset of atherosclerosis, often at the ostia of coronary arteries. In this study we document for the first time that aortic and coronary atherosclerosis can be detected using 64 slice multiple detector-row ...

  15. Non-invasive detection of aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by 64 slice multi-detector row computed tomography angiography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disorder characterized by the early onset of atherosclerosis, often at the ostia of coronary arteries. In this study we document for the first time that aortic and coronary atherosclerosis can be detected using 64 slice multiple detector row ...

  16. Diagnostic Capabilities of 64 Slice CT Coronography Compared to Classic in Coronary Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sehovic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease, among which the most common is coronary disease of the hearth are the main cause of death at middle aged persons in the majority of European countries. Percent of cardiovascular disease in overall mortality among our population is even more than 50%. Up to 55 years of live myocardial infarction is by 5-6 times more common among men, and up to age of 75 years that difference decreases to 2.5 times. Goal: The goal of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of 64 slices computerized tomography in detection of coronary disease compared to classic, invasive coronography. Material and methods: Study included 50 patients, of both genders, at average age of 60 years. Patients underwent CT coronography as well as classic coronography. Results: Our research prove that the sensitivity of MSCT coronography 92% with positive predictive value of 86%. Mayor difference was in the analysis of CX artery in the evaluation of significant and non-significant stenosis in application of these two methods. During the analysis of LAD and RCA artery there was no statistically significant difference in findings of these two methods. Conclusion: CT coronography is non-invasive, comfortable and reliable method in coronary disease diagnostics. Thanks to its high sensitivity and PPV it enables reliable exclusion of coronary disease and takes significant place in a cardiovascular diseases diagnostic algorithm. PMID:24167394

  17. Digital medical technology based on 64-slice computed tomography in hepatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chi-hua; Huang, Yan-peng; Chen, Mian-ling; Lu, Chao-min; Li, Xiao-feng; Qiu, Wen-feng

    2010-05-05

    With the rapid development of computer technology, digital medicine has become a new direction in surgery. The application of digital medicine in hepatic surgery is still at the early stage and less reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to apply digital medical technology in the context of hepatic surgery. Data from 64-slice helical computed tomography of 17 patients, including 13 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 4 with hepatic hemangioma, were imported into independently developed medical image software program, segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. The three-dimensional models were then processed with the FreeForm Modeling System. We used virtual surgical instruments to perform surgery on the models. Simulated surgeries included six hepatic segmentectomies, four left hemihepatectomies, three right hemihepatectomies for hepatocellular carcinoma, one hepatic segmentectomy, two stripping surgeries, and one irregular segmentectomy combined with stripping surgery for hemangioma. For resections involving more than three hepatic segments, total and residual functional hepatic volumes were measured before and after simulation surgery, and the resection ratio was calculated. The anatomy of the models was distinct and was used to localize lesions. We used virtual surgical instruments to perform simulated surgeries and used the models to optimize actual surgeries. We were able to minimize resection volume as well as surgical risk. Digital medical technology is helpful in the diagnosis of hepatic disease and in optimizing surgical plans. Three-dimensional models can decrease surgical risk and help prevent postoperative hepatic failure.

  18. Assessment of coronary stents by 64-slice computed tomography: in-stent lumen visibility and patency.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Yan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Zhang, Zhu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Ning; Song, Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Yun-Qing

    2009-09-01

    To assess lumen visibility of coronary stents by 64-slice computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography, and determine the value of 64-slice CT in non-invasive detecting of in-stent restenosis after coronary artery stent implantation. Totally, 60 patients (54 males, aged 57.0+/-12.7 years) and 105 stents were investigated by 64-slice CT at a mean interval of 20.0+/-16.6 months after coronary stents implantation. Axial multi-planar reconstruction images of the stents and curved-planar reconstruction images through the median of the stents were reconstructed for evaluating stent image quality on a 5-point scale (1=excellent, 5=non-assessable), and stent lumen diameter was detected. Conventional coronary angiography was performed in 18 patients, and 32 stents were evaluated. Image quality was good to excellent on average (score 1.71+/-0.76). Stent image quality score was correlated to heart rate (r=0.281, P<0.01) and stent diameter (r=-0.480, P<0.001). All the stents were assessable in lumen visibility with an average visible lumen diameter percentage of 60.7%+/-13.6%. Visible lumen diameter percentage was correlated to heart rate (r=-0.193, P<0.05), stent diameter (r=0.403, P<0.001), and stent image quality score (r=-0.500, P<0.001). Visible lumen diameter percentage also varied depending on the stent type. In comparison with the conventional coronary angiography, 4 of 6 in-stent stenoses were correctly detected. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 66.7% and 84.6%, respectively. Using a 64-slice CT, the stent lumen is partly visible in most of the stents. And 64-slice CT may be useful in the assessment of stent patency.

  19. Comparative evaluation of 64-slice CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography in assessing the cervicocranial vasculature.

    PubMed

    Klingebiel, Randolf; Kentenich, Max; Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Masuhr, Florian; Siebert, Eberhard; Busch, Markus; Bohner, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive 64-slice computed tomography angiography (64-MSCTA) closely approximates conventional catheter angiography (DSA) in terms of detail resolution. Retrospective evaluation of cervicocranial (cc) 64-MSCTA in comparison with DSA in patients with presumptive cc vascular disorders. Twenty-four 64-MSCTA studies (32 mm detector width, slice thickness 0.5 mm, 120 kv, 150 mAs, pitch 0.75) of patients with presumptive cc vascular pathology (13 men, 11 women, mean age 38.3 +/- 11.3 yrs, range 19-54 yrs) were assessed in comparison with DSA studies without abnormal findings in age-matched patients (11 men, 13 women, mean age 39.7 +/- 11.9 yrs, range 18-54 yrs). Study readings were performed in a blinded manner by two neuroradiologists with respect to image quality and assessibility of various cc vascular segments by using a five-point scale. Radiation exposure was calculated for 64-MSCTA. Each reader assessed 384/528 different vessel segments (64-MSCTA/DSA). Superior image quality was attributed to DSA with respect to the C1 ICA-C6 ICA, A3 ACA, and P3 PCA segments as well the AICA and SCA. 64-MSCTA was scored superior for C7 ICA and V4 VA segments. A significantly increased number ofnonassessable V2- and V3 VA segments in DSA studies was noted. The effective dose for 64-MSCTA amounted to 2.2 mSv. 64-MSCTA provides near-equivalent diagnostic information of the cc vasculature as compared with DSA. According to our results, DSA should be considered primarily when peripheral vessels (A3/P3) or ICA segments close to the skull base (C2-5) are of interest, such as in primary angiitis or stenoocclusive ICA disease, respectively.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice CT in the assessment of coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Cademartiri, F; Palumbo, A; Maffei, E; La Grutta, L; Runza, G; Pugliese, F; Midiri, M; Mollet, N R A; Meijboom, W B; Menozzi, A; Vignali, L; Reverberi, C; Ardissino, D; Krestin, G P

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography (64-CT) coronary angiography in the detection of coronary in-stent restenosis. Ninety-five patients (72 men and 23 women, mean age 58+/-8 years) with previous percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting and suspected restenosis underwent 64-CT (Sensation 64, Siemens). The mean time between stent deployment and 64-CT was 6.1+/-4.2 months. The scan parameters were: slices 32 x 2, individual detector width 0.6 mm, rotation time 0.33 s, feed 3.84 mm/rotation, 120 kV, 900 mAs. After the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material (Iomeprol 400 mgI/ml, Iomeron, Bracco) and a bolus chaser (40 ml of saline), the scan was completed in <12 s. All coronary segments with a stent were assessed on 64-CT by two observers in consensus and judged as: patent, with intimal hyperplasia (lumen reduction of <50%), with in-stent restenosis (> or =50%), or with in-stent occlusion (100%). The consensus reading was compared with conventional coronary angiography. Four patients were excluded because of insufficient image quality. In the remaining 91, we assessed 102 stents (31 RCA; 10 LM; 54 LAD; 7 CX). In 14 (13.7%) stents, in-stent restenosis (n=8) or in-stent occlusion (n=6) was found. Intimal hyperplasia was detected in 11 (10.8%) stents. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of 64-CT for in-stent occlusion were 100% and 100%, respectively, whereas for all stenoses, >50% they were 92.9% and 98.7%, respectively. We found that 64-CT has a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of in-stent restenosis in a selected patient population.

  1. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (<1 years old) with CHD undergoing 128-slice CT prospective ECG-triggered axial scan, and 100 were selected randomly from 911 infants with CHD undergoing 64-slice CT retrospective ECG-gated spiral scan. The visibility of coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  2. 64-Slice Computed Tomographic Angiography for the Diagnosis of Intermediate Risk Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    be less than 65 beats/min for the single source CTA machines and less than 80 beats/min for the dual source machines. To decrease heart rates to these levels, beta-blockers are often required. Although the accuracy of these two machines does not differ, the dual source machines can be utilized in a higher proportion of patients than the single source machines for patients with heart beats of up to 80 beats/min. Approximately 10% of patients are considered ineligible for CTA because of this inability to decrease heart rates to the required levels. Additional contra-indications include renal insufficiency as described above and atrial fibrillation, with approximately 10% of intermediate risk patients ineligible for CTA due these contraindications. The duration of the procedure may be between 1 and 1.5 hours, with about 15 minutes for the CTA and the remaining time for the preparation of the patient. CTA is licensed by Health Canada as a Class III device. Currently, two companies have licenses for 64-slice CT scanners, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation (License 67604) and Philips Medical Systems (License 67599 and 73260). Research Questions How does the accuracy of CTA compare to the more invasive CA in the diagnosis of CAD in symptomatic patients at intermediate risk of the disease? How does the accuracy for CTA compare to other modalities in the detection of CAD? Research Methods Literature Search A literature search was performed on July 20, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2004 until July 20, 2009. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any relevant studies not identified through the

  3. Spectrum of Abdominal Aortic Disease in a Tertiary Health Care Setup: MDCT Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, DG Santosh; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Kalyanpur, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal aortic disease is an important cause of clinical disability that requires early detection by imaging methods for prompt and effective management. Understanding regional disease pattern and prevalence has a bearing on healthcare management and resource planning. Non-invasive, conclusive imaging strategy plays an important role in the detection of disease. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) with its technological developments provides affordable, accurate and comprehensive imaging solution. Aim To evaluate regional demography of abdominal aortic disease spectrum detected using MDCT imaging data in a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods A descriptive study was conducted based on MDCT imaging data of patients who were investigated with clinical diagnosis of abdominal aortic disease, from March 2008-2010, over a period of 24 months. Patients were examined with the contrast-enhanced MDCT examination. Morphological diagnosis of the aortic disease was based on changes in relative aortic caliber, luminal irregularity, presence of wall calcification, dissection or thrombus and evidence of major branch occlusion. Patients were categorized into four groups based on imaging findings. MDCT information and associated clinical parameters were examined and correlated to management of patient. Descriptive statistical data, namely mean, standard deviation and frequency of disease were evaluated. Results A total of 90 out of 210 patients (43%) were detected with the abdominal aortic abnormality defined by imaging criteria. Group I, comprising of patients with atherosclerosis –including those with complications, constituted 65.5% of the patients. Group II represented patients with aneurysms (45.5%). Group III, consisting of 32.2% of the patients, contained those with dissections. The rest of the patients, including patients with aorto-arteritis, were classified as group IV. Eight patients with aneurysm and one patient with aorto-arteritis were

  4. Beam hardening artifacts by dental implants: Comparison of cone-beam and 64-slice computed tomography scanners

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Farzad; Johari, Masume; Haddadi, Pezhman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an alternative to a computed tomography (CT) scan, which is appropriate for a wide range of craniomaxillofacial indications. The long-term use of metallic materials in dentistry means that artifacts caused by metallic restorations in the oral cavity should be taken into account when utilizing CBCT and CT scanners. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the beam hardening artifacts produced by dental implants between CBCT and a 64-Slice CT scanner. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, an implant drilling model similar to the human mandible was used in the present study. The implants (Dentis) were placed in the canine, premolar and molar areas. Three series of scans were provided from the implant areas using Somatom Sensation 64-slice and NewTom VGi (CBCT) CT scanners. Identical images were evaluated by three radiologists. The artifacts in each image were determined based on pre-determined criteria. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare mean values; Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-by-two comparisons when there was a statistical significance (P < 0.05). Results: The images of the two scanners had similar resolutions in axial sections (P = 0.299). In coronal sections, there were significant differences in the resolutions of the images produced by the two scanners (P < 0.001), with a higher resolution in the images produced by NewTom VGi scanner. On the whole, there were significant differences between the resolutions of the images produced by the two CT scanners (P < 0.001), with higher resolution in the images produced by NewTom VGi scanner in comparison to those of Somatom Sensation. Conclusion: Given the high quality of the images produced by NewTom VGi and the lower costs in comparison to CT, the use of the images of this scanner in dental procedures is recommended, especially in patients with extensive restorations, multiple prostheses and previous implants. PMID:24019808

  5. Dosimetric and image quality assessment of different acquisition protocols of a novel 64-slice CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vite, Cristina; Mangini, Monica; Strocchi, Sabina; Novario, Raffaele; Tanzi, Fabio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Conte, Leopoldo; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Dose and image quality assessment in computed tomography (CT) are almost affected by the vast variety of CT scanners (axial CT, spiral CT, low-multislice CT (2-16), high-multislice CT (32-64)) and imaging protocols in use. Very poor information is at the moment available on 64 slices CT scanners. Aim of this work is to assess image quality related to patient dose indexes and to investigate the achievable dose reduction for a commercially available 64 slices CT scanner. CT dose indexes (weighted computed tomography dose index, CTDI w and Dose Length Product, DLP) were measured with a standard CT phantom for the main protocols in use (head, chest, abdomen and pelvis) and compared with the values displayed by the scanner itself. The differences were always below 7%. All the indexes were below the Diagnostic Reference Levels defined by the European Council Directive 97/42. Effective doses were measured for each protocol with thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom and compared with the same values computed by the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator software code and corrected by a factor taking in account the number of slices (from 16 to 64). The differences were always below 25%. The effective doses range from 1.5 mSv (head) to 21.8 mSv (abdomen). The dose reduction system of the scanner was assessed comparing the effective dose measured for a standard phantom-man (a cylinder phantom, 32 cm in diameter) to the mean dose evaluated on 46 patients. The standard phantom was considered as no dose reduction reference. The dose reduction factor range from 16% to 78% (mean of 46%) for all protocols, from 29% to 78% (mean of 55%) for chest protocol, from 16% to 76% (mean of 42%) for abdomen protocol. The possibility of a further dose reduction was investigated measuring image quality (spatial resolution, contrast and noise) as a function of CTDI w. This curve shows a quite flat trend decreasing the dose approximately to 90% and a

  6. Aortic valve stenosis: non-invasive preoperative evaluation using 64-slice CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Ciolina, F; Sedati, P; Zaccagna, F; Galea, N; Noce, V; Miraldi, F; Cavarretta, E; Francone, M; Carbone, I

    2015-10-01

    In patients affected by aortic valve stenosis (AS) it is mandatory to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of retrospectively ECG-gated 64-slice CT angiography (64-SCTA) was assessed in patients with AS referred for surgical valve replacement. Forty-two patients with AS underwent ECG-gated 64-SCTA of thoracic aorta, including the heart and coronary arteries, before surgical valve replacement. Images were evaluated by two independent readers and compared with surgical findings in terms of aortic valve calcification grading, valvular morphology, aortic valve annulus and sino-tubular junction diameters, and valvular area planimetry. Quantitative evaluation of cusps opening was also performed. Finally, the presence of CAD, thoracic aortic aneurysm and left ventricle hypertrophy were assessed. Visualization of the aortic valve without motion artefacts was possible in 38 patients (90.5%). Valvular morphology was correctly assessed in all cases (100%). 64-SCTA correctly determined aortic valve calcification grading and the aortic valve annulus and sinotubular junction diameters in 100% of cases. The aortic valve planimetric area was assessed in 38 cases (90.5%). Ascending aortic aneurysms requiring surgical replacement were detected in 12 patients (28.6%). Significant left ventricle hypertrophy was found in 30 patients (71%). Preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing surgical replacement for AS with 64-SCTA is feasible. 64-SCTA can rule out CAD and evaluate the status of the aortic valve and thoracic aorta in the same examination, obtaining relevant information for surgical planning.

  7. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Chiara; Cosgarea, Raluca; Heiland, Sabine; Csernus, Réka; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Pham, Mirko; Kim, Ti-Sun; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting.

  8. Evaluation of temporal windows for coronary artery bypass graft imaging with 64-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Plass, André; Scheffel, Hans; Husmann, Lars; Gaemperli, Oliver; Garzoli, Elisabeth; Marincek, Borut; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2007-11-01

    Temporal windows providing the best image quality of different segments and types of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) with 64-slice computed tomography (CT) were evaluated in an experimental set-up. Sixty-four-slice CT with a rotation time of 330 ms was performed in 25 patients (four female; mean age 59.9 years). A total of 84 CABGs (62 individual and 22 sequential grafts) were evaluated, including 28 internal mammary artery (33.3%), one radial artery with sequential grafting (2.4%), and 54 saphenous vein grafts (64.3%). Ten data sets were reconstructed in 10% increments of the RR-interval. Each graft was separated into segments (proximal and distal anastomosis, and body), and CABG types were grouped according to target arteries. Two readers independently assessed image quality of each CABG segment in each temporal window. Diagnostic image quality was found with good inter-observer agreement (kappa=0.62) in 98.5% (202/205) of all graft segments. Image quality was significantly better for saphenous vein grafts versus arterial grafts (P<0.001) and for distal anastomosis to the right coronary compared with other target coronary arteries (P<0.05). Overall, best image quality was found at 60%. Image quality of proximal segments did not significantly vary with the temporal window, whereas for all other segments image quality was significantly better at 60% compared with other temporal windows (P<0.05). Sixty-four-slice CT provides best image quality of various segments and types of CABG at 60% of the RR-interval.

  9. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  10. 64-Slice spiral computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction in the diagnosis of cystic pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    WEN, ZHAOXIA; YAO, FENGQING; WANG, YUXING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of cystic pancreatic tumors using computed tomography (CT) and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (DA) of post-imaging three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Clinical and imaging data, including multi-slice spiral CT scans, enhanced scans and multi-faceted reconstruction, from 30 patients with pathologically confirmed cystic pancreatic tumors diagnosed at the Linyi People's Hospital between August 2008 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Following the injection of Ultravist® 300 contrast agent, arterial, portal venous and parenchymal phase scans were obtained at 28, 60 and 150 sec, respectively, and 3D reconstructions of the CT images were generated. The average age of the patients was 38.4 years (range, 16–77 years), and the cohort included 5 males and 25 females (ratio, 1:5). The patients included 8 cases of mucinous cystadenoma (DA), 80%]; 9 cases of cystadenocarcinoma (DA, 84%); 6 cases of serous cystadenoma (DA, 100%); 3 cases of solid pseudopapillary tumor (DA, 100%); and 4 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (DA, 100%). 3D reconstructions of CT images were generated and, in the 4 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, the tumor was connected to the main pancreatic duct and multiple mural nodules were detected in one of these cases. The DA of the 3D-reconstructed images of cystic pancreatic tumors was 89.3%. The 64-slice spiral CT and 3D-reconstructed CT images facilitated the visualization of cystic pancreatic tumor characteristics, in particular the connections between the tumor and the main pancreatic duct. In conclusion, the 3D reconstruction of multi-slice CT data may provide an important source of information for the surgical team, in combination with the available clinical data. PMID:27073473

  11. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution: a cardiac phantom study.

    PubMed

    Greuter, M J W; Groen, J M; Nicolai, L J; Dijkstra, H; Oudkerk, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative method which corrects for the influences of these parameters using a linear moving cardiac phantom. On a robotic arm with artificial arteries with four calcifications of increasing density, a linear movement was applied between 0 and 120 mm/s (step of 10 mm/s). The phantom was scanned five times on 64-slice MDCT, DSCT, and EBT using a standard acquisition protocol. The average Agatston, volume, and mass scores were determined for each velocity, calcification, and scanner. Susceptibility to motion was quantified using a cardiac motion susceptibility (CMS) index. Resemblance to EBT and physical volume and mass was quantified using a Delta index. Increasing motion artifacts were observed at increasing velocities on all scanners, with increasing severity from EBT to DSCT to 64-slice MDCT. The calcium score showed a linear dependency on motion from which a correction factor could be derived. This correction factor showed a linear dependency on the mean calcification density with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.73 < or = R2 < or = 0.95). The slope and offset of this correction factor showed a linear dependency on temporal resolution with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.83 < or = R2 < or = 0.98). CMS was minimal for EBT and increasing values were observed for DSCT and highest values for 64-slice MDCT. CMS was minimal for mass score and increasing values were observed for volume score and highest values for Agatston score. For all densities and scoring methods DSCT showed on average the closest resemblance to EBT calcium scores. When using the correction factor, CMS index decreased on average by 15% and Delta index

  12. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution: A cardiac phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Greuter, M. J. W.; Groen, J. M.; Nicolai, L. J.; Dijkstra, H.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative method which corrects for the influences of these parameters using a linear moving cardiac phantom. Methods: On a robotic arm with artificial arteries with four calcifications of increasing density, a linear movement was applied between 0 and 120 mm/s (step of 10 mm/s). The phantom was scanned five times on 64-slice MDCT, DSCT, and EBT using a standard acquisition protocol. The average Agatston, volume, and mass scores were determined for each velocity, calcification, and scanner. Susceptibility to motion was quantified using a cardiac motion susceptibility (CMS) index. Resemblance to EBT and physical volume and mass was quantified using a {Delta} index. Results: Increasing motion artifacts were observed at increasing velocities on all scanners, with increasing severity from EBT to DSCT to 64-slice MDCT. The calcium score showed a linear dependency on motion from which a correction factor could be derived. This correction factor showed a linear dependency on the mean calcification density with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.73{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.95). The slope and offset of this correction factor showed a linear dependency on temporal resolution with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.83{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.98). CMS was minimal for EBT and increasing values were observed for DSCT and highest values for 64-slice MDCT. CMS was minimal for mass score and increasing values were observed for volume score and highest values for Agatston score. For all densities and scoring methods DSCT showed on average the closest resemblance to EBT calcium scores. When using the correction factor, CMS index decreased on average by

  13. [Dose reduction and image quality in MDCT of the upper abdomen: potential of an adaptive post-processing filter].

    PubMed

    Kröpil, P; Lanzman, R S; Walther, C; Röhlen, S; Godehardt, E; Mödder, U; Cohnen, M

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 2D non-linear adaptive post-processing filter (2D-NLAF) on image quality in dose-reduced multi-detector CT (MDCT) of the upper abdomen. MDCT of the upper abdomen was simulated on a 64-slice scanner using a multi-modal anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS, Norfolk, USA). While keeping the collimation (64 x 0.6 mm) and pitch (p = 1) unchanged, the tube current (100 - 500 mAs) and tube potential (80 - 140 kVp) were varied to perform MDCT as high dose (CTDI > 20), middle dose (CTDI 10 - 20) and low dose (CTDI < 10) level protocols. Four independent blinded radiologists evaluated axial images with a thickness of 7 and 3 mm with respect to the presentation of "mesenteric low contrast lesions", "liver veins", "liver cysts", "renal cysts" and "big vessels". The subjective image quality of original data and post-processed images using a 2D-NLAF (SharpViewCT, Linköping, Sweden) was graded on a 5-point scale (from "1" not visible to "5" excellent) and statistically analyzed. The effective dose (E) was estimated using commercial software (CT-EXPO). For all protocol groups, 2D-NLAF led to a significant improvement in subjective image quality for all examined lesions (p < 0.01), particularly at the protocols of middle dose (E: 5 - 8 mSv) and low dose level (E: 1 - 5 mSv). A maximum effect was seen in middle dose protocols for "low contrast lesions" (score "3.3" with filter versus "2.5" without) and "liver veins" ("4.5" versus "3.9"). The phantom study indicates a potential dose reduction of up to 50 % in MDCT of the upper abdomen by use of a 2D-NLAF, which should be further examined in clinical trails. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  14. 64-slice computed tomographic angiography for the diagnosis of intermediate risk coronary artery disease: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    anatomy, in contrast to the other cardiac imaging modalities that assess cardiac function. It is, however, unclear as to whether cardiac structural features alone, in the absence cardiac function information, are sufficient to determine the presence or absence of intermediate pretest risk of CAD. CTA technology is changing rapidly with increasing scan speeds and anticipated reductions in radiation exposure. Initial scanners based on 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 slice machines have been available since the end of 2004. Although 320-slice machines are now available, these are not widely diffused and the existing published evidence is specific to 64-slice scanners. In general, CTA allows for 3-dimensional (3D) viewing of the coronary arteries derived from software algorithms of 2-dimensional (2D) images. The advantage of CTA over CA, the gold standard for the diagnosis of CAD, is that it is relatively less invasive and may serve as a test in determining which patients are best suited for a CA. CA requires insertion of a catheter through an artery in the arm or leg up to the area being studied, yet both tests involve contrast agents and radiation exposure. Therefore, the identification of patients for whom CTA or CA is more appropriate may help to avoid more invasive tests, treatment delays, and unnecessary radiation exposure. The main advantage of CA, however, is that treatment can be administered in the same session as the test procedure and as such, it's recommended for patients with a pre-test probability of CAD of ≥80%. The progression to the more invasive CA allows for the diagnosis and treatment in one session without the added radiation exposure from a previous CTA. The visibility of arteries in CTA images is best in populations with a disease prevalence, or pre-test probabilities of CAD, of 40% to 80%, beyond which patients are considered at high pre-test probability. Visibility decreases with increasing prevalence as arteries become increasingly calcified (coronary artery

  15. Printed MDCT 3D models for prediction of Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) occluder device size - A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Goitein, Orly; Fink, Noam; Guetta, Victor; Beinart, Roy; Brodov, Yafim; Konen, Eli; Goitein, David; Di Segni, Elio; Grupper, Avishay; Glikson, Michael

    2017-05-16

    Trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and MDCT currently serve as imaging modalities for left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion pre-procedural planning. We assessed the feasibility of multi-detector CT (MDCT) based models to predict the correct size of device for LAA occlusion procedures. Patients planned for LAA occlusion underwent MDCT before implantation, which was used for creating and printing 3D LAA models. Three cardiologists evaluated the 3D models and predicted the correct size of the device by manual manipulation, these predictions were compared with the actual device implanted during the procedure. Twenty nine patients were included in this study. Amplatzer™ and Watchman™ devices were deployed in 12 and 17 patients, respectively. Two procedures were aborted due to failure of occlusion, all three physicians predicted it. There was good correlation between the 3D models and the inserted device for Amplatzer™ devices with concordance correlation coefficient 0.778 (P=0.001) and poor agreement for Watchman™ devices - concordance correlation coefficient of 0.315 (P=0.203). Agreement between the three physicians for Amplatzer ™ and Watchman™ devices were excellent with a calculated average intra-class correlation of 0.915 and 0.816 respectively. We found LAA printed 3D models to be accurate for prediction of LAA occluder device size for Amplatzer™ device but not for Watchman™ device.

  16. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-based Human Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-01-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ*) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h0*) as h0* = 1.15 τ*0.272, R = 0.842. PMID:25869455

  17. Temporal resolution improvement using PICCS in MDCT cardiac imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Tang, Jie; Hsieh, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm for temporal resolution improvement is to add more source-detector units and∕or increase the gantry rotation speed. The purpose of this article is to present an innovative alternative method to potentially improve temporal resolution by approximately a factor of 2 for all MDCT scanners without requiring hardware modification. The central enabling technology is a most recently developed image reconstruction method: Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS). Using the method, cardiac CT images can be accurately reconstructed using the projection data acquired in an angular range of about 120°, which is roughly 50% of the standard short-scan angular range (∼240° for an MDCT scanner). As a result, the temporal resolution of MDCT cardiac imaging can be universally improved by approximately a factor of 2. In order to validate the proposed method, two in vivo animal experiments were conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at different gantry rotation times and different heart rates. One animal was scanned at heart rate of 83 beats per minute (bpm) using 400 ms gantry rotation time and the second animal was scanned at 94 bpm using 350 ms gantry rotation time, respectively. Cardiac coronary CT imaging can be successfully performed at high heart rates using a single-source MDCT scanner and projection data from a single heart beat with gantry rotation times of 400 and 350 ms. Using the proposed PICCS method, the temporal resolution of cardiac CT imaging can be effectively improved by approximately a factor of 2 without modifying any scanner hardware. This potentially provides a new method for single-source MDCT scanners to achieve reliable coronary CT imaging for patients at higher heart rates than the current heart rate limit of 70 bpm without using the well-known multisegment FBP reconstruction algorithm. This method also enables dual-source MDCT scanner to achieve higher temporal resolution

  18. A Numerical Study of Heat and Water Vapor Transfer in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-basedhuman airwayswith minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditionsforthe 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: Nu=3.504(ReDaDt)0.277, R = 0.841 and Sh=3.652(ReDaDt)0.268, R = 0.825, where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, Da is the airway equivalent diameter, and Dt is the tracheal equivalentdiameter. PMID:25081386

  19. Image Quality and Radiation Dose for Prospectively Triggered Coronary CT Angiography: 128-Slice Single-Source CT versus First-Generation 64-Slice Dual-Source CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jin; Shi, He-Shui; Han, Ping; Yu, Jie; Ma, Gui-Na; Wu, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to compare the image quality and radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) from prospectively triggered 128-slice CT (128-MSCT) versus dual-source 64-slice CT (DSCT). The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee at Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Eighty consecutive patients with stable heart rates lower than 70 bpm were enrolled. Forty patients were scanned with 128-MSCT, and the other 40 patients were scanned with DSCT. Two radiologists independently assessed the image quality in segments (diameter >1 mm) according to a three-point scale (1: excellent; 2: moderate; 3: insufficient). The CCTA radiation dose was calculated. Eighty patients with 526 segments in the 128-MSCT group and 544 segments in the DSCT group were evaluated. The image quality 1, 2 and 3 scores were 91.6%, 6.9% and 1.5%, respectively, for the 128-MSCT group and 97.6%, 1.7% and 0.7%, respectively, for the DSCT group, and there was a statistically significant inter-group difference (P ≤ 0.001). The effective doses were 3.0 mSv in the 128-MSCT group and 4.5 mSv in the DSCT group (P ≤ 0.001). Compared with DSCT, CCTA with prospectively triggered 128-MSCT had adequate image quality and a 33.3% lower radiation dose.

  20. Prevalence of incidental pulmonary findings and early follow-up results in patients undergoing dual-source 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Kaya, Ergün Barş; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Canpolat, Uğur; Sunman, Hamza; Aytemr, Kudret; Kabakçi, Giray; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay; Akata, Deniz; Oto, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary abnormalities and document early follow-up results in subjects undergoing multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the assessment of coronary artery disease. In this retrospective analysis, 1206 patients including 701 men (58.1%) with a mean age of 58.75 (SD, 11.4) years were involved in the study who underwent coronary multislice computed tomography imaging with a 64-slice dual-source scanner. Pulmonary abnormalities were reported as nodules, pulmonary mass, emphysema, bullae, atelectasia, bronchiectasia, pleural effusion, pulmonary fibrosis, and other findings. In total, 186 pulmonary abnormalities were detected in 171 patients (14.1%). Of those, 90 (48.4%) were pulmonary nodules, and 30 (16.1%) were emphysema. Also, we report 3 cases of lung cancer, and 1 case of breast cancer. Early follow-up results revealed stable pulmonary findings. Multislice computed tomography can give important clues including diseases regarding the pulmonary system. It is essential for the reporting practitioner to review the entire scan for pulmonary pathological findings.

  1. Clinical contributions of 64-slice computed tomography in the evaluation of cardiomyopathy of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Boulmier, Dominique; Audinet, Caroline; Heautot, Jean-François; Larralde, Antoine; Veillard, David; Hamonic, Stéphanie; Bedossa, Marc; Leurent, Guillaume; Garreau, Mireille; Le Breton, Hervé

    2009-10-01

    Meta-analyses have confirmed the high performance of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in coronary stenosis detection. Recent reports have described the study of left ventricular anatomy and function and coronary venous anatomy with MSCT. We sought to compare, in patients with cardiomyopathy of unknown origin, the performance of MSCT versus angiography for significant coronary artery disease detection and versus transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for left ventricular anatomy and function evaluation, and to assess its ability to characterize coronary venous anatomy. Fifty-nine patients with cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] less than or equal to 40%) of unknown origin, in sinus rhythm, underwent MSCT, TTE and coronary angiography. Twenty-four (3%) of 724 analysable coronary segments (97%) and 12 (20%) patients had significant coronary artery disease. MSCT sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for coronary artery disease detection were 87.5%, 98.5%, 67.7% and 99.6% in the per-segment assessment and 100%, 91%, 75% and 100% in the per-patient evaluation, respectively. Statistical analyses showed good agreement between MSCT and TTE in LVEF measurement (33+/-10% vs 32+/-11%, p=0.4, mean difference=0.7%, limits of agreement+/-13.6%) and a small LVED diameter overestimation (65.0+/-9.3mm vs 63.6+/-9.4mm, p=0.03). MSCT allowed detection of the posterolateral vein in 86% of cases. In selected patients presenting with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, MSCT is accurate for coronary artery disease detection and is a useful coronary venous imaging tool. MSCT studies of left ventricular function and morphology were mostly concordant with TTE measurements.

  2. Characterization of Pulmonary Vein Dimensions Using High-Definition 64-Slice Computed Tomography prior to Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Catherine; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Stähli, Barbara E; Klaeser, Bernd; Fuchs, Tobias A; Ghadri, Jelena R; Haegeli, Laurent; Lüscher, Thomas F; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Duru, Firat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is commonly acquired before radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AFib) to guide the procedure. We analyzed pulmonary vein (PV) ostial diameter and volumes on a high-definition 64-slice CT (HDCT) scanner in patients with AFib prior to RFCA. Methods and Results. This retrospective study included 50 patients (mean age 60.2 ± 11.4 years, 30 males) undergoing cardiac HDCT scanning before RFCA for drug refractory AFib and 50 age-, BMI-, and sex-matched controls with normal sinus rhythm undergoing HDCT. PV ostial diameter and volume were measured and calculated using a semiautomatic calliper tool. Total ostial PV volume was significantly increased in patients with AFib as compared to controls (P < 0.005). Similarly, total ostial PV diameter was significantly increased in AFib compared to controls (P < 0.001). In AFib, the largest PV volume and diameters were measured in right superior PV (P < 0.05 versus controls). The difference in PV volume between patients and controls was most pronounced in right superior PVs (P = 0.015). Right middle PVs were found more often in patients with AFib (16/50; 32%) than in normal subjects (7/50; 14%). Conclusion. Enlargement of PV ostial area and enlargement of volume are frequent findings in patients with drug refractory AFib. These parameters may add to the risk stratification for AFib recurrence following RFCA.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of standard axial 64-slice chest CT compared to cardiac MRI for the detection of cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David J; Lavelle, Lisa P; Gibney, Brian; O'Donohoe, Rory L; Rémy-Jardin, Martine; Dodd, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of standard axial chest CT compared with cardiac MRI for cardiomyopathies. The standard axial 64-slice chest CTs of 49 patients with cardiomyopathies and 27 controls were blindly assessed for the presence of a cardiomyopathy by two independent readers. Qualitative and quantitative analysis included assessment of: (i) interatrial septal thickness, (ii) left atrial diameter, (iii) myocardial hypertrophy, thinning or fat, (iv) myocardial and papillary muscle calcification, (v) papillary muscle thickness, (vi) calcified coronary artery segments, (vii) left ventricular (LV) diameter, (viii) interventricular septal thickness and (ix) right ventricular diameters. Cardiac MRI was the gold standard. There were 21 (42.9%) dilated, 16 (32.7%) hypertrophic, 8 (16.3%) ischaemic and 4 other (8.2%) (LV non-compaction × 2, amyloid, idiopathic restrictive) patients with cardiomyopathies. An LV diameter of 47 mm, interventricular septal thickness of 14 mm and coronary artery/papillary muscle calcification on axial chest CT best distinguished dilated, hypertrophic and ischaemic cardiomyopathies from controls, respectively; kappa = 0.45 (moderate interobserver agreement). The sensitivity (95% confidence interval), specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values (95% confidence interval) and diagnostic accuracy of chest CT in diagnosing cardiomyopathies were 68% (52-83), 100%, 100%, 66% (55-85) and 80%, respectively. Cardiomyopathies may be detected on standard chest CT with good sensitivity and high specificity. It is useful to assess for an underlying cardiomyopathy on standard chest CT, especially in a patient with unexplained dyspnoea.

  4. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Nagle, Scott K.; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Robinson, Terry E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo{sup TM}, GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  5. MDCT Findings of Denim-Sandblasting-Induced Silicosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Denim sandblasting is as a novel cause of silicosis in Turkey, with reports of a recent increase in cases and fatal outcomes. We aimed to describe the radiological features of patients exposed to silica during denim sandblasting and define factors related to the development of silicosis. Methods Sixty consecutive men with a history of exposure to silica during denim sandblasting were recruited. All CT examinations were performed using a 64-row multi-detector CT (MDCT). The nodules were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed by grading nodular profusion (NP) on CT images. Results Silicosis was diagnosed radiologically in 73.3% of patients (44 of 60). The latency period (the time between initial exposure and radiological imaging) and duration of silica exposure was longer in patients diagnosed with silicosis than in those without silicosis (p < 0.05). Nodules were present in all cases with centrilobular type as the commonest (63.6%). All cases of silicosis were clinically classified as accelerated and 11.4% had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Mild NP lesions were the most prevalent in all six zones of the lung. The NP score was significantly correlated with the duration of silica exposure, the latency period, presence of PMF, and pleural thickening. Enlarged lymphadenopathy was present in 45.5% of patients. Conclusions The duration of exposure and the latency period are important for development of silicosis in denim sandblasters. MDCT is a useful tool in detecting findings of silicosis in workers who has silica exposure. PMID:20398415

  6. MDCT findings of denim-sandblasting-induced silicosis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Cihan Akgul; Nazaroglu, Hasan; Yildiz, Tekin; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendioglu; Senturk, Senem; Ates, Gungor; Akyildiz, Levent

    2010-04-17

    Denim sandblasting is as a novel cause of silicosis in Turkey, with reports of a recent increase in cases and fatal outcomes. We aimed to describe the radiological features of patients exposed to silica during denim sandblasting and define factors related to the development of silicosis. Sixty consecutive men with a history of exposure to silica during denim sandblasting were recruited. All CT examinations were performed using a 64-row multi-detector CT (MDCT). The nodules were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed by grading nodular profusion (NP) on CT images. Silicosis was diagnosed radiologically in 73.3% of patients (44 of 60). The latency period (the time between initial exposure and radiological imaging) and duration of silica exposure was longer in patients diagnosed with silicosis than in those without silicosis (p < 0.05). Nodules were present in all cases with centrilobular type as the commonest (63.6%). All cases of silicosis were clinically classified as accelerated and 11.4% had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Mild NP lesions were the most prevalent in all six zones of the lung. The NP score was significantly correlated with the duration of silica exposure, the latency period, presence of PMF, and pleural thickening. Enlarged lymphadenopathy was present in 45.5% of patients. The duration of exposure and the latency period are important for development of silicosis in denim sandblasters. MDCT is a useful tool in detecting findings of silicosis in workers who has silica exposure.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of standard axial 64-slice chest CT compared to cardiac MRI for the detection of cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Lisa P; Gibney, Brian; O'Donohoe, Rory L; Rémy-Jardin, Martine; Dodd, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of standard axial chest CT compared with cardiac MRI for cardiomyopathies. Methods: The standard axial 64-slice chest CTs of 49 patients with cardiomyopathies and 27 controls were blindly assessed for the presence of a cardiomyopathy by two independent readers. Qualitative and quantitative analysis included assessment of: (i) interatrial septal thickness, (ii) left atrial diameter, (iii) myocardial hypertrophy, thinning or fat, (iv) myocardial and papillary muscle calcification, (v) papillary muscle thickness, (vi) calcified coronary artery segments, (vii) left ventricular (LV) diameter, (viii) interventricular septal thickness and (ix) right ventricular diameters. Cardiac MRI was the gold standard. Results: There were 21 (42.9%) dilated, 16 (32.7%) hypertrophic, 8 (16.3%) ischaemic and 4 other (8.2%) (LV non-compaction × 2, amyloid, idiopathic restrictive) patients with cardiomyopathies. An LV diameter of 47 mm, interventricular septal thickness of 14 mm and coronary artery/papillary muscle calcification on axial chest CT best distinguished dilated, hypertrophic and ischaemic cardiomyopathies from controls, respectively; kappa = 0.45 (moderate interobserver agreement). The sensitivity (95% confidence interval), specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values (95% confidence interval) and diagnostic accuracy of chest CT in diagnosing cardiomyopathies were 68% (52–83), 100%, 100%, 66% (55–85) and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: Cardiomyopathies may be detected on standard chest CT with good sensitivity and high specificity. Advances in knowledge: It is useful to assess for an underlying cardiomyopathy on standard chest CT, especially in a patient with unexplained dyspnoea. PMID:26670156

  8. Hi-Res scan mode in clinical MDCT systems: Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P.; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Li, Ke; Sun, Heyi; Hsieh, Jiang; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The introduction of a High-Resolution (Hi-Res) scan mode and another associated option that combines Hi-Res mode with the so-called High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels (referred to as a Hi-Res/HD mode in this paper) in some multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems offers new opportunities to increase spatial resolution for some clinical applications that demand high spatial resolution. The purpose of this work was to quantify the in-plane spatial resolution along both the radial direction and tangential direction for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes at different off-center positions. Methods: A technique was introduced and validated to address the signal saturation problem encountered in the attempt to quantify spatial resolution for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes. Using the proposed method, the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a 64-slice MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) equipped with both Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD modes were measured using a metal bead at nine different off-centered positions (0–16 cm with a step size of 2 cm); at each position, both conventional scans and Hi-Res scans were performed. For each type of scan and position, 80 repeated acquisitions were performed to reduce noise induced uncertainties in the MTF measurements. A total of 15 reconstruction kernels, including eight conventional kernels and seven HD kernels, were used to reconstruct CT images of the bead. An ex vivo animal study consisting of a bone fracture model was performed to corroborate the MTF results, as the detection of this high-contrast and high frequency task is predominantly determined by spatial resolution. Images of this animal model generated by different scan modes and reconstruction kernels were qualitatively compared with the MTF results. Results: At the centered position, the use of Hi-Res mode resulted in a slight improvement in the MTF; each HD kernel generated higher spatial resolution than its counterpart conventional kernel

  9. Hi-Res scan mode in clinical MDCT systems: Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Li, Ke; Sun, Heyi; Hsieh, Jiang; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of a High-Resolution (Hi-Res) scan mode and another associated option that combines Hi-Res mode with the so-called High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels (referred to as a Hi-Res/HD mode in this paper) in some multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems offers new opportunities to increase spatial resolution for some clinical applications that demand high spatial resolution. The purpose of this work was to quantify the in-plane spatial resolution along both the radial direction and tangential direction for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes at different off-center positions. A technique was introduced and validated to address the signal saturation problem encountered in the attempt to quantify spatial resolution for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes. Using the proposed method, the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a 64-slice MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) equipped with both Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD modes were measured using a metal bead at nine different off-centered positions (0-16 cm with a step size of 2 cm); at each position, both conventional scans and Hi-Res scans were performed. For each type of scan and position, 80 repeated acquisitions were performed to reduce noise induced uncertainties in the MTF measurements. A total of 15 reconstruction kernels, including eight conventional kernels and seven HD kernels, were used to reconstruct CT images of the bead. An ex vivo animal study consisting of a bone fracture model was performed to corroborate the MTF results, as the detection of this high-contrast and high frequency task is predominantly determined by spatial resolution. Images of this animal model generated by different scan modes and reconstruction kernels were qualitatively compared with the MTF results. At the centered position, the use of Hi-Res mode resulted in a slight improvement in the MTF; each HD kernel generated higher spatial resolution than its counterpart conventional kernel. However, the MTF along the

  10. Body physique and heart rate variability determine the occurrence of stair-step artefacts in 64-slice CT coronary angiography with prospective ECG-triggering.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Lars; Herzog, Bernhard A; Burkhard, Nina; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Valenta, Ines; Gaemperli, Oliver; Wyss, Christophe A; Landmesser, Ulf; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the frequency and extent of stair-step artefacts in computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggering and to identify their determinants. One hundred and forty three consecutive patients (55 women, mean age 57 +/- 13 years) underwent 64-slice CTCA using prospective ECG-triggering. Occurrence of stair-step artefacts in CTCA of the thoracic wall and the coronary arteries was determined and maximum offset was measured. If stair-step artefacts occurred in both cases, a difference between thoracic wall and coronary artery offset of 0.6 mm or greater was attributed to additional motion of the heart. Mean effective radiation dose was 2.1 +/- 0.7 mSv (range 1.0-3.5 mSv). Eighty-nine patients (62%) had stair-step artefacts in CTCA of the coronary arteries (mean offset of 1.7 +/- 1.1 mm), while only 77 patients had thoracic wall stair-step artefacts (mean offset of 1.0 +/- 0.3 mm; significantly different, P < 0.001). Stair-step artefacts in CTCA of the thoracic wall were determined by BMI and weight (P < 0.01), while artefacts in CTCA of the coronary arteries were associated with heart rate variability (P < 0.05). Stair-step artefacts in CTCA with prospective ECG-triggering are determined by (a) motion of the entire patient during table travel, particularly in large patients and (b) by motion of the heart, particularly when heart rates are variable.

  11. Colorectal liver metastasis after 90Y radioembolization therapy: pilot study of change in MDCT attenuation as a surrogate marker for future FDG PET response.

    PubMed

    Tochetto, Sandra M; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Chalian, Hamid; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in attenuation and size of liver metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer at MDCT 1 month after (90)Y radioembolization treatment are predictive of response at FDG PET 3 months after treatment. Twenty patients with colorectal liver metastasis consecutively treated with (90)Y radioembolization underwent triphasic MDCT of the liver at baseline and 1 and 3 months after treatment and FDG PET at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Percentage change in tumor attenuation at MDCT (volumetric attenuation), tumor size at MDCT (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] and World health Organization [WHO] criteria), and volume-weighted maximum standardized uptake value at FDG PET were evaluated. The correlation between FDG PET response 3 months after treatment and response according to RECIST, WHO criteria, and attenuation 1 month after treatment was evaluated. Only 13.3% of patients with FDG PET findings of response 3 months after treatment were identified according to RECIST and WHO criteria 1 month after treatment. According to attenuation criteria at 1 month, however, 53.3% of patients with an FDG PET response at 3 months were identified. A strong association was found between FDG PET response at 3 months and response based on attenuation criteria (odds ratio, 12.4; 95% CI, 0.58-265.3; p = 0.05). Early changes in the attenuation of liver metastatic lesions of colon cancer after (90)Y radioembolization treatment may be predictive of future response at FDG PET.

  12. Noninvasive detection of cardiac amyloidosis using delayed enhanced MDCT: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deux, Jean-François; Mihalache, Cristian-Ionut; Legou, François; Damy, Thibaud; Mayer, Julie; Rappeneau, Stéphane; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Luciani, Alain; Kobeiter, Hicham; Rahmouni, Alain

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate myocardial enhancement of patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using computed tomography (CT). Thirteen patients with CA and 11 control patients were examined with first-pass and delayed CT acquisition. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of images was performed. Myocardial attenuation, myocardial signal-to-noise ratio (SNRmyoc), blood pool SNR (SNRblood), contrast-to-noise ratio between blood pool and myocardium (CNRblood-myoc) and relative attenuation index (RAI) defined as variation of myocardial attenuation between delayed and first-pass acquisitions were calculated. Two false negative cases (15 %) and three false positive cases (27 %) were detected on qualitative analysis. SNRmyoc of patients with CA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower on first-pass (4.08 ± 1.9) and higher on delayed acquisition (7.10 ± 2.7) than control patients (6.1 ± 2.2 and 5.03 ± 1.8, respectively). Myocardial attenuation was higher in CA (121 ± 39 HU) than control patients (81 ± 17 HU) on delayed acquisition. CNRblood-myoc was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CA (1.51 ± 0.7) than control patients (2.85 ± 1.2) on delayed acquisition. The RAI was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in CA (0.12 ± 0.25) than in control patients (-0.56 ± 0.21). Dual phase MDCT can detect abnormal myocardial enhancement in patients with CA. • CT can detect abnormal first-pass and delayed enhancement in cardiac amyloidosis. • Measurement of relative myocardial enhancement between acquisitions helps to detect cardiac amyloidosis. • CT may provide useful data to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis.

  13. Impact of image noise levels, scout scan dose and lens shield on image quality and radiation exposure in z-axis dose-modulated neck MSCT on 16- and 64-slice Toshiba Aquilion scanners.

    PubMed

    Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Jach, Cornelia; Bohner, Georg; Meyer, Henning; Scheurig, Christian; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf

    2010-02-01

    Assessing the impact of image noise (IN) levels, scout scan dose and lens shield use on image quality and radiation exposure in neck multislice CT (MSCT) when using z-axis dose modulation (DM). Neck MSCT phantom studies with/without z-axis DM were performed by using different IN levels (S.D. 7.5-30HU) and scout scan tube currents (7.5-50mA) on Toshiba Aquilion scanners (16-/64-slice). Image quality indices were evaluated by two radiologists and radiation exposure parameters calculated. Cadaveric phantom measurements elucidated lens shield interactions with DM efficacy. The lowest dose scan protocol with diagnostic image quality was introduced into the clinical imaging routine and retrospectively evaluated in 20 age-matched patients undergoing neck MSCT with/without DM. The highest image noise level in DM neck studies with comparable image quality to standard neck CT amounted to 20HU, resulting in a mean tube current of 50mAs (CTDI(w) 6.3mGy). DM reduced effective dose by 35% and organ dose figures (lens, thyroid) by 33%. Scout scan dose lowering to 20mA resulted in an effective dose (ED) decrease of 0.06mSv (5%). Avoiding lens shield placement during scout scan effected an organ dose decrease of 20%. Overall contour sharpness and image contrast did not differ significantly (DM/without DM) whereas image noise was rated higher in DM neck CT studies (p<0.05). z-Axis dose modulation, as assessed on 16- and 64-slice Toshiba Aquilion scanners, is effective and mandatory in neck MSCT. DM efficacy can be enhanced by optimising scout scan doses and lens shield use. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental assessment of the influence of beam hardening filters on image quality and patient dose in volumetric 64-slice X-ray CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Ay, Mohammad Reza; Mehranian, Abolfazl; Maleki, Asghar; Ghadiri, Hossien; Ghafarian, Pardis; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-05-01

    Beam hardening filters have long been employed in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) to preferentially absorb soft and low-energy X-rays having no or little contribution to image formation, thus allowing the reduction of patient dose and beam hardening artefacts. In this work, we studied the influence of additional copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al) flat filters on patient dose and image quality and seek an optimum filter thickness for the GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice CT scanner using experimental phantom measurements. Different thicknesses of Cu and Al filters (0.5-1.6mm Cu, 0.5-4mm Al) were installed on the scanner's collimator. A planar phantom consisting of 13 slabs of Cu having different thicknesses was designed and scanned to assess the impact of beam filtration on contrast in the intensity domain (CT detector's output). To assess image contrast and image noise, a cylindrical phantom consisting of a polyethylene cylinder having 16 holes filled with different concentrations of K2HPO4 solution mimicking different tissue types was used. The GE performance and the standard head CT dose index (CTDI) phantoms were also used to assess image resolution characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) and patient dose defined by the weighted CTDI. A 100mm pencil ionization chamber was used for CTDI measurement. Finally, an optimum filter thickness was determined from an objective figure of merit (FOM) metric. The results show that the contrast is somewhat compromised with filter thickness in both the planar and cylindrical phantoms. The contrast of the K2HPO4 solutions in the cylindrical phantom was degraded by up to 10% for a 0.68mm Cu filter and 6% for a 4.14mm Al filter. It was shown that additional filters increase image noise which impaired the detectability of low density K2HPO4 solutions. It was found that with a 0.48mm Cu filter the 50% MTF value is shifted by about 0.77lp/cm compared to the case where the filter is not used. An added Cu filter with approximately

  15. Comparison of image characteristics of plaques in culprit coronary arteries by 64 slice CT and intravascular ultrasound in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Iwao; Uehara, Masae; Rubin, Geoffrey D; Komuro, Issei; Funabashi, Nobusada

    2012-10-04

    To evaluate plaque image characteristics in coronary artery culprit-lesions in subjects with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), we retrospectively compared coronary arterial images by 64-slice CT before conventional-coronary-angiogram with those by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Retrospective analysis of coronary arterial images from thirty-one subjects (26-males, mean age 59.3 ± 12.0 years) exhibiting acute symptoms with suspicion of ACS, where either (1) ECG was un-interpretable or (2) ECG was non diagnostic/cardiac biomarkers was equivocal; with significant stenosis on emergent 64 slice CT and subjects were finally diagnosed as having ACS confirmed by conventional-coronary-angiogram, followed by IVUS before coronary-intervention. After principal culprit-lesion components were classified into 1) thrombus, 2) soft plaques, and 3) fibrotic plaques by IVUS, corresponding culprit-lesion CT values were measured (two-observers). Nineteen and 12 of 31 subjects were finally diagnosed as unstable angina pectoris and non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction respectively. Main culprit-lesion components of ACS were identified on MSCT in all subjects. Culprit-lesion CT values diagnosed as soft plaques by IVUS (n=6, 32.9 ± 8.7 HU) were not lower than those of thrombi (n=18, 43.2 ± 10.7 HU, p=0.268); both values were significantly lower than those of fibrotic plaques (n=7, 82.5 ± 22.6 HU) (both p<0.01). Calcification, spotty calcification, and positive arterial remodeling were observed in 67.7%, 61.3%, 58.1% (IVUS) and 58.1%, 51.6%, 74.2% (MSCT), respectively (all p=NS). CT value reproducibilities and culprit-lesion areas, were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively (two analyzers). 64-slice CT can non-invasively evaluate image characteristics in coronary artery culprit-lesions in ACS subjects accurately; this may help to differentiate soft plaques or thrombi generated by plaque rupture from fibrotic plaques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Heart Rate and Body Mass Index on the Interscan and Interobserver Variability of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring at Prospective ECG-Triggered 64-Slice CT

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of heart rate, body mass index (BMI) and noise level on interscan and interobserver variability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on a prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered 64-slice CT. Materials and Methods One hundred and ten patients (76 patients with CAC) were scanned twice on prospective ECG-triggered scans. The scan parameters included 120 kV, 82 mAs, a 2.5 mm thickness, and an acquisition center at 45% of the RR interval. The interscan and interobserver variability on the CAC scores (Agatston, volume, and mass) was calculated. The factors affecting the variability were determined by plotting it against heart rate, BMI, and noise level (defined as the standard deviation: SD). Results The estimated effective dose was 1.5 ± 0.2 mSv. The mean heart rate was 63 ± 12 bpm (range, 44-101 bpm). The patient BMIs were 24.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2 (range, 15.5-42.3 kg/m2). The mean and median interscan variabilities were 11% and 6%, respectively by volume, and 11% and 6%, respectively, by mass. Moreover, the mean and median of the algorithms were lower than the Agatston algorithm (16% and 9%, respectively). The mean and median interobserver variability was 10% and 4%, respectively (average of algorithms). The mean noise levels were 15 ± 4 Hounsfield unit (HU) (range, 8-25 HU). The interscan and interobserver variability was not correlated with heart rate, BMI, or noise level. Conclusion The interscan and interobserver variability of CAC on a prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT with high image quality and 45% of RR acquisition is not significantly affected by heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The volume or mass algorithms show reduced interscan variability compared to the Agatston scoring (p < 0.05). PMID:19568461

  17. Case series of 64 slice computed tomography-computed tomographic angiography with 3D reconstruction to diagnose symptomatic cerebral aneurysms: new standard of care?

    PubMed

    Jehle, Dietrich; Chae, Floria; Wai, Jonathan; Cloud, Sam; Pierce, David; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-09

    CT angiography (CTA) has improved significantly over the past few years such that the reconstructed images of the cerebral arteries may now be equivalent to conventional digital angiography. The new technology of 64 slice multi-detector CTA can reconstruct detailed images that can reliably identify small cerebral aneurysms, even those <3mm. In addition, it is estimated that CT followed by lumbar puncture (LP) misses up to 4% of symptomatic aneurysms. We present a series of cases that illustrates how CT followed by CTA may be replacing CT-LP as the standard of care in working up patients for symptomatic cerebral aneurysms and the importance of performing three dimensional (3D) reconstructions. A series of seven cases of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms were identified that illustrate the sensitivity of CT-CTA versus CT-LP and the importance of 3D reconstruction in identifying these aneurysms. Surgical treatment was recommended for 6 of the 7 patients with aneurysms and strict hypertension control was recommended for the seventh patient. Some of these patients demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage on presentation while others had negative LPs. A number of these patients with negative LPs were clearly symptomatic from their aneurysms. At least one of these cerebral aneurysms was not apparent on CTA without 3D reconstruction. 3D reconstruction of CTA is crucial to adequately identify cerebral aneurysms. This case series helps reinforce the importance of 3D reconstruction. There is some data to suggest that 64 slice CT-CTA may be equivalent or superior to CT-LP in the detection of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms.

  18. Case series of 64 slice computed tomography-computed tomographic angiography with 3D reconstruction to diagnose symptomatic cerebral aneurysms: new standard of care?

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Dietrich; Chae, Floria; Wai, Jonathan; Cloud, Sam; Pierce, David; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) has improved significantly over the past few years such that the reconstructed images of the cerebral arteries may now be equivalent to conventional digital angiography. The new technology of 64 slice multi-detector CTA can reconstruct detailed images that can reliably identify small cerebral aneurysms, even those <3mm. In addition, it is estimated that CT followed by lumbar puncture (LP) misses up to 4% of symptomatic aneurysms. We present a series of cases that illustrates how CT followed by CTA may be replacing CT-LP as the standard of care in working up patients for symptomatic cerebral aneurysms and the importance of performing three dimensional (3D) reconstructions. A series of seven cases of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms were identified that illustrate the sensitivity of CT-CTA versus CT-LP and the importance of 3D reconstruction in identifying these aneurysms. Surgical treatment was recommended for 6 of the 7 patients with aneurysms and strict hypertension control was recommended for the seventh patient. Some of these patients demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage on presentation while others had negative LPs. A number of these patients with negative LPs were clearly symptomatic from their aneurysms. At least one of these cerebral aneurysms was not apparent on CTA without 3D reconstruction. 3D reconstruction of CTA is crucial to adequately identify cerebral aneurysms. This case series helps reinforce the importance of 3D reconstruction. There is some data to suggest that 64 slice CT-CTA may be equivalent or superior to CT-LP in the detection of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms. PMID:22593806

  19. Accuracy of water-enema multidetector computed tomography (WE-MDCT) in colon cancer staging: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sibileau, E; Ridereau-Zins, Catherine; Vanel, D; Pavageau, A H; Bertrais, S; Metivier-Cesbron, E; Venara, A; Aubé, C

    2014-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of water-enema multidetector computed tomography (WE-MDCT) in extra-rectal colon cancer staging. Fifty-three patients (mean age 70 years) with extra-rectal colon cancer proven by colonoscopy and biopsy were prospectively evaluated by preoperative WE-MDCT. CT scans were both intraluminal (water enema or WE) and intravenous (iodinated) contrast enhanced (CE). All patients underwent surgery. Tumors were classified with the TNM staging system. Noted CT features were: tumor size and location; tumor form and edges; spread to the pericolic fat or neighboring organs; thickening of retroperitoneal fascia; number, size, and enhancement of the peritumoral lymph nodes. Tumors were classified on CT into 3 T-stage groups: T1/T2, T3, and T4. Lymph nodes were classified by their density after injection [positive over 100 Hounsfield units (HU)]. Tumor localization to the specific colon segment was correct in all the cases. The agreement between WE-MDCT staging and histopathology staging was good (k = 0.64). An irregular and bowl-shaped aspect of the external edges of tumor provided excellent sensitivity for T3/T4 inclusion (Se 97.7%, NPV 85.7%). Thickening of a fascia or the abdominal wall provided good specificity for T4 stage (Sp 88.1%, NPV 94.9%). Enhancement over 100 HU of at least one peritumoral lymph node was the best criterion of N+ staging (Sp 67.7%, NPV 87.5%). WE-MDCT permits good staging of colon cancer based on objective features.

  20. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma. PMID:25628802

  1. Selection of peripheral intravenous catheters with 24-gauge side-holes versus those with 22-gauge end-hole for MDCT: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Akio; Kato, Kenichi; Kamata, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Michiko; Nakayama, Manabu; Tomabechi, Makiko; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Ehara, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    To compare the 24-gauge side-holes catheter and conventional 22-gauge end-hole catheter in terms of safety, injection pressure, and contrast enhancement on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). In a randomized single-center study, 180 patients were randomized to either the 24-gauge side-holes catheter or the 22-gauge end-hole catheter groups. The primary endpoint was safety during intravenous administration of contrast material for MDCT, using a non-inferiority analysis (lower limit 95% CI greater than -10% non-inferiority margin for the group difference). The secondary endpoints were injection pressure and contrast enhancement. A total of 174 patients were analyzed for safety during intravenous contrast material administration for MDCT. The overall extravasation rate was 1.1% (2/174 patients); 1 (1.2%) minor episode occurred in the 24-gauge side-holes catheter group and 1 (1.1%) in the 22-gauge end-hole catheter group (difference: 0.1%, 95% CI: -3.17% to 3.28%, non-inferiority P=1). The mean maximum pressure was higher with the 24-gauge side-holes catheter than with the 22-gauge end-hole catheter (8.16±0.95kg/cm(2) vs. 4.79±0.63kg/cm(2), P<0.001). The mean contrast enhancement of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and pancreatic parenchyma in the two groups were not significantly different. In conclusion, our study showed that the 24-gauge side-holes catheter is safe and suitable for delivering iodine with a concentration of 300mg/mL at a flow-rate of 3mL/s, and it may contribute to the care of some patients, such as patients who have fragile and small veins. (Trial registration: UMIN000023727). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MDCT of acute thrombotic and nonthrombotic pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Sanjeev; Lopez-Costa, Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a common clinical challenge. MDCT pulmonary angiography has become the first line imaging study in the diagnosis of PE because of its speed, accuracy, low-interobserver variability, and ability to provide alternative diagnoses. This review article highlights the role of MDCT in the evaluation of acute thrombotic PE in the era of PIOPED 2. MDCT findings of acute PE and some potential pitfalls are covered as well as some of the controversies in imaging young and pregnant patients. MDCT findings of acute non-thrombotic PE are also covered. This latter group may be occult on the angiographic portion of the study but may declare themselves through secondary findings. Their findings and potential mimics are included so that the interpreting radiologist can make the most of a CT to rule out PE.

  3. A numerical study of heat and water vapor transfer in MDCT-based human airway models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airways with minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditions for the 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, D a is the airway equivalent diameter, and [Formula: see text] is the tracheal equivalent diameter.

  4. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ (*)) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h 0 (*) ) as [Formula: see text].

  5. The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims.

  6. 64-Slice spiral CT perfusion combined with vascular imaging of acute ischemic stroke for assessment of infarct core and penumbra

    PubMed Central

    BAO, DANG-ZHEN; BAO, HUAN-YING; YAO, LI-ZHAI; PAN, YUN-GAO; ZHU, XIN-RUI; YANG, XIAO-SONG; WANG, HE; HUANG, YI-NING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time-to-peak (TP), in a clinical study of patients with stroke. Additionally, we determined which parameter or combination of parameters are reliable in detecting the presence of an infarct and penumbra. CTP was performed within 24 h of the onset of symptoms in 20 patients with possible stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 3-7 days later and the threshold of the CTP was adjusted according to the results to provide CT images that correlated with the MRI; the MRI results were taken as the gold standard. CBV, CBF and TP contrast agent enhancement were calculated using the CT results. The CTP results were compared with the MRI findings. All CTP parameters were reliable in detecting the penumbra (P<0.001). In these parameters, changes of MTT were the most useful. CTP revealed various changes in CBF, CBV, MTT and TP in ischemic areas. CTP parameters were also reliable in detecting the infarct core (P<0.001). We determined that when detecting the penumbra, all CTP parameters are reliable, and when detecting cerebral ischemia, a combination of parameters should be used. PMID:23935734

  7. The role of 64-slice CT following perfusion with iohexol via the hepatopancreatic ampulla in assessing pancreaticobiliary junctions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wan-Liang; Bai, Xue-Jie; Huang, Shun-Gen; Fang, Lin; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate the structure of the pancreatic and biliary ducts in premature infants using a novel imaging method. The duodenal papillae of 30 premature infant cadavers were dissected. The pancreatic and biliary ducts were visualized using 64-detector multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Contrast agent was injected into the duodenal papilla via the hepatopancreatic ampulla of Vater. MSCT scanning revealed both the pancreatic and biliary ducts as well as the common channel in 18 cases. The bile duct was visualized in the remaining 12 cases. Four patterns of the pancreaticobiliary ductal junction were noted: Y-type (73.3%), U-type (13.3%), V-type (6.7%), and II-type (6.7%). The results showed that MSCT and three-dimensional reconstruction can be used to visualize the junction pattern and common channel of the pancreatic and biliary ducts, and the structure of the surrounding tissue, in premature infants.

  8. [Examination of the effectiveness of heart rate control using intravenous β-blocker in 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Daichi; Nakagawa, Shingo; Morita, Mari; Noda, Rie; Nakamura, Yoko; Igarashi, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of the use of β-blocker in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). In 1783 patients, heart rate was controlled by propranolol injection to patients with heart rates of 61 bpm or more. As a result, the scan heart rate (58.8±6.5 bpm) decreased significantly compared with the initial heart rate (72.7±9.4 bpm). Prospective gating method was used by 61.9% including 64.3% of the intravenous β-blocker injection group. Moreover, daily use of oral β-blocker had influence on reduction of the scan heart rate (daily use group: 60.1±6.5 bpm vs. unuse group: 58.5±6.3 bpm p<0.01). When we evaluated the image quality of CCTA by the score, the improvement of the score was obviously admitted by 65 bpm or less of the scan heart rate. The ratio of scan heart rate that was controlled by 65 bpm or less was decreased in the initial heart rate groups that were 81 bpm or more. The incidence of adverse reactions by the propranolol injection was few, and these instances only involved slight symptoms. Therefore, heart rate control with the use of β-blocker is useful for the image quality improvement of CCTA. This form of treatment can be safely enforced.

  9. Automatic alignment of myocardial perfusion PET and 64-slice coronary CT angiography on hybrid PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Ryo; Dey, Damini; Alexánderson, Erick; Meave, Aloha; Jiménez, Moisés; Romero, Edgar; Jácome, Rodrigo; Peña, Marco; Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybrid PET/CT allows acquisition of cardiac PET and coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in one session. However, PET and CCTA, are acquired with differing breathing protocols and require software registration. We aimed to validate automatic correction for breathing misalignment between PET and CCTA acquired on hybrid scanner. Methods Single-session hybrid PET/CT studies of rest/stress 13N-ammonia PET and CCTA in 32 consecutive patients were considered. Automated registration of PET left ventricular (LV) surfaces with CCTA volumes was evaluated by comparison to expert manual alignment by 2 observers. Results The average initial misalignment between the position of LV on PET and CCTA was 27.2±11.8mm, 13.3±11.5mm, and 14.3±9.1mm in x, y, and z axes on rest, and 26.3±10.2mm, 11.1±9.5mm, and 11.7±7.1mm in x, y, and z axes on stress. The automated PET-CCTA co-registration had 95% agreement as judged visually. Compared to expert manual alignment, the translation errors of the algorithm were 5.3±2.8mm (rest) and 6.0±3.5mm (stress). 3D visualization of combined coronary vessel anatomy and hypoperfusion from PET could be made without further manual adjustments. Conclusion Software co-registration of CCTA and PET myocardial perfusion imaging on hybrid PET/CT scanners is necessary, but can be performed automatically, facilitating integrated 3D display on PET/CT. PMID:22419224

  10. Impact of aortic valve calcification, as measured by MDCT, on survival in patients with aortic stenosis: results of an international registry study.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Capoulade, Romain; Malouf, Joseph; Aggarval, Shivani; Araoz, Phillip A; Michelena, Hector I; Cueff, Caroline; Larose, Eric; Miller, Jordan D; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2014-09-23

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) load measures lesion severity in aortic stenosis (AS) and is useful for diagnostic purposes. Whether AVC predicts survival after diagnosis, independent of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic AS characteristics, has not been studied. This study evaluated the impact of AVC load, absolute and relative to aortic annulus size (AVCdensity), on overall mortality in patients with AS under conservative treatment and without regard to treatment. In 3 academic centers, we enrolled 794 patients (mean age, 73 ± 12 years; 274 women) diagnosed with AS by Doppler echocardiography who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) within the same episode of care. Absolute AVC load and AVCdensity (ratio of absolute AVC to cross-sectional area of aortic annulus) were measured, and severe AVC was separately defined in men and women. During follow-up, there were 440 aortic valve implantations (AVIs) and 194 deaths (115 under medical treatment). Univariate analysis showed strong association of absolute AVC and AVCdensity with survival (both, p < 0.0001) with a spline curve analysis pattern of threshold and plateau of risk. After adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, symptoms, AS severity on hemodynamic assessment, and LV ejection fraction, severe absolute AVC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 2.92; p = 0.03) or severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.37; p = 0.002) independently predicted mortality under medical treatment, with additive model predictive value (all, p ≤ 0.04) and a net reclassification index of 12.5% (p = 0.04). Severe absolute AVC (adjusted HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.62; p = 0.01) and severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.52; p = 0.001) also independently predicted overall mortality, even with adjustment for time-dependent AVI. This large-scale, multicenter outcomes study of quantitative Doppler echocardiographic and MDCT

  11. Increasing bone sclerosis during bortezomib therapy in multiple myeloma patients: results of a reduced-dose whole-body MDCT study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Maximilian; Weisel, Katja; Grandjean, Caroline; Oehrlein, Katharina; Zago, Manola; Spira, Daniel; Horger, Marius

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the frequency, location, extent, and patterns of bone sclerosis occurring in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) during bortezomib-based therapy. From June 2003 through December 2011, 593 whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies were performed of 79 consecutive patients receiving bortezomib. The median surveillance time was 21 months (range, 3-67 months). Baseline studies were compared with follow-up studies during therapy (follow-up 1), at the end of therapy (follow-up 2), and 12 months after cessation of bortezomib therapy (follow-up 3). We recorded any sclerotic change occurring inside or along the margins of the osteolytic lesions, in the cancellous bone, or inside preexistent medullary or extramedullary lesions. The time point of occurrence of bone sclerosis was correlated with the best hematologic response category. Fourteen (17.7%) patients developed focal (n = 11) or diffuse (n = 3) bone sclerosis. The time window from bortezomib initiation to radiographic detection of bone sclerosis was 8 months (SD, 7 months). Sclerosis occurred at multiple sites (n = 7) or at an isolated site (n = 7). On subsequent whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies, sclerosis further increased in seven (50%) patients. Hematologic best response during bortezomib treatment was complete response (n = 1), very good partial response (n = 2), partial response (n = 8), and stable disease (n = 3). Radiologic response at the time of sclerosis detection was partial response (n = 8), stable disease (n = 2), and progressive disease (n = 4). Bone remineralization may occur during bortezomib-based therapy for MM in a substantial proportion of patients. The extent, location, and patterns of sclerosis differ among patients and are unpredictable. Sclerosis was documented even in patients showing suboptimal hematologic response.

  12. MDCT of abdominopelvic oncologic emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Gunabushanam, Gowthaman; Chintapalli, Kedar N; Ryan, John G; Reinhold, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acute complications arising in abdominopelvic malignancies represent a unique subset of patients presenting to the emergency room. The acute presentation can be due to complications occurring in the tumor itself or visceral or vascular structures harboring the tumor. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the investigation of choice in the workup of these patients and enables appropriate and timely management. Management of the complication depends primarily on the extent of the underlying malignancy and the involvement of other viscera. The purpose of this article is to depict the imaging features of these complications on MDCT. PMID:23876309

  13. Estimation and comparison of the radiation effective dose during coronary computed tomography angiography examinations on single-source 64-MDCT and dual-source 128-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Khoramian, Daryoush; Sistani, Soroush

    2017-09-14

    To estimate and compare the radiation dose associated with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) examinations on two multi-detector CT scanners (MDCT), 64-MDCT and 128-MDCT, in daily practice. Scan parameters of 90 patients undergoing retrospective electrocardiographic gating spiral CCTA exam were recorded during a period on a single-source 64-MDCT and a dual-source 128-MDCT, and average scan parameters were derived that were used for dosimetry. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) with a pencil ionisation chamber and polymethyl methacrylate body phantom with diameter of 32 cm was measured on both scanners. The dose-length product (DLP) was calculated and the DLP to effective dose conversion factor (for chest scan at 120 kV of 0.014 mSv mGy(-1) cm(-1)) was used to estimate effective dose (ED). Patients' heart rate, scan length, pitch factor, CTDIv, DLP and ED for 128-MDCT were 64 (5) (beats min(-1)), 161 (10) (mm), 0.26, 47 (12) (mGy), 769 (212) (mGy cm) and 10.3 (3.1) (mSv), respectively [mean (one standard deviation)]. Patients' heart rate, scan length, pitch factor, CTDIv, DLP and ED for 64-MDCT were 60 (7) (beats min(-1)), 172 (14) (mm), 0.2, 60 (6) (mGy), 1068 (98) (mGy cm) and 14.9 (1.4) (mSv), respectively. Our results indicated that the CTDIv, DLP and the effective dose with 128-MDCT is significantly lower than with 64-MDCT (p < 0.05). As differences between the exposure parameter mAs on two CT scanners was not significant (p > 0.05) and the kV was constant for both scanners (120 kV), the differences resulted from a shorter scan length on the 128-MDCT and use of a higher pitch factor (0.26 and 0.2 in the 128-MDCT and 64-MDCT, respectively). Comparison with other published studies confirms the findings and indicates methods for reducing patient dose.

  14. Underestimation of left atrial size measured with transthoracic echocardiography compared with 3D MDCT.

    PubMed

    Koka, Anish R; Yau, James; Van Why, Carolyn; Cohen, Ira S; Halpern, Ethan J

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution 64-MDCT images of the beating heart can be used for measurement of left atrial volume with 3D chamber reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to correlate measurements of left atrial volume obtained with clinical transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and measurements obtained with 64-MDCT 3D reconstructions of the left atrium. Patients who underwent TTE and MDCT within 3 days were identified. TTE images were graded as excellent, good, or suboptimal. Two independent observers calculated estimates of left atrial volume from TTE and 64-MDCT images using 3D chamber reconstructions and conventional geometric assumptions on MDCT echocardiographic views. MDCT estimates of phantom volume on 3D chamber reconstructions agreed with actual volumes within 1.5%. The TTE images of 37 of the 52 patients were judged to be of good or excellent quality and were included in the analysis. Mean left atrial volume measured on 3D chamber reconstructions was 61 +/- 14 mL/m(2). Estimates of left atrial volume obtained with TTE were significantly lower (28 +/- 12 mL/m(2)) than similar estimates obtained with MDCT echocardiographic views (53 +/- 15 mL/m(2)) (p < 0.001). TTE left atrial volume and 3D chamber reconstruction left atrial volume exhibited moderate correlation (r = 0.60-0.70), but the correlation improved when analysis was limited to the 26 studies with excellent-quality TTE images (r = 0.71). MDCT echocardiographic estimates of left atrial volume with the area-length method had excellent correlation (r = 0.89) with and were closest to estimates made on 3D chamber reconstructions. Left atrial volume is significantly underestimated on TTE images, and TTE estimates have moderate correlation with left atrial volume measured with MDCT. Measured and estimated left atrial volumes at MDCT can provide important additive prognostic information in the care of patients undergoing MDCT for other reasons. Future studies are needed to obtain normative MDCT measurements of

  15. Silicosis due to Denim Sandblasting in Young People: MDCT Findings.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Selim; Gocmen, Hayrettin; Yikilmaz, Ali; Coskun, Abdulhakim

    2010-04-01

    Occupational lung disease due to silica dust is one of the most common work-related injuries. In denim sandblasting, workers are exposed to silica that may cause immediate mortality, especially in young people. The aim of this study was to assess the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of silicosis in denim sandblasters and to better define the role of MDCT in the early detection of silicosis. The study included 12 consecutive male patients who were admitted to a pulmonary outpatient clinic between April 2009 and December 2009. All patients had been working as sandblasters for at least one year. All patients underwent chest CT examinations for suspected silicosis. Two radiologists independently assessed the images for the presence and distribution of airspace consolidation, ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, parenchymal bands, fibrosis, masses, traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, lobular low-attenuation areas, emphysema, pleural effusion or thickening, and mediastinal or hilar adenopathy. MDCT detected parenchymal abnormalities in the lungs in eight (67%) of the twelve patients. The most common MDCT finding was ground glass opacity (58%). Other common findings were parencyhmal nodules and interlobular septal thickening, predominantly in the upper zones. Nodules were detected in six (50%) of the twelve patients. In four cases (67%), the nodules were numerous (>10), were predominantly smaller than 10 mm, and were centrilobular in distribution. In five (42%) of the 12 patients, interlobular septal thickening was detected. Only one (8%) patient presented with airspace consolidation; this was bilateral in the upper zones and associated with air bronchograms. In one (8%) patient there were several traction bronchiectases in the upper zones. None of the patients presented with pleural effusion, thickening, or honeycombing. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were identified in half of the patients, predominantly in the precarinal

  16. Silicosis due to Denim Sandblasting in Young People: MDCT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Selim; Gocmen, Hayrettin; Yikilmaz, Ali; Coskun, Abdulhakim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Occupational lung disease due to silica dust is one of the most common work-related injuries. In denim sandblasting, workers are exposed to silica that may cause immediate mortality, especially in young people. The aim of this study was to assess the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of silicosis in denim sandblasters and to better define the role of MDCT in the early detection of silicosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 12 consecutive male patients who were admitted to a pulmonary outpatient clinic between April 2009 and December 2009. All patients had been working as sandblasters for at least one year. All patients underwent chest CT examinations for suspected silicosis. Two radiologists independently assessed the images for the presence and distribution of airspace consolidation, ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, parenchymal bands, fibrosis, masses, traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, lobular low-attenuation areas, emphysema, pleural effusion or thickening, and mediastinal or hilar adenopathy. Results: MDCT detected parenchymal abnormalities in the lungs in eight (67%) of the twelve patients. The most common MDCT finding was ground glass opacity (58%). Other common findings were parencyhmal nodules and interlobular septal thickening, predominantly in the upper zones. Nodules were detected in six (50%) of the twelve patients. In four cases (67%), the nodules were numerous (>10), were predominantly smaller than 10 mm, and were centrilobular in distribution. In five (42%) of the 12 patients, interlobular septal thickening was detected. Only one (8%) patient presented with airspace consolidation; this was bilateral in the upper zones and associated with air bronchograms. In one (8%) patient there were several traction bronchiectases in the upper zones. None of the patients presented with pleural effusion, thickening, or honeycombing. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were identified in half of the

  17. 64-Slice CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries: comparison of the diagnostic efficacy of iobitridol 350 mgI/ml versus iomeprol 400 mgI/ml in a prospective, randomised, double-blind multi-centre trial.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Christian; Becker, Christoph R; Berletti, Riccardo; Cametti, Carlo Alberto; Caudron, Jerome; Coudyzer, Walter; De Mey, Johan; Favat, Massimo; Heautot, Jean-François; Heye, Sam; Hittinger, Markus; Larralde, Antoine; Lestrat, Jean-Pierre; Marangoni, Roberto; Nieboer, Koenraad; Reimer, Peter; Schwarz, Martin; Schernthaner, Melanie; Lammer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of iodine concentration on diagnostic efficacy in multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries. IRB approval and informed consent were obtained. In this double-blind trial, patients were randomised to undergo MDCT angiography of the abdominal arteries during administration of iobitridol (350 mgI/ml) or iomeprol (400 mgI/ml). Each centre applied its own technique for delivery of contrast medium, regardless of iodine concentration. Diagnostic efficacy, image quality, visualisation of the arterial wall and arterial enhancement were evaluated. A total of 153 patients received iobitridol and 154 received iomeprol. The ability to reach a diagnosis was "satisfactory" to "totally satisfactory" in 152 (99.3%) and 153 (99.4%) patients respectively. Image quality was rated as being "good" to "excellent" in 94.7 and 94.8% segments respectively. Similar results were observed for image quality of arterial walls (84.3 vs. 83.2%). The mean relative changes in arterial enhancement between baseline and arterial phase images showed no statistically significant differences. This study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the 350 versus 400 mgI/ml iodine concentration, in terms of diagnostic efficacy, in abdominal MDCT angiography. It also confirmed the high robustness and reliability of this technique across multi-national practices.

  18. In-Vivo Assessment of Femoral Bone Strength Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Based on Routine MDCT Imaging: A Preliminary Study on Patients with Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Hans; Garcia, Eduardo Grande; Holzner, Fabian; Noel, Peter B.; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as gold standard. Methods One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects. Results In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963) and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976). The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N) by 14.7% (5440 N) while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N). The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366), but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028). Conclusion FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our

  19. Perfusion measurement in acute pancreatitis using dynamic perfusion MDCT.

    PubMed

    Bize, Pierre E; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether MDCT with perfusion imaging could help in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis in the initial phase of the disease. One hundred six patients with abdominal pain were prospectively enrolled in this study. Patients were separated into two groups: P1 (severe) and P2 (mild) acute pancreatitis. Mean perfusion value was 24.8 mL/100 mL/min in the P1 group and 50.5 mL/100 mL/min in the P2 group (p = 0.0016, significant). Our preliminary data suggest that pancreatic perfusion measurement using MDCT with perfusion imaging could help in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Radiation dose measurement for various parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jeon, Seong Su; Cho, Hyo-Min; Nam, So Ra; Jung, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    The MDCT parameters affecting radiation dose include tube voltage, tube current, change of beam collimation, and size of the human body. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate radiation dose for MDCT parameters. A comparative analysis of the radiation dose according to before and after the calibration of the ionization chamber was performed. The ionization chamber was used for measuring radiation dose in the MDCT, as well as of CTDI W according to temperature and pressure correction factors in the CT room. As a result, the patient dose of CTDI W values linearly increased as tube voltage and current were increased, and nonlinearly decreased as beam collimation was increased. And the CTDI W value which was reflected calibration factors, as well as correction factors of temperature and pressure, was found to be greater by the range of 0.479 ~ 3.162 mGy in effective radiation dose than the uncorrected value. Also, Under the abdomen routine CT conditions used in hospitals, patient exposure dose showed a difference of a maximum of 0.7 mSv between before and after the application of such factors. These results imply that the calibration of the ion chamber, and the application of temperature and pressure of the CT room are crucial in measuring and calculating patient exposure dose.

  1. Feasibility of extended-coverage perfusion and dynamic computer tomography (CT) angiography using toggling-table technique on 64-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Junpei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Kurisu, Kaoru; Awai, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    The major drawbacks of brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion are limited coverage in the z-axis, radiation exposure and the use of contrast medium, all of which increase when CT angiography (CTA) is performed with double acquisitions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the 'toggling-table' technique using a 40-mm detector. The clinical usefulness of CT perfusion and 4D-CTA (time-resolved 3D-CTA), as well as the time taken and radiation exposure, were assessed in 14 non-ischemic patients clinically indicated for CT perfusion and CTA. A perfusion map and 4D-CTA was successfully achieved in all patients. The total time needed for scanning and processing was approximately 30 min per examination. The 80-mm CT perfusion coverage and 4D-CTA images were advantageous for analyses of the anatomy and widely distributed lesions. The estimated effective radiation dose was 2.22 mSv, and the amount of contrast media was 40 mL. The 'toggling-table' technique acts as a 'one-stop-shop' protocol for perfusion mapping and 4D-CTA over a wide area, following a single contrast injection and scan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Plaque Morphology by 64-Slice Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Compared to Intravascular Ultrasound in Nonocclusive Segments of Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Manoj; Nakanishi, Rine; Choi, Tae-Young; Shavelle, David M; Budoff, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the current gold standard for plaque characterization, noninvasive coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) requires further evaluation. The ability to detect plaque morphology by CCTA remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA for plaque detection and morphology. Thirty-one patients underwent cardiac catheterization with IVUS and CCTA. The presence of plaque was evaluated by both modalities in nonocclusive segments (<50% stenosis) of the left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. Plaque morphology was classified as (1) normal, (2) soft or fibrous, (3) fibrocalcific, or (4) calcific. Results by IVUS and CCTA were compared blindly on a segment-to-segment basis with subgroup analysis based on CCTA tube voltage. Among the 31 patients (mean age 56.2 ± 8.6 years, 27% female), 152 segments were analyzed. Of these segments, 42% were in the left anterior descending artery, 32% were in the left circumflex artery, and 26% were in the right coronary artery. Plaque morphology by IVUS identified 103 segments as fibrous (68%), 31 as fibrocalcific (20%), and 6 as calcific (4.0%); 12 segments were normal (8.0%). To evaluate for the presence of plaque, CCTA had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 99% and 75%, respectively. In patients who underwent CCTA with a tube voltage of 100 kV, both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of CCTA to identify plaque as calcified (fibrocalcific or calcific) vs noncalcified (soft or fibrous) were 87% and 96%, respectively. Overall, the accuracy of CCTA to detect the presence of plaque was 97%; the accuracy to detect plaque calcification was 94%. CCTA offers excellent sensitivity and accuracy for plaque detection and morphology characterization in nonocclusive coronary segments. In addition, diagnostic accuracy is preserved with a reduced tube voltage protocol

  3. Intraindividual comparison of gadolinium- and iodine-enhanced 64-slice multidetector CT pulmonary angiography for the detection of pulmonary embolism in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Henes, Frank Oliver Gerhard; Groth, Michael; Begemann, Philipp G C; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This study is an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in comparison with iodine-enhanced CTPA. PE was induced in five anesthetized pigs by administration of blood clots through an 11-F catheter inside the jugular vein. Animals underwent CTPA in breathhold with i.v. bolus injection of 50 ml gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4 mmol/kg, 4 ml/s). Subsequently, CTPA was performed using the same imaging parameters but under administration of 70 ml nonionic iodinated contrast material (400 mg/ml, 4 ml/s). All images were reconstructed with 1 mm slice thickness. A consensus readout of the iodium-enhanced CTPAs by both radiologists served as reference standard. Gadolinium-enhanced CTPAs were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists, and differences in detection rate between both contrast agents were assessed on a per embolus basis using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Interobserver agreement was determined by calculation of қ values. PE was diagnosed independently by both readers in all five pigs by the use of gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. Out of 60 pulmonary emboli detected in the iodine-enhanced scans, 47 (78.3%; reader 1) and 44 (62.8%; reader 2) emboli were detected by the use of gadolinium. All 13 (100%) emboli in lobar arteries (by both readers) and 26 (reader 1) and 25 (reader 2) out of 27 emboli (96.3% and 92.6%) in segmental arteries were detected by the use of the gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. In subsegmental arteries, only 8 (40%; reader 1) and 6 (30%; reader 2) out of 20 emboli were detected by the gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. By comparing both scans on a per vessel basis (Wilcoxon test), Gd-enhanced CTPA was significantly inferior in emboli detection on subsegmental level (P < 0.0001). The interobserver agreement was excellent on lobar and segmental level (қ = 1.0 and 0.93, respectively), whereas readers only reached moderate

  4. Quantitative analysis of the central-chest lymph nodes based on 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In lung-cancer staging, central-chest lymph nodes and associated nodal stations, as observed in three-dimensional (3D) multidetector CT (MDCT) scans, play a vital role. However, little work has been done in relation to lymph nodes, based on MDCT data, due to the complicated phenomena that give rise to them. Using our custom computer-based system for 3D MDCT-based pulmonary lymph-node analysis, we conduct a detailed study of lymph nodes as depicted in 3D MDCT scans. In this work, the Mountain lymph-node stations are automatically defined by the system. These defined stations, in conjunction with our system's image processing and visualization tools, facilitate lymph-node detection, classification, and segmentation. An expert pulmonologist, chest radiologist, and trained technician verified the accuracy of the automatically defined stations and indicated observable lymph nodes. Next, using semi-automatic tools in our system, we defined all indicated nodes. Finally, we performed a global quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the observed nodes and stations. This study drew upon a database of 32 human MDCT chest scans. 320 Mountain-based stations (10 per scan) and 852 pulmonary lymph nodes were defined overall from this database. Based on the numerical results, over 90% of the automatically defined stations were deemed accurate. This paper also presents a detailed summary of central-chest lymph-node characteristics for the first time.

  5. Imaging assessment of desmoid tumours in familial adenomatous polyposis: is state-of-the-art 1.5 T MRI better than 64-MDCT?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A; Hansmann, A; Bhandari, S; Gupta, A; Burling, D; Rana, S; Phillips, R K; Clark, S K; Goh, V

    2012-01-01

    Objective Desmoid tumour is a common extraintestinal manifestation of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who have undergone prophylactic colectomy. We aimed to determine whether MRI provides equivalent or better assessment of desmoid tumours than CT, the current first-line investigation. Methods Following ethics approval and informed consent, FAP patients with known desmoid tumour underwent contrast-enhanced 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) and 1.5 T MRI (incorporating T1 weighted, T2 weighted, short tau inversion–recovery and T1 weighted with contrast, axial, sagittal and coronal sequences). The number, site, size, local extent, tumour signal intensity and desmoid-to-aorta enhancement ratio were analysed. Results MRI identified 23 desmoid tumours in 9 patients: 9 intra-abdominal desmoid (IAD) tumours, 10 abdominal wall desmoid (AWD) tumours and 4 extra-abdominal desmoid (EAD) tumours. CT identified only 21 desmoids; 1 EAD and 1 AWD were not identified. The two modalities were equivalent in terms of defining local extent of desmoid. Five IAD tumours involved the bowel, six caused ureteric compression and none compromised the proximal superior mesenteric artery. There was no difference in median desmoid size: 56.7 cm2 (range 2–215 cm2) on MDCT and 56.3 cm2 (3–215 cm2) on MRI (p=0.985). The mean MRI enhancement ratio, at 1.12 (standard deviation 0.43), was greater than the CT enhancement ratio, which was 0.48 (0.16) (p<0.0001). High signal intensity on T2 MRI was associated with increased MRI enhancement ratio (p=0.006). Conclusions MRI is at least equivalent (and may be superior) to MDCT for the detection of desmoid tumours in FAP. Coupled with the advantage of avoiding radiation, it should be considered as the primary imaging modality for young FAP patients. PMID:22215881

  6. Subclinical coronary artery disease in Asian rheumatoid arthritis patients who were in remission: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, N Hanim; Teh, C L; Rapaee, A; Lau, K B; Fong, Alan Y Y; Hi, Sithy; Chang, B C; Yew, K L; Liew, H B; Ang, C K; Ong, T K; Chua, S K; Chin, Rowland W M; Sim, K H

    2010-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who have active disease with longer disease duration have been reported to have increased risk of cardiovascular events compared to the normal population. The primary aim of our study is to ascertain the prevalence of significant asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian RA patients who are in remission using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). The secondary aims of our study are the usage of pulse wave velocity and the biomarkers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-senstivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients. We performed a comparative cross-sectional study of 47 RA patients who were in remission with a control group of non-RA patients with a history of atypical chest pain in Sarawak General Hospital from November 2008 to February 2009. All patients underwent 64-slice MDCT, assessment of arterial stiffness using the SphygmoCor test and blood analysis for NT-proBNP and hsCRP. There were 94 patients in our study with a mean age of 50 +/- 8.8 years. The RA and control patients in each group were matched in terms of traditional CV risk factors. Our RA patients had a median disease duration of 3 years (IQR 5.5). MDCT showed evidence of CAD in nine (19.1%) RA patients and three (6.4%) control patients (P = 0.06). There was no significant association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and presence of CAD in our RA group. There was no significant correlation between PWV with levels of proBNP or hsCRP in our RA patients. In our current pilot study with the limitation of small sample size, RA was not associated with an increased risk of CAD in our RA patients who were in remission. Larger studies of CAD in Asian RA patients are needed to confirm our current finding.

  7. Reducing radiation dose to selected organs by selecting the tube start angle in MDCT helical scans: A Monte Carlo based study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Di; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Angel, Erin; Turner, Adam C.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Previous work has demonstrated that there are significant dose variations with a sinusoidal pattern on the peripheral of a CTDI 32 cm phantom or on the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom when helical CT scanning is performed, resulting in the creation of ''hot'' spots or ''cold'' spots. The purpose of this work was to perform preliminary investigations into the feasibility of exploiting these variations to reduce dose to selected radiosensitive organs solely by varying the tube start angle in CT scans. Methods: Radiation dose to several radiosensitive organs (including breasts, thyroid, uterus, gonads, and eye lenses) resulting from MDCT scans were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on voxelized patient models, including GSF's Baby, Child, and Irene. Dose to fetus was also estimated using four pregnant female models based on CT images of the pregnant patients. Whole-body scans were simulated using 120 kVp, 300 mAs, both 28.8 and 40 mm nominal collimations, and pitch values of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75 under a wide range of start angles (0 deg. - 340 deg. in 20 deg. increments). The relationship between tube start angle and organ dose was examined for each organ, and the potential dose reduction was calculated. Results: Some organs exhibit a strong dose variation, depending on the tube start angle. For small peripheral organs (e.g., the eye lenses of the Baby phantom at pitch 1.5 with 40 mm collimation), the minimum dose can be 41% lower than the maximum dose, depending on the tube start angle. In general, larger dose reductions occur for smaller peripheral organs in smaller patients when wider collimation is used. Pitch 1.5 and pitch 0.75 have different mechanisms of dose reduction. For pitch 1.5 scans, the dose is usually lowest when the tube start angle is such that the x-ray tube is posterior to the patient when it passes the longitudinal location of the organ. For pitch 0.75 scans, the dose is lowest when the tube start angle is such that the x

  8. Fully automated lobe-based airway taper index calculation in a low dose MDCT CF study over 4 time-points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Konietzke, Philip; Heussel, Claus P.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hollemann, David; Savage, Dasha; Galbán, Craig J.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. Bronchiectasis is a disease where parts of the airways are permanently dilated. The development and the progression of bronchiectasis is not evenly distributed over the entire lungs - rather, individual functional units are affected differently. We developed a fully automated method for the precise calculation of lobe-based airway taper indices. To calculate taper indices, some preparatory algorithms are needed. The airway tree is segmented, skeletonized and transformed to a rooted acyclic graph. This graph is used to label the airways. Then a modified version of the previously validated integral based method (IBM) for airway geometry determination is utilized. The rooted graph, the airway lumen and wall information are then used to calculate the airway taper indices. Using a computer-generated phantom simulating 10 cross sections of airways we present results showing a high accuracy of the modified IBM. The new taper index calculation method was applied to 144 volumetric inspiratory low-dose MDCT scans. The scans were acquired from 36 children with mild CF at 4 time-points (baseline, 3 month, 1 year, 2 years). We found a moderate correlation with the visual lobar Brody bronchiectasis scores by three raters (r2 = 0.36, p < .0001). The taper index has the potential to be a precise imaging biomarker but further improvements are needed. In combination with other imaging biomarkers, taper index calculation can be an important tool for monitoring the progression and the individual treatment of patients with bronchiectasis.

  9. Robust extraction of the aorta and pulmonary artery from 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate definition of the aorta and pulmonary artery from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents robust methods for defining the aorta and pulmonary artery in the central chest. The methods work on both contrast enhanced and no-contrast 3D MDCT image data. The automatic methods use a common approach employing model fitting and selection and adaptive refinement. During the occasional event that more precise vascular extraction is desired or the method fails, we also have an alternate semi-automatic fail-safe method. The semi-automatic method extracts the vasculature by extending the medial axes into a user-guided direction. A ground-truth study over a series of 40 human 3D MDCT images demonstrates the efficacy, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the methods.

  10. Tools of the trade for CTA: MDCT scanners and contrast medium injection protocols.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Richard L; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2006-12-01

    The introduction of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners in 1998 ushered in new advances in CT angiography (CTA). The subsequent expansion of MDCT scanner capabilities, coupled with advances in understanding of contrast medium (CM) dynamics, has further improved the clinical availability and consistency of CTA. We will review recent advances in CT scanner technology and discuss early CM dynamics. Specifically, we describe an approach tailored to the available scanner technology and to patient size aimed at providing consistently robust CTA studies across all vascular territories. A rational method to design combined CTA scan/injection protocols to facilitate this goal will be described. Our current experience with a simplified protocol for CTA with 64-MDCT will also be explained.

  11. Radiation dose reduction to the male gonads during MDCT: the effectiveness of a lead shield.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Christian; Mahnken, Andreas H; Klotz, Ernst; Das, Marco; Stargardt, Achim; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Schmidt, Thorsten; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2005-01-01

    Our study was designed to quantify the effect of a standard gonad shield on the testicular radiation exposure due to scatter during routine abdominopelvic MDCT. Routine abdominopelvic MDCT was performed in 34 patients with gonadal lead shielding and 32 patients without this shielding; the testes were not exposed to the direct beam during the examination. We estimated the testicular dose administered with thermoluminescent dosimetry, taking into account each patient's body weight and body mass index (BMI). With a 1-mm lead shield, the mean testicular dose was reduced from 2.40 to 0.32 mSv, a reduction of 87%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.0001). No correlation between testicular dose and body weight or BMI was found. Shielding the male gonads reduces the testicular radiation dose during abdominopelvic MDCT significantly and can be recommended for routine use.

  12. Segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes in 3D MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E

    2011-09-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The definition of lymph nodes from three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. We propose two methods for computer-based segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes from a 3D MDCT scan: the single-section live wire and the single-click live wire. For the single-section live wire, the user first applies the standard live wire to a single two-dimensional (2D) section after which automated analysis completes the segmentation process. The single-click live wire is similar but is almost completely automatic. Ground-truth studies involving human 3D MDCT scans demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of the methods.

  13. Cardiac MDCT in children: CT technology overview and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for congenital heart disease is a useful, rapid, and noninvasive imaging technique bridging the gaps between echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and cardiac MRI. Fast scan speed and greater anatomic coverage, combined with flexible ECG-synchronized scans and a low radiation dose, are critical for improving the image quality of cardiac MDCT and minimizing patient risk. Current MDCT techniques can accurately evaluate extracardiac great vessels, lungs, and airways, as well as coronary arteries and intracardiac structures. Radiologists who perform cardiac MDCT in children should be familiarized with optimal cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan techniques and characteristic cardiac CT scan imaging findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postmortem imaging: MDCT features of postmortem change and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Levy, Angela D; Harcke, Howard Theodore; Mallak, Craig T

    2010-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has emerged as an effective imaging technique to augment forensic autopsy. Postmortem change and decomposition are always present at autopsy and on postmortem MDCT because they begin to occur immediately upon death. Consequently, postmortem change and decomposition on postmortem MDCT should be recognized and not mistaken for a pathologic process or injury. Livor mortis increases the attenuation of vasculature and dependent tissues on MDCT. It may also produce a hematocrit effect with fluid levels in the large caliber blood vessels and cardiac chambers from dependent layering erythrocytes. Rigor mortis and algor mortis have no specific MDCT features. In contrast, decomposition through autolysis, putrefaction, and insect and animal predation produce dramatic alterations in the appearance of the body on MDCT. Autolysis alters the attenuation of organs. The most dramatic autolytic changes on MDCT are seen in the brain where cerebral sulci and ventricles are effaced and gray-white matter differentiation is lost almost immediately after death. Putrefaction produces a pattern of gas that begins with intravascular gas and proceeds to gaseous distension of all anatomic spaces, organs, and soft tissues. Knowledge of the spectrum of postmortem change and decomposition is an important component of postmortem MDCT interpretation.

  15. Characterizing atherosclerotic plaque with computed tomography: a contrast-detail study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasraie, Nima; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2012-02-01

    Plaque characterization may benefit from the increasing distinctiveness of the attenuating properties of different soft plaque components at lower energies. Due to the relative slight increase in the CT number of the nonadipose soft plaque at lower tube voltage settings vs. adipose plaque, a higher contrast between atheromous adipose and non-adipose plaque may become visible with modern 64 slice systems. A contrast-detail (C-D) phantom with varying plaque composition as the contrast generating method, was imaged on a commercial 64 slice MDCT system using 80, 120, and 140 kVp settings. The same phantom was also imaged on a Cone Beam CT (CBCT) system with a lower tube voltage of 75 kVp. The results of experiments from four different observers on three different plaque types (lipid, fiber, calcific) indicate that CT attenuation within lipid cores and fibrous masses vary not only with the percentage of lipid or fiber present, but also with the size of the cores. Furthermore, the C-D curve analysis for all three plaque types reveals that while the noise constraints prevent visible differentiation of soft plaque at current conventional 64 slice MDCT settings, CBCT exhibits superior visible contrast detectability than its conventional counterpart, with the latter having appreciably better resolution limits and beneficial lower tube voltages. This low voltage CT technique has the potential to be useful in composition based diagnosis of carotid vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

  16. MDCT of extranodal mantle cell lymphoma: a single institute experience.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Akshay D; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Sewatkar, Rani; Sachin, Saboo S; Shinagare, Atul B; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2015-08-01

    To study the pattern of extranodal and particularly gastrointestinal (GI) involvement of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) on MDCT MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved, HIPAA compliant retrospective study, MDCT features of 78 patients (62 males and 16 females, mean age 57 years) with MCL including 28 patients at presentation were reviewed. Clinical and histopathological (blastoid vs. non-blastoid) data were noted from medical records. Extranodal involvement was present in overall 51/78 patients on CT (65%), 18/28 (64%) patients at presentation. Spleen (21/78-27%) and bowel (19/78-24%) were the most common sites of extranodal involvement by MCL on imaging, followed by lungs (10/78-13%) and skin/subcutaneous tissue (9/78-12%). Bowel involvement was either in the form of endophytic polypoidal lesions (n = 11, mean size 3.1 cm), as focal mild bowel wall thickening (n = 5, mean thickness 1.4 cm), or as combination of the two (n = 3). Blastoid histology was present in 14/78 (24%) patients and was statistically associated with skin/subcutaneous involvement (p < 0.05; Fisher's exact t test). Median follow-up was 72 months during which 21 patients died with median survival of 48 months (26 months for blastoid histology vs. 47 months for non-blastoid histology). There was no statistical correlation between sites of involvement and survival. MCL has a predilection for extranodal disease, predominantly involving the spleen, bowel, lungs, and subcutaneous tissue. GI involvement on CT is in the form of endoluminal polypoidal lesions and mild bowel wall thickening. Skin/subcutaneous involvement was statistically more common with blastoid histology in our study.

  17. Dose reduction in paediatric MDCT: general principles.

    PubMed

    Paterson, A; Frush, D P

    2007-06-01

    The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and paediatric populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for paediatric CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters.

  18. [Detection of intraorbital foreign material using MDCT].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, P; Friedrich, C; Framme, C; Hoffstetter, M; Zorger, N; Stierstorfer, K; Ross, C; Uller, W; Müller-Wille, R; Rennert, J; Jung, E M; Schreyer, A G

    2011-06-01

    To judge the possibilities of detection of orbital foreign bodies in multidetector CT (MDCT) with a focus on glass slivers. Experimental systematic measuring of Hounsfield Units (HU) of 20 different materials, containing 16 different types of glass with 4 different types of ophthalmic lenses among them. The measurements were performed using a standardized protocol with an orbita phantom being scanned with 16-slice MDCT. Using the resulting density values, the smallest detectable volume was calculated. Using this data we produced slivers of 5 different glass types in the sub-millimeter range and calculated their volume. Those micro-slivers underwent another CT scan using the same protocol as mentioned above to experimentally discern and confirm the detection limit for micro-slivers made of different materials. Glass has comparatively high density values of at least 2000 HU. The density of glasses with strong refraction is significantly higher and reaches up to 12 400 HU. We calculated a minimum detectable volume of 0.07 mm (3) for glass with a density of 2000 HU. Only glass slivers with a density higher than 8300 HU were experimentally detectable in the sub-millimeter range up to a volume as small as 0.01 mm (3). Less dense glass slivers could not be seen, even though their volume was above the theoretically calculated threshold for detection. Due to its high density of at least 2000 HU, glass is usually easily recognizable as an orbital foreign body. The detection threshold depends on the object's density and size and can be as low as 0.01 mm (3) in the case of glass with strong refraction and thus high density. The detection of glass as an orbital foreign body seems to be secure for slivers with a volume of at least 0.2 mm (3) for all types of glass. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Spectrum of MDCT Findings in Bowel Obstruction in a Tertiary Care Rural Hospital in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Sharad; Mittal, Kapish; Taneja, Arpit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) provides clinically and surgically important information in bowel obstruction. It can depict the severity, level and cause of obstruction. Aim To depict the spectrum of MDCT findings in cases of small and large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods Contrast enhanced MDCT examination of 50 patients were retrospectively included in the study who had evidence of clinical as well as MDCT evidence of bowel obstruction and in whom surgical/clinical follow-up for final diagnosis was available. CT scan was done in all the patients with Ingenuity CT (128 slice MDCT, Philips Medical Systems). The axial sections were reconstructed in coronal and sagital planes to determine site and cause of bowel obstruction. Results There were 34 males and 16 females patients in this study with mean age of 28.4 years. The level of obstruction was in small bowel in 39 patients (76.67%) and large bowel in 11 patients (23.33%). Adhesive bands were the cause of Small Bowel Obstruction (SBO) in 17 patients (43.5% of SBO patients). The most common CT signs in adhesive band SBO were beak sign (seen in 70.6% patients) and fat notch sign (52.9% patients). Five cases of SBO were secondary to benign stricture. Matted adhesions were the cause of obstruction in 3 patients. All these patients showed transition zone in pelvis with positive small bowel faeces sign. Two patients with SBO due to adhesive band had evidence of closed loop obstruction with evidence of gangrenous gut on surgery. Large Bowel Obstruction (LBO) was seen in 11 patients. Most common cause of LBO was primary colonic malignancy, accounting for 7 patients (63.6%). In one patient, the cause was direct invasion of hepatic flexure by carcinoma of gall bladder. Other causes of LBO were pelvic adhesions, faecal impaction and ischaemic stricture. Conclusion SBO is more common than LBO with adhesive bands being the most common cause of SBO. MDCT is very useful for depicting site and cause

  20. MDCT Versus MRI Assessment of Tumor Response After Transarterial Chemoembolization for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kloeckner, Roman; Otto, Gerd; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B.

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate treatment results after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), with a special focus on the influence of Lipiodol on calculation of tumor necrosis according to EASL criteria. A total of 115 nodules in 20 patients (17 males, 3 females; 69.5 {+-} 9.35 years) with biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with TACE. Embolization was performed using a doxorubicin-Lipiodol emulsion (group I) or DC Beads loaded with doxorubicin (group II). Follow-up included triphasic contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT (collimation, 0.625 mm; slice, 3 mm; contrast bolus, 120 ml iomeprol; delay by bolus trigger) and contrast-enhanced MRI (T1 native, T2 native; five dynamic contrast-enhanced phases; 0.1 mmol/kg body weight gadolinium-DTPA; slice thickness, 4 mm). Residual tumor and the extent of tumor necrosis were evaluated according to EASL. Contrast enhancement within tumor lesions was suspected to represent vital tumor. In the Lipiodol-based TACE protocol, MDCT underestimated residual viable tumor compared to MRI, due to Lipiodol artifacts (23.2% vs 47.7% after first, 11.9% vs 31.2% after second, and 11.4% vs 23.7% after third TACE; p = 0.0014, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast to MDCT, MRI was completely free of any artifacts caused by Lipiodol. In the DC Bead-based Lipiodol-free TACE protocol, MRI and CT showed similar residual tumor and rating of treatment results (46.4% vs 41.2%, 31.9 vs 26.8%, and 26.0% vs 25.6%; n.s.). In conclusion, MRI is superior to MDCT for detection of viable tumor residuals after Lipiodol-based TACE. Since viable tumor tissue is superimposed by Lipiodol artifacts in MDCT, MRI is mandatory for reliable decision-making during follow-up after Lipiodol-based TACE protocols.

  1. Esophagobronchial fistulae: Diagnosis by MDCT with oral contrast swallow examination of a benign and a malignant cause

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul G; Kalekar, Tushar M; Gajbhiye, Meenakshi I; Bandgar, Amol S; Pawar, Shephali S; Khadse, Gopal J

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae diagnosed by Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) oral contrast swallow examination. It is helpful to supplement the CT study with an oral contrast swallow as it aids in confirmation of a suspected fistula and also demonstrates the fistula tract better. We present the clinical details and the imaging findings on MDCT of two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae – one secondary to chronic chest tuberculosis and the other secondary to a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus – followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of these fistulae. PMID:24082484

  2. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2011-03-01

    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  3. Conventional and reduced radiation dose of 16-MDCT for detection of nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Erik K; Weaver, Carolyn; Ho, Lisa M; Martin, Lucie; Li, Jianying; Darsie, James; Frush, Donald P

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to prospectively compare the reader compatibility and acceptability of a range of reduced-dose 16-MDCT images with standard-dose 16-MDCT images for the detection of nephroureterolithiasis using a dose reduction simulation technique. The study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Fifty consecutive patients with suspected nephrolithiasis were recruited to undergo conventional renal stone unenhanced 16-MDCT with at least 160 mA. Noise was then artificially introduced to simulate levels of 70, 100, and 130 mA. Three blinded independent readers interpreted the original and simulated-dose scans for the location and number of renal and ureteral calculi and secondary signs of obstruction using a 5-point confidence scale. Reader acceptability of scans was inversely related to noise. There was no significant reduction in readers' confidence in detection or exclusion of renal collecting system calculi with simulated reduction of mA of 70, 100, and 130 compared with the standard-dose study. However, for ureteral calcifications, there was a decrease in confidence for the detection or exclusion of ureterolithiasis at an mA of 70 (35 mAs). An mA as low as 70 (35 mAs) is acceptable for evaluation of nephrolithiasis. However, the evaluation of ureterolithiasis is compromised with an mA of 70.

  4. Evaluating the effect of two different anesthetic protocols on 64-MDCT coronary angiography in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Pinkerton, Marie; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate is a major factor influencing diagnostic image quality in computed tomographic coronary artery angiography (MDCT-CA) with an ideal heart rate of 60–65 beats/minute in humans. Using standardized contrast bolus volume, two different clinically applicable anesthetic protocols were compared for effect on cardiovascular parameters and 64-MDCT-CA quality in ten healthy dogs. The protocol using midazolam/fentanyl (A) was hypothesized to result in adequate reduction of heart rate achieving adequate image quality for MDCT-CA studies and having low impact on blood pressure, where as the protocol utilizing dexmedetomidine (B) was expected to result in reduction of heart rate to the target heart range resulting in excellent image quality while possibly showing undesirable effect on the blood pressure values measured. Heart rate was 80.6 ± 7.5bpm with protocol A and 79.2 ± 14.2bpm with protocol B during image acquisition (P=1). R-R intervals allowing for the best depiction of the individual coronary artery segments were found in the end diastolic period and varied between the 70–95% interval. Diagnostic quality was rated excellent, good and moderate in the majority of the segments evaluated, with higher scores given for more proximal segments and lower for more distal segments respectively. Blur was the most commonly observed artifact and most affected the distal segments. There was no significant difference for the optimal reconstruction interval, diagnostic quality and measured length individual segments or proximal diameter of the coronary arteries between both protocols (P=1). Both anesthetic protocols and the standardized bolus volume allow for diagnostic quality coronary 64-MDCT-CA exams. PMID:25065815

  5. Spontaneous Renal Artery Dissection as a Cause of Acute Renal Infarction: Clinical and MDCT Findings.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kibo; Song, Soon Young; Lee, Chang Hwa; Ko, Byung Hee; Lee, Seunghun; Kang, Bo Kyeong; Kim, Mi Mi

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) as a cause of acute renal infarction, and to evaluate the clinical and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of SRAD. From November 2011 to January 2014, 35 patients who were diagnosed with acute renal infarction by MDCT were included. We analyzed the 35 MDCT data sets and medical records retrospectively, and compared clinical and imaging features of SRAD with an embolism, using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. The most common cause of acute renal infarction was an embolism, and SRAD was the second most common cause. SRAD patients had new-onset hypertension more frequently than embolic patients. Embolic patients were found to have increased C-reactive protein (CRP) more often than SRAD patients. Laboratory results, including tests for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and the BUN/creatinine ratio (BCR) were significantly higher in embolic patients than SRAD patients. Bilateral renal involvement was detected in embolic patients more often than in SRAD patients. MDCT images of SRAD patients showed the stenosis of the true lumen, due to compression by a thrombosed false lumen. None of SRAD patients progressed to an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or to end-stage renal disease during the follow-up period. SRAD is not a rare cause of acute renal infarction, and it has a benign clinical course. It should be considered in a differential diagnosis of acute renal infarction, particularly in patients with new-onset hypertension, unilateral renal involvement, and normal ranges of CRP, LDH, BUN, and BCR.

  6. Spontaneous Renal Artery Dissection as a Cause of Acute Renal Infarction: Clinical and MDCT Findings

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) as a cause of acute renal infarction, and to evaluate the clinical and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of SRAD. From November 2011 to January 2014, 35 patients who were diagnosed with acute renal infarction by MDCT were included. We analyzed the 35 MDCT data sets and medical records retrospectively, and compared clinical and imaging features of SRAD with an embolism, using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. The most common cause of acute renal infarction was an embolism, and SRAD was the second most common cause. SRAD patients had new-onset hypertension more frequently than embolic patients. Embolic patients were found to have increased C-reactive protein (CRP) more often than SRAD patients. Laboratory results, including tests for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and the BUN/creatinine ratio (BCR) were significantly higher in embolic patients than SRAD patients. Bilateral renal involvement was detected in embolic patients more often than in SRAD patients. MDCT images of SRAD patients showed the stenosis of the true lumen, due to compression by a thrombosed false lumen. None of SRAD patients progressed to an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or to end-stage renal disease during the follow-up period. SRAD is not a rare cause of acute renal infarction, and it has a benign clinical course. It should be considered in a differential diagnosis of acute renal infarction, particularly in patients with new-onset hypertension, unilateral renal involvement, and normal ranges of CRP, LDH, BUN, and BCR. PMID:28244286

  7. Managing patient dose in multi-detector computed tomography(MDCT). ICRP Publication 102.

    PubMed

    Valentin, J

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technology has changed considerably in recent years with the introduction of increasing numbers of multiple detector arrays. There are several parameters specific to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners that increase or decrease patient dose systematically compared to older single detector computed tomography (SDCT) scanners. This document briefly reviews the MDCT technology, radiation dose in MDCT, including differences from SDCT and factors that affect dose, radiation risks, and the responsibilities for patient dose management. The document recommends that users need to understand the relationship between patient dose and image quality and be aware that image quality in CT is often higher than that necessary for diagnostic confidence. Automatic exposure control (AEC) does not totally free the operator from selection of scan parameters, and awareness of individual systems is important. Scanning protocols cannot simply be transferred between scanners from different manufacturers and should be determined for each MDCT. If the image quality is appropriately specified by the user, and suited to the clinical task, there will be a reduction in patient dose for most patients. Understanding of some parameters is not intuitive and the selection of image quality parameter values in AEC systems is not straightforward. Examples of some clinical situation shave been included to demonstrate dose management, e.g. CT examinations of the chest, the heart for coronary calcium quantification and non-invasive coronary angiography, colonography, the urinary tract, children, pregnant patients, trauma cases, and CT guided interventions. CT is increasingly being used to replace conventional x-ray studies and it is important that patient dose is given careful consideration, particularly with repeated or multiple examinations.

  8. Beak-Like Extension of the Pancreatic Uncinate Process on MDCT: Is It Hyperplasia or Movement?

    PubMed

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Matsumoto, Shunro; Kiyonaga, Maki; Takaji, Ryo; Yamada, Yasunari; Mori, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the pancreatic uncinate process with a beak-like extension (BLE) beyond the left border of the superior mesenteric artery, to define the cause of BLE, and to differentiate BLE from hyperplasia. We retrospectively reviewed 1042 triple-phase contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (3P-CE-MDCT) examinations of 500 patients. Finally, 38 patients (28 men, 10 women; mean age, 66 years) with 140 3P-CE-MDCT images showing BLE were studied regarding BLE size, contour, and cause. The superior mesenteric artery position was also evaluated. Beak-like extensions were found in 7.6% of patients. Most were caused by movement of the small bowel mesentery (n = 21, 55%), with deviation of mesenteric vessels or mass effect from expanded adjacent organs (n = 3, 8%). Seven patients (18.5%) had true hyperplasia. Beak-like extension is caused by movement of the small bowel mesentery with deviation of mesenteric vessels or by adjacent organ expansion. Beak-like extension closely mimics other pathology on nonenhanced MDCT.

  9. Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, N; Agrawal, P; Mittal, V; Kochhar, R; Gupta, V; Nada, R; Singh, R; Khandelwal, N

    2014-03-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive technique for the evaluation of SB TB.

  10. Thoracic lymph node delineation at dose-reduced (1 mSv) dose-modulated contrast enhanced MDCT: a retrospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Marco; Wirth, Kathrin; Tufman, Amanda; Reiser, Maximilian; Huber, Rudolf M; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G

    2016-08-01

    To compare contrast-enhanced low-dose multidetector-row computed tomography (CE-LDCT) of the chest with unenhanced (UN-) LDCT and contrast-enhanced standard-dose CT (CE-SDCT) in regard to the delineation of intrathoracic lymph nodes. Based on the international association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) grouping of thoracic lymph nodes, two independent radiologists retrospectively assessed lymph node delineation in 9 CE-LDCTs (64 rows, 120 KV, p < 30 mAs/slice) and in 2 control groups of 36 UN-LDCTs and 36 CE-SDCTs, each matched for gender, age, chest/lung diameters, and clinical history. At a significance level of p < 0.025 (Bonferroni-correction for two control groups), two-tailed Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied. For the evaluation of the inter-observer agreement, Cohen's kappa statistics were used. CE-LDCT delineated lymph node groups significantly more often than UN-LDCT, in general (p < 0.001) and individually in the subcarinal (p < 0.025), the hilar (p < 0.001), and the peripheral lung (p < 0.001) zones. There were no significant differences in lymph node delineation between CE-LDCT and CE-SDCT. Inter-observer agreement was substantial to perfect for all lymph node zones (κ 0.64-1.0). Measurable lymph nodes did not significantly differ in size between cases and controls. At CE-LDCT of the chest, delineation of mediastinal and hilar lymph node groups was superior to UN-LDCT and similar to CE-SDCT. CE-LDCT may be a promising alternative for patients with non-malignant lung disease, unclear chest X-ray findings, or the need for follow-up.

  11. Quantification of arterial plaque and lumen density with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Narinder S.; Blobel, Joerg; Kashani, Hany; Rice, Murray; Ursani, Ali

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to derive a mathematical correction function in order to normalize the CT number measurements for small volume arterial plaque and small vessel mimicking objects, imaged with multidetector CT (MDCT). Methods: A commercially available calcium plaque phantom (QRM GmbH, Moehrendorf, Germany) and a custom built cardiovascular phantom were scanned with 320 and 64 MDCT scanners. The calcium hydroxyapatite plaque phantom contained objects 0.5-5.0 mm in diameter with known CT attenuation nominal values ranging 50-800 HU. The cardiovascular phantom contained vessel mimicking objects 1.0-5.0 mm in diameter with different contrast media. Both phantoms were scanned using clinical protocols for CT angiography and images were reconstructed with different filter kernels. The measured CT number (HU) and diameter of each object were analyzed on three clinical postprocessing workstations. From the resultant data, a mathematical formula was derived based on absorption function exp(-{mu}{sup *}d) to demonstrate the relation between measured CT numbers and object diameters. Results: The percentage reduction in measured CT number (HU) for the group of selected filter kernels, apparent during CT angiography, is dependent only on the object size (plaque or vessel diameter). The derived formula of the form 1-c{sup *}exp(-a{sup *}d{sup b}) showed reduction in CT number for objects between 0.5 and 5 mm in diameter, with asymptote reaching background noise for small objects with diameters nearing the CT in-plane resolution (0.35 mm). No reduction was observed for the objects with diameters equal or larger than 5 mm. Conclusions: A clear mathematical relationship exists between object diameter and reduction in measured CT number in HU. This function is independent of exposure parameters and inherent attenuation properties of the objects studied. Future developments include the incorporation of this mathematical model function into quantification software in order to

  12. MDCT of the S-shaped sinoatrial node artery.

    PubMed

    Saremi, Farhood; Channual, Stephanie; Abolhoda, Amir; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Narula, Jagat; Milliken, Jeffrey C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use 64-MDCT to investigate the anatomic characteristics of the S-shaped variant of the sinoatrial node (SAN) artery and to describe the clinical implications of the findings in ablative procedures involving the left atrium. Coronary CT angiograms of 250 patients (152 men, 98 women; mean age, 60 +/- 12 [SD] years) were retrospectively analyzed for identification of the origin, number, anatomic course, mode of termination, and S-shaped variant of the SAN artery. At least one SAN artery was detected in 244 patients. The S-shaped variant was seen in 35 (14.3%) of these patients. Thirty-four of the variants (30.6% of all left SAN arteries) arose from the proximal to middle portion of the left circumflex artery (mean distance between the ostium of the left circumflex artery and the origin of S-shaped variant, 28.7 +/- 13.1 mm). The other variant (0.7% of all right SAN arteries) originated from the distal right coronary artery. The S-shaped variant was the only artery supplying the SAN in 28 (11.4%) of the patients. In patients with two arteries supplying the SAN, the right SAN artery and the S-shaped variant of the left SAN artery were seen together in seven patients. The S-shaped SAN artery (mean distance from atrial wall, 2.43 +/- 0.992 mm) had a predictable proximal course, lying in the posterior aspect in a groove between the orifices of the left superior pulmonary vein and the left atrial appendage close to the left atrial wall. The terminal segment of the artery approached the nodal tissue posterior to the superior vena cava in 22 patients, anterior to the vena cava in 10 patients, and through branches surrounding the vena cava in two patients. The S-shaped variation of the SAN artery is common and has a characteristic anatomic course. MDCT can be used to plan surgical and catheter-based left atrial interventions in which this artery is at risk of injury.

  13. [MDCT features and anatomic-pathological basis of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yilan; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Deng, Wen; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yingkun

    2012-02-01

    This paper is to determine relationship between MDCT features and anatomic-pathology of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region. 3 cadavers were cut transversely and another 3 vertically to observe the anatomy of thoracic-abdominal junctional zone. 93 patients with diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional zone were scanned with MDCT. The correlation between MDCT features of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region and the anatomic-pathology of the diseases in this region was evaluated. On cadaver sections, central thoracic-abdominal junctional region was an area between anterior chest wall and dorsal spine in vertical direction. The region was separated into upper and lower sections by diaphragm. The upper section mainly contains heart and pericardium, while the lower contains broad ligament and left lobe of liver. The hiatus of diaphragm are vena caval foramen, esophageal foramen and aortic foramen in anterior-posterior turn. In the present study, 23 patients had portal hypertension, 18 had dissection of aorta, 8 got diseases in inferior vena cava, 9 had lymphoma, 12 got diseases in multiple vertebrae, 7 had lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma accompanied with metastasis in upper abdominal lymph nodes, 9 had carcinoma of abdominal esophagus and/or gastric cardia, 4 had esophageal hiatal hernia and 3 patients had neurogenic tumor in posterior mediastinum and/or superior spatium retroperitoneale. The MDCT features and distribution of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region influence the anatomic-pathology characteristics in this region.

  14. Comparison of hepatic MDCT, MRI, and DSA to explant pathology for the detection and treatment planning of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ladd, Lauren M.; Tirkes, Temel; Tann, Mark; Agarwal, David M.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Tahir, Bilal; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis and treatment plan for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be made from radiologic imaging. However, lesion detection may vary depending on the imaging modality. This study aims to evaluate the sensitivities of hepatic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the detection of HCC and the consequent management impact on potential liver transplant patients. Methods One hundred and sixteen HCC lesions were analyzed in 41 patients who received an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). All of the patients underwent pretransplantation hepatic DSA, MDCT, and/or MRI. The imaging results were independently reviewed retrospectively in a blinded fashion by two interventional and two abdominal radiologists. The liver explant pathology was used as the gold standard for assessing each imaging modality. Results The sensitivity for overall HCC detection was higher for cross-sectional imaging using MRI (51.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=36.2-58.4%) and MDCT (49.8%, 95% CI=43.7-55.9%) than for DSA (41.7%, 95% CI=36.2-47.3%) (P=0.05). The difference in false-positive rate was not statistically significant between MRI (22%), MDCT (29%), and DSA (29%) (P=0.67). The sensitivity was significantly higher for detecting right lobe lesions than left lobe lesions for all modalities (MRI: 56.1% vs. 43.1%, MDCT: 55.0% vs. 42.0%, and DSA: 46.9% vs. 33.9%; all P<0.01). The sensitivities of the three imaging modalities were also higher for lesions ≥2 cm vs. <2 cm (MRI: 73.4% vs. 32.7%, MDCT: 66.9% vs. 33.8%, and DSA: 62.2% vs. 24.1%; all P<0.01). The interobserver correlation was rated as very good to excellent. Conclusion The sensitivity for detecting HCC is higher for MRI and MDCT than for DSA, and so cross-sectional imaging modalities should be used to evaluate OLT candidacy. PMID:27987537

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of upper airways from MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchet, Diane; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise

    2005-03-01

    Under the framework of clinical respiratory investigation, providing accurate modalities for morpho-functional analysis is essential for diagnosis improvement, surgical planning and follow-up. This paper focuses on the upper airways investigation and develops an automated approach for 3D mesh reconstruction from MDCT acquisitions. In order to overcome the difficulties related to the complex morphology of the upper airways and to the image gray level heterogeneity of the airway lumens and thin bony septa, the proposed 3D reconstruction methodology combines 2D segmentation and 3D surface regularization approaches. The segmentation algorithm relies on mathematical morphology theory and provides airway lumen robust discrimination from the surrounding tissues, while preserving the connectivity relationship between the different anatomical structures. The 3D regularization step uses an energy-based modeling in order to achieve a smooth and well-fitted 3D surface of the upper airways. An accurate 3D mesh representation of the reconstructed airways makes it possible to develop specific clinical applications such as virtual endoscopy, surgical planning and computer assisted intervention. In addition, building up patient-specific 3D models of upper airways is highly valuable for the study and design of inhaled medication delivery via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  16. Application of MPVR and TL-VR with 64-row MDCT in neonates with congenital EA and distal TEF.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yang; Peng, Yun; Zhai, Ren-You; Li, Ying-Zi

    2011-03-28

    To assess the application of multiple planar volume reconstruction (MPVR) and three-dimensional (3D) transparency lung volume rendering (TL-VR) with 64-row multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in neonates with congenital esophageal atresia (EA) and distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Twenty neonates (17 boys, 3 girls) with EA and distal TEF at a mean age of 4.6 d (range 1-16 d) were enrolled in this study. A helical scan of 64-row MDCT was performed at the 64 mm × 0.625 mm collimation. EA and TEF were reconstructed with MPVR and TL-VR, respectively. Initial diagnosis of EA was made by chest radiography showing the inserted catheter in the proximal blind-ended esophageal pouch. Manifestations of MDCT images were compared with the findings at surgery. MDCT showed the proximal and distal esophageal pouches in 20 cases. No significant difference was observed in gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR. The lengths of gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR correlated well with the findings at surgery (R = 0.87, P < 0.001). The images of MPVR revealed the orifice of TEF in 13 cases, while TL-VR images showed the orifice of TEF in 4 cases. EA and distal TEF can be reconstructed using MPVR and TL-VR of 64-row MDCT, which is a noninvasive technique to demonstrate the distal esophageal pouches and inter-pouch distance in neonates with EA and distal TEF.

  17. Coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats per minute: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allan B; Nandurkar, Dee; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Cameron, James D; Troupis, John M

    2011-06-01

    High heart rate may negatively influence the image quality of cardiac CT. The technical advances of 320-MDCT may overcome issues with poor image quality associated with high heart rate. This study aimed to evaluate the coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats/min. Patients who presented for cardiac CT were divided into two groups according to heart rate, either greater than 65 beats/min or less than or equal to 65 beats/min. Two radiologists were blinded to the patient groups and evaluated images of 15 coronary artery segments per patient using 320-MDCT with consensus agreement. The image quality was scored subjectively as 1 or 2 (diagnostic quality) or 3 (poor quality and nondiagnostic). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass index (p > 0.05). The median heart rate was 70 beats/min (range, 67-110 beats/min) for the group with heart rate greater than 65 beats/min and 60 beats/min (range, 48-65 beats/min) for the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p < 0.001). In patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, diagnostic quality images (scores of 1 or 2) were obtained in 95.6% of the analyzed segments, compared with 96.9% in the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p = 0.7). Our initial evaluation suggests that coronary artery images of diagnostic quality can be obtained using 320-MDCT in most patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, in percentages similar to those for patients with heart rates less than or equal to 65 beats/min. This finding may be the result of the inherent image acquisition and reconstruction technique of 320-MDCT.

  18. Pericardial fat amount is an independent risk factor of coronary artery stenosis assessed by multidetector-row computed tomography: the Korean Atherosclerosis Study 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Yu, Sung Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; Kang, Seon Mee; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Shin, Hayley; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2011-05-01

    Pericardial fat surrounding the heart and coronary arteries might aggravate vessel wall inflammation and stimulate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. However, there has been little comprehensive evaluation of the effects of pericardial fat on coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the relationship between pericardial fat volume and the severity of coronary artery stenosis assessed by computed tomography and angiography among patients with suspected CAD. Participants from the cohort of the Korean Atherosclerosis Study 2 (n = 402, mean age of 54 years, 57.0% men) underwent 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to assess pericardial fat amount, coronary artery calcium score (CACS), severity of coronary artery stenosis, and plaque characteristics. Patients with atherosclerotic lesion had significantly larger volume of pericardial fat than patients without atherosclerosis (308 ± 96 cm(3) vs. 251 ± 93 cm(3); P < 0.01). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusting for age, gender and BMI, subjects with more pericardial fat had a higher risk for significant (>50%) stenosed coronary vessels (odds ratio (OR) = 1.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.030; P = 0.017). This association remained after adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and lipid profiles (OR = 1.007; 95% CI 1.001-1.014; P = 0.042). In conclusion, an increased pericardial fat volume was an independent risk factor for stenotic CAD and could be helpful in assessing subclinical CADs.

  19. Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Identifying the Loss of the Y Chromosome on Multiphasic MDCT.

    PubMed

    Young, Jonathan R; Coy, Heidi; Douek, Michael; Lo, Pechin; Sayre, James; Pantuck, Allan J; Raman, Steven S

    2017-08-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether multiphasic MDCT enhancement can help identify clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with the loss of the Y chromosome. We derived a cohort of 43 clear cell RCCs in men who underwent preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT from October 2000 to August 2013. Each lesion was segmented in its entirety on axial images. A computer-assisted detection algorithm selected a 0.5-cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase. A 0.5-cm-diameter ROI was manually placed on uninvolved renal cortex in each phase. The relative attenuation of each lesion was calculated as follows: [(maximal lesion attenuation - cortex attenuation) / cortex attenuation] × 100. Absolute attenuation and relative attenuation in each phase were compared using t tests. Both clear cell RCCs with the loss of the Y chromosome and clear cell RCCs without the loss of the Y chromosome exhibited peak enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. However, relative nephrographic attenuation of clear cell RCCs with the loss of Y was significantly less than that of clear cell RCCs without the loss of Y (mean, -8.9 vs 8.4 respectively; p = 0.013). A relative nephrographic attenuation threshold of -1.6 identified the loss of Y with an accuracy of 70% (30/43), sensitivity of 73% (16/22), and specificity of 67% (14/21). Multiphasic MDCT enhancement may assist in identifying the loss of the Y chromosome in clear cell RCCs; this result should be validated in a large prospective trial.

  20. Coronary fly-through or virtual angioscopy using dual-source MDCT data.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, Peter M A; de Jonge, Gonda; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-11-01

    Coronary fly-through or virtual angioscopy (VA) has been studied ever since its invention in 2000. However, application was limited because it requires an optimal computed tomography (CT) scan and time-consuming post-processing. Recent advances in post-processing software facilitate easy construction of VA, but until now image quality was insufficient in most patients. The introduction of dual-source multidetector CT (MDCT) could enable VA in all patients. Twenty patients were scanned using a dual-source MDCT (Definition, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using a standard coronary artery protocol. Post-processing was performed on an Aquarius Workstation (TeraRecon, San Mateo, Calif.). Length travelled per major branch was recorded in millimetres, together with the time required in minutes. VA could be performed in every patient for each of the major coronary arteries. The mean (range) length of the automated fly-through was 80 (32-107) mm for the left anterior descending (LAD), 75 (21-116) mm for the left circumflex artery (LCx), and 109 (21-190) mm for the right coronary artery (RCA). Calcifications and stenoses were visualised, as well as most side branches. The mean time required was 3 min for LAD, 2.5 min for LCx, and 2 min for the RCA. Dual-source MDCT allows for high quality visualisation of the coronary arteries in every patient because scanning with this machine is independent of the heart rate. This is clearly shown by the successful VA in all patients. Potential clinical value of VA should be determined in the near future.

  1. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients.

  2. Low fingertip temperature rebound measured by digital thermal monitoring strongly correlates with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease diagnosed by 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Naser; Nabavi, Vahid; Nuguri, Vivek; Hajsadeghi, Fereshteh; Flores, Ferdinand; Akhtar, Mohammad; Kleis, Stanley; Hecht, Harvey; Naghavi, Morteza; Budoff, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies showed strong correlations between low fingertip temperature rebound measured by digital thermal monitoring (DTM) during a 5 min arm-cuff induced reactive hyperemia and both the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in asymptomatic populations. This study evaluates the correlation between DTM and coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by CT angiography (CTA) in symptomatic patients. It also investigates the correlation between CTA and a new index of neurovascular reactivity measured by DTM. 129 patients, age 63 +/- 9 years, 68% male, underwent DTM, CAC and CTA. Adjusted DTM indices in the occluded arm were calculated: temperature rebound: aTR and area under the temperature curve aTMP-AUC. DTM neurovascular reactivity (NVR) index was measured based on increased fingertip temperature in the non-occluded arm. Obstructive CAD was defined as >or=50% luminal stenosis, and normal as no stenosis and CAC = 0. Baseline fingertip temperature was not different across the groups. However, all DTM indices of vascular and neurovascular reactivity significantly decreased from normal to non-obstructive to obstructive CAD [(aTR 1.77 +/- 1.18 to 1.24 +/- 1.14 to 0.94 +/- 0.92) (P = 0.009), (aTMP-AUC: 355.6 +/- 242.4 to 277.4 +/- 182.4 to 184.4 +/- 171.2) (P = 0.001), (NVR: 161.5 +/- 147.4 to 77.6 +/- 88.2 to 48.8 +/- 63.8) (P = 0.015)]. After adjusting for risk factors, the odds ratio for obstructive CAD compared to normal in the lowest versus two upper tertiles of FRS, aTR, aTMP-AUC, and NVR were 2.41 (1.02-5.93), P = 0.05, 8.67 (2.6-9.4), P = 0.001, 11.62 (5.1-28.7), P = 0.001, and 3.58 (1.09-11.69), P = 0.01, respectively. DTM indices and FRS combined resulted in a ROC curve area of 0.88 for the prediction of obstructive CAD. In patients suspected of CAD, low fingertip temperature rebound measured by DTM significantly predicted CTA-diagnosed obstructive disease.

  3. Visual claudicatio: diagnosis with 64-slice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Maffei, Erica; Palumbo, Alessandro; Mollet, Nico R; van der Lugt, Aad; Crisi, Girolamo

    2007-06-01

    We present a case of a 78-year-old male referred presented to our institution with amaurosis fugax after walking 20 steps ("visual claudicatio"). Duplex ultrasound was not able to visualize the carotid arteries. Multislice computed tomography (Sensation 64 Cardiac, Siemens, Germany) of the cerebro-vascular circulation was performed from its origin at the level of the aortic arch to the circle of Willis. The investigation demonstrated a complete occlusion of both common carotid arteries at their origin and a severe origo stenosis of both vertebral arteries. An important collateral circulation of the vertebral arteries through the minor vessels of the neck was also displayed. Both comunicans posterior arteries were small but patent. The intra-cranial arteries were patent. Multislice CT of the cerebro-vascular circulation is an optimal tool for a comprehensive evaluation when duplex ultrasound fails.

  4. 3-D segmentation of human sternum in lung MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Pazokifard, Banafsheh; Sowmya, Arcot

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic novel algorithm is presented for accurate 3-D segmentation of the human sternum in lung multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. The segmentation result is refined by employing active contours to remove calcified costal cartilage that is attached to the sternum. For each dataset, costal notches (sternocostal joints) are localized in 3-D by using a sternum mask and positions of the costal notches on it as reference. The proposed algorithm for sternum segmentation was tested on 16 complete lung MDCT datasets and comparison of the segmentation results to the reference delineation provided by a radiologist, shows high sensitivity (92.49%) and specificity (99.51%) and small mean distance (dmean=1.07 mm). Total average of the Euclidean distance error for costal notches positioning in 3-D is 4.2 mm.

  5. Vascular involvement in periampullary tumors: MDCT, EUS, and CDU.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, S; Nicoletti, R; Martinenghi, C; Del Maschio, A

    2009-07-01

    In patients affected by periampullary tumors, surgical resection represents the only treatment with curative intent. Preoperative evaluation of vascular involvement is necessary to avoid surgical treatments unable of curative intent resection. The aim of our update article is to assess the performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) in the evaluation of vascular involvement of major peripancreatic vessels, in periampullary tumors, analyzing the current and past literature.

  6. Accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations compared to in-vivo MDCT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bostani, Maryam McMillan, Kyle; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Mueller, Jonathon W.; Cody, Dianna D.; DeMarco, John J.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation-based method for estimating radiation dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing simulated doses in ten patients to in-vivo dose measurements. Methods: MD Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Review Board approved the acquisition of in-vivo rectal dose measurements in a pilot study of ten patients undergoing virtual colonoscopy. The dose measurements were obtained by affixing TLD capsules to the inner lumen of rectal catheters. Voxelized patient models were generated from the MDCT images of the ten patients, and the dose to the TLD for all exposures was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations. The Monte Carlo simulation results were compared to the in-vivo dose measurements to determine accuracy. Results: The calculated mean percent difference between TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations was −4.9% with standard deviation of 8.7% and a range of −22.7% to 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate very good agreement between simulated and measured doses in-vivo. Taken together with previous validation efforts, this work demonstrates that the Monte Carlo simulation methods can provide accurate estimates of radiation dose in patients undergoing CT examinations.

  7. Assessment of patient and occupational dose in established and new applications of MDCT fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joemai, Raoul M S; Zweers, Dirk; Obermann, Wim R; Geleijns, Jacob

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to assess patient dose and occupational dose in established and new applications of MDCT fluoroscopy. Electronic personal dosimeters were used to measure occupational dose equivalent. Effective patient dose was derived from the recorded dose-length product. Acquisition parameters that were observed during CT fluoroscopy (CTF) provided the basis for the estimation of an entrance skin dose profile. Two hundred ten CT-guided interventional procedures were included in the study. The median effective patient dose was 10 mSv (range, 0.1-235 mSv; 107 procedures). The median peak entrance skin dose was 0.4 Sv (0.1-2.1 Sv; 27 procedures). From 547 measurements of occupational dose equivalent, a median occupational effective dose of 3 muSv per procedure was derived for the interventional radiologists and 0.4 muSv per procedure for the assisting radiologists and radiology technologists. The estimated maximum occupational effective dose reached 0.4 mSv. The study revealed high effective patient doses, up to 235 mSv, mainly for relatively new applications such as CTF-guided radiofrequency ablations using MDCT, vertebroplasty, and percutaneous ethanol injections of tumors. Entrance doses were occasionally in the range of the warning level for deterministic skin effects but were always below the threshold for serious deterministic effects. The complexity of the procedure, expected benefits of the treatment, and general health state of the patient contribute to the justification of observed high effective patient doses.

  8. Comparison between a new reconstruction algorithm (OPED) and filtered backprojection (FBP) for MDCT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Bernhard; No"l, Peter B.; Tischenko, Oleg; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Previously the Orthogonal Polynomial Expansion on the Disk (OPED) algorithm was presented. Further, in prototype experiments in combination with the CT D`or geometry feasibility was demonstrated. In this study we implemented OPED with a clinical Scanner, and evaluated the potential using phantom studies. All studies were acquired on a Siemens Somatom 64 (Erlangen, Germany) scanner, where raw projection data were reconstructed with the conventional FBP reconstruction and the OPED algorithm. OPED allows one to use fan beam geometry directly without any additional procedures such as interpolation or rebinning if using the CT D`or geometry. In particular, OPED describes an approximation of the image function as a sum of polynomials using Chebychev polynomials. For performance evaluation, the Catphan phantom 600 was imaged. OPED Images where reconstructed using C++ and MATLAB® .We measured uniformity, MTF and CNR for different dose levels and compared these to standard FBP images reconstructions with different filter kernels. The integration and interpretation of the MDCT projection data for the OPED algorithm was accomplished. Reconstruction time is about 6 s on Quad-Core 3 GHz Intel Xeon processor. Typical artifacts are reduced when applying OPED. Using OPED the MTF maintains constant over the whole FOV. Uniformity and CNR are equal compared to FBP. Advantages of OPED were demonstrated by applying the algorithm to projections images from a clinical MDCT scanner. In the future, we see OPED applications for low-dose or limited angle geometries to reduce the radiation dose while improving diagnostic quality of the reconstructed slices.

  9. Emergency radiology: straightening of the cervical spine in MDCT after trauma—a sign of injury or normal variant?

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Zsuszsanna; Krtakovska, Aina; Ruschi, Francesco; Kammer, Nora; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian; Geyer, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether straightening of the cervical spine (C-spine) alignment after trauma can be considered a significant multidetector CT (MDCT) finding. Methods: 160 consecutive patients after C-spine trauma admitted to a Level 1 trauma centre received MDCT according to Canadian Cervical Spine Rule and National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study indication rule; subgroups with and without cervical collar immobilization (CCI +/−) were compared with a control group (n = 20) of non-traumatized patients. Two independent readers evaluated retrospectively the alignment, determined the absolute rotational angle of the posterior surface of C2 and C7 (ARA C2–7) and grouped the results for lordosis (<−13°), straight (−13 to +6°) and kyphosis (>+6°). Results: In the two CCI−/CCI+ study groups, the straight or kyphotic alignment significantly (p = 0.001) predominated over lordosis. The number of patients with straight C-spine alignment was higher in the CCI+ group (CCI+ 69% vs CCI− 49%, p = 0.05). A comparison of the CCI+ group vs the CCI− group revealed a slightly smaller number of kyphotic (10% vs 18%, p = 0.34) and lordotic (21% vs 33%, p = 0.33) alignments. Statistically, however, the differences were of no significance. The control group revealed no significant differences. Conclusion: Straightening of the C-spine alone is not a definitive sign of injury but is a biomechanical variation due to CCI and neck positioning during MDCT or active patient control. Advances in knowledge: Straightening of the C-spine alignment in MDCT alone is not a definitive sign of injury. Straightening of the C-spine alignment is related to neck positioning and active patient control. CCI has a straightening effect on the cervical alignment. PMID:26764283

  10. [Evaluation of left ventricular function with a 16-slice multidetector tomograph (MDCT-16): correlation with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Almaguer, Erasmo; Azpiri López, José Ramón; González-Camid, Felipe de Jesús; Ponce de León, Enrique; Flores-Ramírez, Ramiro; Zamarripa, Rafael; Loera, Javier; Rodríguez, Daniel; González Quijano, Rafael; Azpiri-Magallanes, Marcela; Jaramillo Estrada, Samuel; Assad Morell, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Left ventricular function has both prognostic as well as therapeutic implications in patients with heart disease. Non-invasive coronary angiography with computed tomography using 16 slices (MDCT-16) allows to obtain images of the coronary anatomy due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, and also, to obtain data regarding Left ventricular function. The objective of this study was to correlate the use of MDCT-16 for the evaluation of the Left ventricular parameters using MRI as the Standard of reference. MRI: Se A 1.5 Tesla GE CvI Scanner optimized for cardiovascular applications was used. Using an ECG gated steady state fast precession sequence (SSFP, Thickness 10 mm, Flip Angle 45, FOV 36 cm. NEX 1, Frequency 256, Phase 128, Partial FOV 0.75, 16VPS), 6 to 8 short axis images of from base to apex of the left ventricle were obtained. Tomography: Using a 16 slice Multidetector tomograph (GE Lightspeed) and using ECG synchronization, images of the heart were obtained after the administration of 80 mls. of no-ionic contrast. The images were reconstructed off-line to obtain from 6 to 8 slices in a similar fashion to that of MR. Both studies were independently analyzed by 2 operators who obtained the ventricular function data. Linear correlation and a Paired T Student test was used to analyze the data and was considered significant when p < 0.05. 20 consecutive patients were evaluated with MDCT-16 and MRI, 18 males, mean age 52 +/- 15 years. There was no significant difference among the measurements for cardiac CT and MRI of the end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-sistolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), LV Mass or LV ejection fraction (LVEF). This results show a high correlation among the clinically relevant ventricular function parameters evaluated by cardiovascular CT and MRI. This findings suggest that ventricular function can be successfully evaluated along with the coronary anatomy using MDCT-16.

  11. MDCT of the liver in obese patients: evaluation of a different method to optimize iodine dose.

    PubMed

    Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Businaro, Rita; Caruso, Damiano; Azzara, Gabriella; De Santis, Domenico; Picchia, Simona; Biondi, Tommaso; Eid, Marwen; Boschiero, Dario; Laghi, Andrea

    2017-04-27

    To prospectively compare two different approaches for estimating the amount of intravenous contrast media (CM) needed for multiphasic MDCT of the liver in obese patients. This single-center, HIPAA-compliant prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-six patients (55 men, 41 women), with a total of 42 hypovascular liver lesions, underwent MDCT of the liver. The amount of contrast medium injected was computed according to the patient's lean body weight which was estimated using either a bioimpedance device (Group A) or the James formula (Group B). The following variables were compared between the two groups: the amount of contrast medium injected (in grams of Iodine, gI), the contrast enhancement index (CEI) and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. Protocols A and B yielded significant differences in the amount of CM injected (mean values 41.9 ± 4.41 gI in Group A vs. 35.9 ± 5.75 gI in Group B; P = 0.021). The mean CEI value and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio measured on the portal phase were significantly higher with protocol A than with protocol B (P < 0.05). Our study shows that the adoption of a bioimpedance device in obese patients improves liver parenchymal enhancement and lesion conspicuity.

  12. Use of Preprocedural MDCT for Cardiac Implantable Electric Device Lead Extraction: Frequency of Findings That Change Management.

    PubMed

    Ehieli, Wendy L; Boll, Daniel T; Marin, Daniele; Lewis, Robert; Piccini, Jonathan P; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2017-04-01

    Five percent of cardiac implantable electric devices (CIEDs) are removed each year. Percutaneous extraction is preferred but can be complicated if the leads adhere to the vasculature or perforate. The goal of this study is to assess the frequency of findings on dedicated MDCT that alter preprocedural planning for percutaneous CIED extraction. One hundred patients with CIEDs who underwent MDCT before percutaneous lead extraction were analyzed. Major findings that could preclude percutaneous removal, including lead course and termination, were distinguished from moderately significant findings that could alter but not preclude percutaneous removal, including endofibrosis of leads to the vasculature, lead termination abnormalities, central vein stenosis, or thrombus. Incidental findings were characterized separately. Findings were correlated with preprocedural decisions, the extraction procedure performed, and procedural outcomes. Twenty-six women and 74 men with 125 right ventricular leads, 84 right atrial leads, and 26 coronary venous leads were evaluated. Major findings were present in 7% of patients, including six patients with lead perforation and one with a lead coursing outside a tricuspid annuloplasty ring. Moderately significant findings of endothelial fibrosis were found in 78% of patients. The central veins were narrowed or occluded in 42% of patients, and thrombus was present in 2% of patients. Thirty-six percent of patients had incidental findings, and 4% of patients had unexpected findings requiring immediate inpatient attention. MDCT performed before CIED lead extraction is able to identify major and moderately significant findings that can alter either percutaneous extraction or preprocedural planning. The use of dedicated preprocedural MDCT can help to stratify patient risk, guide decision making by the proceduralist, and identify non-catheter-related findings that affect patient management.

  13. Evaluation of a single-pass continuous whole-body 16-MDCT protocol for patients with polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Platon, Alexandra; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a conventional multiregional MDCT protocol with two continuous single-pass whole-body MDCT protocols in imaging of patients with polytrauma. Ninety patients with polytrauma underwent whole-body 16-MDCT with a conventional (n=30) or one of two single-pass (n=60) protocols. The conventional protocol included unenhanced scans of the head and cervical spine and contrast-enhanced helical scans (140 mL, 4 mL/s, 300 mg I/mL) of the thorax and abdomen. The single-pass protocols consisted of unenhanced scans of the head followed by one-sweep acquisition from the circle of Willis through the pubic symphysis with a biphasic (150 mL, 6 and 4 mL/s, 300 mg I/mL) or monophasic (110 mL, 4 mL/s, 400 mg I/mL) injection. Acquisition times and interval delays between head, chest, and abdominal scans were recorded. Contrast enhancement was measured in the aortic arch, liver, spleen, and kidney. Diagnostic image quality in the same areas was assessed on a 4-point scale. Median acquisition times for the single-pass protocols were significantly shorter (-42.5%) than the acquisition time for the conventional protocol. No significant differences were found in mean enhancement values in the aorta, liver, spleen, and kidney for the three protocols. The image quality with both single-pass protocols was better than that with the conventional protocol in assessment of the mediastinum and cervical spine (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the single-pass protocols. Use of single-pass continuous whole-body MDCT protocols can significantly decrease examination time for patients with polytrauma and improve image quality compared with a conventional serial scan protocol. Monophasic injection with highly concentrated contrast medium can reduce injection flow rate and should therefore be preferred to a biphasic injection technique.

  14. Trauma whole-body MDCT: an assessment of image quality in conventional dual-phase and modified biphasic injection.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Wasim; Kamanahalli, Raghavendra; Dick, Elizabeth; Bharwani, Nishat; Fetherston, Shirley; Kashef, Elika

    2016-07-01

    To compare the image quality of conventional arterial and portal venous (PV) phase multidetector CT (MDCT) with two biphasic injection protocols in polytrauma patients. 60 consecutive patients with polytrauma underwent body 256-slice MDCT with a conventional protocol or 1 of 2 single-pass biphasic protocols: Group A, arterial (30 s) and PV (60 s) phase acquisitions; Group B, "biphasic" contrast injection with a single acquisition at 60 s; and Group C, "modified biphasic" injection with a single acquisition at a 70-s delay. Images were analyzed for arterial, venous and parenchymal attenuation profiles with regions of interest in the major arteries, veins and solid abdominal organs. A 5-point scoring system was used to assess the image quality, with 5 representing excellent arterial, venous and parenchymal opacification and <3 representing non-diagnostic opacification. In addition, the effective dose (millisieverts) was compared between the groups. In 93% of patients, image quality was scored as good or excellent (≥4). All studies were of satisfactory diagnostic quality. Overall, venous and arterial attenuation profiles were comparable. Attenuation profiles in the solid abdominal viscera were significantly higher (p < 0.01) using both biphasic protocols than with arterial or PV phase of conventional protocols. Effective doses were higher in Group A. Comparable image quality can be achieved using a biphasic i.v. contrast injection protocol with single MDCT acquisition with less radiation and reduction in acquisition time. For these particular biphasic injection protocols, we have shown that image quality is comparable with a conventional protocol. This has been achieved by comparing enhanced densities of specific structures, as well as gestalt scoring by assessors, on a 256-slice MDCT.

  15. Leukemias involving abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MDCT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Bai, Jiao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Hua-Yan; Long, Qi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    To clarify features of lymph nodes associated with leukemia purposing to offer help for imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis of leukemia. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with clinically proven leukemia involving the abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes. Of these 47 patients, 10 had acute myeloid leukemia, 9 had acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 28 had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. MDCT was used to determine lymph node features such as morphology, growth patterns, size, enhancement patterns, anatomical distribution, and manifestations in extramedullary organs. Incidence of leukemia was higher in men than in women. Enlarged lymph nodes were more frequently conglomerated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (96.4%) than in acute myeloid leukemia (50%) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (55.6%; P < 0.05 for both). Lymph nodes associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were larger than those associated with acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias (P < 0.05 for both). The enlarged lymph nodes appeared homogeneous (80.9%) and homogeneous mixed with peripheral (19.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed between the three types of leukemias with respect to enhancement patterns (all P > 0.05). The lymph nodes commonly associated with these three leukemias were located in the lesser omentum, upper and lower para-aortic regions, and groin region. Our study showed that contrast-enhanced MDCT could accurately determine the enhancement patterns and anatomical distribution of lymph nodes associated with leukemia. Therefore, it is helpful for imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis of leukemia.

  16. [Preoperative T stage of non-small cell lung cancer: comparison of the efficacy of 64-MDCT versus 3.0T MR imaging].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Wu, Ning; Ouyang, Han; Huang, Yao; Liu, Li; Li, Meng; Zhou, Lina; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2015-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacies of 64-MDCT and 3.0-T MRI in determining the T stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Approval from the institutional ethics committee and informed consent from patients were obtained before the study started. 40 patients with NSCLC proved by pathology were enrolled in the study. All the 40 patients underwent non-enhanced MRI, enhanced MRI, and enhanced MDCT. Their T stages were preliminarily evaluated according to these imaging manifestations by 3 groups of experienced chest radiologists respectively, and correlated with that of postoperative pathology using the Kappa test. The diagnostic efficacies of these three imaging modalities for determining the T stage of NSCLC were compared using the McNemar test. The preoperative diagnostic accuracy rate for the T stage of NSCLC was 85.0% (34 of 40) by non-enhanced MRI, 87.5% (35 of 40) by enhanced MRI, and 80.0% (32 of 40) by enhanced CT, showing no significant differences between the non-enhanced MRI and enhanced CT, enhanced MRI and enhanced CT, and non-enhanced MRI and enhanced MRI for determining the T stage of NSCLC (P>0.05). Compared with the enhanced MDCT, non-enhanced MRI and enhanced MRI provide slightly superior diagnostic efficacy for the preoperative T staging of NSCLC. For the patients with intolerance to contrast medium on MDCT scan, 3.0T MRI may be an alternative for determining the preoperative T stage of NSCLC.

  17. High-pitch computed tomography of the lung in pediatric patients: an intraindividual comparison of image quality and radiation dose to conventional 64-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Tsiflikas, I; Thomas, C; Ketelsen, D; Seitz, G; Warmann, S; Claussen, C D; Schäfer, J F

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of typical artifacts in low-dose pediatric lung examinations using high-pitch computed tomography (HPCT) compared to MDCT, and to estimate the effective radiation dose (Eeff). Institutional review board approval for this retrospective study was obtained. 35 patients (17 boys, 18 girls; mean age 112 ± 69 months) were included and underwent MDCT and follow-up scan by HPCT or vice versa (mean follow-up time 87 days), using the same tube voltage and current. The total artifact score (0 - 8) was defined as the sum of artifacts arising from movement, breathing or pulsation of the heart or pulmonary vessels (0 - no; 1 - moderate; 2 - severe artifacts). Eeff was estimated according to the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Multislice Computed Tomography. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences between the patient groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation of ordinal variables. The scan time was significantly lower for HPCT compared to MDCT (0.72 ± 0.13 s vs. 3.65 ± 0.81s; p < 0.0001). In 28 of 35 (80 %) HPCT examinations no artifacts were visible, whereas in MDCT artifacts occurred in all examinations. The frequency of pulsation artifacts and breathing artifacts was higher in MDCT compared to HPCT (100 % vs. 17 % and 31 % vs. 6 %). The total artifact score significantly correlated with the patient's age in MDCT (r = - 0.42; p = 0.01), but not in HPCT (r = - 0.32; p = 0.07). The estimated Eeff was significantly lower in HPCT than in MDCT (1.29 ± 0.31 vs. 1.47 ± 0.37 mSv; p < 0.0001). Our study indicates that the use of HPCT has advantages for pediatric lung imaging with a reduction of breathing and pulsation artifacts. Moreover, the estimated Eeff was lower. In addition, examinations can be performed without sedation or breath-hold without losing image quality. • Fewer artifacts in pediatric

  18. Feasibility of using single-slice MDCT to evaluate visceral abdominal fat in an urban pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Blitman, Netta M; Baron, Lindsay Stanton; Berkenblit, Robert G; Schoenfeld, Alan H; Markowitz, Morri; Freeman, Katherine

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is a growing clinical problem, especially among children of low socioeconomic status. Increased visceral abdominal fat is implicated in the metabolic syndrome and its health consequences. The purpose of this study is to validate measurement of a single MDCT slice as a predictor of total visceral abdominal fat and to correlate over a wide range of body mass indexes (BMIs). A two-phase retrospective analysis was performed. For validation, MDCTs of 21 consecutive healthy children (8-14 years old) were reviewed. In these cases, visceral abdominal fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat area were calculated using a body fat analysis function from single 0.625-mm MDCT slices at the umbilicus and were compared with total visceral abdominal fat area as measured from T11 to the coccyx. Subsequently, visceral abdominal fat area was obtained from single slices at the umbilicus from abdominal MDCT scans of 146 consecutive healthy children (age range, 6-14 years; 80 boys and 66 girls; 77 Hispanic, 41 African American, 15 white, and 13 multiracial or other race) for whom BMI was available. Associations between visceral abdominal fat area and sex, race, and BMI were determined. Effective radiation dose for a 1.25-mm axial MDCT slice was calculated using a mathematic model that uses derived scaling factors for pediatric patients. Visceral abdominal fat area obtained from a 0.625-mm slice at the umbilicus was highly correlated with total visceral abdominal fat area (r = 0.96; p < 0.0001). Visceral abdominal fat area from single slices at the umbilicus was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.72; p < 0.0001). Umbilical visceral abdominal fat area was significantly lower in African American children compared with others (median, 14 vs 22 cm(2); p = 0.02) and was not associated with sex. In our population, the effective radiation dose from the smallest obtainable slice was 0.015-0.019 mSv/37-54 kg of patient weight. Visceral abdominal fat area calculated from a single abdominal

  19. Impact of Aortic Valve Calcification, as Measured by MDCT, on Survival in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Capoulade, Romain; Malouf, Joseph; Aggarval, Shivani; Araoz, Phillip A.; Michelena, Hector I.; Cueff, Caroline; Larose, Eric; Miller, Jordan D.; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic valve calcification (AVC) load measures lesion severity in aortic stenosis (AS) and is useful for diagnostic purposes. Whether AVC predicts survival after diagnosis, independent of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic AS characteristics, has not been studied. OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the impact of AVC load, absolute and relative to aortic annulus size (AVCdensity), on overall mortality in patients with AS under conservative treatment and without regard to treatment. METHODS In 3 academic centers, we enrolled 794 patients (mean age, 73 ± 12 years; 274 women) diagnosed with AS by Doppler echocardiography who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) within the same episode of care. Absolute AVC load and AVCdensity (ratio of absolute AVC to cross-sectional area of aortic annulus) were measured, and severe AVC was separately defined in men and women. RESULTS During follow-up, there were 440 aortic valve implantations (AVIs) and 194 deaths (115 under medical treatment). Univariate analysis showed strong association of absolute AVC and AVCdensity with survival (both, p < 0.0001) with a spline curve analysis pattern of threshold and plateau of risk. After adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, symptoms, AS severity on hemodynamic assessment, and LV ejection fraction, severe absolute AVC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 2.92; p = 0.03) or severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.37; p = 0.002) independently predicted mortality under medical treatment, with additive model predictive value (all, p ≤ 0.04) and a net reclassification index of 12.5% (p = 0.04). Severe absolute AVC (adjusted HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.62; p = 0.01) and severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.52; p = 0.001) also independently predicted overall mortality, even with adjustment for time-dependent AVI. CONCLUSIONS This large-scale, multicenter outcomes study of

  20. MDCT of hand and wrist infections: emphasis on compartmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, S; Corl, F M; LaPorte, D M; Fishman, E K; Fayad, L M

    2017-04-01

    Hand and wrist infections can present with a spectrum of manifestations ranging from cellulitis to deep-space collections. The various infectious processes can be categorised as superficial or deep infections based on their respective locations relative to the tendons. Superficial hand infections are located superficial to the tendons and are comprised of cellulitis, lymphangitis, paronychia, pulp-space infections, herpetic whitlow, and include volar as well as dorsal subcutaneous abscesses. Deep hand infections are located deep to the tendon sheaths and include synovial space infections, such as infectious tenosynovitis, deep fascial space infections, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis, and osteomyelitis. Knowledge of hand and wrist compartmental anatomy is essential for the accurate diagnosis and management of hand infections. Although early and superficial infections of the hand may respond to non-surgical management, most hand infections are surgical emergencies. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), with its muliplanar reformation (MPR) and three-dimensional (3D) capabilities, is a powerful tool in the emergency setting for the evaluation of acute hand and wrist pathology. The clinical and imaging features of hand and wrist infections as evident on MDCT will be reviewed with emphasis on contiguous and closed synovial and deep fascial spaces. Knowledge of hand compartmental anatomy enables accurate characterisation of the infectious process and localise the extent of disease in the acute setting. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE.

  2. Chest pain evaluation in the emergency department: can MDCT provide a comprehensive evaluation?

    PubMed

    White, Charles S; Kuo, Dick; Kelemen, Mark; Jain, Vineet; Musk, Amy; Zaidi, Eram; Read, Katrina; Sliker, Clint; Prasad, Rajnish

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether MDCT can provide a comprehensive assessment of cardiac and noncardiac causes of chest pain in stable emergency department patients. Patients with chest pain who presented to the emergency department without definitive findings of acute myocardial infarction based on history, physical examination, and ECG were recruited immediately after the initial clinical assessment. For each patient, the emergency department physician was asked whether a CT scan would normally have been ordered on clinical grounds (e.g., to exclude pulmonary embolism). Each consenting patient underwent enhanced ECG-gated 16-MDCT. Ten cardiac phases were reconstructed. The images were evaluated for cardiac (coronary calcium and stenosis, ejection fraction, and wall motion and perfusion) and significant noncardiac (pulmonary embolism, dissection, pneumonia, and so forth) causes of chest pain. Correlation was made between the presence of significant cardiac and noncardiac findings on CT and the final clinical diagnosis based on history, examination, and any subsequent cardiac workup at the 1-month follow-up by a consensus of three physicians. Sixty-nine patients met all criteria for enrollment in the study, of whom 45 (65%) would not otherwise have undergone CT. Fifty-two patients (75%) had no significant CT findings and a final diagnosis of clinically insignificant chest pain. Thirteen patients (19%) had significant CT findings (cardiac, 10; noncardiac, 3) concordant with the final diagnosis. CT failed to suggest a diagnosis in two patients (3%), both of whom proved to have clinically significant coronary artery stenoses. In two patients (3%), CT overdiagnosed a coronary stenosis. Sensitivity and specificity for the establishment of a cardiac cause of chest pain were 83% and 96%, respectively. Overall sensitivity and specificity for all other cardiac and noncardiac causes were 87% and 96%, respectively. ECG-gated MDCT appears to be logistically

  3. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-01-01

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method. PMID:21258639

  4. MDCT evaluation of sternal variations: Pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Duraikannu, Chary; Noronha, Olma V; Sundarrajan, Pushparajan

    2016-01-01

    Sternal variations and anomalies have been identified in the past during autopsy or cadaveric studies. Recently, an increasing number of minor sternal variations have been reported with the advent of multidetector computed tomography (CT). Although there are many sternal variations that occur with varying appearance and prevalence, most of them are not recognized or are underreported during routine imaging of thorax. Identification of sternal variations is important to differentiate from pathological conditions and to prevent fatal complications prior to sternal interventions like marrow aspiration or acupuncture. This article aims to describe the minor and asymptomatic sternal variations by multidetector CT and their clinical significance. PMID:27413263

  5. A Rare Presentation of an Entrapment in a Liver Transplant Candidate Depicted by MDCT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Mecit; Aydin, Unal; Doganay, Selim; Aydinli, Bulent; Yuce, Ihsan; Polat, Kamil Yalcin

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophic caudate lobe veins can mimic a normal venous configuration. In cases of multiple vascular collaterals, Doppler evaluations must be conducted, and the flow direction of these veins as well as the IVC should be evaluated. If the flow in the IVC is reversed, Budd-Chiari syndrome should be suspected; moreover, at the supra diaphragmatic level, which may be considered a blind spot, particularly for radiologists, a web should be searched for in the area where the IVC opens into the right atrium. In this study, we present the unique findings of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography for a liver transplant candidate with Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by a web in the proximal IVC. PMID:25610132

  6. MDCT for automated detection and measurement of pneumothoraces in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenli; Tabbara, Malek; Takata, Noboru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Harris, Gordon J; Novelline, Robert A; de Moya, Marc

    2009-03-01

    The size of a pneumothorax is an important index to guide the emergency treatment of trauma patients--chest tube drainage. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an automated computer-aided volumetry scheme for detection and measurement of pneumothoraces for trauma patients imaged with MDCT. Three pigs and 68 trauma patients with at least one diagnosed occult pneumothorax (23 women and 45 men; age range, 14-89 years; mean age, 41 +/- 19 years) were selected for the development and validation of our computer-aided volumetry scheme for pneumothorax. Computer-aided volumetry of pneumothorax consisted of five automated steps: extraction of pleural region, detection of pneumothorax candidates, delineation of the detected pneumothorax candidates, reduction of false-positive findings, and report of the volumetric measurement of pneumothoraces. In the animal study, our computer-aided volumetry scheme yielded a mean value of 24.27 +/- 0.64 mL (SD) compared with 25 mL of air volume manually injected in each scan. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 and 0.997 for the in vivo and ex vivo comparison, respectively. In the patient study, the sensitivity of our computer-aided volumetry scheme was 100% with a false-positive rate of 0.15 per case for 32 occult pneumothoraces > or = 25 mL. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 for manual volumetry comparison. This automated computer-aided volumetry scheme took approximately 3 minutes to finish the detection and measurement per case. The results show that our computer-aided volumetry scheme provides an automated method for accurate and efficient detection and measurement of pneumothoraces in MDCT images of trauma patients.

  7. Diagnostic Value and Interreader Agreement of the Pancreaticolienal Gap in Pancreatic Cancer on MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Schawkat, Khoschy; Kühn, Wolfgang; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Gloor, Beat; Heverhagen, Johannes T.; Runge, Val Murray; Christe, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value and measure interreader agreement of the pancreaticolienal gap (PLG) in the assessment of imaging features of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) on contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CE-MDCT). Materials and Methods CE-MDCT studies in the portal venous phase were retrospectively reviewed for 66 patients with PC. The age- and gender-matched control group comprised 103 healthy individuals. Three radiologists with different levels of experience independently measured the PLG (the minimum distance of the pancreatic tail to the nearest border of the spleen) in the axial plane. The interreader agreement of the PLG and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the accuracy of the technique. Results While the control group (n = 103) showed a median PLG of 3 mm (Range: 0 – 39mm) the PC patients had a significantly larger PLG of 15mm (Range: 0 – 53mm)(p < 0.0001). A ROC curve demonstrated a cutoff-value of >12 mm for PC, with a sensitivity of 58.2% (95% CI = 45.5–70.1), specificity of 84.0% (95% CI = 75.6–90.4) and an area under the ROC curve of 0.714 (95% CI = 0.641 to 0.780). The mean interreader agreement showed correlation coefficient r of 0.9159. The extent of the PLG did not correlate with tumor stage but did correlate with pancreatic density (fatty involution) and age, the density decreased by 4.1 HU and the PLG increased by 0.8 mm within every 10 y. Conclusion The significant interreader agreement supports the use of the PLG as a characterizing feature of pancreatic cancer independent of the tumor stage on an axial plane. The increase in the PLG with age may represent physiological atrophy of the pancreatic tail. PMID:27893776

  8. Hepatosplenic volumetric assessment at MDCT for staging liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Lubner, Meghan G

    2017-07-01

    To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm(3); F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm(3); F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm(3); F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm(3); F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm(3), respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm(3); F4: 1631 ± 691 mm(3)). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. • Regional changes in hepatic volume (LSVR) correlate well with degree of fibrosis. • Total liver volume is a very poor predictor of underlying fibrosis. • Total splenic volume is associated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. • Hepatosplenic volume assessment is comparable to elastography for staging fibrosis. • Unlike elastography, volumetric analysis can be performed retrospectively.

  9. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  10. CT Hounsfield Numbers of Soft Tissues on Unenhanced Abdominal CT Scans: Variability Between Two Different Manufacturers’ MDCT Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P.; Corwin, Michael T.; Li, Chin-Shang; Tran, Tien; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT of the same patient vary on repeat scans done on two different manufacturers’ MDCT scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS A database search was performed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent unenhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed both on a Volume CT (GE Healthcare) and a Definition AS Plus (Siemens Healthcare) 64-MDCT scanner within 12 months of each other. After excluding those patients for whom Hounsfield unit measurements would be affected by mitigating factors, 48 patients (mean age, 58.8 years) were identified. Hounsfield unit measurements were obtained in nine different soft-tissue anatomic locations on each scan, and the location of these sites was kept identical on each scan pair. Data were analyzed to evaluate Hounsfield unit differences between these scanners. RESULTS In general, there was a low consistency in the Hounsfield unit measurements for each of these sites on scans obtained by the two scanners, with the subcutaneous fat in the left posterolateral flank showing the lowest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.198). There were differences in the Hounsfield unit measurements obtained in all anatomic sites on scans obtained by both scanners. Mean Hounsfield unit measurements obtained on the Definition AS Plus scanner were lower than those obtained on the Volume CT scanner, with the intriguing exception of the anterior midline subcutaneous fat Hounsfield unit measurements, which were higher on the Definition AS Plus scanner. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION Hounsfield unit measurements for unenhanced abdominal soft tissues of the same patient vary between scanners of two common MDCT manufacturers. PMID:25341139

  11. CT Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT scans: variability between two different manufacturers' MDCT scanners.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P; Corwin, Michael T; Li, Chin-Shang; Tran, Tien; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT of the same patient vary on repeat scans done on two different manufacturers' MDCT scanners. A database search was performed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent unenhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed both on a Volume CT (GE Healthcare) and a Definition AS Plus (Siemens Healthcare) 64-MDCT scanner within 12 months of each other. After excluding those patients for whom Hounsfield unit measurements would be affected by mitigating factors, 48 patients (mean age, 58.8 years) were identified. Hounsfield unit measurements were obtained in nine different soft-tissue anatomic locations on each scan, and the location of these sites was kept identical on each scan pair. Data were analyzed to evaluate Hounsfield unit differences between these scanners. In general, there was a low consistency in the Hounsfield unit measurements for each of these sites on scans obtained by the two scanners, with the subcutaneous fat in the left posterolateral flank showing the lowest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.198). There were differences in the Hounsfield unit measurements obtained in all anatomic sites on scans obtained by both scanners. Mean Hounsfield unit measurements obtained on the Definition AS Plus scanner were lower than those obtained on the Volume CT scanner, with the intriguing exception of the anterior midline subcutaneous fat Hounsfield unit measurements, which were higher on the Definition AS Plus scanner. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Hounsfield unit measurements for unenhanced abdominal soft tissues of the same patient vary between scanners of two common MDCT manufacturers.

  12. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  13. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  14. MDCT quantification is the dominant parameter in decision–making regarding chest tube drainage for stable patients with traumatic pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, June-Goo; Fikry, Karim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Novelline, Robert; de Moya, Marc

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the size of a pneumothorax is an important determinant of treatment decision, in particular regarding whether chest tube drainage (CTD) is required. However, the volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces has not routinely been performed in clinics. In this paper, we introduced an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantification of volume of pneumothoraces in chest multi-detect CT (MDCT) images. Moreover, we investigated the impact of accurate volume of pneumothoraces in the improvement of the performance in decision-making regarding CTD in the management of traumatic pneumothoraces. For this purpose, an occurrence frequency map was calculated for quantitative analysis of the importance of each clinical parameter in the decision-making regarding CTD by a computer simulation of decision-making using a genetic algorithm (GA) and a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 14 clinical parameters, including volume of pneumothorax calculated by our CAV scheme, was collected as parameters available for decision-making. The results showed that volume was the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding CTD, with an occurrence frequency value of 1.00. The results also indicated that the inclusion of volume provided the best performance that was statistically significant compared to the other tests in which volume was excluded from the clinical parameters. This study provides the scientific evidence for the application of CAV scheme in MDCT volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces in the management of clinically stable chest trauma patients with traumatic pneumothorax. PMID:22560899

  15. MDCT Linear and Volumetric Analysis of Adrenal Glands: Normative Data and Multiparametric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Carsin-Vu, Aline; Oubaya, Nadia; Mulé, Sébastien; Janvier, Annaëlle; Delemer, Brigitte; Soyer, Philippe; Hoeffel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    To study linear and volumetric adrenal measurements, their reproducibility, and correlations between total adrenal volume (TAV) and adrenal micronodularity, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), visceral (VAAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAAT), presence of diabetes, chronic alcoholic abuse and chronic inflammatory disease (CID). We included 154 patients (M/F, 65/89; mean age, 57 years) undergoing abdominal multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Two radiologists prospectively independently performed adrenal linear and volumetric measurements with semi-automatic software. Inter-observer reliability was studied using inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC). Relationships between TAV and associated factors were studied using bivariate and multivariable analysis. Mean TAV was 8.4 ± 2.7 cm(3) (3.3-18.7 cm(3)). ICC was excellent for TAV (0.97; 95 % CI: 0.96-0.98) and moderate to good for linear measurements. TAV was significantly greater in men (p < 0.0001), alcoholics (p = 0.04), diabetics (p = 0.0003) and those with micronodular glands (p = 0.001). TAV was lower in CID patients (p = 0.0001). TAV correlated positively with VAAT (r = 0.53, p < 0.0001), BMI (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001), SAAT (r = 0.29, p = 0.0003) and age (r = 0.23, p = 0.005). Multivariable analysis revealed gender, micronodularity, diabetes, age and BMI as independent factors influencing TAV. Adrenal gland MDCT-based volumetric measurements are more reproducible than linear measurements. Gender, micronodularity, age, BMI and diabetes independently influence TAV. • Volumetric measurements are more reproducible than linear measurements for adrenal glands. • Inter-observer reproducibility of adrenal gland volume is excellent using semiautomatic software. • Gender, age, BMI, and diabetes independently influence total adrenal gland volume. • Adrenal micronodularity is associated with increased total adrenal gland volume.

  16. Shading correction for on-board cone-beam CT in radiation therapy using planning MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianye; Sun, Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Gao, Hewei; Fan, Qiyong; Zhu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Applications of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to image-guided radiationtherapy (IGRT) are hampered by shading artifacts in the reconstructed images. These artifacts are mainly due to scatter contamination in the projections but also can result from uncorrected beam hardening effects as well as nonlinearities in responses of the amorphous silicon flat panel detectors. While currently, CBCT is mainly used to provide patient geometry information for treatment setup, more demanding applications requiring high-quality CBCT images are under investigation. To tackle these challenges, many CBCT correction algorithms have been proposed; yet, a standard approach still remains unclear. In this work, we propose a shading correction method for CBCT that addresses artifacts from low-frequency projection errors. The method is consistent with the current workflow of radiation therapy. With much smaller inherent scatter signals and more accurate detectors, diagnostic multidetector CT (MDCT) provides high quality CT images that are routinely used for radiation treatment planning. Using the MDCT image as "free" prior information, we first estimate the primary projections in the CBCT scan via forward projection of the spatially registered MDCT data. Since most of the CBCT shading artifacts stem from low-frequency errors in the projections such as scatter, these errors can be accurately estimated by low-pass filtering the difference between the estimated and raw CBCT projections. The error estimates are then subtracted from the raw CBCT projections. Our method is distinct from other published correction methods that use the MDCT image as a prior because it is projection-based and uses limited patient anatomical information from the MDCT image. The merit of CBCT-based treatment monitoring is therefore retained. The proposed method is evaluated using two phantom studies on tabletop systems. On the Catphan 600 phantom, our approach reduces the reconstruction error from 348 Hounsfield unit (HU

  17. Shading correction for on-board cone-beam CT in radiation therapy using planning MDCT images

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Tianye; Sun, Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Gao Hewei; Fan Qiyong; Zhu Lei

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Applications of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) are hampered by shading artifacts in the reconstructed images. These artifacts are mainly due to scatter contamination in the projections but also can result from uncorrected beam hardening effects as well as nonlinearities in responses of the amorphous silicon flat panel detectors. While currently, CBCT is mainly used to provide patient geometry information for treatment setup, more demanding applications requiring high-quality CBCT images are under investigation. To tackle these challenges, many CBCT correction algorithms have been proposed; yet, a standard approach still remains unclear. In this work, we propose a shading correction method for CBCT that addresses artifacts from low-frequency projection errors. The method is consistent with the current workflow of radiation therapy. Methods: With much smaller inherent scatter signals and more accurate detectors, diagnostic multidetector CT (MDCT) provides high quality CT images that are routinely used for radiation treatment planning. Using the MDCT image as ''free'' prior information, we first estimate the primary projections in the CBCT scan via forward projection of the spatially registered MDCT data. Since most of the CBCT shading artifacts stem from low-frequency errors in the projections such as scatter, these errors can be accurately estimated by low-pass filtering the difference between the estimated and raw CBCT projections. The error estimates are then subtracted from the raw CBCT projections. Our method is distinct from other published correction methods that use the MDCT image as a prior because it is projection-based and uses limited patient anatomical information from the MDCT image. The merit of CBCT-based treatment monitoring is therefore retained. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using two phantom studies on tabletop systems. On the Catphan(c)600 phantom, our approach reduces the reconstruction error

  18. STATIC VS PROSPECTIVE GATED, NON-BREATH HOLD VOLUMETRIC MDCT IMAGING OF THE LUNGS

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Osama I.; Chon, Deokiee; Beck, Kenneth; McLennan, Geoffrey; Sieren, Jered; Reinhardt, Joseph; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: We seek to establish lung imaging methods which provide for the ability to image the lung under dynamic, non-breath hold conditions while providing “virtual breath hold,” quantifiable volumetric image data sets. We use static, breath hold images as the gold standard for evaluating these virtual breath hold images in both a phantom and sheep. Materials and Methods: We have developed axial methods for gating image acquisition to multiple points in the respiratory cycle interleaved with incremental table stepping during multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanning. Datasets are generated over multiple breaths, providing volume images representative of multiple points within a respiratory cycle. To determine the reproducibility and accuracy of the methods , 6 anesthetized sheep were studied by MDCT in non-gated and airway-pressure (Pawy)-gated modes where Pawy was 0, 7 and 15 cmH2O. Results: No significant differences were found between the coefficient of variation in air volume measured from repeated static scans (1.74±1.78%), gated scans: Inspiratory gated (1.2±0.44%) or expiratory-gated (1.39±0.98%), or between static (1.74±1.78%) and gated (1.39+/-0.98%) scanning at similar Pawy (p>0.1). Measured air volumes were larger from static vs. gated scans by 5.85±3.77% at 7cmH2O and 4.45±3.6% at 15cmHL2O Pawy (p<0.05) consistent with hysteresis. Differences between air volumes at 7 and 15 cmH2O measured from either static or gated scans or that delivered by a supersyringe were insignificant (p<0.05). Visual accuracy of 3D anatomic geometry was achieved, and landmark certainty was within 1mm across respiratory cycles. Conclusion: A method has been demonstrated which provides for accurate gating to respiratory signals during axial scanning. High resolution volumetric image datasets are achievable while the scanned subject is breathing.Images are quantitatively similar to breath hold images with differences likely explained by known P-V hysteresis

  19. Arteriovenous fistula and graft evaluation in hemodialysis patients using MDCT: a primer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Lin; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Si-Wa; Liao, Wan-Chun; Lin, Pao-Chun; Yang, Su Jing

    2010-03-01

    Patent arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is related to better prognosis and quality of life for patients on long-term dialysis. When AVF dysfunction is suspected, MDCT is a good noninvasive tool for evaluating the entire AVF structure and determining reversible conditions for treatment. The aim of this article is to introduce the scanning and interpretation techniques and to illustrate the conditions related to early and late fistula failures. MDCT is a fast, noninvasive, and accurate technique for diagnosing AVF complications. Radiologists familiar with these techniques can help to improve the prognosis and quality of life for hemodialysis patients.

  20. Aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement with abdominal 64-MDCT in pediatric patients: effect of body weight and iodine dose.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyongtae T; Shah, Amisha J; Shang, Sherry S; Wang, Jin Hong; Chang, Samuel; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hildebolt, Charles F

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of body weight and iodine dose on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement in pediatric patients who underwent 64-MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis. Eighty-seven consecutive pediatric patients (50 boys and 37 girls; median age, 12.1 years; age range, 3.8-17.6 years) underwent standard abdominopelvic CT with a 64-MDCT scanner. Contrast medium (350 mg I/mL) was injected using a power injector at 2 mL/s followed by 15-20 mL of saline flush. According to our CT protocol, the volume of administered contrast medium was approximately 1.8 mL/kg of body weight, up to the maximum volume of 80 mL. CT scanning was initiated 60 seconds after the start of the contrast medium injection. CT attenuations of the aorta and liver were measured. For each patient, the injected contrast medium iodine mass per body weight index (g I/kg) (hereafter, iodine mass body index) was calculated. Linear regression analysis was performed between iodine mass body index and aortic and hepatic attenuations. A wide range of patient weights (19-82 kg; mean, 48.6 kg [95% CI, 45.3-51.9 kg]) and contrast volumes (30-80 mL; median, 80.0 mL) were observed. The median attenuations were 149.0 HU (141.0-160.0 HU) for the aorta and 113.5 HU (109.5-120.0 HU) for the liver. Moderately high correlations were observed between iodine mass body index and aortic (Spearman's rho [r(s)] = 0.60 [0.45-0.72]; p < 0.001) and hepatic (r(s) = 0.60 [0.42-0.70]; p < 0.001) attenuations. The regression formulae for aortic attenuation (58.4 + 176.3 x iodine mass body index [p < 0.001]) and hepatic attenuation (58.7 + 108.5 x iodine mass body index [p < 0.001]) indicate that 1.5 and 1.8 mL/kg (350 mg I/mL) of contrast media are required to achieve 116 and 127 HU, respectively, of contrast-enhanced attenuation in the liver. In our study, using abdominal 64-MDCT in pediatric patients, we found that approximately 1.5 mL/kg, or 0.525 g I/kg, yields 116 HU of hepatic

  1. US and MDCT diagnosis of a rare cause of haematuria in children: Posterior nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozel, A; Tufaner, O; Kaya, E; Maldur, V

    2011-06-01

    Posterior nutcracker syndrome is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the vertebral column. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with vague left loin pain, mild haematuria and proteinuria. Diagnosis of this rare syndrome was achieved using color Doppler US and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography.

  2. Three-dimensional MDCT angiography of splanchnic arteries: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dohan, A; Dautry, R; Guerrache, Y; Fargeaudou, Y; Boudiaf, M; Le Dref, O; Sirol, M; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Fast scanning along with high resolution of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have expanded the role of non-invasive imaging of splanchnic arteries. Advancements in both MDCT scanner technology and three-dimensional (3D) imaging software provide a unique opportunity for non-invasive investigation of splanchnic arteries. Although standard axial computed tomography (CT) images allow identification of splanchnic arteries, visualization of small or distal branches is often limited. Similarly, a comprehensive assessment of the complex anatomy of splanchnic arteries is often beyond the reach of axial images. However, the submillimeter collimation that can be achieved with MDCT scanners now allows the acquisition of true isotropic data so that a high spatial resolution is now maintained in any imaging plane and in 3D mode. This ability to visualize the complex network of splanchnic arteries using 3D rendering and multiplanar reconstruction is of major importance for an optimal analysis in many situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate the role of 3D MDCT angiography in the detection and assessment of abnormalities of splanchnic arteries as well as the limitations of the different reconstruction techniques.

  3. Semi-automatic central-chest lymph-node definition from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The three-dimensional (3D) definition of lymph nodes from multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. This is because of the limitations in the MDCT imaging of soft-tissue structures and the complicated phenomena that influence the appearance of a lymph node in an MDCT image. In the past, we have made significant efforts toward developing (1) live-wire-based segmentation methods for defining 2D and 3D chest structures and (2) a computer-based system for automatic definition and interactive visualization of the Mountain central-chest lymph-node stations. Based on these works, we propose new single-click and single-section live-wire methods for segmenting central-chest lymph nodes. The single-click live wire only requires the user to select an object pixel on one 2D MDCT section and is designed for typical lymph nodes. The single-section live wire requires the user to process one selected 2D section using standard 2D live wire, but it is more robust. We applied these methods to the segmentation of 20 lymph nodes from two human MDCT chest scans (10 per scan) drawn from our ground-truth database. The single-click live wire segmented 75% of the selected nodes successfully and reproducibly, while the success rate for the single-section live wire was 85%. We are able to segment the remaining nodes, using our previously derived (but more interaction intense) 2D live-wire method incorporated in our lymph-node analysis system. Both proposed methods are reliable and applicable to a wide range of pulmonary lymph nodes.

  4. 3-T contrast-enhanced MR angiography in evaluation of suspected intracranial aneurysm: comparison with MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Villablanca, J Pablo; Mossaz, Léonard; Pope, Whitney; Juncosa, Alex; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate a high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced 3-T MR angiography protocol for detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms and to compare the results with those of MDCT angiography. Forty-one patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm underwent high-spatial-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and CT angiography (CTA). With a generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition algorithm with an acceleration factor of 4 at 3 T, contrast-enhanced MR angiographic images were acquired over 20 seconds with a spatial-resolution of 0.7 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm. CTA images were acquired with a spatial resolution of 0.35 x 0.35 x 0.8 mm on a 16-MDCT scanner in 17 seconds. The images from the two studies were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists for image quality, presence of aneurysm, and characterization of aneurysm. The dimensions of the aneurysm were measured independently with both techniques. A total of 25 aneurysms were identified with both contrast-enhanced MR angiography and CTA. A comparative analysis of detection and depiction of aneurysms showed excellent interobserver agreement for both contrast-enhanced MR angiography (kappa = 0.81) and CTA (kappa = 0.91) images. There was significant correlation between the techniques for both qualitative assessment of aneurysm depiction (rho = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95) and quantitative dimensional measurement of aneurysm size (r = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). Contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3 T is reliable for evaluation and characterization of intracranial aneurysms. The results are comparable with those of MDCTA.

  5. Interobserver agreement for detection of malignant features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas on MDCT.

    PubMed

    Do, Richard K G; Katz, Seth S; Gollub, Marc J; Li, Jian; LaFemina, Jennifer; Zabor, Emily C; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Klimstra, David S; Allen, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to measure interobserver agreement in the assessment of malignant imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) on MDCT. Pancreatic protocol CT studies were reviewed for 84 patients with resected IPMNs. Maximal diameter of the dominant cyst, presence of a mural nodule, presence of a solid component, and diameters of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and common bile duct (CBD) were measured by four radiologists independently. In each patient, the IPMN was classified into one of three types: main duct, branch duct, or mixed IPMN. Interobserver agreement of lesion features was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous features and Fleiss kappa for categorical features. The final dataset included 55 branch duct IPMNs, nine main duct IPMNs, and 20 mixed IPMNs. Moderate agreement (ĸ = 0.458; 95% CI, 0.345-0.564) was observed in assigning branch duct, main duct, or mixed IPMN subtypes. Measurement agreement was substantial to excellent for dominant cyst (ICC = 0.852; 95% CI, 0.777-0.907), MPD (0.753, 0.655-0.837), and CBD (0.608, 0.463-0.724) but only fair to moderate for the detection of the presence of mural nodule (ĸ = 0.284, 0.125-0.432) or solid component (ĸ = 0.405, 0211-0.577). Substantial to excellent interobserver agreement in the measurement of cyst diameter, MPD, and CBD support their use for characterizing malignant features of IPMN on MDCT. However, the subjective interpretation of the presence of solid components and mural nodules by individual radiologists was more variable.

  6. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT.

  7. Variability in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptians dated to the 18th-20th dynasties: MDCT findings correlated with the archaeologic literature.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2013-04-01

    The objective of our study was to use MDCT to study brain treatment and removal (excerebration) as part of mummification of royal Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties and to correlate the imaging findings with the archaeologic literature. As part of an MDCT study of the Royal Ancient Egyptian Mummies Project, we analyzed CT images of the heads of 12 mummies dated to circa 1493-1156 BC (18th to early 20th Dynasties). We reconstructed and analyzed CT images for the presence of cranial defects, brain remnants, intracranial embalming materials, and nasal packs. We compared the CT findings of mummies dated to the 18th Dynasty with those dated to the 19th to early 20th Dynasties. The Akhenaten mummy was excluded because of extensive postmortem skull fractures. CT showed that no brain treatment was offered to three mummies (Thutmose I, II, and III) who dated to the early 18th Dynasty and was offered to the eight mummies who dated later. The route of excerebration was transnasal in eight mummies; an additional suspected route was via a parietal defect. CT showed variable appearances of the intracranial contents. There were larger volumes of cranial packs and more variability in the appearances of the cranial packs in the royal mummies dated to the 19th to 20th Dynasties than in those dated to the 18th Dynasty. MDCT shows variations in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptian mummies (18th-20th Dynasties). This study sets a template for future CT studies of the heads of ancient Egyptian mummies and focuses on the key elements of cranial mummification in this ancient era.

  8. MDCT quantification is the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding chest tube drainage for stable patients with traumatic pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, June-Goo; Fikry, Karim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Novelline, Robert; de Moya, Marc

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly believed that the size of a pneumothorax is an important determinant of treatment decision, in particular regarding whether chest tube drainage (CTD) is required. However, the volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces has not routinely been performed in clinics. In this paper, we introduced an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantification of volume of pneumothoraces in chest multi-detect CT (MDCT) images. Moreover, we investigated the impact of accurate volume of pneumothoraces in the improvement of the performance in decision-making regarding CTD in the management of traumatic pneumothoraces. For this purpose, an occurrence frequency map was calculated for quantitative analysis of the importance of each clinical parameter in the decision-making regarding CTD by a computer simulation of decision-making using a genetic algorithm (GA) and a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 14 clinical parameters, including volume of pneumothorax calculated by our CAV scheme, was collected as parameters available for decision-making. The results showed that volume was the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding CTD, with an occurrence frequency value of 1.00. The results also indicated that the inclusion of volume provided the best performance that was statistically significant compared to the other tests in which volume was excluded from the clinical parameters. This study provides the scientific evidence for the application of CAV scheme in MDCT volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces in the management of clinically stable chest trauma patients with traumatic pneumothorax. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intussusception in Adults: The Role of MDCT in the Identification of the Site and Cause of Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Viola; Buquicchio, Grazia Loretta; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Di Grezia, Graziella; Ambrosio, Rosa; Trinci, Margherita; Miele, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Unlike pediatric intussusception, intestinal intussusception is infrequent in adults and it is often secondary to a pathological condition. The growing use of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) in abdominal imaging has increased the number of radiological diagnoses of intussusception, even in transient and nonobstructing cases. MDCT is well suited to delineate the presence of the disease and provides valuable information about several features, such as the site of intussusception, the intestinal segments involved, and the extent of the intussuscepted bowel. Moreover, MDCT can demonstrate the complications of intussusceptions, represented by bowel wall ischemia and perforation, which are mandatory to promptly refer for surgery. However, not all intussusceptions need an operative treatment. In this paper, we review the current role of MDCT in the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults, focusing on features, as the presence of a leading point, that may guide an accurate selection of patients for surgery. PMID:26819606

  10. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Toelly, Andrea; Bardach, Constanze; Weber, Michael; Gong, Rui; Lai, Yanbo; Wang, Pei; Guo, Yulin; Kirschke, Jan; Baum, Thomas; Gruber, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Aim To evaluate the differences in phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in contrast-enhanced routine MDCT scans at different contrast phases, and to develop an algorithm for calculating a reliable BMD value. Materials and Methods 112 postmenopausal women from the age of 40 to 77 years (mean age: 57.31 years; SD 9.61) who underwent a clinically indicated MDCT scan, consisting of an unenhanced, an arterial, and a venous phase, were included. A retrospective analysis of the BMD values of the Th12 to L4 vertebrae in each phase was performed using a commercially available phantom-less measurement tool. Results The mean BMD value in the unenhanced MDCT scans was 79.76 mg/cm³ (SD 31.20), in the arterial phase it was 85.09 mg/cm³ (SD 31.61), and in the venous phase it was 86.18 mg/cm³ (SD 31.30). A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between BMD values on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans. There was no significant difference between BMD values in the arterial and venous phases (p = 0.228). The following conversion formulas were calculated using linear regression: unenhanced BMD = -2.287 + 0.964 * [arterial BMD value] and -4.517 + 0.978 * [venous BMD value]. The intrarater agreement of BMD measurements was calculated with an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.984 and the interobserver reliability was calculated with an ICC of 0.991. Conclusion Phantom-less BMD measurements in contrast-enhanced MDCT scans result in increased mean BMD values, but, with the formulas applied in our study, a reliable BMD value can be calculated. However, the mean BMD values did not differ significantly between the arterial and venous phases. Key points  · BMD can be assessed on routine CT scans using a phantom-less tool.. · i. v. contrast agent significantly elevates BMD values measured on routine CT scans.. · BMD values measured in the arterial and venous phase did not differ significantly.. · Conversion formulas

  11. Ectopia cordis with tetralogy of Fallot in an infant with pentalogy of Cantrell: high-pitch MDCT exam.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Herrera, Rogerio; Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Criales-Vera, Sergio; Calderon-Colmenero, Juan; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    2011-07-01

    We report the MDCT findings of a 17-month-old girl with Cantrell's pentalogy, a rare congenital disease characterized by several defects in the ventral thoracoabdominal wall including ectopia cordis, and, in this patient, associated with tetralogy of Fallot. This case provides an example of the utility of a wide volume in coverage and high-pitch MDCT scan in the evaluation of complex cardiovascular anatomy in infants with congenital heart disease without the need of an ECG-gating acquisition.

  12. MDCT assessment of CAD in type-2 diabetic subjects with diabetic neuropathy: the role of Charcot neuro-arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Marano, Riccardo; Pitocco, Dario; Di Stasio, Enrico; Savino, Giancarlo; Merlino, Biagio; Trani, Carlo; Pirro, Federica; Rutigliano, Claudia; Santangelo, Carolina; Minoiu, Aurelian Costin; Natale, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    To compare the CACS and CAD severity assessed by MDCT in neuropathic type-2 diabetic patients with and without Charcot-neuroarthropathy (CN). Thirty-four CN asymptomatic-patients and 36 asymptomatic-patients with diabetic-neuropathy (DN) without CN underwent MDCT to assess CACS and severity of CAD. Patients were classified as positive for significant CAD in presence of at least one stenosis >50 % on MDCT-coronary-angiography (MDCT-CA). Groups were matched for age, sex and traditional CAD risk-factors. The coronary-angiography (CA) was performed in all patients with at least a significant stenosis detected by MDCT-CA, both as reference and eventually as treatment. CN patients showed higher rates of significant CAD in comparison with DN subjects [p < 0.001], while non-significant differences were observed in CACS (p = 0.980). No significant differences were also observed in CACS distribution in all subjects for stenosis ≥/<50 % (p = 0.814), as well as in both groups (p = 0.661 and 0.559, respectively). The MDCT-CA showed an overall diagnostic-accuracy for significant CAD of 87%. These preliminary data suggest that CN-patients have a higher prevalence of severe CAD in comparison with DN-patients, while coronary plaques do not exhibit an increased amount of calcium. MDCT may be helpful to assess the CV risk in such asymptomatic type-2-diabetic patients with autonomic-neuropathy. Type 2-diabetic-patients with CN result having more severe coronary artery plaque-burden. MDCT-CA may stratify the CV risk in type 2-diabetic-patients with CN. Adequate diagnostic is mandatory for optimal management of type 2-diabetic-patients with CN.

  13. Development of a voxel-matching technique for substantial reduction of subtraction artifacts in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic MDCT.

    PubMed

    Itai, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyoungseop; Ishikawa, Seiji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-02-01

    A temporal subtraction image, which is obtained by subtraction of a previous image from a current one, can be used for enhancing interval changes (such as formation of new lesions and changes in existing abnormalities) on medical images by removing most of the normal structures. However, subtraction artifacts are commonly included in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic computed tomography and thus tend to reduce its effectiveness in the detection of pulmonary nodules. In this study, we developed a new method for substantially removing the artifacts on temporal subtraction images of lungs obtained from multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT) by using a voxel-matching technique. Our new method was examined on 20 clinical cases with MDCT images. With this technique, the voxel value in a warped (or nonwarped) previous image is replaced by a voxel value within a kernel, such as a small cube centered at a given location, which would be closest (identical or nearly equal) to the voxel value in the corresponding location in the current image. With the voxel-matching technique, the correspondence not only between the structures but also between the voxel values in the current and the previous images is determined. To evaluate the usefulness of the voxel-matching technique for removal of subtraction artifacts, the magnitude of artifacts remaining in the temporal subtraction images was examined by use of the full width at half maximum and the sum of a histogram of voxel values, which may indicate the average contrast and the total amount, respectively, of subtraction artifacts. With our new method, subtraction artifacts due to normal structures such as blood vessels were substantially removed on temporal subtraction images. This computerized method can enhance lung nodules on chest MDCT images without disturbing misregistration artifacts.

  14. Estimating Effective Dose of Radiation From Pediatric Cardiac CT Angiography Using a 64-MDCT Scanner: New Conversion Factors Relating Dose-Length Product to Effective Dose.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sigal; Chelliah, Anjali; Prinsen, Peter; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie B; Xu, Yanping; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Amurao, Maxwell; Einstein, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the conversion factors that enable accurate estimation of the effective dose (ED) used for cardiac 64-MDCT angiography performed for children. Anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1- and 10-year-old children, with 50 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimeters placed in organs, underwent scanning performed using a 64-MDCT scanner with different routine clinical cardiac scan modes and x-ray tube potentials. Organ doses were used to calculate the ED on the basis of weighting factors published in 1991 in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 60 and in 2007 in ICRP publication 103. The EDs and the scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine conversion factors for each scan mode. The effect of infant heart rate on the ED and the conversion factors was also assessed. The mean conversion factors calculated using the current definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 103 were as follows: 0.099 mSv · mGy(-1) · cm(-1), for the 1-year-old phantom, and 0.049 mSv · mGy(-1) · cm(-1), for the 10-year-old phantom. These conversion factors were a mean of 37% higher than the corresponding conversion factors calculated using the older definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 60. Varying the heart rate did not influence the ED or the conversion factors. Conversion factors determined using the definition of ED in ICRP publication 103 and cardiac, rather than chest, scan coverage suggest that the radiation doses that children receive from cardiac CT performed using a contemporary 64-MDCT scanner are higher than the radiation doses previously reported when older chest conversion factors were used. Additional up-to-date pediatric cardiac CT conversion factors are required for use with other contemporary CT scanners and patients of different age ranges.

  15. Vascular Injuries to the Neck After Penetrating Trauma: Diagnostic Performance of 40- and 64-MDCT Angiography.

    PubMed

    Bodanapally, Uttam K; Dreizin, David; Sliker, Clint W; Boscak, Alexis R; Reddy, Ramachandra P

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the diagnostic performance of 40- and 64-MDCT angiography with digital subtraction angiography as the reference standard in the detection of arterial injuries in patients at high risk after penetrating neck trauma and to perform a separate analysis of injuries to the external carotid artery. In a retrospective evaluation of 53 sets of angiograms from 51 patients with penetrating neck injury, three reviewers unaware of the digital subtraction angiographic findings reviewed the CT angiographic (CTA) images to discern the presence or absence of arterial injuries. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA were calculated per injury, and a separate analysis of external carotid artery injuries was performed. Sensitivity of CTA for detecting arterial injuries ranged from 75.7% (95% CI, 62.3-86.9%) to 82.2% (95% CI, 69.5-92.1%). Specificity ranged from 96.4% (95% CI, 94.0-98.4%) to 98.4% (95% CI, 96.0-100%). CTA was highly sensitive for detection of the subgroup of injuries involving the large-caliber vessels that contribute to cerebral circulation. These sensitivities ranged from 92.8% (95% CI, 66-98.8%) to 100% (95% CI, 76.6-100%) for internal carotid artery injuries and from 88.9% (95% CI, 65.2-98.3%) to 94.4% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0%) for vertebral artery injuries. In contrast, sensitivity of CTA was limited for external carotid artery injuries, ranging from 63.4% (95% CI, 45.5-79.5%) to 70.0% (95% CI, 52.0-85.0%). CTA can be used for initial evaluation and may help guide management decisions if an external carotid artery injury is detected. Negative findings should not preclude close clinical follow-up, repeat CTA evaluation, or, in the presence of high suspicion of arterial injury due to clinical findings or wound trajectory, evaluation with digital subtraction angiography.

  16. MDCT in the assessment of laryngeal trauma: value of 2D multiplanar and 3D reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Minerva; Duboé, Pier-Olivier; Platon, Alexandra; Kohler, Romain; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze fracture patterns and related effects of laryngeal trauma and to assess the value of 2D multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3D reconstruction. Among 4222 consecutively registered trauma patients who underwent emergency MDCT, 38 patients had presented with laryngeal trauma. Axial, 2D MPR, 3D volume-rendered, and virtual endoscopic images were analyzed retrospectively by two blinded observers according to predefined criteria. Laryngeal fractures, soft-tissue injuries, and airway compromise were evaluated and correlated with clinical, endoscopic, surgical, and follow-up findings. Fifty-nine fractures (37 thyroid, 13 cricoid, nine arytenoid) were present in 38 patients. They were isolated in 21 (55%) patients. The other 17 (45%) patients had additional injuries to the neck, face, brain, chest, or abdomen. Laryngeal fractures were bilateral in 31 (82%) patients and were associated with hyoid bone fractures in nine (24%) patients. Arytenoid luxation was present in eight cartilages. Axial imaging missed 7 of 59 (12%) laryngeal fractures, six of eight (75%) arytenoid luxations, and four of nine (44%) hyoid bone fractures. Additional 2D MPR imaging missed 5 of 59 (8%) laryngeal fractures, five of eight (62.5%) arytenoid luxations, and two of nine (22%) hyoid bone fractures, whereas 3D volume-rendered images depicted them all. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering added diagnostic accuracy with respect to the length, width, shape, and spatial orientation of fractures in 22 of 38 (58%) patients; arytenoid luxation in six of eight (75%) luxations; and the evaluation of airway narrowing in 19 of 38 (50%) patients. Three-dimensional volume rendering was not of additional value in evaluation of the cricoid cartilage. The use of 2D MPR and 3D volume rendering with or without virtual endoscopy improved assessment of thyroid and hyoid bone fractures, arytenoid luxations, and laryngotracheal narrowing, providing helpful data for optimal

  17. Image quality improvement in MDCT cardiac imaging via SMART-RECON method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Cao, Ximiao; Xing, Zhanfeng; Sun, Xuguang; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a challenging imaging task currently limited by the achievable temporal resolution of modern Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) scanners. In this paper, the recently proposed SMARTRECON method has been applied in MDCT-based CCTA imaging to improve the image quality without any prior knowledge of cardiac motion. After the prospective ECG-gated data acquisition from a short-scan angular span, the acquired data were sorted into several sub-sectors of view angles; each corresponds to a 1/4th of the short-scan angular range. Information of the cardiac motion was thus encoded into the data in each view angle sub-sector. The SMART-RECON algorithm was then applied to jointly reconstruct several image volumes, each of which is temporally consistent with the data acquired in the corresponding view angle sub-sector. Extensive numerical simulations were performed to validate the proposed technique and investigate the performance dependence.

  18. State-of-the-art preoperative staging of gastric cancer by MDCT and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Il; Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common and fatal cancers. The importance of accurate staging for gastric cancer has become more critical due to the recent introduction of less invasive treatment options, such as endoscopic mucosal resection or laparoscopic surgery. The tumor-node-metastasis staging system is the generally accepted staging system for predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) is a widely accepted imaging modality for the preoperative staging of gastric cancer that can simultaneously assess locoregional staging, including the gastric mass, regional lymph nodes, and distant metastasis. The diagnostic performance of MDCT for T- and N-staging has been improved by the technical development of isotropic imaging and 3D reformation. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not previously used to evaluate gastric cancer due to the modality’s limitations, the development of high-speed sequences has made MRI a feasible tool for the staging of gastric cancer. PMID:24782607

  19. MDCT Imaging Findings of Liver Cirrhosis: Spectrum of Hepatic and Extrahepatic Abdominal Complications

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, Guillermo P.; Previgliano, Carlos H.; Nader, Mathieu; Chwoschtschinsky, Elisa; Heldmann, Maureen G.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is the clinical and pathologic result of a multifactorial chronic liver injury. It is well known that cirrhosis is the origin of multiple extrahepatic abdominal complications and a markedly increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This tumor is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer related death. With the rising incidence of HCC worldwide, awareness of the evolution of cirrhotic nodules into malignancy is critical for an early detection and treatment. Adequate imaging protocol selection with dynamic multiphase Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and reformatted images is crucial to differentiate and categorize the hepatic nodular dysplasia. Knowledge of the typical and less common extrahepatic abdominal manifestations is essential for accurately assessing patients with known or suspected hepatic disease. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the imaging spectrum of intra- and extrahepatic abdominal manifestations of hepatic cirrhosis seen on MDCT. PMID:23986608

  20. Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies: evaluation with state-of-the-art MR imaging and MDCT.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Daubert, Melissa; Lee, Edward Y; Epelman, Monica

    2011-09-01

    Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies include embryologic developmental disorders of the thoracic aorta, aortic arch branch arteries, pulmonary arteries, thoracic systemic veins, and pulmonary veins. Diagnostic evaluation of these anomalies in pediatric patients has evolved with innovations in diagnostic imaging technology. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography, and advanced postprocessing visualization techniques offer accurate and reliable high-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional noninvasive anatomic displays for interpretation and clinical management of congenital thoracic vascular anomalies. This article reviews vascular MR imaging, MR angiography, MDCT angiography, and advanced visualization techniques and applications for the assessment of congenital thoracic vascular anomalies, emphasizing clinical embryology and the characteristic imaging findings.

  1. High-resolution bone imaging for osteoporosis diagnostics and therapy monitoring using clinical MDCT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Baum, T; Karampinos, D C; Liebl, H; Rummeny, E J; Waldt, S; Bauer, J S

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is classified as a public health problem due to its increased risk for fragility fractures. Osteoporotic fractures, in particular spine and hip fractures, are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and generate immense financial cost. The World Health Organisation (WHO) based the diagnosis of osteoporosis on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, BMD values of subjects with versus without osteoporotic fractures overlap. Furthermore, it was reported that the anti-fracture effects of drugs could be only partially explained by their effects on BMD. Bone strength reflects the integration of BMD and bone quality. The later can be partly determined by measurements of bone microstructure. Therefore, substantial research efforts have been undertaken to assess bone microstructure by using high-resolution imaging techniques, including high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (hr-pQCT), high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical MDCT and MRI systems are broadly available and allow an adequate depiction of the bone microstructure at the clinically most important fracture sites, i.e. radius, spine and hip. Bone microstructure parameters and finite element models can be computed in high-resolution MDCT and MR images. These measurements improved the prediction of bone strength beyond the DXA-derived BMD and revealed pharmacotherapy effects, which are partly not captured by BMD. Therefore, high-resolution bone imaging using clinical MDCT and MRI may be beneficial for osteoporosis diagnostics and allow a highly sensitive monitoring of drug treatment, which plays an important role in the prevention of fragility fractures.

  2. Assessment of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for HCC and dysplastic nodules and comparison of detection sensitivity versus MDCT.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tatsuo; Kudo, Masatoshi; Komuta, Mina; Hayaishi, Sosuke; Ueda, Taisuke; Takita, Masahiro; Kitai, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Kinuyo; Yada, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Chung, Hobyung; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Ueshima, Kazuomi; Sakamoto, Michiie; Maenishi, Osamu; Hyodo, Tomoko; Okada, Masahiro; Kumano, Seishi; Murakami, Takamichi

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and dysplastic nodules (DNs) compared with dynamic multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), and to discriminate between HCCs and DNs. Eighty-six nodules diagnosed as HCC or DNs were retrospectively investigated. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and dynamic MDCT were compared with respect to their diagnostic ability for hypervascular HCCs and detection sensitivity for hypovascular tumors. The ability of hepatobiliary images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI to discriminate between these nodules was assessed. We also calculated the EOB enhancement ratio of the tumors. For hypervascular HCCs, the diagnostic ability of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was significantly higher than that of MDCT for tumors less than 2 cm (p = 0.048). There was no difference in the detection of hypervascular HCCs between hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (43/45: 96%) and dynamic MDCT (40/45: 89%), whereas the detection sensitivity of hypovascular tumors by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was significantly higher than that by dynamic MDCT (39/41: 95% vs. 25/41: 61%, p = 0.001). EOB enhancement ratios were decreased in parallel with the degree of differentiation in DNs and HCCs, although there was no difference between DNs and hypovascular well-differentiated HCCs. The diagnostic ability of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for hypervascular HCCs less than 2 cm was significantly higher than that of MDCT. For hypovascular tumors, the detection sensitivity of hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was significantly higher than that of dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and dynamic MDCT. It was difficult to distinguish between DNs and hypovascular well-differentiated HCCs based on the EOB enhancement ratio.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations in multi-detector CT (MDCT) for two PET/CT scanner models using MASH and FASH adult phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, W.; Santos, W. S.; Paschoal, C. M. M.; Souza, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) has been extensively used in oncology for diagnosis and staging of tumors, radiotherapy planning and follow-up of patients with cancer, as well as in cardiology and neurology. This study determines by the Monte Carlo method the internal organ dose deposition for computational phantoms created by multidetector CT (MDCT) beams of two PET/CT devices operating with different parameters. The different MDCT beam parameters were largely related to the total filtration that provides a beam energetic change inside the gantry. This parameter was determined experimentally with the Accu-Gold Radcal measurement system. The experimental values of the total filtration were included in the simulations of two MCNPX code scenarios. The absorbed organ doses obtained in MASH and FASH phantoms indicate that bowtie filter geometry and the energy of the X-ray beam have significant influence on the results, although this influence can be compensated by adjusting other variables such as the tube current-time product (mAs) and pitch during PET/CT procedures.

  4. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was −9 ml (−169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (−164, 177); for FRC alone, −23 ml (−172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not

  5. Characterization of atypical cystic renal masses with MDCT: comparison of 5-mm axial images and thin multiplanar reconstructed images.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Zappetti, Roberta; Cavallaro, Marco; Perrone, Rosaria; Perretti, Leonardo; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cystic renal masses are better characterized on thin axial and multiplanar reconstructed MDCT images than on 5-mm images. The records of 70 complex cystic renal masses in 59 patients (45 men, 14 women; mean age, 68 +/- 13 years) who underwent 64-MDCT at two medical centers were studied. Twenty-three of the masses were confirmed on the basis of the histologic findings and 47 in 2-4 years of follow-up. Images were reviewed in two sessions by two radiologists with 12 and 2 years of experience. In the first session, 5-mm axial images were analyzed, and in the second, thin axial images and multiplanar reconstructions. To assess intraobserver variability, analysis was repeated after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon's signed rank test, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and weighted kappa statistics. Radiologists 1 and 2 detected thicker cystic walls (p < 0.001, p < 0.005) and septa (p < 0.03, p < 0.05) and fewer septa (p < 0.005, p < 0.002) on 5-mm axial images and assigned significantly different Bosniak categories than they did in analysis of the volume data (p < 0.04, p < 0.05). Variability was reduced in thin axial and multiplanar views. No significant differences were found in characterization of lesions as benign or malignant in review of 5-mm axial images and volume data sets. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.89 for 5-mm images and 0.96 for volume data sets for radiologist 1 and 0.87 and 0.90 for radiologist 2. Analysis of volume data sets is associated with less intraobserver and interobserver variability than review of 5-mm axial images. Wall thickness and the number and thickness of septa may differ, resulting in assignment of different Bosniak categories. Diagnostic performance in characterizing lesions as benign or malignant, however, is not statistically different for the thick and thin images.

  6. Anomalous Origin of One Pulmonary Artery Branch From the Aorta: Role of MDCT Angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Jimei; Xie, Zhaofeng; Wang, Qiushi; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Hongfei; Kwong, Raymond Y; Saboo, Sachin S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, MDCT angiography (MDCTA) appearance, associated congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, and prognosis of anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) on the basis of MDCTA. We conducted a retrospective search of patients with AOPA from our database in a single center, consisting of 5729 patients referred for MDCTA with known or suspected congenital heart diseases from transthoracic echocardiography. The clinical information, subtypes of AOPA, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The MDCTA images were retrospectively processed for analysis, and the MDCTA and echocardiography images were interpreted by radiologist and cardiologist without knowledge of the actual diagnosis or surgical outcome. AOPA was seen in 19 patients (14 males and five females; median age, 3 months; range, 4 days-21 years) showing a prevalence of 0.33%. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (AORPA, 89%), proximal origin subtype of the AOPA (89%), and ipsilateral aortic wall origin of AOPA (58%) were more commonly seen. In addition to the benefit of preoperative planning, MDCTA also supplemented echocardiography by providing accurate diagnosis of AOPA and other associated cardiovascular anomalies compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We found a total of four patients (21%) with misdiagnosis by TTE, including three patients with underdiagnosis of AOPA and one patient with misdiagnosis as transposition of the great arteries. In addition, two other patients had AOPA diagnosed, but the associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was not detected. MDCTA revealed 95% association with other congenital cardiovascular anomalies, including PDA (71% of AORPA), and aortic arch anomalies (100% of anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery, AOLPA). The types of surgery depended on the MDCTA findings, including the sub-type, origin

  7. National Survey of Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Adult CT Head Scans in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Jung; Mok, Greta S. P.; Tsai, Mang-Fen; Tsai, Wei-Ta; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tu, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different variables on radiation dose and image quality based on a national database. Materials and Methods Taiwan’s Ministry of Health and Welfare requested all radiology departments to complete a questionnaire for each of their CT scanners. Information gathered included all scanning parameters for CT head scans. For the present analysis, CT machines were divided into three subgroups: single slice CT (Group A); multi-detector CT (MDCT) with 2-64 slices (Group B); and MDCT with more than 64 slices (Group C). Correlations between computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with cumulated tube rotation number (CTW(n)) and cumulated tube rotation time (CTW(s)), and sub group analyses of CTDI and SNR across the three groups were performed. Results CTDI values demonstrated a weak correlation (r = 0.33) with CTW(n) in Group A. SNR values demonstrated a weak negative correlation (r = -0.46) with CTW(n) in Group C. MDCT with higher slice numbers used more tube potential resulting in higher effective doses. There were both significantly lower CTDI and SNR values in helical mode than in axial mode in Group B, but not Group C. Conclusion CTW(n) and CTW(s) did not influence radiation output. Helical mode is more often used in MDCT and results in both lower CTDI and SNR compared to axial mode in MDCT with less than 64 slices. PMID:26125549

  8. MDCT of acute subaxial cervical spine trauma: a mechanism-based approach.

    PubMed

    Raniga, Sameer B; Menon, Venugopal; Al Muzahmi, Khamis S; Butt, Sajid

    2014-06-01

    Injuries to the spinal column are common and road traffic accidents are the commonest cause. Subaxial cervical spine (C3-C7) trauma encompasses a wide spectrum of osseous and ligamentous injuries, in addition to being frequently associated with neurological injury. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is routinely performed to evaluate acute cervical spine trauma, very often as first-line imaging. MDCT provides an insight into the injury morphology, which in turn reflects the mechanics of injury. This article will review the fundamental biomechanical forces underlying the common subaxial spine injuries and resultant injury patterns or "fingerprints" on MDCT. This systematic and focused analysis enables a more accurate and rapid interpretation of cervical spine CT examinations. Mechanical considerations are important in most clinical and surgical decisions to adequately realign the spine, to prevent neurological deterioration and to facilitate appropriate stabilisation. This review will emphasise the variables on CT that affect the surgical management, as well as imaging "pearls" in differentiating "look-alike" lesions with different surgical implications. It will also enable the radiologist in writing clinically relevant CT reports of cervical spine trauma. Teaching Points • Vertebral bodies and disc bear the axial compression forces, while the ligaments bear the distraction forces.• Compressive forces result in fracture and distractive forces result in ligamentous disruption.• Bilateral facet dislocation is the most severe injury of the flexion-distraction spectrum.• Biomechanics-based CT reading will help to rapidly and accurately identify the entire spectrum of injury.• This approach also helps to differentiate look-alike injuries with different clinical implications.

  9. Ileocaecal Intussusception with a Lead Point: Unusual MDCT Findings of Active Crohn's Disease Involving the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Ebru; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Akincioglu, Egemen; Keskin, Mete; Gulpinar, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for 1% of all bowel obstructions. Unlike intussusceptions in children, which are idiopathic in 90% of cases, adult intussusceptions have an identifiable cause (lead point) in the majority of cases. Crohn's disease (CD) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. It was shown to be a predisposing factor for intussusception. Here, we report a rare case of adult intussusception with a lead point, emphasizing diagnostic input of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a patient with active CD that involves the appendix. PMID:26558130

  10. Multidetector CT (MD-CT) in the diagnosis of uncertain open globe injuries.

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, P; Schreyer, A G; Schreyer, C I; Jung, E M; Heiss, P; Zorger, N; Framme, C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the significance of multislice CT for the diagnosis of uncertain penetrating globe injuries. Based on a retrospective chart review between 2002 and 2007, we identified 59 patients presenting with severe ocular trauma with uncertain rupture of the globe due to massive subconjunctival and/or anterior chamber hemorrhage. The IOP (intraocular pressure) was within normal range in all patients. High resolution multidetector CT (MD-CT) scans (16 slice scans) with axial and coronar reconstructions were performed in all patients. The affected eye was examined for signs of penetrating injury such as abnormal eye shape, scleral irregularities, lens dislocation or intravitreal hemorrhages. Four experienced radiologists read the CT scans independently. Beside the diagnosis, the relevant morphological criteria and the optimal plane orientation (axial or coronar) were specified. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value were calculated. Additionally the interobserver variability was determined by applying the Cohen's kappa test. Surgical sclera inspections were performed in all cases as a standard of reference. The evaluations of the CT examination were compared with the surgery reports. 59 patients were evaluated (42 men, 17 women). The mean age was 29 years (range 7 - 91). In 17 patients a rupture of the globe was diagnosed during surgery. 12 of these 17 penetrating injuries (70.6 %) were classified correctly by MDCT, 5 of the 17 (29.4 %) were not detectable. 42 patients did not have an open globe injury. 41 of these patients were diagnosed correctly negative by MDCT, and one patient was classified false positive. This results in a sensitivity of 70 % with a specificity of 98 %. There was high inter-rater agreement with kappa values between 0.89 - 0.96. Most discrepancies were caused by wrong negative findings. The most frequent morphologic criteria for open globe injury were the deformation (n = 10) and the volume reduction (n = 7) of

  11. Rare diagnosis of nodular lymphangitis caused by Mycobacterium marinum: MDCT imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Margarita; Soriano, Alex; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Tudo, Griselda; Garcia, Sebastian; Pomes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is an atypical mycobacterium that usually causes a solitary nodule on the hand (“fish tank granuloma”) or less commonly, secondary erythematous channels and nodules spread along lymphatic drainage of the extremity, mimicking sporothricoid skin lesions of nodular lymphangitis. This report presents a case of this rare entity, a nodular lymphangitis caused by Mycobacterium marinum. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging was very useful in determining the morphology (cellulitis with a few small subcutaneous nodules and channels) and the extension of the lesion. PMID:24778804

  12. Myopericarditis diagnosed by a 64-slice coronary CT angiography "triple rule out" protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon S.; Halpern, Ethan J.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of myopericarditis in a 30-year-old male complaining of shortness of breath. In an emergency department (ED) setting, the symptoms of myopericarditis may overlap with many disease entities and can be a challenging diagnosis to make. However, with the use of a 64-section coronary CT angiography in a “triple rule out” (TRO) protocol, we were able to detect a large pericardial effusion surrounding the heart and moderate global hypokinesis in the setting of normal-sized heart chambers and normal coronary arteries. We were further able to exclude pulmonary embolism and thoracic dissection. This is the first reported case of diagnosing myopericarditis using a TRO protocol. It demonstrates the usefulness of TRO in making an emergent diagnosis of myopericarditis while excluding other life-threatening diseases that can lead to earlier appropriate ED disposition and care. PMID:21373320

  13. Effect of Low-Dose MDCT and Iterative Reconstruction on Trabecular Bone Microstructure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Nasirudin, Radin A.; Mei, Kai; Garcia, Eduardo G.; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Kirschke, Jan S.; Noël, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) in combination with statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms on trabecular bone microstructure parameters. Twelve donated vertebrae were scanned with the routine radiation exposure used in our department (standard-dose) and a low-dose protocol. Reconstructions were performed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and maximum-likelihood based statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were assessed and statistically compared for each reconstruction. Moreover, fracture loads of the vertebrae were biomechanically determined and correlated to the assessed microstructure parameters. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters based on low-dose MDCT and SIR significantly correlated with vertebral bone strength. There was no significant difference between microstructure parameters calculated on low-dose SIR and standard-dose FBP images. However, the results revealed a strong dependency on the regularization strength applied during SIR. It was observed that stronger regularization might corrupt the microstructure analysis, because the trabecular structure is a very small detail that might get lost during the regularization process. As a consequence, the introduction of SIR for trabecular bone microstructure analysis requires a specific optimization of the regularization parameters. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches, superior noise-resolution trade-offs can be found with the proposed methods. PMID:27447827

  14. Patient Characteristics as Predictors of Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy of MDCT Compared With Conventional Coronary Angiography for Detecting Coronary Artery Stenoses: CORE-64 Multicenter International Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Marc; Vavere, Andrea L.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Miller, Julie M.; Sara, Leonardo; Cox, Christopher; Gottlieb, Ilan; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Paul, Narinder; Hoe, John; de Roos, Albert; Lardo, Albert C.; Lima, Joao A.; Clouse, Melvin E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study was to investigate patient characteristics associated with image quality and their impact on the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred ninety-one patients with a coronary artery calcification (CAC) score of ≤ 600 Agatston units (214 men and 77 women; mean age, 59.3 ± 10.0 years [SD]) were analyzed. An overall image quality score was derived using an ordinal scale. The accuracy of quantitative MDCT to detect significant (≥ 50%) stenoses was assessed using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) per patient and per vessel using a modified 19-segment model. The effect of CAC, obesity, heart rate, and heart rate variability on image quality and accuracy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Image quality and accuracy were further analyzed in subgroups of significant predictor variables. Diagnostic analysis was determined for image quality strata using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS Increasing body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, p < 0.001), increasing heart rate (OR = 0.90, p < 0.001), and the presence of breathing artifact (OR = 4.97, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with poorer image quality whereas sex, CAC score, and heart rate variability were not. Compared with examinations of white patients, studies of black patients had significantly poorer image quality (OR = 0.58, p = 0.04). At a vessel level, CAC score (10 Agatston units) (OR = 1.03, p = 0.012) and patient age (OR = 1.02, p = 0.04) were significantly associated with the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative MDCT compared with QCA. A trend was observed in differences in the areas under the ROC curves across image quality strata at the vessel level (p = 0.08). CONCLUSION Image quality is significantly associated with patient ethnicity, BMI, mean scan heart rate, and the presence of breathing artifact but not with CAC score at a patient level. At a vessel level

  15. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  16. [Current practice of pediatric MDCT in Japan: survey results of demographics and age-based dose reduction].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Kitamura, Masayuki; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Mikiko; Kashima, Kyoko; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2005-07-01

    To assess the current practice of pediatric MDCT in Japan, with particular reference to age-related dose adjustment. During the first three months of 2004, a questionnaire was mailed to 996 institutions, among which listed MDCT users ranged from private hospitals to large university-based hospitals. We received responses from 348 (34.9%) institutions. Fifty-three percent of the respondents had four-detector MDCT units. Approximately 70% of examinations were head and 22% were body. Scanning parameters were determined by full-time radiologists in 40%, and by CT technologists in 28% of respondents. Eighty-nine percent (head CT) and 85% (abdominal CT) of respondents indicated that they changed parameters for children. More than 90% changed tube current for optimization. Change was based on the technologist's experience (56%, head CT; 43%, abdominal CT), and automatic exposure control has been used as a basis of mAs control in 17% of respondents for head CT and in 34% for abdominal CT. Age-related mAs settings for abdominal CT were almost the same as those published in a United States survey. Although Japan has approximately 40% of the world's CT units, optimized pediatric MDCT settings might be moved away from a fixed mA protocol as recommended by the FDA and in conformity with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept.

  17. 3D Volumetric Evaluation of Lipiodol Retention in HCC after Chemoembolization: A Quantitative Comparison between CBCT and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Lin, MingDe; Lesage, David; Chen, Rongxin; Chapiro, Julius; Gu, Tara; Tacher, Vania; Duran, Rafael; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To evaluate the capability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquired immediately after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in determining Lipiodol retention quantitatively and volumetrically when compared to 1-day post-procedure unenhanced MDCT. Materials and methods From June to December, 2012, fifteen patients met the inclusion criteria of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that was treated with conventional TACE (cTACE), and had intra-procedural CBCT and 1-day post-TACE MDCT. Four patients were excluded because the Lipiodol was diffuse throughout the entire liver or Lipiodol deposition was not clear on both CBCT and MDCT. Eleven patients with a total of 31 target lesions were included in the analysis. A quantitative and 3D software was used to assess complete, localized and diffuse lipiodol deposition. Tumor volume, Lipiodol volume in the tumor, % Lipiodol retention, and Lipiodol enhancement in Hounsfield Unit (HU) were calculated and compared between CBCT and MDCT using two-tailed student’s t-test and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean value of tumor volume, Lipiodol deposited regions, calculated average % Lipiodol retention, and HU value of CBCT were not significantly different from those of MDCT (tumor volume: 9.37±11.35cm3 vs. 9.34±11.44cm3, P=0.991; Lipiodol volume: 7.84±9.34cm3 vs. 7.84±9.60 cm3, P=0.998; % Lipiodol retention: 89.3%±14.7% vs. 90.2% ± 14.9%, P=0.811; HU value: 307.7±160.1 HU vs. 257.2±120.0 HU, P=0.139). Bland-Altman plots showed only minimal difference and high agreement when comparing CBCT to MDCT. Conclusion CBCT has a similar capability, intraprocedurally, to assess Lipiodol deposition in 3D for patients with HCC treated with cTACE when compared to MDCT. PMID:24507426

  18. Morphometric evaluation of subaxial cervical spine using multi-detector computerized tomography (MD-CT) scan: the consideration for cervical pedicle screws fixation.

    PubMed

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Aroonjarattham, Kitti; Leelapattana, Pittavat; Keorochana, Gun; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2014-04-11

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion is a technically demanding procedure. The quantitative understanding of cervical pedicle morphology, especially the narrowest part of cervical pedicle or isthmus, would minimize the risk of catastrophic damage to surrounding neurovascular structures and improve surgical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate morphology and quantify cortical thickness of the cervical isthmus by using Multi-detector Computerized Tomography (MD-CT) scan. The cervical CT scans were performed in 74 patients (37 males and 37 females) with 1-mm slice thickness and then retro-reconstructed into sagittal and coronal planes to measure various cervical parameters as follows: outer pedicle width (OPW), inner pedicle width (IPW), outer pedicle height (OPH), inner pedicle height (IPH), pedicle cortical thickness, pedicle sagittal angle (PSA), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA). Total numbers of 740 pedicles were measured in this present study. The mean OPW and IPW significantly increased from C3 to C7 while the mean OPH and IPH of those showed non-significant difference between any measured levels. The medial-lateral cortical thickness was significantly smaller than the superior-inferior one. PTA in the upper cervical spine was significantly wider than the lower ones. The PSA changed from upward inclination at upper cervical spine to the downward inclination at lower cervical spine. This study has demonstrated that cervical vertebra has relatively small and narrow inner pedicle canal with thick outer pedicle cortex and also shows a variable in pedicle width and inconsistent transverse angle. To enhance the safety of CPS insertion, the entry point and trajectories should be determined individually by using preoperative MD-CT scan and the inner pedicle width should be a key parameter to determine the screw dimensions.

  19. Correlating MDCT Liver Injury Grade and Clinical Outcome in Patients Without Significant Extra-hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Atin; Baliyan, Vinit; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) grading with clinical severity and outcome in liver trauma patients without significant extrahepatic injury. Over a period of 2 years (2011-2013), all patients showing evidence of liver injury on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) abdomen and without significant extrahepatic trauma were prospectively included in the study. Correlation between the CT injury grade and outcome in terms of mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid and blood requirements, need for intervention and complications were assessed. The significance of the difference in mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid requirement and blood requirements among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance of the difference in need for intervention and complications among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Fisher's exact test. A total of 198 patients were found to have evidence of hepatic injury on CECT. Out of 198 patients, 117 had insignificant extrahepatic trauma. The overall mean age for these 117 patients was 25.74 ± 15.53 (age range 2-84 years). Death rates according to AAST grades were 0 % in grades II and III, 6.89 % in grade IV and 9.09 % in grade V (p = 0.053). The mean ICU and total hospital stay for grade II was 1.32 and 5.91 days, for grade III was 1.76 and 8.48, for grade IV was 2.86 and 10.31 days and for grade V was 6.54 and 12 days, respectively (p = 0.0001 for ICU, p = 0.0003 for total stay). Mean input and fluid deficit according to various grades were 8634/2607 ml for grade II, 9535/2555 ml for grade III, 15,549/6242 ml for grade IV and 19,958/8280 ml for grade V (p value input-0.0016, output-input (fluid deficit)-0.0001). Average unit of RBC and sum of the blood products transfused were 1.73 and 2.26 for grade II, 2.18 and 2.72 for grade III, 3.03 and 6.27 for grade IV, 6.85 and 38.12 for grade V

  20. Hepatic Arterial Configuration in Relation to the Segmental Anatomy of the Liver; Observations on MDCT and DSA Relevant to Radioembolization Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoven, Andor F. van den Leeuwen, Maarten S. van Lam, Marnix G. E. H. Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2015-02-15

    PurposeCurrent anatomical classifications do not include all variants relevant for radioembolization (RE). The purpose of this study was to assess the individual hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern and to develop an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended classification.MethodsThe hepatic vascular anatomy was assessed on MDCT and DSA in patients who received a workup for RE between February 2009 and November 2012. Reconstructed MDCT studies were assessed to determine the hepatic arterial configuration (origin of every hepatic arterial branch, branching pattern and anatomical course) and the hepatic segmental vascularization territory of all branches. Aberrant hepatic arteries were defined as hepatic arterial branches that did not originate from the celiac axis/CHA/PHA. Early branching patterns were defined as hepatic arterial branches originating from the celiac axis/CHA.ResultsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern could be assessed in 110 of 133 patients. In 59 patients (54 %), no aberrant hepatic arteries or early branching was observed. Fourteen patients without aberrant hepatic arteries (13 %) had an early branching pattern. In the 37 patients (34 %) with aberrant hepatic arteries, five also had an early branching pattern. Sixteen different hepatic arterial segmental vascularization patterns were identified and described, differing by the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries, their respective vascular territory, and origin of the artery vascularizing segment four.ConclusionsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern show marked individual variability beyond well-known classifications of anatomical variants. We developed an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended anatomical classification.

  1. Estimated Patient Dose Indexes in Adult and Pediatric MDCT: Comparison of Automatic Tube Voltage Selection With Fixed Tube Current, Fixed Tube Voltage, and Weight-Based Protocols.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark E; Karim, Wadih; Bullen, Jennifer A; Primak, Andrew N; Dong, Frank F; Herts, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the differences in estimated volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) obtained from the topogram before abdominal and pelvic MDCT in adult and pediatric patients using a scan type-based algorithm for selecting kilovoltage (CARE kV) and a fixed and a weight-based Quality Reference mAs for selecting tube (gmAs) current-exposure time product, in comparison with standard protocols, and to determine the bias and variability of estimated CTDIvol vis-à-vis actual CTDIvol using the standard protocols. During a 14-month period, 312 adult and pediatric patients referred for abdominal and pelvic MDCT were included in the study. For all patients, the estimated CTDIvol based on the topogram was recorded: protocol A, CARE kV on and 210 gmAs; protocol B, CARE kV on and 1 gmAs times patient weight (in pounds); and protocol C (standard protocol), CARE kV off, 120 kVp, and 1 gmAs times patient weight (in pounds). For the pediatric patients, estimated CTDIvol for the standard protocol D was calculated with 120 kVp and 150 gmAs. All patients were scanned with the standard protocols, and the actual CTDIvol was recorded. Linear regression models compared the CTDIvol of the three protocols in adults and the fourth for children. The estimated and actual CTDIvol were compared using a t test. Protocol B yielded the lowest estimated CTDIvol (mean, 13.2 mGy for adults and 3.5 mGy for pediatric patients). The estimated CTDIvol overestimated the actual CTDIvol by, on average, 1.07 mGy for adults and 0.3 mGy for children. CARE kV appears to reduce estimated CTDIvol vis-à-vis standard protocols only when a weight-based gmAs is used. Prescan estimated CTDIvol calculations appear to generally overestimate actual CTDIvol.

  2. Whole-Chest 64-MDCT of Emergency Department Patients with Nonspecific Chest Pain: Radiation Dose and Coronary Artery Image Quality with Prospective ECG Triggering Versus Retrospective ECG Gating

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, William P.; Branch, Kelley R.; May, Janet M.; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Strote, Jared N.; Warren, Bill H.; Dubinsky, Theodore J.; Lockhart, David W.; Caldwell, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the patient radiation dose and coronary artery image quality of long-z-axis whole-chest 64-MDCT performed with retrospective ECG gating with those of CT performed with prospective ECG triggering in the evaluation of emergency department patients with nonspecific chest pain. Subjects and Methods Consecutively registered emergency department patients with nonspecific low-to-moderate-risk chest pain underwent whole-chest CT with retrospective gating (n = 41) or prospective triggering (n = 31). Effective patient radiation doses were estimated and compared by use of unpaired Student's t tests. Two reviewers independently scored the quality of images of the coronary arteries, and the scores were compared by use of ordinal logistic regression. Results Age, heart rate, body mass index, and z-axis coverage were not statistically different between the two groups. For retrospective gating, the mean effective radiation dose was 31.8 ± 5.1 mSv; for prospective triggering, the mean effective radiation dose was 9.2 ± 2.2 mSv (prospective triggering 71% lower, p < 0.001). Two of 512 segments imaged with retrospective gating were nonevaluable (0.4%), and two of 394 segments imaged with prospective triggering were nonevaluable (0.5%). Prospectively triggered images were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1–4.5) times as likely as retrospectively gated images to receive a high image quality score for each segment after adjustment for segment differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion For long-z-axis whole-chest 64-MDCT of emergency department patients with nonspecific chest pain, use of prospective ECG triggering may result in substantially lower patient radiation doses and better coronary artery image quality than is achieved with retrospective ECG gating. PMID:19457832

  3. Whole-chest 64-MDCT of emergency department patients with nonspecific chest pain: Radiation dose and coronary artery image quality with prospective ECG triggering versus retrospective ECG gating.

    PubMed

    Shuman, William P; Branch, Kelley R; May, Janet M; Mitsumori, Lee M; Strote, Jared N; Warren, Bill H; Dubinsky, Theodore J; Lockhart, David W; Caldwell, James H

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the patient radiation dose and coronary artery image quality of long-z-axis whole-chest 64-MDCT performed with retrospective ECG gating with those of CT performed with prospective ECG triggering in the evaluation of emergency department patients with nonspecific chest pain. Consecutively registered emergency department patients with nonspecific low-to-moderate-risk chest pain underwent whole-chest CT with retrospective gating (n = 41) or prospective triggering (n = 31). Effective patient radiation doses were estimated and compared by use of unpaired Student's t tests. Two reviewers independently scored the quality of images of the coronary arteries, and the scores were compared by use of ordinal logistic regression. Age, heart rate, body mass index, and z-axis coverage were not statistically different between the two groups. For retrospective gating, the mean effective radiation dose was 31.8 +/- 5.1 mSv; for prospective triggering, the mean effective radiation dose was 9.2 +/- 2.2 mSv (prospective triggering 71% lower, p < 0.001). Two of 512 segments imaged with retrospective gating were nonevaluable (0.4%), and two of 394 segments imaged with prospective triggering were nonevaluable (0.5%). Prospectively triggered images were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1-4.5) times as likely as retrospectively gated images to receive a high image quality score for each segment after adjustment for segment differences (p < 0.05). For long-z-axis whole-chest 64-MDCT of emergency department patients with nonspecific chest pain, use of prospective ECG triggering may result in substantially lower patient radiation doses and better coronary artery image quality than is achieved with retrospective ECG gating.

  4. Computer-aided liver volumetry: performance of a fully-automated, prototype post-processing solution for whole-organ and lobar segmentation based on MDCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Bashir, Mustafa R; Marin, Daniele; Boll, Daniel T

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a prototype, fully-automated post-processing solution for whole-liver and lobar segmentation based on MDCT datasets. A polymer liver phantom was used to assess accuracy of post-processing applications comparing phantom volumes determined via Archimedes' principle with MDCT segmented datasets. For the IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 25 patients were enrolled. Volumetry performance compared the manual approach with the automated prototype, assessing intraobserver variability, and interclass correlation for whole-organ and lobar segmentation using ANOVA comparison. Fidelity of segmentation was evaluated qualitatively. Phantom volume was 1581.0 ± 44.7 mL, manually segmented datasets estimated 1628.0 ± 47.8 mL, representing a mean overestimation of 3.0%, automatically segmented datasets estimated 1601.9 ± 0 mL, representing a mean overestimation of 1.3%. Whole-liver and segmental volumetry demonstrated no significant intraobserver variability for neither manual nor automated measurements. For whole-liver volumetry, automated measurement repetitions resulted in identical values; reproducible whole-organ volumetry was also achieved with manual segmentation, p(ANOVA) 0.98. For lobar volumetry, automated segmentation improved reproducibility over manual approach, without significant measurement differences for either methodology, p(ANOVA) 0.95-0.99. Whole-organ and lobar segmentation results from manual and automated segmentation showed no significant differences, p(ANOVA) 0.96-1.00. Assessment of segmentation fidelity found that segments I-IV/VI showed greater segmentation inaccuracies compared to the remaining right hepatic lobe segments. Automated whole-liver segmentation showed non-inferiority of fully-automated whole-liver segmentation compared to manual approaches with improved reproducibility and post-processing duration; automated dual-seed lobar segmentation showed slight tendencies for underestimating the right hepatic lobe

  5. Data compression in wireless sensors network using MDCT and embedded harmonic coding.

    PubMed

    Alsalaet, Jaafar K; Ali, Abduladhem A

    2015-05-01

    One of the major applications of wireless sensors networks (WSNs) is vibration measurement for the purpose of structural health monitoring and machinery fault diagnosis. WSNs have many advantages over the wired networks such as low cost and reduced setup time. However, the useful bandwidth is limited, as compared to wired networks, resulting in relatively low sampling. One solution to this problem is data compression which, in addition to enhancing sampling rate, saves valuable power of the wireless nodes. In this work, a data compression scheme, based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT) followed by Embedded Harmonic Components Coding (EHCC) is proposed to compress vibration signals. The EHCC is applied to exploit harmonic redundancy present is most vibration signals resulting in improved compression ratio. This scheme is made suitable for the tiny hardware of wireless nodes and it is proved to be fast and effective. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is investigated by conducting several experimental tests.

  6. Impact of bowtie filter and object position on the two-dimensional noise power spectrum of a clinical MDCT system

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo; Li, Ke; Budde, Adam; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Noise characteristics of clinical multidetector CT (MDCT) systems can be quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS). Although the NPS of CT has been extensively studied in the past few decades, the joint impact of the bowtie filter and object position on the NPS has not been systematically investigated. This work studies the interplay of these two factors on the two dimensional (2D) local NPS of a clinical CT system that uses the filtered backprojection algorithm for image reconstruction. Methods: A generalized NPS model was developed to account for the impact of the bowtie filter and image object location in the scan field-of-view (SFOV). For a given bowtie filter, image object, and its location in the SFOV, the shape and rotational symmetries of the 2D local NPS were directly computed from the NPS model without going through the image reconstruction process. The obtained NPS was then compared with the measured NPSs from the reconstructed noise-only CT images in both numerical phantom simulation studies and experimental phantom studies using a clinical MDCT scanner. The shape and the associated symmetry of the 2D NPS were classified by borrowing the well-known atomic spectral symbols s, p, and d, which correspond to circular, dumbbell, and cloverleaf symmetries, respectively, of the wave function of electrons in an atom. Finally, simulated bar patterns were embedded into experimentally acquired noise backgrounds to demonstrate the impact of different NPS symmetries on the visual perception of the object. Results: (1) For a central region in a centered cylindrical object, an s-wave symmetry was always present in the NPS, no matter whether the bowtie filter was present or not. In contrast, for a peripheral region in a centered object, the symmetry of its NPS was highly dependent on the bowtie filter, and both p-wave symmetry and d-wave symmetry were observed in the NPS. (2) For a centered region-ofinterest (ROI) in an off-centered object, the symmetry of

  7. Multiphase contrast-saline mixture injection with dual-flow in 64-row MDCT coronary CTA.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lizhen; Du, Xiangying; Li, Pengyu; Liu, Yaou; Li, Kuncheng

    2009-03-01

    To explore the feasibility of multiphase contrast-saline mixture with dual-flow injection technique for visualization of right ventricular (RV) cavity and interventricular septum (IVS) in 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. Twenty-four patients underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA) imaging with 64-row MDCT. In twelve patients (group A), 60 ml contrast medium (CM) bolus was followed by 40 ml saline, and in the other twelve patients (group B), 50 ml CM bolus was followed by 50 ml contrast-saline mixture at 60:40 ratio. The CM, saline and contrast-saline mixture flow rate were all 5.0 ml/s. Two experienced radiologists measured the CT values of ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and RV, rated the uniformity of RV cavity, the visualization of coronary arteries and IVS independently. By Kappa test, agreement between the two radiologists was 0.93 and 0.86 concerning the CT value measurements and the grades of the three indexes, respectively. By t-test, the mean CT values of ascending aorta and descending aorta of the two groups had no statistical difference (t=1.459, P>0.05; t=1.619, P>0.05); while the mean CT values of pulmonary artery and RV cavity had statistical differences (t=8.316, P<0.05; t=10.372, P<0.05). By two-related rank sum test, according to the visualization of coronary arteries and the uniformity of RV cavity, there were no statistical differences (U=66.00, P>0.05; U=54.00, P>0.05); while according to the visualization of IVS, group B was better than group A (U=8.00, P<0.05). In coronary CTA, a contrast-saline mixture after CM bolus can provide clear visualization of RV and IVS and LV without impairing coronary CTA image.

  8. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the identification and characterization of traumatic solid organ lesions in children: a retrospective comparison with baseline US and CE-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Guendalina; Sessa, Barbara; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-11-01

    Localized low-energy abdominal trauma is very frequent in the pediatric population. The findings of several studies have shown that ultrasonography (US) can represent a useful and cost-effective tool in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma both in adults and children. However, many parenchymal injuries are not correctly visualized at baseline US examination. The introduction of specific US contrast agents contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has enabled a better identification of traumatic organ injuries. The correct use of CEUS could therefore identify and select the children who need further diagnostic investigation computed tomography (CT), avoiding unnecessary radiation and iodinated contrast medium exposure. The purpose of our study was to assess the sensibility and feasibility of CEUS in the assessment of low-energy abdominal trauma compared to baseline US in pediatric patients, using contrast-enhanced MDCT as the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed 73 children (51 M and 22 F; mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years) who presented in our Emergency Department between October 2012 and October 2013, with history of minor abdominal trauma according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale and who underwent US, CEUS, and CE-MDCT. Inclusion criteria were: male or female, aged 0-16, hemodynamically stable patients with a history of minor blunt abdominal trauma. Exclusion criteria were adulthood, hemodynamical instability, history of major trauma. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were determined for US and CEUS compared to MDCT. 6/73 patients were negative at US, CEUS, and MDCT for the presence of organ injuries. In the remaining 67 patients, US depicted 26/67 parenchymal lesions. CEUS identified 67/67 patients (67/67) with parenchymal lesions: 21 lesions of the liver (28.8 %), 26 lesions of the spleen (35.6 %), 7 lesions of right kidney (9.6 %), 13 lesions of left kidney. MDCT confirmed all parenchymal lesions (67/67). Thus, the diagnostic performance of

  9. A novel scheme for detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT by use of statistical texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

    2009-02-01

    The successful development of high performance computer-aided-diagnostic systems has potential to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. We developed in this study an automated scheme for the detection of diffuse lung disease on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Our database consisted of 68 CT scans, which included 31 normal and 37 abnormal cases with three kinds of abnormal patterns, i.e., ground glass opacity, reticular, and honeycombing. Two radiologists first selected the CT scans with abnormal patterns based on clinical reports. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. To detect abnormal cases with diffuse lung disease, the lungs were first segmented from the background in each slice by use of a texture analysis technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64×64×64 matrix size. For each VOI, we calculated many statistical texture features, including the mean and standard deviation of CT values, features determined from the run length matrix, and features from the co-occurrence matrix. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. For the detection of abnormal VOIs, our CAD system achieved a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90%. For the detection of abnormal cases, it achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. This preliminary study indicates that our CAD system would be useful for the detection of diffuse lung disease.

  10. Arterial double-contrast dual-energy MDCT: in-vivo rabbit atherosclerosis with iodinated nanoparticles and gadolinium agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmi, Raz; Kafri, Galit; Altman, Ami; Goshen, Liran; Planer, David; Sosna, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    An in-vivo feasibility study of potentially improved atherosclerosis CT imaging is presented. By administration of two different contrast agents to rabbits with induced atherosclerotic plaques we aim at identifying both soft plaque and vessel lumen simultaneously. Initial injection of iodinated nanoparticle (INP) contrast agent (N1177 - Nanoscan Imaging), two to four hours before scan, leads to its later accumulation in macrophage-rich soft plaque, while a second gadolinium contrast agent (Magnevist) injected immediately prior to the scan blends with the aortic blood. The distinction between the two agents in a single scan is achieved with a double-layer dual-energy MDCT (Philips Healthcare) following material separation analysis using the reconstructed images of the different x-ray spectra. A single contrast agent injection scan, where only INP was injected two hours prior to the scan, was compared to a double-contrast scan taken four hours after INP injection and immediately after gadolinium injection. On the single contrast agent scan we observed along the aorta walls, localized iodine accumulation which can point on INP uptake by atherosclerotic plaque. In the double-contrast scan the gadolinium contributes a clearer depiction of the vessel lumen in addition to the lasting INP presence. The material separation shows a good correlation to the pathologies inferred from the conventional CT images of the two different scans while performing only a single scan prevents miss-registration problems and reduces radiation dose. These results suggest that a double-contrast dual-energy CT may be used for advanced clinical diagnostic applications.

  11. Extramural venous invasion detected by MDCT as an adverse imaging feature for predicting synchronous metastases in T4 gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Wu, Jing; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Yinli; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Background Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is defined histologically as the active invasion of tumor cells to the lumens of mesenteric vessels beyond the muscularis propria in advanced gastrointestinal cancer, resulting in distant metastases. Purpose To determine the association between synchronous metastatic disease in patients with T4 gastric cancer and EMVI detected on contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector computed tomography (MDCT). Material and Methods A total of 152 patients with T4 gastric carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into EMVI-positive and EMVI-negative groups where EMVI, as detected on MDCT, was defined as a tubular or nodular soft tissue thickening extending from the tumor along the vessels of the mesentery. Synchronous metastases were detected by MDCT and/or confirmed by postoperative diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the predictive factors of synchronous metastases in gastric cancer. Results Synchronous metastases were found in 47 of 152 (30.9%) patients with T4 gastric cancer. Thirty-one of 77 (40.3%) patients in the EMVI-positive group had evidence of metastases compared to 16 (21.3%) of 75 patients in the EMVI-negative group ( P = 0.019). Synchronous metastases were significantly associated with EMVI with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.250 (95% CI, 1.072-4.724). Conclusion EMVI-positive tumors, as an adverse imaging feature, were significantly associated with synchronous metastases in patients with T4 gastric cancer.

  12. Morphological and functional MDCT: problem-solving tool and surrogate biomarker for hepatic disease clinical care and drug discovery in the era of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang

    2010-08-17

    This article explains the significant role of morphological and functional multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) in combination with imaging postprocessing algorithms served as a problem-solving tool and noninvasive surrogate biomarker to effectively improve hepatic diseases characterization, detection, tumor staging and prognosis, therapy response assessment, and novel drug discovery programs, partial liver resection and transplantation, and MDCT-guided interventions in the era of personalized medicine. State-of-the-art MDCT depicts and quantifies hepatic disease over conventional CT for not only depicting lesion location, size, and extent but also detecting changes in tumor biologic behavior caused by therapy or tumor progression before morphologic changes. Color-encoded parameter display provides important functional information on blood flow, permeability, leakage space, and blood volume. Together with other relevant biomarkers and genomics, the imaging modality is being developed and validated as a biomarker to early response to novel, targeted anti-VEGF(R)/PDGFR or antivascular/angiogenesis agents as its parameters correlate with immunohistochemical surrogates of tumor angiogenesis and molecular features of malignancies. MDCT holds incremental value to World Health Organization response criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in liver disease management. MDCT volumetric measurement of future remnant liver is the most important factor influencing the outcome of patients who underwent partial liver resection and transplantation. MDCT-guided interventional methods deliver personalized therapies locally in the human body. MDCT will hold more scientific impact when it is fused with other imaging probes to yield comprehensive information regarding changes in liver disease at different levels (anatomic, metabolic, molecular, histologic, and other levels).

  13. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  14. Correlation between epicardial adipose tissue and severity of coronary artery stenosis evaluated by 64-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunying; Li, Liang; Zha, Yunfei; Peng, Zhoufeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness, EAT volume, and severity of coronary artery stenosis. We retrospectively enrolled 188 patients that underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography for clinically suspected coronary artery disease using 64-MDCT. Images were reconstructed using a retrospective electrocardiogram-gated algorithm with 0.625-mm-thick sections. EAT thickness and volume were calculated. The coronary CT angiography showed 106 patients who had coronary artery pathology (178 lesions), 21 patients with moderate stenosis (27 lesions), 12 patients with severe stenosis (18 lesions), and 6 patients with complete occlusion (8 lesions). EAT thickness, EAT volume, and Gensini score were statistically different among groups (FT=32.306, FV=27.743, F=110.483, P=.000). Pearson correlation analysis showed that Gensini score had significantly positive correlation with EAT thickness and volume, respectively. EAT thickness and volume demonstrated a positive correlation with severity of coronary artery stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accuracy of gantry rotation time of less than 300 ms for modern MDCT systems.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Matsubara, Kosuke; Miyati, Tosiaki

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of gantry rotation times of less than 300 ms has been assessed for two "state-of-the art" MDCT systems. The rotation time was measured at selected nominal rotation times (275 and 280 ms) with a solid-state detector; Unfors Xi probe. The detector was positioned on the inner bottom of the gantry bore. Because a pair of two successive radiation peaks is necessary for determination of the rotation time, the radiation detection was performed with the helical scan mode of operation. Upon completion of the data acquisition, we determined the peak times with the Unfors Xi View software program to obtain the rotation time. The means and standard deviations of the measured rotation times were 275.3 ± 0.5 and 285.1 ± 0.4 ms, respectively. The inaccuracy of the rotation time was approximately 5 ms at most, which was comparable to that previously reported for slower rotation times.

  16. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dae Ho; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Jai Soung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Duek Lin; Chung, Nak Eun; Lee, Bong Woo; Seo, Joong Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Materials and Methods Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16-channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Results Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. Conclusion A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations. PMID:20592923

  17. MDCT arthrography of the hip: value of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique and potential for radiation dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Tobalem, Frank; Dugert, Eric; Verdun, Francis R; Dunet, Vincent; Ott, Julien G; Rudiger, Hannes A; Cherix, Stephane; Meuli, Reto; Becce, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique on image quality in hip MDCT arthrography and to evaluate its potential for reducing radiation dose. Thirty-seven patients examined with hip MDCT arthrography were prospectively randomized into three different protocols: one with a regular dose (volume CT dose index [CTDIvol], 38.4 mGy) and two with a reduced dose (CTDIvol, 24.6 or 15.4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and four increasing percentages of ASIR (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently evaluated several anatomic structures and image quality parameters using a 4-point scale. They also jointly assessed acetabular labrum tears and articular cartilage lesions. With decreasing radiation dose level, image noise statistically significantly increased (p=0.0009) and CNR statistically significantly decreased (p=0.001). We also found a statistically significant reduction in noise (p=0.0001) and increase in CNR (p≤0.003) with increasing percentage of ASIR; in addition, we noted statistically significant increases in image quality scores for the labrum and cartilage, subchondral bone, overall diagnostic quality (up to 50% ASIR), and subjective noise (p≤0.04), and statistically significant reductions for the trabecular bone and muscles (p≤0.03). Regardless of the radiation dose level, there were no statistically significant differences in the detection and characterization of labral tears (n=24; p=1) and cartilage lesions (n=40; p≥0.89) depending on the ASIR percentage. The use of up to 50% ASIR in hip MDCT arthrography helps to reduce radiation dose by approximately 35-60%, while maintaining diagnostic image quality comparable to that of a regular-dose protocol using FBP.

  18. Automated diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases and emphysema in MDCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Chang Chien, Kuang-Che; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Prêteux, Françoise

    2007-09-01

    Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) include a heterogeneous group of non-neoplasic disease resulting from damage to the lung parenchyma by varying patterns of inflammation. Characterization and quantification of DLD severity using MDCT, mainly in interstitial lung diseases and emphysema, is an important issue in clinical research for the evaluation of new therapies. This paper develops a 3D automated approach for detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases such as fibrosis/honeycombing, ground glass and emphysema. The proposed methodology combines multi-resolution 3D morphological filtering (exploiting the sup-constrained connection cost operator) and graph-based classification for a full characterization of the parenchymal tissue. The morphological filtering performs a multi-level segmentation of the low- and medium-attenuated lung regions as well as their classification with respect to a granularity criterion (multi-resolution analysis). The original intensity range of the CT data volume is thus reduced in the segmented data to a number of levels equal to the resolution depth used (generally ten levels). The specificity of such morphological filtering is to extract tissue patterns locally contrasting with their neighborhood and of size inferior to the resolution depth, while preserving their original shape. A multi-valued hierarchical graph describing the segmentation result is built-up according to the resolution level and the adjacency of the different segmented components. The graph nodes are then enriched with the textural information carried out by their associated components. A graph analysis-reorganization based on the nodes attributes delivers the final classification of the lung parenchyma in normal and ILD/emphysematous regions. It also makes possible to discriminate between different types, or development stages, among the same class of diseases.

  19. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  20. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C1 continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  1. Synchronous infection of the aorta and the testis: emphysematous epididymo-orchitis, abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm, and testicular artery pseudoaneurysm diagnosed by use of MDCT.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Rahul G; Balani, Ankit; Merchant, Suleman A; Joshi, Anagha R

    2014-07-01

    We report clinical details and imaging findings for a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with co-existing mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and a testicular artery pseudoaneurysm in a diabetic 65-year-old male. We report imaging findings from ultrasonography (USG) and contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Use of MDCT to identify, confirm, and define the extent of the disease, and its utility in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare condition are highlighted. For such lethal infections, early diagnosis and intervention can be lifesaving; imaging can be of crucial importance in this.

  2. MDCT Anatomic Assessment of Right Inferior Phrenic Artery Origin Related to Potential Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and its Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio Tsetis, Dimitrios; Montineri, Arturo; Puleo, Stefano; Massa Saluzzo, Cesare; Runza, Giuseppe; Coppolino, Francesco; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. To prospectively assess the anatomic variation of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) origin with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans in relation to the technical and angiographic findings during transcatheter arterial embolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods. Two hundred patients with hepatocellular carcinomas were examined with 16-section CT during the arterial phase. The anatomy of the inferior phrenic arteries was recorded, with particular reference to their origin. All patients with subcapsular HCC located at segments VII and VIII underwent arteriography of the RIPA with subsequent embolization if neoplastic supply was detected. Results. The RIPA origin was detected in all cases (sensitivity 100%), while the left inferior phrenic artery origin was detected in 187 cases (sensitivity 93.5%). RIPAs originated from the aorta (49%), celiac trunk (41%), right renal artery (5.5%), left gastric artery (4%), and proper hepatic artery (0.5%), with 13 types of combinations with the left IPA. Twenty-nine patients showed subcapsular HCCs in segments VII and VIII and all but one underwent RIPA selective angiography, followed by embolization in 7 cases. Conclusion. MDCT assesses well the anatomy of RIPAs, which is fundamental for planning subsequent cannulation and embolization of extrahepatic RIPA supply to HCC.

  3. Medial pathway patterns of the right retromesenteric plane: anatomical investigation using MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Takaji, Ryo; Mori, Hiromu; Yamada, Yasunari; Kiyonaga, Maki; Matsumoto, Shunro

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane by reviewing multidetector CT (MDCT) findings in patients with acute pancreatitis and pyelonephritis. 112 patients with acute pancreatitis and 114 patients with pyelonephritis underwent MDCT scans. 64 of the 112 patients with acute pancreatitis and 34 of the 114 patients with pyelonephritis had right retromesenteric plane thickening because of inflammatory extensions. The medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. In 18 (28%) of the 64 patients with acute pancreatitis and 10 (29%) of the 34 patients with pyelonephritis, the right retromesenteric plane continued to the central retroperitoneum behind the descending duodenum and pancreatic head (Type 1 pathway). The right retromesenteric plane extended to the right wall of the descending duodenum (Type 2 pathway) in 46 patients (72%) with acute pancreatitis and 24 patients (71%) with pyelonephritis. There was no significant difference in the pathway patterns of the right retromesenteric plane between the acute pancreatitis group and the pyelonephritis group (Type 1 pathway, p = 0.89; Type 2 pathway, p = 0.76). Two patterns were confirmed regarding the medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane; this anatomical knowledge is important for evaluating the extension of retroperitoneal diseases. Medial aspect of the right retromesenteric plane is thought to have two pathways. The right retromesenteric plane continuing to the right duodenal wall is a common type. Knowledge of these variations is important when evaluating the retroperitoneal diseases.

  4. Medial pathway patterns of the right retromesenteric plane: anatomical investigation using MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis and pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiromu; Yamada, Yasunari; Kiyonaga, Maki; Matsumoto, Shunro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane by reviewing multidetector CT (MDCT) findings in patients with acute pancreatitis and pyelonephritis. Methods: 112 patients with acute pancreatitis and 114 patients with pyelonephritis underwent MDCT scans. 64 of the 112 patients with acute pancreatitis and 34 of the 114 patients with pyelonephritis had right retromesenteric plane thickening because of inflammatory extensions. The medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Results: In 18 (28%) of the 64 patients with acute pancreatitis and 10 (29%) of the 34 patients with pyelonephritis, the right retromesenteric plane continued to the central retroperitoneum behind the descending duodenum and pancreatic head (Type 1 pathway). The right retromesenteric plane extended to the right wall of the descending duodenum (Type 2 pathway) in 46 patients (72%) with acute pancreatitis and 24 patients (71%) with pyelonephritis. There was no significant difference in the pathway patterns of the right retromesenteric plane between the acute pancreatitis group and the pyelonephritis group (Type 1 pathway, p = 0.89; Type 2 pathway, p = 0.76). Conclusion: Two patterns were confirmed regarding the medial pathways of the right retromesenteric plane; this anatomical knowledge is important for evaluating the extension of retroperitoneal diseases. Advances in knowledge: Medial aspect of the right retromesenteric plane is thought to have two pathways. The right retromesenteric plane continuing to the right duodenal wall is a common type. Knowledge of these variations is important when evaluating the retroperitoneal diseases. PMID:26694254

  5. Abdominal rapid-kVp-switching dual-energy MDCT with reduced IV contrast compared to conventional MDCT with standard weight-based IV contrast: an intra-patient comparison.

    PubMed

    Clark, Zachary E; Bolus, David N; Little, Mark D; Morgan, Desiree E

    2015-04-01

    Perform intra-patient comparison of attenuation values on lower keV dual-energy abdominal CT images using reduced IV contrast dose compared to conventional single energy polychromatic beam abdominal MDCT images using standard IV contrast dose. IRB approved retrospective evaluation of consecutive adults who had both standard IV contrast dosage conventional multiphasic MDCT (SECT) and reduced IV contrast dosage rapid kV-switching dual-energy multiphasic MDCT (rsDECT) of the abdomen. Arterial phase dual-energy 52, 70 and 78 keV simulated monoenergetic HU were compared (t test) to arterial phase SECT HU for: aorta, liver, pancreas, psoas, and hepatic/pancreatic tumors. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR), IV contrast dose reduction and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. Two blinded independent readers evaluated the CT datasets for subjective image quality based on a five point scale. Twenty-nine scan pairs in 24 subjects (13 M, mean age 64, weight 76.7 kg) were evaluated. Mean reduction in IV contrast dose was 37 %. Mean ± SD HU on 52 keV rsDECT vs. SECT were: aorta 534 ± 138 vs. 271 ± 69; liver 88 ± 24 vs. 67 ± 16; pancreas 140 ± 60 vs. 89 ± 40; psoas 63 ± 15 vs. 50 ± 12 (all p < 0.001). Noise was higher for 52 keV compared to SECT (p < 0.001); CNRs were not significantly different. Mean ± SD DLP for rsDECT was 1421 ± 563 and SECT 1335 ± 562 mGy·cm (p = 0.640). For tumor vs. nontumoral parenchyma, mean absolute contrast difference was 58.4 HU on 52 keV, and 29.0 HU on SECT. Nearly all images were rated as good or excellent and there were no statistically significant differences in image quality between the DECT and SECT images. Statistically significant gains in vascular and parenchymal enhancement without adverse effect on CNR or lesion contrast were observed in this intra-patient comparison using reduced IV contrast dose rsDECT compared to standard weight-based IV dose conventional SECT.

  6. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic mass-forming pancreatitis: Differentiation with dual-energy MDCT in spectral imaging mode.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qihua; Zou, Xinnong; Zai, Xiaodong; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wu, Qingyang; Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Hongwei; Miao, Fei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the value of dual-energy MDCT in spectral imaging in the differential diagnosis of chronic mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (CMFP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) during the arterial phase (AP) and the pancreatic parenchymal phase (PP). Thirty five consecutive patients with CMFP (n=15) or PDAC (n=20) underwent dual-energy MDCT in spectral imaging during AP and PP. Iodine concentrations were derived from iodine-based material-decomposition CT images and normalized to the iodine concentration in the aorta. The difference in iodine concentration between the AP and PP, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the slope K of the spectrum curve were calculated. Normalized iodine concentrations (NICs) in patients with CMFP differed significantly from those in patients with PDAC during two double phases (mean NIC, 0.26±0.04 mg/mL vs. 0.53±0.02 mg/mL, p=0.0001; 0.07±0.02 mg/mL vs. 0.28±0.04 mg/mL, p=0.0002, respectively). There were significant differences in the value of the slope K of the spectrum curve in two groups during AP and PP (K(CMFP)=3.27±0.70 vs. K(PDAC)=1.35±0.41, P=0.001, and K(CMFP)=3.70±0.17 vs. K(PDAC)=2.16±0.70, p=0.003, respectively). CNRs at low energy levels (40-70 keV) were higher than those at high energy levels (80-40 keV). Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images and the NIC can be used to improve the sensitivity and the specificity for differentiating CMFP from PDAC by use of dual-energy MDCT in spectral imaging with fast tube voltage switching. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Pelvic ultrasound immediately following MDCT in female patients with abdominal/pelvic pain: is it always necessary?

    PubMed

    Yitta, Silaja; Mausner, Elizabeth V; Kim, Alice; Kim, Danny; Babb, James S; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Genevieve L

    2011-10-01

    To determine the added value of reimaging the female pelvis with ultrasound (US) immediately following multidetector CT (MDCT) in the emergent setting. CT and US exams of 70 patients who underwent MDCT for evaluation of abdominal/pelvic pain followed by pelvic ultrasound within 48 h were retrospectively reviewed by three readers. Initially, only the CT images were reviewed followed by evaluation of CT images in conjunction with US images. Diagnostic confidence was recorded for each reading and an exact Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare the two. Changes in diagnosis based on combined CT and US readings versus CT readings alone were identified. Confidence intervals (95%) were derived for the percentage of times US reimaging can be expected to lead to a change in diagnosis relative to the diagnosis based on CT interpretation alone. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the ovaries/adnexa 8.1% of the time (three reader average); the majority being cases of a suspected CT abnormality found to be normal on US. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the uterus 11.9% of the time (three reader average); the majority related to the endometrial canal. The 95% confidence intervals for the ovaries/adnexa and uterus were 5-12.5% and 8-17%, respectively. Ten cases of a normal CT were followed by a normal US with 100% agreement across all three readers. Experienced readers correctly diagnosed ruptured ovarian cysts and tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) based on CT alone with 100% agreement. US reimaging after MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis is not helpful: (1) following a normal CT of the pelvic organs or (2) when CT findings are diagnostic and/or characteristic of certain entities such as ruptured cysts and TOA. Reimaging with ultrasound is warranted for (1) less-experienced readers to improve diagnostic confidence or when CT findings are not definitive, (2) further evaluation of suspected endometrial abnormalities. A distinction should be made between the need for

  8. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A. W.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, ~8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose.

  9. 64-MDCT imaging of the coronary arteries and systemic arterial vascular tree in a single examination: optimisation of the scan protocol and contrast-agent administration.

    PubMed

    Napoli, A; Anzidei, M; Francone, M; Cavallo Marincola, B; Carbone, I; Geiger, D; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P L; Zini, C; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a 64-row multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) acquisition protocol with biphasic administration of contrast medium for comprehensive assessment of the coronary and systemic arterial tree in a single examination. The scanning protocol comprised two acquisitions: an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gated scan at the level of the heart, followed by a total-body, low-dose scan of the systemic arterial circulation. Twenty patients were evaluated using two different strategies for contrast administration. In ten patients, the delay between the two acquisitions was set at 40 s, whereas in the remaining patients, it varied between 45 s and 65 s. For both strategies, the degree of systemic arterial opacification and the attenuation gradient between arterial and venous structures were quantitatively assessed at six extracoronary locations. Two observers evaluated in consensus the presence or absence of atherosclerosis and the degree of stenosis of arterial segments. Three hundred coronary segments were analysed. Arterial-wall changes were depicted in 155 (51%) segments, and in 35 (23%), the degree of stenosis was > 50%. Of the 640 extracoronary arterial segments, 250 (39%) presented atherosclerotic wall alterations, in 50 (20%), the degree of stenosis was > 50% and five were affected by aneurysmal dilatation. The magnitude of arterial opacification values and attenuation gradients between arterial and venous structures were significantly higher in patients scanned with the 40-s fixed-delay strategy. Whole-body CT angiography with biphasic administration of contrast agent and fixed scan delay has been shown to be a feasible and reproducible technique. Comprehensive data on the global atherosclerotic burden potentially offer important therapeutic options for subclinical, high-risk segments.

  10. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    PubMed

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  11. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic changes, we employed multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results On CXR, pleural changes and asbestosis were strongly associated with age, years since first exposure and exposure duration. The MDCT results showed an association between asbestosis and age and between plaques and exposure duration, years since first exposure and cumulative exposure. Parenchymal changes on CXR and MDCT, and diffuse pleural thickening on CXR were both associated with smoking. Using a cut-off of 55 years for age, 17 years for exposure duration and 28 years for latency, benign radiological changes in the cohort with CXR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 82.0% for all of the three variables and a specificity of 47.4%, 39.0% and 40.6%, respectively. Conclusions Participants aged 55 years and older and those with an asbestos exposure of at least 17 years or 28 years since first exposure should be seen as having an increased risk of abnormal radiological findings. For implementing a more focused approach the routine use of low-dose MDCT rather than CXR at least for initial examinations would be justified. PMID:24808921

  12. Three-dimensional demonstration of the lymphatic system in the lower extremities with multi-detector-row computed tomography: a study in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shun; Suami, Hiroo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Yamada, Minoru; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Chang, David W; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has had a great impact on the staging and treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to study the lymphatic anatomy of the lower extremities by constructing three-dimensional images using multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT). To select appropriate contrast media for MDCT lymphatic imaging in a cadaver, we tested four kinds of contrast media by injecting them into fresh swine kidneys. After the suitable contrast medium was selected, 10 lower extremities from 5 fresh cadavers were studied. After injection of the contrast medium, each lower extremity was scanned with high-spatial-resolution MDCT. The zinc oxide mixture was found to be the most appropriate contrast formula for MDCT imaging of cadaver lymphatics in terms of CT value and no extravasation. The high-resolution MDCT imaging revealed two different superficial lymphatic pathways in the legs. One lymphatic pathway accompanying the great saphenous vein had a constant course and was connected to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. However, another pathway, along the small saphenous vein, was variable. Some of the deep lymphatic vessels bypassed the inguinal lymph nodes. Using a new protocol, we were able to construct three-dimensional images of the lower extremity lymphatics in a cadaver model. MDCT imaging provided novel information about two different superficial lymphatic pathways in the lower extremities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Associations Between Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index and Aortic Structure and Sclerosis Using Multidetector Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Horinaka, Shigeo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Hiromichi; Shibata, Yoshimasa; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ishimitsu, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been accepted as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement. However, PWV depends on blood pressure (BP). To eliminate the BP dependency of PWV, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was developed. This study aimed to define the relationship between CAVI and aortic atherosclerosis or structure on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Patients with (n = 49) or without (n = 49) coronary artery disease were studied. The lumen and vessel diameters and wall thickness were calculated from the cross-sectional area at the pulmonary bifurcation level by 64-slice MDCT. The CAVI was measured within 3 days before MDCT. Multivariate analysis showed that the vessel diameter of the ascending and descending aorta on MDCT depends on age, body surface area, and diastolic BP. The CAVI significantly correlated with the vessel diameter ( r = .453) and wall thickness ( r = .387) of the thoracic descending aorta ( P < .001, respectively). The CAVI was an independent predictor of the descending aortic wall thickness on multiple stepwise regression analysis. These data suggest that CAVI, a simple index, is useful for evaluating thoracic aortic atherosclerosis.

  14. Radiation dose in a "triple rule-out" coronary CT angiography protocol of emergency department patients using 64-MDCT: the impact of ECG-based tube current modulation on age, sex, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Halpern, Ethan J; Gingold, Eric L; Levin, David C; Shofer, Frances S

    2009-04-01

    "Triple rule-out" coronary CT angiography (CTA) using 64-MDCT technology is a new approach for evaluating emergency department patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our objective was to evaluate the reduction in effective radiation dose through the use of tube current modulation in patients who underwent a triple rule-out coronary CTA evaluation and to document how effective radiation dose was impacted by patient age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). A retrospective analysis of triple rule-out coronary CTA examinations performed on a 64-MDCT scanner was ordered on a prospective cohort of 267 consecutive low- to moderate-risk emergency department patients with suspected ACS from a single university hospital between October 2006 and March 2008. Tube current modulation was generally used in patients with heart rates below 65 beats per minute during the second half of the study period as a way to reduce radiation exposure. We calculated effective radiation exposure using actual patient coronary CTA scanning parameters by age, sex, and BMI. Among the 172 patients evaluated without tube current modulation, effective dose averaged (+/- SD) 18.0 +/- 5.6 mSv (range, 9.9-31.3 mSv). Of the 95 patients who underwent CTA examination with tube current modulation, effective dose was significantly lower at 8.75 +/- 2.64 mSv (range, 5.4-16.6 mSv; p < 0.0001) and image quality was better (p < 0.0001) as compared with examinations without tube current modulation. There were no significant radiation differences by patient age, but tube current modulation decreased radiation exposure by at least half. Among the studies in which tube current modulation was not used, women received less radiation than men (17.0 vs 19.5 mSv, respectively; p < 0.001). For the studies with tube current modulation, there were no radiation differences by sex. Obese patients received significantly more radiation than overweight and normal-weight patients in the non

  15. Assessment of trabecular bone structure of the calcaneus using multi-detector CT: correlation with microCT and biomechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gerd; Link, Thomas M; Kentenich, Marie; Schwieger, Karsten; Huber, Markus B; Burghardt, Andrew J; Majumdar, Sharmila; Rogalla, Patrik; Issever, Ahi S

    2009-05-01

    The prediction of bone strength can be improved when determining bone mineral density (BMD) in combination with measures of trabecular microarchitecture. The goal of this study was to assess parameters of trabecular bone structure and texture of the calcaneus by clinical multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in an experimental in situ setup and to correlate these parameters with microCT (microCT) and biomechanical testing. Thirty calcanei in 15 intact cadavers were scanned using three different protocols on a 64-slice MDCT scanner with an in-plane pixel size of 208 microm and 500 microm slice thickness. Bone cores were harvested from each specimen and microCT images with a voxel size of 16 microm were obtained. After image coregistration, trabecular bone structure and texture were evaluated in identical regions on the MDCT images. After data acquisition, uniaxial compression testing was performed. Significant correlations between MDCT- and microCT-derived measures of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were found (range, R(2)=0.19-0.65, p<0.01 or 0.05). The MDCT-derived parameters of volumetric BMD, app. BV/TV, app. Tb.Th and app. Tb.Sp were capable of predicting 60%, 63%, 53% and 25% of the variation in bone strength (p<0.01). When combining those measures with one additional texture index (either GLCM, TOGLCM or MF.euler), prediction of mechanical competence was significantly improved to 86%, 85%, 71% and 63% (p<0.01). In conclusion, this study showed the feasibility of trabecular microarchitecture assessment using MDCT in an experimental setup simulating the clinical situation. Multivariate models of BMD or structural parameters combined with texture indices improved prediction of bone strength significantly and might provide more reliable estimates of fracture risk in patients.

  16. Early post-operative weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy correlates with the volume of the excised stomach and not with that of the sleeve! Preliminary data from a multi-detector computed tomography-based study.

    PubMed

    Pawanindra, Lal; Vindal, Anubhav; Midha, Manoj; Nagpal, Prashant; Manchanda, Alpana; Chander, Jagdish

    2015-10-01

    Pre- and post-operative stomach volumes can be important determinants for effectiveness of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in causing weight loss. There is little existing data on the volumes of stomach preoperatively and that excised during LSG. This study was designed to evaluate the change in gastric volume after LSG using multi-detector CT and to correlate it with early post-operative weight loss. Twenty consecutive patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) and medical comorbidities underwent LSG between October 2011 and October 2013 and were analysed prospectively. The pre-operative stomach volume was measured by MDCT done 1-3 days before the surgery. LSG was performed in the standard manner using a 36F bougie. The volume of excised stomach was measured by distending the specimen with saline. MDCT of the upper abdomen was repeated 3 months postoperatively to calculate the gastric sleeve volume. Weight loss and resolution of comorbidities were documented. The mean pre-operative weight of patients was 123.90 kg, and the mean pre-operative stomach volume on MDCT was 1,067 ml. The stomach volume on pre-operative MDCT correlated with pre-operative weight and BMI. The mean volume of the excised stomach was 859 ml when measured by distension of the specimen and 850 ml on MDCT. After 3 months post surgery, the mean volume of gastric sleeve on MDCT was 217 ml, and the mean weight of the patients was 101.22 kg. The volume of the excised stomach calculated by MDCT correlated with the weight loss achieved 3 months postoperatively. However, no correlation was seen between the gastric sleeve volume 3 months postoperatively and weight loss during this period. MDCT is a good method to measure gastric volume before and after LSG. Early post-operative weight loss (3 months) correlates well with the volume of the excised stomach but not with that of the gastric sleeve.

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases-Software-Assisted Evaluation of the Ablation Zone in MDCT: Tumor-Free Follow-Up Versus Local Recurrent Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, Sebastian Bruners, Philipp; Schiffl, Katharina; Sedlmair, Martin; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Das, Marco; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in change of size and CT value between local recurrences and tumor-free areas after CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic metastases during follow-up by means of dedicated software for automatic evaluation of hepatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with 54 liver metastases from breast or colorectal cancer underwent triphasic contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate hepatic metastatic spread and localization before CT-guided RFA and for follow-up after intervention. Sixteen of these patients (65.1 {+-} 10.3 years) with 30 metastases stayed tumor-free (group 1), while the other group (n = 16 with 24 metastases; 62.0 {+-} 13.8 years) suffered from local recurrent disease (group 2). Applying an automated software tool (SyngoCT Oncology; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), size parameters (volume, RECIST, WHO) and attenuation were measured within the lesions before, 1 day after, and 28 days after RFA treatment. The natural logarithm (ln) of the quotient of the volume 1 day versus 28 days after RFA treament was computed: lnQ1//28/0{sub volume}. Analogously, ln ratios of RECIST, WHO, and attenuation were computed and statistically evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA. One lesion in group 2 was excluded from further evaluation due to automated missegmentation. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to initial volume, RECIST, and WHO (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ln ratios corresponding to volume, RECIST, and WHO differed significantly between the two groups. Attenuation evaluations showed no significant differences, but there was a trend toward attenuation assessment for the parameter lnQ28/0{sub attenuation} (p = 0.0527), showing higher values for group 1 (-0.4 {+-} 0.3) compared to group 2 (-0.2 {+-} 0.2). In conclusion, hepatic metastases and their zone of coagulation necrosis after RFA differed significantly between tumor

  18. Simultaneous screening for osteoporosis at CT colonography: bone mineral density assessment using MDCT attenuation techniques compared with the DXA reference standard.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Lee, Lawrence J; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Lauder, Travis; Bruce, Richard J; Summers, Ron M; Pooler, B Dustin; Binkley, Neil

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of lumbar spine attenuation measurement for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment at screening computed tomographic colonography (CTC) using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Two-hundred and fifty-two adults (240 women and 12 men; mean age 58.9 years) underwent CTC screening and central DXA BMD measurement within 2 months (mean interval 25.0 days). The lowest DXA T-score between the spine and hip served as the reference standard, with low BMD defined per World Health Organization as osteoporosis (DXA T-score ≤ -2.5) or osteopenia (DXA T-score between -1.0 and -2.4). Both phantomless quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and simple nonangled region-of-interest (ROI) multi-detector CT (MDCT) attenuation measurements were applied to the T(12) -L(5) levels. The ability to predict osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis or osteopenia) by DXA was assessed. A BMD cut-off of 90 mg/mL at phantomless QCT yielded 100% sensitivity for osteoporosis (29 of 29) and a specificity of 63.8% (143 of 224); 87.2% (96 of 110) below this threshold had low BMD and 49.6% (69 of 139) above this threshold had normal BMD at DXA. At L(1) , a trabecular ROI attenuation cut-off of 160 HU was 100% sensitive for osteoporosis (29 of 29), with a specificity of 46.4% (104 of 224); 83.9% (125 of 149) below this threshold had low BMD and 57.5% (59/103) above had normal BMD at DXA. ROI performance was similar at all individual T(12) -L(5) levels. At ROC analysis, AUC for osteoporosis was 0.888 for phantomless QCT [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.780-0.946] and ranged from 0.825 to 0.853 using trabecular ROIs at single lumbar levels (0.864; 95% CI 0.752-0.930 at multivariate analysis). Supine-prone reproducibility was better with the simple ROI method compared with QCT. It is concluded that both phantomless QCT and simple ROI attenuation measurements of the lumbar spine are effective for BMD screening at CTC

  19. Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases-software-assisted evaluation of the ablation zone in MDCT: tumor-free follow-up versus local recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Keil, Sebastian; Bruners, Philipp; Schiffl, Katharina; Sedlmair, Martin; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Günther, Rolf W; Das, Marco; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in change of size and CT value between local recurrences and tumor-free areas after CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic metastases during follow-up by means of dedicated software for automatic evaluation of hepatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with 54 liver metastases from breast or colorectal cancer underwent triphasic contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate hepatic metastatic spread and localization before CT-guided RFA and for follow-up after intervention. Sixteen of these patients (65.1 + or - 10.3 years) with 30 metastases stayed tumor-free (group 1), while the other group (n = 16 with 24 metastases; 62.0 + or - 13.8 years) suffered from local recurrent disease (group 2). Applying an automated software tool (SyngoCT Oncology; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), size parameters (volume, RECIST, WHO) and attenuation were measured within the lesions before, 1 day after, and 28 days after RFA treatment. The natural logarithm (ln) of the quotient of the volume 1 day versus 28 days after RFA treament was computed: lnQ1//28/0(volume). Analogously, ln ratios of RECIST, WHO, and attenuation were computed and statistically evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA. One lesion in group 2 was excluded from further evaluation due to automated missegmentation. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to initial volume, RECIST, and WHO (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ln ratios corresponding to volume, RECIST, and WHO differed significantly between the two groups. Attenuation evaluations showed no significant differences, but there was a trend toward attenuation assessment for the parameter lnQ28/0(attenuation) (p = 0.0527), showing higher values for group 1 (-0.4 + or - 0.3) compared to group 2 (-0.2 + or - 0.2). In conclusion, hepatic metastases and their zone of coagulation necrosis after RFA differed significantly between tumor

  20. Comparison of 3D free-breathing coronary MR angiography and 64-MDCT angiography for detection of coronary stenosis in patients with high calcium scores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xihai; Huang, Jie; Francois, Christopher J; Tuite, David; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Debiao; Carr, James C

    2007-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the diagnostic performance of coronary MR angiography (MRA) and 64-MDCT angiography (MDCTA) for the detection of significant stenosis (> or = 50%) in patients with high calcium scores. Eighteen patients (12 men, six women; mean age, 56 y; age range, 38-77 y) who had at least one calcified plaque with a calcium score of > 100 underwent coronary MRA and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) within 2 weeks of MDCTA. Coronary MRA image quality of the calcified segments was assessed by two observers in consensus on a 4-point scale (1 = not visible, 2 = poor, 3 = good, 4 = excellent) using a 10-segment model from the modified American Heart Association classification. Three experienced radiologists, unaware of the results of conventional CAG, independently assessed for the presence of significant stenosis on MDCTA images and the corresponding MRA images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for each reader using conventional CAG as the gold standard. Thirty-three calcified plaques with a calcium score of > 100 were detected on MDCTA in the 18 patients. The coronary segments with nodal calcification (n = 17) showed a higher mean image quality score than the segments with diffuse calcification (n = 16) (3.47 +/- 0.62 vs 2.94 +/- 0.77, respectively; p < 0.05). Of the 33 coronary segments with calcification, 12 significant stenoses were identified on conventional CAG. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MRA and MDCTA, respectively, were as follows: reader 1, 75%, 81%, 0.82 versus 75%, 48%, 0.68; reader 2, 83%, 71%, 0.82 versus 67%, 52%, 0.63; and reader 3, 83%, 71%, 0.85 versus 83%, 43%, 0.65, respectively. The average AUC of MRA for the three readers was significantly higher than that of MDCTA (p = 0.030). Coronary MRA has higher image quality for coronary segments with nodal calcification than for coronary segments with diffuse calcification. Coronary MRA has better

  1. Comparison of 3D Free-Breathing Coronary MR Angiography and 64-MDCT Angiography for Detection of Coronary Stenosis in Patients with High Calcium Scores

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xihai; Huang, Jie; Francois, Christopher J.; Tuite, David; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Debiao; Carr, James C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to compare the diagnostic performance of coronary MR angiography (MRA) and 64-MDCT angiography (MDCTA) for the detection of significant stenosis (≥ 50%) in patients with high calcium scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighteen patients (12 men, six women; mean age, 56 y; age range, 38–77 y) who had at least one calcified plaque with a calcium score of > 100 underwent coronary MRA and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) within 2 weeks of MDCTA. Coronary MRA image quality of the calcified segments was assessed by two observers in consensus on a 4-point scale (1 = not visible, 2 = poor, 3 = good, 4 = excellent) using a 10-segment model from the modified American Heart Association classification. Three experienced radiologists, unaware of the results of conventional CAG, independently assessed for the presence of significant stenosis on MDCTA images and the corresponding MRA images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for each reader using conventional CAG as the gold standard. RESULTS Thirty-three calcified plaques with a calcium score of > 100 were detected on MDCTA in the 18 patients. The coronary segments with nodal calcification (n = 17) showed a higher mean image quality score than the segments with diffuse calcification (n = 16) (3.47 ± 0.62 vs 2.94 ± 0.77, respectively; p < 0.05). Of the 33 coronary segments with calcification, 12 significant stenoses were identified on conventional CAG. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MRA and MDCTA, respectively, were as follows: reader 1, 75%, 81%, 0.82 versus 75%, 48%, 0.68; reader 2, 83%, 71%, 0.82 versus 67%, 52%, 0.63; and reader 3, 83%, 71%, 0.85 versus 83%, 43%, 0.65, respectively. The average AUC of MRA for the three readers was significantly higher than that of MDCTA (p = 0.030). CONCLUSION Coronary MRA has higher image quality for coronary segments with nodal calcification than for coronary segments with

  2. The measurement of opening angle and orifice area of a bileaflet mechanical valve using multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Youn, Ho-Joong; Shim, Sung-Bo; Lee, Sun-Hee; Jung, Jung-Im; Jung, Seung-Eun; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Oh, Yong-Seog; Chung, Wook-Sung; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mechanical valve function using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). In 20 patients (mean age, 50+/-12 years; male-to-female ratio, 10:10), 30 St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valves (15 aortic and 15 mitral valves) were evaluated using MDCT. We selected images vertical and parallel to the mechanical valve. The valve orifice area (OA) and valve length were determined by manual tracing and the opening and closing angles were measured using a protractor. The OA and length of the mechanical valves were compared with the manufacturer's values. The geometric orifice areas (GOAs) based on the manufacturer's values and the OAs determined by MDCT were 3.4+/-0.2 cm(2) and 3.4+/-0.3 cm(2) for the mitral valves and 2.1+/-0.3 cm(2) and 2.1+/-0.4 cm(2) for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the OA measures were 0.433 for the mitral valves and 0.874 for the aortic valves (both p<0.001). The lengths based on the manufacturer's values and determined by MDCT were 29.3+/-1.99 mm and 29.6+/-1.65 mm for the mitral valves and 21.5+/-2.1 mm and 20.7+/-2.3 mm for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the measures were 0.651 for the mitral valve and 0.846 for the aortic valve (both p<0.001). The opening and closing angles determined by MDCT were 10.9+/-0.6 degrees and 131.1+/-3.2 degrees for the mitral valves and 11.1+/-0.9 degrees and 120.6+/-1.7 degrees for the aortic valves, respectively. MDCT is an accurate modality with which to assess the function and morphology of bileaflet mechanical valves.

  3. Longitudinal changes in structural abnormalities using MDCT in COPD: do the CT measurements of airway wall thickness and small pulmonary vessels change in parallel with emphysematous progression?

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Shin; Kawata, Naoko; Tada, Yuji; Ikari, Jun; Matsuura, Yukiko; Matsuoka, Shin; Matsushita, Shoichiro; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Yasunori; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) facilitate acquiring important clinical information for managing patients with COPD. MDCT can detect the loss of lung tissue associated with emphysema as a low-attenuation area (LAA) and the thickness of airways as the wall area percentage (WA%). The percentage of small pulmonary vessels <5 mm2 (% cross-sectional area [CSA] <5) has been recently recognized as a parameter for expressing pulmonary perfusion. We aimed to analyze the longitudinal changes in structural abnormalities using these CT parameters and analyze the effect of exacerbation and smoking cessation on structural changes in COPD patients. Methods We performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs), an MDCT, and a COPD assessment test (CAT) in 58 patients with COPD at the time of their enrollment at the hospital and 2 years later. We analyzed the change in clinical parameters including CT indices and examined the effect of exacerbations and smoking cessation on the structural changes. Results The CAT score and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) did not significantly change during the follow-up period. The parameters of emphysematous changes significantly increased. On the other hand, the WA% at the distal airways significantly decreased or tended to decrease, and the %CSA <5 slightly but significantly increased over the same period, especially in ex-smokers. The parameters of emphysematous change were greater in patients with exacerbations and continued to progress even after smoking cessation. In contrast, the WA% and %CSA <5 did not change in proportion to emphysema progression. Conclusion The WA% at the distal bronchi and the %CSA <5 did not change in parallel with parameters of LAA over the same period. We propose that airway disease and vascular remodeling may be reversible to some extent by smoking cessation and appropriate treatment. Optimal management may have a greater effect on pulmonary vascularity and airway disease

  4. Risk of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing MDCT--a pooled analysis of two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2009-04-01

    The incidence of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) following intravenous (IV) CM administration of contrast media to renally impaired patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is not well characterized. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of CIN in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations and to compare the rates of CIN following the IV administration of low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM, iopamidol and iomeprol) and an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM, iodixanol). A total of 301 adult patients with moderate-to-severe renal failure received a similar IV contrast dose (40 gI). Serum creatinine (SCr) was measured at screening, baseline and 48-72 +/- 6 h after the MDCT examination. Primary CIN outcome was an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl (>or=44.2 micromol/l) from baseline. The CIN rates were 2.3% in the total population, 0.6% when GFR >40 ml/min, 4.6% when GFR <40 ml/min and 7.8% in patients with GFR <30 ml/min. The incidence of CIN was significantly higher after iodixanol than after LOCM (seven patients, 4.7% following IOCM, no CIN cases following the LOCM; p = 0.007). Significant differences in favor of the LOCM were also observed in patients with GFR <40 ml/min and GFR <30 ml/min. Following the IV administration of nonionic contrast agents in patients with moderate-to-severe renal insufficiency, the risk of significant CIN seems to be low. The IOCM iodixanol caused a higher rate of CIN than the LOCM iopamidol and iomeprol, especially in high-risk patients. Differences in osmolality between these LOCM and iodixanol do not play a role in the genesis of CIN.

  5. C-arm cone beam CT perfusion imaging in the angiographic suite: a comparison with MDCT perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kai; Yang, Pengfei; Wu, Yijing; Struffert, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and background Perfusion imaging in the angiography suite may provide a way to reduce time from stroke onset to endovascular revascularization of patients with a large vessel occlusion. Our purpose was to compare CBCTP with MDCTP. Materials and Methods Data from seven subjects with both MDCTP and CBCTP were retrospectively processed and analyzed. Two algorithms were used to enhance temporal resolution, temporal sampling density and reduce noise of CBCT data before generating perfusion maps. Two readers performed qualitative image quality evaluation on maps using a 5-point scale. ROIs indicating CBF/CBV abnormalities were drawn. Quantitative analyses were performed using the Sørensen–Dice coefficients to quantify the similarity of abnormalities. A non-inferiority hypothesis was tested to compare CBCTP against CBCTP. Results Averaged image quality score for MDCTP and CBCTP images was 2.4 and 2.3 respectively. Averaged confidence scores in diagnosis were both 1.4 for MDCT and CBCT; averaged confidence scores on presence of a CBV/CBF mismatch was 1.7 (κ = 0.50) and 1.5 (κ = 0.64). For MDCTP and CBCTP maps the average score of confidence in making treatment decision was 1.4 (κ = 0.79) and 1.3 (κ = 0.90). Area under visual grading characteristic (AVGC) for the above four qualitative quality score showed an average AVGC of 0.50 with 95% confidence level cover centered at the mean for both readers. Sørensen–Dice coefficient for CBF maps is 0.81 and for CBV maps is 0.55. Conclusions After post-processing methods were applied to enhance image quality for CBCTP maps, the CBCTP maps were not inferior to those generated from MDCTP. PMID:26892987

  6. Radiation dose from MDCT using Monte Carlo simulations: estimating fetal dose due to pulmonary embolism scans accounting for overscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, E.; Wellnitz, C.; Goodsitt, M.; DeMarco, J.; Cagnon, C.; Ghatali, M.; Cody, D.; Stevens, D.; McCollough, C.; Primak, A.; McNitt-Gray, M.

    2007-03-01

    Pregnant women with shortness of breath are increasingly referred for CT Angiography to rule out Pulmonary Embolism (PE). While this exam is typically focused on the lungs, extending scan boundaries and overscan can add to the irradiated volume and have implications on fetal dose. The purpose of this work was to estimate radiation dose to the fetus when various levels of overscan were encountered. Two voxelized models of pregnant patients derived from actual patient anatomy were created based on image data. The models represent an early (< 7 weeks) and late term pregnancy (36 weeks). A previously validated Monte Carlo model of an MDCT scanner was used that takes into account physical details of the scanner. Simulated helical scans used 120 kVp, 4x5 mm beam collimation, pitch 1, and varying beam-off locations (edge of the irradiated volume) were used to represent different protocols plus overscan. Normalized dose (mGy/100mAs) was calculated for each fetus. For the early term and the late term pregnancy models, fetal dose estimates for a standard thoracic PE exam were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.3 mGy/100mAs, respectively, increasing to 9 mGy/100mAs when the beam-off location was extended to encompass the fetus. When performing PE exams to rule out PE in pregnant patients, the beam-off location may have a large effect on fetal dose, especially for late term pregnancies. Careful consideration of ending location of the x-ray beam - and not the end of image data - could result in significant reduction in radiation dose to the fetus.

  7. Left ventricular remodelling and systolic function measurement with 64 multi-slice computed tomography versus second harmonic echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease: a double blind study.

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Cademartiri, Filippo; Geleijnse, Marcel L; Meijboom, Bob; Pugliese, Francesca; Soliman, Osama; Calabrò, Anna; Nuti, Ranuccio; de Feyter, Pim

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated LV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF) and stroke volume (SV) obtained by 64-MDCT and to compare these data with those obtained by second harmonic 2D Echo, in patients referred for non-invasive coronary vessels evaluation. The most common technique in daily clinical practice used for determination of LV function is two-dimensional echocardiography (2D-TTE). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is an emerging new technique to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) and was recently proposed to assess LV function. 93 patients underwent to 64-MDCT for LV function and volumes assessment by segmental reconstruction algorithm (Argus) and compared with recent (2 months) 2D-TTE, all images were processed and interpreted by two observers blinded to the Echo and MDCT results. A close correlation between TTE and 64 MDCT was demonstrated for the ejection fraction LVEF (r=0.84), end-diastolic volume LVEDV (r=0.80) and end-systolic volume LVESV (r=0.85); acceptable correlation was recruited for stroke volume LVSV (r=0.58). Optimal results were recruited for inter-observer variability for 64-MDCT measured in 45 patients: LVESV (r=0.82, p<0.001), LVEDV (r=0.83, p<0.001), LVEF (r=0.69, p<0.002) and SV (r=0.66, p<0.001). Our results, showed that functional and temporal information contained in a coronary 64-MDCT study can be used to assess left ventricular (LV) systolic function and LV dimensions with good reproducibility and acceptable correlation respect to 2D-TTE. The combination of non-invasive coronary artery imaging and assessment of global LV function might became in the future a fast and conclusive cardiac work-up in patients with CAD.

  8. A technical solution to avoid partial scan artifacts in cardiac MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Primaka, A. N.; Dong, Y.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Jorgensen, S. M.; McCollough, C. H.; Ritman, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of cardiac image data obtained using multidetector row computed tomography (CT) is compromised by partial scan reconstructions, which improve the temporal resolution but significantly increase image-to-image CT number variations for a fixed region of interest compared to full reconstruction images. The feasibility of a new approach to solve this problem is assessed. An anthropomorphic cardiac phantom and an anesthetized pig were scanned on a dual-source CT scanner using both full and partial scan acquisition modes under different conditions. Additional scans were conducted with the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal being in synchrony with the gantry rotation. In the animal study, a simple x-ray detector was used to generate a signal once per gantry rotation. This signal was then used to pace the pig’s heart. Phantom studies demonstrated that partial scan artifacts are strongly dependent on the rotational symmetry of angular projections, which is determined by the object shape and composition and its position with respect to the isocenter. The degree of partial scan artifacts also depends on the location of the region of interest with respect to highly attenuating materials (bones, iodine, etc.) within the object. Single-source partial scan images (165 ms temporal resolution) were significantly less affected by partial scan artifacts compared to dual-source partial scan images (82 ms temporal resolution). When the ECG signal was in synchrony with the gantry rotation, the same cardiac phase always corresponded to the same positions of the x-ray tube(s) and, hence, the same scattering and beam hardening geometry. As a result, the range of image-to-image CT number variations for partial scan reconstruction images acquired in synchronized mode was decreased to that achieved using full reconstruction image data. The success of the new approach, which synchronizes the ECG signal with the position of the x-ray tube(s), was demonstrated both in the

  9. Development of a New Imaging Bulk Package for Multipatient Use in MDCT.

    PubMed

    Spinazzi, Alberto; Marchildon, Patrice A; Murray, Elyssa A; Giorgi, Maud; Kirchin, Miles A; Sireci, Steven N

    2015-10-01

    Multidose presentations of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved radiographic contrast agents have been considered pharmacy bulk packages. However, the use of pharmacy bulk packages for multipatient dosing does not meet the U.S. Pharmacopeia definition of a pharmacy bulk package. The purpose of this study was to validate and gain FDA approval for a new multidose preparation of iopamidol for safe, compliant multipatient dosing in the CT suite. An FDA-approved development program was undertaken to determine whether multidose presentations of iopamidol used in combination with a transfer set remain free of chemical and microbiologic contamination during the labeled maximum hold time after container closure penetration and simulated worst-case handling conditions. The program comprised antimicrobial effectiveness testing of iopamidol-300 and iopamidol-370 containers with seven microbes. Microbial growth was evaluated at five time points up to 28 days after introduction. Microbial ingress testing involved inoculation of four challenge sites with each of four microorganisms for up to 14 hours. Chemical compatibility and extractable testing was performed to ensure chemical integrity. No growth of microorganisms occurred. All evaluated samples remained sterile, indicating no microbial contamination through 14 hours of simulated clinical use. No effect on chemical integrity was found in any of the drawn iopamidol samples meeting the chemical specifications for iopamidol, and no leachable compounds were detected. The absence of any chemical or microbiologic contamination led the FDA to approve the iopamidol multidose container and transfer set as a combination product for multipatient use. The approval resulted in a new U.S. Pharmacopeia category of multidose presentation-the imaging bulk package.

  10. The four different types of internal hernia occurring after laparascopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass performed for morbid obesity: are there any multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features permitting their distinction?

    PubMed

    Kawkabani Marchini, Aida; Denys, Alban; Paroz, Alexandre; Romy, Sébastien; Suter, Michel; Desmartines, Nicolas; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    Four different types of internal hernias (IH) are known to occur after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) performed for morbid obesity. We evaluate multidetector row helical computed tomography (MDCT) features for their differentiation. From a prospectively collected database including 349 patients with LRYGBP, 34 acutely symptomatic patients (28 women, mean age 32.6), operated on for IH immediately after undergoing MDCT, were selected. Surgery confirmed 4 (11.6%) patients with transmesocolic, 10 (29.4%) with Petersen's, 15 (44.2%) with mesojejunal, and 5 (14.8%) with jejunojejunal IH. In consensus, 2 radiologists analyzed 13 MDCT features to distinguish the four types of IH. Statistical significance was calculated (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test, chi-square test). MDCT features of small bowel obstruction (SBO) (n=25, 73.5%), volvulus (n=22, 64.7%), or a cluster of small bowel loops (SBL) (n=27, 79.4%) were inconsistently present and overlapped between the four IH. The following features allowed for IH differentiation: left upper quadrant clustered small bowel loops (p<0.0001) and a mesocolic hernial orifice (p=0.0003) suggested transmesocolic IH. SBL abutting onto the left abdominal wall (p=0.0021) and left abdominal shift of the superior mesenteric vessels (SMV) (p=0.0045) suggested Petersen's hernia. The SMV predominantly shifted towards the right anterior abdominal wall in mesojejunal hernia (p=0.0033). Location of the hernial orifice near the distal anastomosis (p=0.0431) and jejunojejunal suture widening (p=0.0005) indicated jejunojejunal hernia. None of the four IH seems associated with a higher risk of SBO. Certain MDCT features, such as the position of clustered SBL and hernial orifice, help distinguish between the four IH and may permit straightforward surgery.

  11. Validation of cone-beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the porcine spine: a comparative study with multidetector computed tomography and anatomical specimens.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa; Andrade, Celi Santos; Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Cabral, Richard Halti; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Rodríguez, Hernán Joel Cervantes; Rabbani, Said Rahnamaye

    2015-05-01

    New spinal interventions or implants have been tested on ex vivo or in vivo porcine spines, as they are readily available and have been accepted as a comparable model to human cadaver spines. Imaging-guided interventional procedures of the spine are mostly based on fluoroscopy or, still, on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also available methods to guide interventional procedures. Although some MDCT data from porcine spines are available in the literature, validation of the measurements on CBCT and MRI is lacking. To describe and compare the anatomical measurements accomplished with MDCT, CBCT, and MRI of lumbar porcine spines to determine if CBCT and MRI are also useful methods for experimental studies. An experimental descriptive-comparative study. Sixteen anatomical measurements of an individual vertebra from six lumbar porcine spines (n=36 vertebrae) were compared with their MDCT, CBCT, and MRI equivalents. Comparisons were made for the absolute values of the parameters. Similarities were found in all imaging methods. Significant correlation (p<.05) was observed with all variables except those that included cartilaginous tissue from the end plates when the anatomical study was compared with the imaging methods. The CBCT and MRI provided imaging measurements of the lumbar porcine spines that were similar to the anatomical and MDCT data, and they can be useful for specific experimental research studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unusual vanishing interstitial lymphatic "pearls" in a patient presenting with extensive interstitial and mediastinal MDCT features of acute cardiogenic failure related to bradycardia and mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Coulier, Bruno; El Khoury, Elie; Deprez, Fabrice C; Ghaye, Benoît; Van den Broeck, Stephane; Tourmous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic multidetector computed tomography-MDCT-was simultaneously performed during emergency abdominal CT in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute cardiogenic edema related to sick sinus syndrome and mitral prolapse with regurgitation. A constellation of severe but completely reversible interstitial and mediastinal features was found comprising pleural effusions, diffuse alveolar ground glass, thickening of the bronchial walls and septal lines, hazy infiltration of the mediastinal fat, and enlarged lymphatic nodes. Multiple atypical hypodense nodular "pearls" were also found. These oval shape or fusiform pearls were distributed along the thickened septal lines and disappeared completely after treatment. The hypothesis of transient lymphatic ectasia or lakes is proposed for these never previously described abnormalities.

  13. Differentiation of fat-poor angiomyolipoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma in contrast-enhanced MDCT images using quantitative feature classification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Sang; Hong, Helen; Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Seunghyun; Kim, Junmo

    2017-07-01

    To develop a computer-aided classification system to differentiate benign fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML) from malignant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using quantitative feature classification on histogram and texture patterns from contrast-enhanced multidetector computer tomography (CE MDCT) images. A dataset including 50 CE MDCT images of 25 fp-AML and 25 ccRCC patients was used. From these images, the tumors were manually segmented by an expert radiologist to define the regions of interest (ROI). A feature classification system was proposed for separating two types of renal masses, using histogram and texture features and machine learning classifiers. First, 64 quantitative image features, including histogram features based on basic histogram characteristics, percentages of pixels above the thresholds, percentile intensities, and texture features based on gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrices (GLRLM), and local binary patterns (LBP), were extracted from each ROI. A number of feature selection methods including stepwise feature selection (SFS), ReliefF selection, and principal component analysis (PCA) transformation, were applied to select the group of useful features. Finally, the feature classifiers including logistic regression, k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), were trained on the selected features to differentiate benign fp-AML from malignant ccRCC. Each combination of feature selection and classification methods was tested using a fivefold cross-validation method and evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In feature selection, the features commonly selected by different feature selection methods were assessed. From three selection methods, three histogram features including maximum intensity, percentages of pixels above the

  14. Optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography using a 320-row MDCT volume scanner.

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kondo, Masatoshi; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Shimomiya, Yamato; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Funama, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    A 320-row multidetector CT (MDCT) is expected for a good artery-vein separation in terms of temporal resolution. However, a shortened scan duration may lead to insufficient vascular enhancement. We assessed the optimal scan timing for the artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography (CTA) when bolus tracking was used at 320-row MDCT. We analyzed 60 patients, who underwent whole-brain four-dimensional CTA. Difference in CT attenuation between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the superior sagittal sinus (Datt) was calculated in each phase. Using a visual evaluation score for the depiction of arteries and veins, we calculated the difference between the mean score for the intracranial arteries and the mean score for the veins (Dscore). We assessed the time at which the maximum Datt and Dscore were simultaneously observed. The maximum Datt was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s and 18.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the contrast media arrival time at the ICA (Taa). The maximum Dscore was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the Taa. There were no statistically significant differences in Datt (p = 0.375) or Dscore (p = 0.139) between these scan timings. The optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CTA was 6.0 s or 8.0 s for the arteries and 16.0 s for the veins after the Taa. Advances in knowledge: Optimal scan timing allowed us to visualize intracranial arteries or veins with minimal superimposition.

  15. [Variations of pulmonary venous drainage and venous ostium index detection in atrial fibrillation patients prior to radiofrequency catheter ablation by MDCT pulmonary venography].

    PubMed

    Shan, Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Gang; Miao, Xi-Yin; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zeng, Liang-Bin

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate variations of pulmonary venous drainage and venous ostium index (VOI) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) prior to radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) by MDCT pulmonary venography. 16-detector row CT pulmonary venography was performed in 64 AF patients referred to RFCA from June, 2005 to May, 2006. Variations in pulmonary venous drainage were observed in volume render imagines. Anterior-posterior and superior-inferior diameters of pulmonary venous ostium were measured on maximum intensity projection images. VOI derived from left superior, left inferior, right superior, right inferior pulmonary veins and variations in pulmonary venous drainage were calculated. Classic pulmonary veins anatomy was found in 11 patients (17.18%), early branching veins in 45 patients (70.31%), left common ostium in 5 patients (7.81%), right common ostia in 1 patient, right accessory (middle) pulmonary vein in 5 patients (7.81%) and left accessory (middle) pulmonary vein in 1 patient (1.56%). VOI of homolateral pulmonary veins and bilateral superior pulmonary veins were similar (P > 0.05) while there was a significant difference on VOIs derived from left superior and right inferior; two inferior, left inferior versus right superior veins (P < 0.05). Right inferior pulmonary venous ostium was most rounded and had the highest index (0.88) and left inferior pulmonary venous ostium was most oval and had the lowest index (0.72). Multidetector row CT pulmonary venography (MDCT-PV) could provide valuable informations on pulmonary venous anatomy in AF patients referred to RFCA and should be used as a routine examination prior to the operation.

  16. Accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): analysis of risk factors for mis-staging and its impact on surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S; Mosbah, Ahmed; El-Diasty, Tarek; Hassan, Mohammed; Shaaban, Atallah A

    2013-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to detect the possible risk factors for mis-staging. In addition, the impact of radiological mis-staging on surgical decision and operative procedures was evaluated. Data files of 693 patients, who underwent either radical or partial nephrectomy after preoperative staging by MDCT between January 2003 and December 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological data were compared to surgical and histopathological findings. Patients were classified according to 2009 TNM staging classification. Diagnostic accuracy per stage and its impact on surgical intervention were evaluated. The overall accuracy was 64.5%, and over-stage was detected in 29.5% and under-stage in 6%. Sensitivity and specificity were highest in stage T3b (85 and 99.5%, respectively), while T4 showed the lowest sensitivity and PPV (57 and 45%). Degree of agreement with pathological staging was substantial in T1 (κ = 0.7), fair in T2 (κ = 0. 4), perfect in T3b (κ = 0.81), and slight for the other stages (κ = <0.1). On multivariate analysis, conventional RCC and tumor size > 7 cm represent the significant risk factors (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, P < 0.004 and RR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7-3.5, P < 0.001, respectively). Mis-staging was seen to have no negative impact on surgical decision. MDCT is an accepted tool for renal tumor staging. Tumor mis-staging after MDCT is of little clinical importance. Large tumor size >7 cm and conventional RCC are risk factors for tumor mis-staging.

  17. Organ dose measurements from multiple-detector computed tomography using a commercial dosimetry system and tomographic, physical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Lindsey K.

    The technology of computed tomography (CT) imaging has soared over the last decade with the use of multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners that are capable of performing studies in a matter of seconds. While the diagnostic information obtained from MDCT imaging is extremely valuable, it is important to ensure that the radiation doses resulting from these studies are at acceptably safe levels. This research project focused on the measurement of organ doses resulting from modern MDCT scanners. A commercially-available dosimetry system was used to measure organ doses. Small dosimeters made of optically-stimulated luminescent (OSL) material were analyzed with a portable OSL reader. Detailed verification of this system was performed. Characteristics studied include energy, scatter, and angular responses; dose linearity, ability to erase the exposed dose and ability to reuse dosimeters multiple times. The results of this verification process were positive. While small correction factors needed to be applied to the dose reported by the OSL reader, these factors were small and expected. Physical, tomographic pediatric and adult phantoms were used to measure organ doses. These phantoms were developed from CT images and are composed of tissue-equivalent materials. Because the adult phantom is comprised of numerous segments, dosimeters were placed in the phantom at several organ locations, and doses to select organs were measured using three clinical protocols: pediatric craniosynostosis, adult brain perfusion and adult cardiac CT angiography (CTA). A wide-beam, 320-slice, volumetric CT scanner and a 64-slice, MDCT scanner were used for organ dose measurements. Doses ranged from 1 to 26 mGy for the pediatric protocol, 1 to 1241 mGy for the brain perfusion protocol, and 2-100 mGy for the cardiac protocol. In most cases, the doses measured on the 64-slice scanner were higher than those on the 320-slice scanner. A methodology to measure organ doses with OSL dosimeters received from CT

  18. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Bednarz, B.; Caracappa, P. F.; Xu, X. G.

    2009-05-01

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  19. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Bednarz, B; Caracappa, P F; Xu, X G

    2009-05-07

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  20. A new low-dose multi-phase trauma CT protocol and its impact on diagnostic assessment and radiation dose in multi-trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Alagic, Zlatan; Eriksson, Andreas; Drageryd, Erika; Motamed, Sara Rezaei; Wick, Marius C

    2017-04-05

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations, often using high-radiation dosages, are increasingly used in the acute management of polytrauma patients. This study compares a low-dose polytrauma multi-phase whole-body CT (WBCT) protocol on a latest generation of 16-cm detector 258-slice multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner with advanced dose reduction techniques to a single-phase polytrauma WBCT protocol on a 64-slice MDCT scanner. Between March and September 2015, 109 polytrauma patients (group A) underwent acute WBCT with a low-dose multi-phase WBCT protocol on a 258-slice MDCT whereas 110 polytrauma patients (group B) underwent single-phase trauma CT on a 64-slice MDCT. The diagnostic accuracy to trauma-related injuries, radiation dose, quantitative and semiquantitative image quality parameters, subjective image quality scorings, and workflow time parameters were compared. In group A, statistically significantly more arterial injuries (p = 0.04) and arterial dissections (p = 0.002) were detected. In group A, the mean (±SD) dose length product value was 1681 ± 183 mGy*cm and markedly lower when compared to group B (p < 0.001). The SDs of the mean Houndsfield unit values of the brain, liver, and abdominal aorta were lower in group A (p < 0.001). Mean signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for the brain, liver, and abdominal aorta were significantly higher in group A (p < 0.001). Group A had significantly higher image quality scores for all analyzed anatomical locations (p < 0.02). However, the mean time from patient registration until completion of examination was significantly longer for group A (p < 0.001). The low-dose multi-phase CT protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and image quality at markedly reduced radiation. However, due to technical complexities and surplus electronic data provided by the newer low-dose technique, examination time increases, which reduces workflow in acute emergency situations.

  1. Association of C-reactive protein and homocysteine with subclinical coronary plaque subtype and stenosis using low-dose MDCT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsann; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Chang, Li-Ya; Shen, Chien-Wei

    2010-10-01

    Given the uncertainty regarding the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) to atherosclerotic burden, our aim was to determine whether CRP and Hcy are related to the presence of subclinical coronary plaque and stenosis. We did a cross-sectional analysis of data gathered on 1248 consecutive, newly self-referred, middle-aged subjects who underwent health check ups at China Medical University Hospital. Participants had at least one cardiac risk factor, but no known coronary heart disease. Low-dose multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) was used to measure coronary artery stenosis and identify plaque subtypes. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on levels of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP and Hcy. hs-CRP level and Hcy level were associated with the relative proportion of plaque subtypes; Hcy level (P<0.05) but not hs-CRP level (P>0.05) was associated with prevalence of artery segment stenosis. After multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors through logistic regression analysis, neither hs-CRP level nor Hcy level was independently associated with coronary plaque subtypes and stenosis (P>0.05). Subclinical atherosclerosis is mildly increased in subjects with higher CRP and Hcy levels, but this association is not independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CRP and Hcy are poor predictors of atherosclerotic burden and coronary stenosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the

  3. Journal Club: Comparison of assessment of preoperative pulmonary vasculature in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by non-contrast- and 4D contrast-enhanced 3-T MR angiography and contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Seki, Shinichiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to prospectively and directly compare the capabilities of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA), 4D contrast-enhanced MRA, and contrast-enhanced MDCT for assessing pulmonary vasculature in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) before surgical treatment. A total of 77 consecutive patients (41 men and 36 women; mean age, 71 years) with pathologically proven and clinically assessed stage I NSCLC underwent thin-section contrast-enhanced MDCT, non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced MRA, and surgical treatment. The capability for anomaly assessment of the three methods was independently evaluated by two reviewers using a 5-point visual scoring system, and final assessment for each patient was made by consensus of the two readers. Interobserver agreement for pulmonary arterial and venous assessment was evaluated with the kappa statistic. Then, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of anomalies were directly compared among the three methods by use of the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement for pulmonary artery and vein assessment was substantial or almost perfect (κ=0.72-0.86). For pulmonary arterial and venous variation assessment, there were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy among non-contrast-enhanced MRA (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 97.4%; accuracy, 87.7%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 98.5%; accuracy, 93.2%), 4D contrast-enhanced MRA (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 97.4%; accuracy, 87.7%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 62.5%; specificity, 100.0%; accuracy, 95.9%), and thin-section contrast-enhanced MDCT (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 91.4%; specificity, 89.5%; accuracy, 90.4%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 100.0%; accuracy, 95.9%) (p>0.05). Pulmonary vascular assessment of patients with NSCLC before surgical resection by non-contrast-enhanced MRA can be considered equivalent to

  4. The diagnostic performance and added value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of liver metastases in recurrent colorectal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Odalovic, Strahinja; Artiko, Vera; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Stojiljkovic, Milica; Petrovic, Milorad; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Kozarevic, Nebojsa; Grozdic-Milojevic, Isidora; Obradovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT in detection of liver metastases in patients with suspected recurrent colorectal carcinoma, as well as to compare diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT with conventional imaging methods (MDCT). This study included 73 patients with resected primary colorectal adenocarcinoma referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to the National PET Center, at the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from January 2010 to May 2013, with suspicion of recurrence. The patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT examination on a 64-slice hybrid PET/CT scanner (Biograph, TruePoint64, Siemens Medical Solutions, Inc. USA). Prior to (18)F-FDG PET/CT all patients underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT. Findings of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MDCT were compared to findings of subsequent histopathological examinations or with results of clinical and imaging follow-up over at least six months. Final diagnosis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer was made either by histopathological examination of specimen after biopsy or surgery, or based on clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluation during first six months after PET/CT scan. In detection of liver metastases (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 83.3%, 95.3%, 92.6%, 89.1% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, MDCT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy in detection of liver metastases of 60%, 88.4%, 78.3%, 76% and 76.7%, respectively. There was significant difference in sensitivity (83.3% vs 60%; P=0.045) between these two methods. In addition, significant difference was observed in accuracy between PET/CT and MDCT (90.4% vs 76.7%; P=0.016). The higher specificity in visualization of liver metastases was also achieved by (18)F-FDG PET/CT compared to MDCT (95.3% vs 88.4%), but this difference was not significant (P=0.37). (18)F-FDG PET

  5. High pitch CT in triple rule-out studies: Radiation dose and image quality compared to multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Valle, A; Delgado Sánchez-Gracián, C; Oca Pernas, R; Grande Astorquiza, A; Bustos Fiore, A; Trinidad López, C; Tardáguila de la Fuente, G

    2015-01-01

    To compare the image quality and radiation dose from high pitch dual source CT (128-DSCT) versus those from retrospective acquisition with 64-row multidetector CT (64-MDCT) in triple rule-out studies. We retrospectively studied 60 patients with acute chest pain: 30 with a retrospective EKG acquisition with 64-MDCT and 30 with high pitch 128-DSCT. We quantitatively analyzed the image quality by calculating the vascular density, muscular density (DM), noise, vascular density/noise ratio (VDNR), and contrast/noise ratio (CNR). We qualitatively evaluated the artifacts in the vena cava, aorta, and coronary arteries. We estimated the effective dose (ED) of radiation by means of the dose-length product. There were no significant differences between 128-DSCT and 64-MDCT in the vascular density. The VDNR and CNR were higher on 128-DSCT than on 64-MDCT in the aorta (VDNR: 28.9 ± 11.7 vs. 20 ± 5.5; CNR: 24.4 ± 10.9 vs. 16.8 ± 5.4; P<.01), in the pulmonary arteries (VDNR: 25.5 ± 10 vs. 20.6 ± 6.5; CNR: 24.5 ± 5.4 vs. 17.4 ± 6.4; P<.01), and in the coronary arteries (VDNR: 25.9 ± 8.2 vs. 18.9 ± 4.9; CNR: 24.9 ± 8.2 vs. 15.6 ± 4.6; P<.01). There were fewer artifacts in the coronary arteries on 128-DSCT than on 64-MDCT (3 vs. 34 nondiagnostic segments; P<.001), and the ED in 128-DSCT was lower than in 64-MDCT (13.77 ± 4 vs. 2.77 ± 0.6 mSv; P<.001). In triple rule-out studies, high pitch 128-DSCT delivers a lower dose of radiation and provides better image quality than retrospective acquisition with 64-MDCT. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. MDCT-based quantification of porcine pulmonary arterial morphometry and self-similarity of arterial branching geometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yik Ching; Clark, Alys R.; Fuld, Matthew K.; Haynes, Susan; Divekar, Abhay A.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The pig is frequently used as an experimental model for studies of the pulmonary circulation, yet the branching and dimensional geometry of the porcine pulmonary vasculature remains poorly defined. The purposes of this study are to improve the geometric definition of the porcine pulmonary arteries and to determine whether the arterial tree exhibits self-similarity in its branching geometry. Five animals were imaged using thin slice spiral computed tomography in the prone posture during airway inflation pressure at 25 cmH2O. The luminal diameter and distance from the inlet of the left and right pulmonary arteries were measured along the left and right main arterial pathway in each lung of each animal. A further six minor pathways were measured in a single animal. The similarity in the rate of reduction of diameter with distance of all minor pathways and the two main pathways, along with similarity in the number of branches arising along the pathways, supports self-similarity in the arterial tree. The rate of reduction in diameter with distance from the inlet was not significantly different among the five animals (P > 0.48) when normalized for main pulmonary artery diameter and total main artery pathlength, which supports intersubject similarity. Other metrics to quantify the tree geometry are strikingly similar to those from airways of other quadrupeds, with the exception of a significantly larger length to diameter ratio, which is more appropriate for the vascular tree. A simplifying self-similar model for the porcine pulmonary arteries is proposed to capture the important geometric features of the arterial tree. PMID:23449941

  7. Automatic MDCT injectors: hygiene and efficiency of disposable, prefilled, and multidosing roller pump systems in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Buerke, Boris; Puesken, Michael; Mellmann, Alexander; Schuelke, Christoph; Knauer, Anna; Heindel, Walter; Wessling, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated three different injection systems with regard to microbiological contamination, time efficiency, and user handling during a clinical routine. A total of 825 patients were included. A double-syringe contrast injector with disposable syringes (system A; n = 150) and one that used prefilled syringes (system B; n = 150) were microbiologically analyzed during single use of the syringes in one patient. Moreover, the contamination of a roller pump injector capable of multidosing several patients from a contrast agent container, without the need for prior filling, was determined after being used for an entire day (system C; n = 35 injections/day for 15 days). The hygienic background was guaranteed by taking imprints of the surfaces of devices and the palms of the hands of members of CT staff before the clinical investigation. The time required for assembly of the injection systems and for filling or refilling of each injector system was measured. The handling of the three systems also was subjectively ranked by the technicians. Injection systems A, B, and C remained microbiologically sterile and free of contamination throughout their use in clinical routine. The mean (± SD) time for injection system assembly and installation of syringes and filling did not differ significantly between injection systems A and B (system A, 2.5 ± 1.1 minutes; system B, 1.9 ± 1.3 minutes; p = 0.12), whereas the time for assembly of system C was significantly shorter (0.9 ± 0.6 minutes; p < 0.05 vs system A; p < 0.05 vs system B). In the subjective ranking of injector handling, systems B and C were preferred. Double-syringe injectors used with disposable or prefilled contrast agent syringes, as well as roller pump injectors, ensure hygienic conditions in clinical routine. However, time efficiency and handling are aspects that favor prefilled and roller pump systems.

  8. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-10-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit.

  9. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit. PMID:19014355

  10. Change in the Growth Rate of Localized Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Response to Gemcitabine, Bevacizumab, and Radiation Therapy on MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, Pedram; Yaghmai, Vahid; Tochetto, Sandra M.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Miller, Frank H.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Small, William

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To depict treatment response to chemoradiotherapy by comparing tumor growth rate between treated and untreated patients and to compare depicted response with objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 guideline. Methods and Materials: This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Volume doubling time (DT) of histologically confirmed locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma was calculated in 16 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and 10 untreated patients by incorporating interscan interval ({Delta}t) and tumor volume at baseline (V0) and follow-up (V1) obtained by semiautomated segmentation into the following equation: DT = {Delta}t . log 2/log (V1/V0). Reciprocal of doubling time (RDT), which is the linear representation of tumor growth rate, was calculated by use of the following equation: RDT = 365/DT. The lowest RDT value of 2.42 in untreated patients was considered as the cutoff value for depiction of treatment response. Depicted response rate was defined as the proportion of patients with an RDT value of less than 2.42. Depicted response was compared with objective response according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in mean RDT between treated (range, -7.12 to 3.27; mean, -1.27; median, -1.30) and untreated (range, 2.42 to 10.74; mean, 5.33; median, 4.26) patients (p < 0.05). Reciprocal of doubling time was less than 2.42 in 14 treated patients, which corresponded to a depicted response rate of 87.50% as opposed to the objective response rate of 18.75% according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline (p < 0.05) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response rate of 62.50% (p > 0.05). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was concordant with RDT and RECIST response in 12 patients (75.00%) ({kappa}, 0.38) and 9 patients (56.25%) ({kappa}, 0

  11. Mummified daughters of King Tutankhamun: archeologic and CT studies.

    PubMed

    Hawass, Zahi; Saleem, Sahar N

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use MDCT to examine two mummies found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun to estimate their gestational ages at mummification, to determine the mummification method, and to investigate the congenital deformities of one of the mummies that had been suspected at previous medical examinations. MDCT was performed on the mummies of the daughters of King Tutankhamun (article numbers 317a and 317b), and the images were reconstructed and subjected to forensic imaging analysis. The gestational ages at mummification of mummies 317a and 317b were estimated to be approximately 24.7 and 36.78 weeks. The skeletal congenital anomalies of mummy 317b suggested at past radiographic analysis were ruled out. The results of this study may set a precedent for use of CT and forensic image analysis in the study of ancient mummified fetuses.

  12. Effect of mixing scanner types and reconstruction kernels on the characterization of lung parenchymal pathologies: emphysema, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and normal non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; van Beek, Edwin J.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric

    2006-03-01

    In this study we utilize our texture characterization software (3-D AMFM) to characterize interstitial lung diseases (including emphysema) based on MDCT generated volumetric data using 3-dimensional texture features. We have sought to test whether the scanner and reconstruction filter (kernel) type affect the classification of lung diseases using the 3-D AMFM. We collected MDCT images in three subject groups: emphysema (n=9), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=10), and normal non-smokers (n=9). In each group, images were scanned either on a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64-slice scanner, (B50f or B30 recon. kernel) or a Philips 4-slice scanner (B recon. kernel). A total of 1516 volumes of interest (VOIs; 21x21 pixels in plane) were marked by two chest imaging experts using the Iowa Pulmonary Analysis Software Suite (PASS). We calculated 24 volumetric features. Bayesian methods were used for classification. Images from different scanners/kernels were combined in all possible combinations to test how robust the tissue classification was relative to the differences in image characteristics. We used 10-fold cross validation for testing the result. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. One-way Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the classification result between the various combinations of scanner and reconstruction kernel types. This study yielded a sensitivity of 94%, 91%, 97%, and 93% for emphysema, ground-glass, honeycombing, and normal non-smoker patterns respectively using a mixture of all three subject groups. The specificity for these characterizations was 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The F test result of ANOVA shows there is no significant difference (p <0.05) between different combinations of data with respect to scanner and convolution kernel type. Since different MDCT and reconstruction kernel types did not show significant differences in regards to the classification result, this study suggests that the 3-D AMFM can

  13. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography: results from a static phantom study.

    PubMed

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M; Vliegenthart, R; Willems, T P; Greuter, M J W

    2013-02-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which enables establishment of a calcium scoring protocol for MDCT that yields a calcium score comparable to the EBT values and to the physical mass. A phantom containing 100 small calcifications ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm was scanned on EBT using a standard coronary calcium protocol. In addition, the phantom was scanned on a 320-row MDCT scanner using different scanning, reconstruction and scoring parameters (tube voltage 80-135 kV, slice thickness 0.5-3.0mm, reconstruction kernel FC11-FC15 and threshold 110-150 HU). The Agatston and mass score of both modalities was compared and the influence of the parameters was assessed. On EBT the Agatston and mass scores were between 0 and 20, and 0 and 3mg, respectively. On MDCT the Agatston and mass scores were between 0 and 20, and 0 and 4 mg, respectively. All parameters showed an influence on the calcium score. The Agatston score on MDCT differed 52% between the 80 and 135kV, 65% between 0.5 and 3.0mm and 48% between FC11 and FC15. More calcifications were detected with a lower tube voltage, a smaller slice thickness, a sharper kernel and a lower threshold. Based on these observations an acquisition protocol with a tube voltage of 100 kV and two reconstructions protocols were defined with a FC12 reconstruction kernel; one with a slice thickness of 3.0mm and a one with a slice thickness of 0.5mm. This protocol yielded an Agatston score as close to the EBT as possible, but also a mass score as close to the physical phantom value as possible, respectively. With the new phantom one acquisition protocol and two reconstruction protocols can be defined which produces Agatston scores comparable to EBT values and to the physical mass. Copyright

  14. Dose reduction in whole-body computed tomography of multiple injuries (DoReMI): protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single-pass, contrast-enhanced whole body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) emerged as the diagnostic standard for evaluating patients with major trauma. Modern iterative image algorithms showed high image quality at a much lower radiation dose in the non-trauma setting. This study aims at investigating whether the radiation dose can safely be reduced in trauma patients without compromising the diagnostic accuracy and image quality. Methods/Design Prospective observational study with two consecutive cohorts of patients. Setting: A high-volume, academic, supra-regional trauma centre in Germany. Study population: Consecutive male and female patients who 1. had been exposed to a high-velocity trauma mechanism, 2. present with clinical evidence or high suspicion of multiple trauma (predicted Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16) and 3. are scheduled for primary MDCT based on the decision of the trauma leader on call. Imaging protocols: In a before/after design, a consecutive series of 500 patients will undergo single-pass, whole-body 128-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with a standard, as low as possible radiation dose. This will be followed by a consecutive series of 500 patients undergoing an approved ultra-low dose MDCT protocol using an image processing algorithm. Data: Routine administrative data and electronic patient records, as well as digital images stored in a picture archiving and communications system will serve as the primary data source. The protocol was approved by the institutional review board. Main outcomes: (1) incidence of delayed diagnoses, (2) diagnostic accuracy, as correlated to the reference standard of a synopsis of all subsequent clinical, imaging, surgical and autopsy findings, (3) patients’ safety, (4) radiation exposure (e.g. effective dose), (5) subjective image quality (assessed independently radiologists and trauma surgeons on a 100-mm visual analogue scale), (6) objective image quality (e.g., contrast

  15. Dose reduction in whole-body computed tomography of multiple injuries (DoReMI): protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Ottersbach, Caspar; Kahl, Thomas; Nikulka, Constanze; Güthoff, Claas; Hartel, Thomas; Hünnebeck, Sophia; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Mutze, Sven

    2014-03-03

    Single-pass, contrast-enhanced whole body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) emerged as the diagnostic standard for evaluating patients with major trauma. Modern iterative image algorithms showed high image quality at a much lower radiation dose in the non-trauma setting. This study aims at investigating whether the radiation dose can safely be reduced in trauma patients without compromising the diagnostic accuracy and image quality. Prospective observational study with two consecutive cohorts of patients. A high-volume, academic, supra-regional trauma centre in Germany. Consecutive male and female patients who 1. had been exposed to a high-velocity trauma mechanism, 2. present with clinical evidence or high suspicion of multiple trauma (predicted Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16) and 3. are scheduled for primary MDCT based on the decision of the trauma leader on call.Imaging protocols: In a before/after design, a consecutive series of 500 patients will undergo single-pass, whole-body 128-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with a standard, as low as possible radiation dose. This will be followed by a consecutive series of 500 patients undergoing an approved ultra-low dose MDCT protocol using an image processing algorithm. Routine administrative data and electronic patient records, as well as digital images stored in a picture archiving and communications system will serve as the primary data source. The protocol was approved by the institutional review board. (1) incidence of delayed diagnoses, (2) diagnostic accuracy, as correlated to the reference standard of a synopsis of all subsequent clinical, imaging, surgical and autopsy findings, (3) patients' safety, (4) radiation exposure (e.g. effective dose), (5) subjective image quality (assessed independently radiologists and trauma surgeons on a 100-mm visual analogue scale), (6) objective image quality (e.g., contrast-to-noise ratio). Multivariate regression will be employed to adjust and correct

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE MANDIBULAR CANAL

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Adriana da Silva Ferreira; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Sales, Marcelo Augusto Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of relative measurements from the roof of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest in multislice (multidetector) computed tomography (MDCT) and single-slice computed tomography (SSCT). Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 26 printed CT films (7 SSCT and 19 MDCT) from the files of the LABI-3D (3D Imaging Laboratory) of the School of Dentistry of the University of São Paulo (FOUSP), which had been acquired using different protocols. Two observers analyzed in a randomized and independent order a series of 22 oblique CT reconstructions of each patient. Each observer analyzed the CT scans twice. The length of the mandibular canal and the distance between the mandibular canal roof and the crest of the alveolar ridge were obtained. Dahlberg test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean error found for the mandibular canal length measurements obtained from SSCT was 0.53 mm in the interobserver analysis, and 0.38 mm for both observers. On MDCT images, the mean error was 0.0 mm in the interobserver analysis, and 0.0 and 0.23 mm in the intraobserver analysis. Regarding the distance between the mandibular canal roof and the alveolar bone crest, the SSCT images showed a mean error of 1.16 mm in the interobserver analysis and 0.66 and 0.59 mm in the intraobserver analysis. In the MDCT images, the mean error was 0.72 mm in the interobserver analysis and 0.50 and 0.54 mm in the intraobserver analysis. Conclusion: Multislice CT was demonstrated a more accurate method and demonstrated high reproducibility in the analysis of important anatomical landmarks for planning of mandibular dental implants, namely the mandibular canal pathway and alveolar crest height. PMID:19089133

  17. Evaluation of reperfused myocardial infarction by low-dose multidetector computed tomography using prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggering: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Hong, Yoo Jin; Rim, Se-Joong; Hong, Bum Ki; Min, Phil Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the potential of prospective electrocardiography (ECG)- gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for evaluation of myocardial enhancement, infarct size, and stent patency after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting in patients with myocardial infarction. Seventeen patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarction were examined with prospective ECG-gated 64-slice cardiac MDCT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after reperfusion using PCI with stenting. Cardiac MDCT was performed with two different phases: arterial and delayed phases. We evaluated the stent patency on the arterial phase, and nonviable myocardium on the delayed phase of computed tomography (CT) image, and they were compared with the results from the delayed MR images. Total mean radiation dose was 7.7 +/- 0.5 mSv on the two phases of CT images. All patients except one showed good patency of the stent at the culprit lesion on the arterial phase CT images. All patients had hyperenhanced area on the delayed phase CT images, which correlated well with those on the delayed phase MR images, with a mean difference of 1.6% (20 +/- 10% vs. 22 +/- 10%, r = 0.935, p = 0.10). Delayed MR images had a better contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than delayed CT images (27.1 +/- 17.8% vs. 4.3 +/- 2.1%, p < 0.001). Prospective ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT provides the potential to evaluate myocardial viability on delayed phase as well as for stent patency on arterial phase with an acceptable radiation dose after PCI with stenting in patients with myocardial infarction.

  18. Latest generation of flat detector CT as a peri-interventional diagnostic tool: a comparative study with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Leyhe, Johanna Rosemarie; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Hesse, Amélie Carolina; Behme, Daniel; Schregel, Katharina; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Liman, Jan; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-12-20

    Flat detector CT (FDCT) has been used as a peri-interventional diagnostic tool in numerous studies with mixed results regarding image quality and detection of intracranial lesions. We compared the diagnostic aspects of the latest generation FDCT with standard multidetector CT (MDCT). 102 patients were included in our retrospective study. All patients had undergone interventional procedures. FDCT was acquired peri-interventionally and compared with postinterventional MDCT regarding depiction of ventricular/subarachnoidal spaces, detection of intracranial hemorrhage, and delineation of ischemic lesions using an ordinal scale. Ischemic lesions were quantified with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scale (ASPECTS) on both examinations. Two neuroradiologists with varying grades of experience and a medical student scored the anonymized images separately, blinded to the clinical history. The two methods were of equal diagnostic value regarding evaluation of the ventricular system and the subarachnoidal spaces. Subarachnoidal, intraventricular, and parenchymal hemorrhages were detected with a sensitivity of 95%, 97%, and 100% and specificity of 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, using FDCT. Gray-white differentiation was feasible in the majority of FDCT scans, and ischemic lesions were detected with a sensitivity of 71% on FDCT, compared with MDCT scans. The mean difference in ASPECTS values on FDCT and MDCT was 0.5 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.88). The latest generation of FDCT is a reliable and accurate tool for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage. Gray-white differentiation is feasible in the supratentorial region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Can Contrast-Enhanced Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Replace Transesophageal Echocardiography for the Detection of Thrombogenic Milieu and Thrombi in the Left Atrial Appendage: A Prospective Study with 124 Patients.

    PubMed

    Homsi, R; Nath, B; Luetkens, J A; Schwab, J O; Schild, H H; Naehle, C P

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT) for identifying patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus or circulatory stasis. 124 patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and/or cerebral ischemia (83 men, mean age 58.6 ± 12.4 years) and with a clinical indication for MD-CT of the heart and for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were included in the study. LAA thrombus or thrombogenic milieu was visually identified in TEE and MD-CT. In addition, MD-CT was analyzed quantitatively measuring the Hounsfield units (HU) of the left atrium (LA), the LAA and the ascending aorta (AA), and calculating the HU ratios LAA/AA (HU [LAA/AA]) und LAA/LA (HU [LAA/LA]). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. The prevalence of a thrombus or thrombogenic milieu as assessed by TEE was 21.8 %. The HU ratio was lower in patients with thrombus or thrombogenic milieu (HU [LAA/AA]: 0.590 ± 0.248 vs. 0.909 ± 0.141; p < 0.001 und HU [LAA/LA] 0.689 ± 0.366 vs. 1.082 ± 0.228; p < 0.001). For the diagnosis of thrombus or a thrombogenic milieu, visual analysis yielded a sensitivity of 81.5 %, a specificity of 96.9 %, a PPV of 87.5 % and a NPV of 95.2 %. By combining visual and quantitative analysis with one criterion being positive, the specificity decreased to 91.8 %, the sensitivity to 77.8 %, the PPV to 72.4 %, and the NPV to 94.9 %. Visual analysis of the LAA in the evaluation of thrombus or thrombogenic milieu yields a high NPV of 95.1 % and may especially be useful to rule out LAA thrombi in patients with contraindications for TEE. Additional calculation of HU ratios did not improve the diagnostic performance of MD-CT. • MD-CT can reliably exclude atrial appendage thrombi/thrombogenic milieu. • MD-CT is an alternative method in patients with contraindications to TEE. • Calculation of

  20. Multidetector computed tomographic study of amulets, jewelry, and other foreign objects in royal Egyptian mummies dated from the 18th to 20th dynasties.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the analysis of foreign objects found within or on the royal Egyptian mummies. We studied MDCT images of 15 royal Egyptian mummies (1493-1156 BC) for the presence of foreign objects. We studied each found object for its location, morphology, dimensions, and density in correlation with the archeologic literature. We detected 14 objects in 6 mummies: a heart amulet, 3 Eye of Horus, 4 Sons of Horus, a crowned-Osiris amulet, 2 bracelets, 2 sets of beads/stones, and an arrowhead that may be linked to injury. The MDCT images suggested the material of the objects to be metal (n = 6), semiprecious stone (n = 1), quartzlike (faience) (n = 2), and fired clay (n = 5). Placement of an amulet within the heart supports our knowledge that its funeral purpose was meant for the purpose of protection. Multidetector computed tomography offers a detailed noninvasive analysis of objects on/in mummies and differentiates funerary objects from those that may be related to cause of death.

  1. Association of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio with the Severity and Morphology of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques Detected by Multidetector Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aytemir, Kudret; Koçyiğit, Duygu; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Uğur; Hazırolan, Tuncay; Özer, Necla

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated a consistent relationship between white blood cell (WBC) counts and coronary artery disease (CAD). The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been considered as a potential marker for identifying individuals under risk of CAD and associated events. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether NLR was associated with the severity and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaques shown by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Methods Our study population consisted of 684 patients who underwent dual-source 64 slice MDCT for the assessment of CAD. Coronary arteries were evaluated on a 16-segment basis and critical coronary plaque was described as luminal narrowing > 50%, whereas plaque morphology was assessed on a per segment basis. Total WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were determined using commercially available assay kits. Results WBC count [7700 (6400-8800) vs. 6800 (5700-7900), p < 0.05] and NLR [2.40 (1.98-3.07) vs. 1.86 (1.50-2.38), p < 0.001] were found to be higher in patients with critical stenosis than in those without. In the binary logistic regression analysis, NLR was a predictor of critical stenosis (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.03, p < 0.001). NLR levels differed among plaque morphology subtypes (p < 0.05) and was significantly higher in non-calcified plaque (NCP) compared to mixed plaque (MP) and calcified plaque (CP) (p < 0.05). In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, NLR was found to be an independent predictor of NCP, MP and CP (p < 0.001). Conclusions These data show that NLR is associated with both the severity and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27899854

  2. Multidetector CT and three-dimensional CT angiography of upper extremity arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Efron, David T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2015-06-01

    Successful management of upper extremity arterial injury requires fast and accurate diagnosis. The rate of limb preservation depends on the location, severity, and time of ischemia. Indications for diagnostic imaging depend on the mechanism and type of injury, clinical signs, cardiovascular stability, and clinical suspicion. Because of ease of access, speed, and high accuracy for this diagnosis, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography is often used as the first line imaging modality. MDCT systems with 64 slice configuration and more afford high temporal and spatial high-resolution, isotropic data acquisition and integration with whole-body trauma MDCT protocols. The use of individual injection timing protocols ensures high diagnostic image quality. Several strategies are available to reduce radiation exposure. Direct MDCT angiography findings of arterial injuries include active extravasation, luminal narrowing, lack of luminal contrast opacification, filling defect, arteriovenous fistula, and pseudoaneurysm. Important descriptors are location and length of defect, degree of luminal narrowing, and presence of distal arterial supply reconstitution. Proximal arterial injuries include the subclavian, axillary, and brachial arteries. Distal arterial injuries include the ulnar and radial arteries, as well as the palmar arterial arches. Concomitant venous injury, musculoskeletal injury, and nerve damage are common. In this exhibit, we outline the role of MDCT angiography in the diagnosis and management of upper extremity arterial injury, discuss strategies for MDCT angiography acquisition and concepts of data visualization, and illustrate various types of injuries.

  3. Automated cortical bone segmentation for multirow-detector CT imaging with validation and application to human studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Chen, Cheng; Letuchy, Elena M.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Burns, Trudy L.; Torner, James C; Levy, Steven M.; Saha, Punam K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cortical bone supports and protects human skeletal functions and plays an important role in determining bone strength and fracture risk. Cortical bone segmentation at a peripheral site using multirow-detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is useful for in vivo assessment of bone strength and fracture risk. Major challenges for the task emerge from limited spatial resolution, low signal-to-noise ratio, presence of cortical pores, and structural complexity over the transition between trabecular and cortical bones. An automated algorithm for cortical bone segmentation at the distal tibia from in vivo MD-CT imaging is presented and its performance and application are examined. Methods: The algorithm is completed in two major steps—(1) bone filling, alignment, and region-of-interest computation and (2) segmentation of cortical bone. After the first step, the following sequence of tasks is performed to accomplish cortical bone segmentation—(1) detection of marrow space and possible pores, (2) computation of cortical bone thickness, detection of recession points, and confirmation and filling of true pores, and (3) detection of endosteal boundary and delineation of cortical bone. Effective generalizations of several digital topologic and geometric techniques are introduced and a fully automated algorithm is presented for cortical bone segmentation. Results: An accuracy of 95.1% in terms of volume of agreement with manual outlining of cortical bone was observed in human MD-CT scans, while an accuracy of 88.5% was achieved when compared with manual outlining on postregistered high resolution micro-CT imaging. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98 was obtained in cadaveric repeat scans. A pilot study was conducted to describe gender differences in cortical bone properties. This study involved 51 female and 46 male participants (age: 19–20 yr) from the Iowa Bone Development Study. Results from this pilot study suggest that, on average after adjustment for height

  4. Detection of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty with a Non-Flat-Panel Angio Unit Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography - An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Clemens Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of cement leakages after vertebroplasty using angiographic computed tomography (ACT) in a non-flat-panel angio unit compared to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Vertebroplasty was performed in 19 of 33 cadaver vertebrae (23 thoracic and 10 lumbar segments). In the angio suite, ACT (190{sup o}; 1.5{sup o} per image) was performed to obtain volumetric data. Another volumetric data set of the specimen was obtained by MDCT using a standard algorithm. Nine multiplanar reconstructions in standardized axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of every vertebra were generated from both data sets. Images were evaluated on the basis of a nominal scale with 18 criteria, comprising osseous properties (e.g., integrity of the end plate) and cement distribution (e.g., presence of intraspinal cement). MDCT images were regarded as gold standard and analyzed by two readers in a consensus mode. Rotational acquisitions were analyzed by six blinded readers. Results were correlated with the gold standard using Cohen's {kappa}-coefficient analysis. Furthermore, interobserver variability was calculated. Correlation with the gold standard ranged from no correlation (osseous margins of the neuroforamen, {kappa} = 0.008) to intermediate (trace of vertebroplasty canula; {kappa} = 0.615) for criteria referring to osseous morphology. However, there was an excellent correlation for those criteria referring to cement distribution, with {kappa} values ranging from 0.948 (paravertebral cement distribution) to 0.972 (intraspinal cement distribution). With a minimum of {kappa} = 0.768 ('good correlation') and a maximum of {kappa} = 0.91 ('excellent'), interobserver variability was low. In conclusion, ACT in an angio suite without a flat-panel detector depicts a cement leakage after vertebroplasty as well as MDCT. However, the method does not provide sufficient depiction of osseous morphology.

  5. Bone Mineral Density Estimations From Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Calibration Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaesmacher, Johannes; Liebl, Hans; Baum, Thomas; Kirschke, Jan Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phantom-based (synchronous and asynchronous) and phantomless (internal tissue calibration based) assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) in routine MDCT (multidetector computed tomography) examinations potentially allows for diagnosis of osteoporosis. Although recent studies investigated the effects of contrast-medium application on phantom-calibrated BMD measurements, it remains uncertain to what extent internal tissue-calibrated BMD measurements are also susceptible to contrast-medium associated density variation. The present study is the first to systemically evaluate BMD variations related to contrast application comparing different calibration techniques. Purpose To compare predicative performance of different calibration techniques for BMD measurements obtained from triphasic contrast-enhanced MDCT. Materials and Methods Bone mineral density was measured on nonenhanced (NE), arterial (AR) and portal-venous (PV) contrast phase MDCT images of 46 patients using synchronous (SYNC) and asynchronous (ASYNC) phantom calibration as well as internal calibration (IC). Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) served as criterion standard. Density variations were analyzed for each contrast phase and calibration technique, and respective linear fitting was performed. Results Both asynchronous calibration-derived BMD values (NE-ASYNC) and values estimated using IC (NE-IC) on NE MDCT images did reasonably well in predicting QCT BMD (root-mean-square deviation, 8.0% and 7.8%, respectively). Average NE-IC BMD was 2.7% lower when compared with QCT (P = 0.017), whereas no difference could be found for NE-ASYNC (P = 0.957). All average BMD estimates derived from contrast-enhanced scans differed significantly from QCT BMD (all P < 0.005) and led to notable systemic BMD biases (mean difference at least > 6.0 mg/mL). All regression fits revealed a consistent linear dependency (R2 range, 0.861–0.963). Overall accuracy and goodness of fit tended to decrease from AR to

  6. Experimental benchmarking of a Monte Carlo dose simulation code for pediatric CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Yoshizumi, Terry; Colsher, James G.; Jones, Robert P.; Frush, Donald P.

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a desire to reduce CT radiation dose to children because of their susceptibility and prolonged risk for cancer induction. Concerns arise, however, as to the impact of dose reduction on image quality and thus potentially on diagnostic accuracy. To study the dose and image quality relationship, we are developing a simulation code to calculate organ dose in pediatric CT patients. To benchmark this code, a cylindrical phantom was built to represent a pediatric torso, which allows measurements of dose distributions from its center to its periphery. Dose distributions for axial CT scans were measured on a 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK). The same measurements were simulated using a Monte Carlo code (PENELOPE, Universitat de Barcelona) with the applicable CT geometry including bowtie filter. The deviations between simulated and measured dose values were generally within 5%. To our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts to compare measured radial dose distributions on a cylindrical phantom with Monte Carlo simulated results. It provides a simple and effective method for benchmarking organ dose simulation codes and demonstrates the potential of Monte Carlo simulation for investigating the relationship between dose and image quality for pediatric CT patients.

  7. [Study on the applied value of digital medical technology in diagnosis and treatment of the hepatolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Huang, Yan-Peng; Lu, Chao-Min; Li, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Xiang; Su, Zhong-He; Qiu, Wen-Feng

    2009-06-15

    To study the value of digital medical technology in diagnosis and treatment of the hepatolithiasis. 64-slice spiral computer tomography (CT) scan data of 14 cases (11 female, 3 male; median age, 48 years) with hepatolithiasis admitted from February to September 2008 were collected. The data were imported into medical image proceeding system (MIPS) for sequence segmenting and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The reconstructed models were imported into FreeForm Modeling System for performing simulation surgery with simulation surgical instruments. According to the results of 3D reconstruction and simulation surgery, reasonable operation strategies were chosen. Finally, the value of clinical application of simulation surgery was evaluated according to the findings of clinical operation on hepatolithiasis patients and postoperative T-tube angiography. The 3D reconstructed models of 14 cases with hepatolithiasis revealed 7 cases of left liver hepatolithiasis, 2 cases of right liver hepatolithiasis, 5 cases of bilateral hepatolithiasis, including 6 cases of hepatolithiasis with common bile duct calculi, 6 cases of biliary system models with absolute stricture, 8 cases with relative stricture. The results were of agreement with clinical diagnosis. A variety of operation plans were simulated before operation. Simulation equipment used in process of simulation surgery was a powerful sense of feedback. Digital medical technology is helpful to understand the calculi distribution, bile ducts stricture and deformity. Through preoperative training, simulation surgery are able to guide for choosing operative strategies. It reduces the operation risks.

  8. MDCT and 3D evaluation of type 2 hypoplastic pulmonary artery sling associated with right lung agenesis, hypoplastic aortic arch, and long segment tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward Y

    2007-11-01

    The early diagnosis and complete anatomic evaluation of pulmonary artery sling, a congenital vascular anomaly in which left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, is paramount for proper patient management, because patients with this disorder frequently have other congenital anomalies resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Until recently, pulmonary artery sling in the neonate has been established with standard radiologic imaging studies such as plain radiographs, barium swallow studies, fluoroscopy-guided airway studies, and echocardiograms. However, with the development and widespread availability of multidetector computed tomography, pulmonary artery sling is increasingly evaluated with this newer technology. This case report presents a rare incidence of type 2 hypoplastic pulmonary artery sling in a neonate associated with right lung agenesis, hypoplastic aortic arch, and long segment tracheal stenosis. Multidetector computed tomography combined with 3-dimensional evaluation was particularly helpful in making a correct diagnosis of the complicated anatomic anomalies found in this case.

  9. Application of the noise power spectrum in modern diagnostic MDCT: part I. Measurement of noise power spectra and noise equivalent quanta.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, K L; Cooper, V N; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2007-07-21

    Dose reduction efforts in diagnostic CT have brought the tradeoff of dose versus image quality to the forefront. The need for meaningful characterization of image noise beyond that offered by pixel standard deviation is becoming increasingly important. This work aims to study the implementation of the noise power spectrum (NPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) on modern, multislice diagnostic CT scanners. The details of NPS and NEQ measurement are outlined and special attention is paid to issues unique to multislice CT. Aliasing, filter design and effects of acquisition geometry are investigated. While it was found that both metrics can be implemented in modern CT, it was discovered that NEQ cannot be aptly applied with certain non-traditional reconstruction filters or in helical mode. NPS and NEQ under a variety of conditions are examined. Extensions of NPS and NEQ to uses in protocol standardization are also discussed.

  10. Quantitative planar and volumetric cardiac measurements using 64 MDCT and 3T MRI versus standard 2D and M-mode echocardiography: Does anesthetic protocol matter?

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Rio, Alejandro Munoz Del; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P=1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  11. Development and validation of a preoperative prediction model for colorectal cancer T-staging based on MDCT images and clinical information.

    PubMed

    Sa, Sha; Li, Jing; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Yongrui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Defeng; Zhang, Huimao; Fu, Yu

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to establish and evaluate the efficacy of a prediction model for colorectal cancer T-staging. T-staging was positively correlated with the level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), expression of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), wall deformity, blurred outer edges, fat infiltration, infiltration into the surrounding tissue, tumor size and wall thickness. Age, location, enhancement rate and enhancement homogeneity were negatively correlated with T-staging. The predictive results of the model were consistent with the pathological gold standard, and the kappa value was 0.805. The total accuracy of staging improved from 51.04% to 86.98% with the proposed model. The clinical, imaging and pathological data of 611 patients with colorectal cancer (419 patients in the training group and 192 patients in the validation group) were collected. A spearman correlation analysis was used to validate the relationship among these factors and pathological T-staging. A prediction model was trained with the random forest algorithm. T staging of the patients in the validation group was predicted by both prediction model and traditional method. The consistency, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were used to compare the efficacy of the two methods. The newly established comprehensive model can improve the predictive efficiency of preoperative colorectal cancer T-staging.

  12. Imaging of pulmonary embolism and t-PA therapy effects using MDCT and liposomal iohexol blood pool agent: preliminary results in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Burke, Stephen J; Annapragada, Ananth; Hoffman, Eric A; Chen, Emmanuel; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Sieren, Jered; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2007-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol-coated liposomal blood pool contrast agents maintain contrast enhancement over several hours. This study aimed to evaluate (long-term) imaging of pulmonary arteries, comparing conventional iodinated contrast with a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Also, visualization of the (real-time) therapeutic effects of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) on pulmonary embolism (PE) was attempted. Six rabbits (weight approximately 4 kg) had autologous blood clots injected through the superior vena cava. Imaging was performed using conventional contrast (iohexol, 350 mg I/ml; GE HealthCare, Princeton, NJ) at a dose of 1400 mg I per animal, and after wash-out, animals were imaged using an iodinated liposomal blood pool agent (88 mg I/mL, dose 900 mg I/animal). Subsequently, five animals were injected with 2 mg of t-PA and imaging continued for up to 4(1/2) hours. Both contrast agents identified PE in the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries in all rabbits. Liposomal blood pool agent yielded uniform enhancement, which remained relatively constant throughout the experiments. Conventional agents exhibited nonuniform opacification and rapid clearance postinjection. Three of six rabbits had mistimed bolus injections, requiring repeat injections. Following t-PA, pulmonary embolus volume (central to segmental) decreased in four of five treated rabbits (range 10-57%, mean 42%). One animal showed no response to t-PA. Liposomal blood pool agents effectively identified acute PE without need for reinjection. PE resolution following t-PA was quantifiable over several hours. Blood pool agents offer the potential for repeated imaging procedures without need for repeated (nephrotoxic) contrast injections.

  13. Imaging of pulmonary embolism and t-PA therapy effects using MDCT and liposomal iohexol blood pool agent – preliminary results in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Stephen J; Annapragada, Ananth; Hoffman, Eric A; Chen, Emmanuel; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Sieren, Jered; van Beek, Edwin JR

    2007-01-01

    Hypothesis and Objectives PEGylated liposomal blood pool contrast agents maintain contrast enhancement over several hours. This study aimed to evaluate (long-term) imaging of pulmonary arteries, comparing conventional iodinated contrast with a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Secondly, visualization of the (real-time) therapeutic effects of tissue-Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) on pulmonary embolism (PE) was attempted. Materials and Methods Six rabbits (approximate 4 kg weight) had autologous blood clots injected through the superior vena cava. Imaging was performed using conventional contrast (iohexol, 350 mg I/ml, GE HealthCare, Princeton, NJ) at a dose of 1400 mgI per animal and after wash-out, animals were imaged using an iodinated liposomal blood pool agent (88 mg I/mL, dose 900 mgI/animal). Subsequently, five animals were injected with 2mg t-PA and imaging continued for up to 4 ½ hours. Results Both contrast agents identified PE in the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries in all rabbits. Liposomal blood pool agent yielded uniform enhancement, which remained relatively constant throughout the experiments. Conventional agents exhibited non uniform opacification and rapid clearance post injection. Three out of six rabbits had mistimed bolus injections, requiring repeat injections. Following t-PA, Pulmonary embolus volume (central to segmental) decreased in four of five treated rabbits (range 10–57%, mean 42%). One animal showed no response to t-PA. Conclusions Liposomal blood pool agents effectively identified acute PE without need for re-injection. PE resolution following t-PA was quantifiable over several hours. Blood pool agents offer the potential for repeated imaging procedures without need for repeated (nephrotoxic) contrast injections. PMID:17307669

  14. Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Versus Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction and Filtered Back Projection in Liver 64-MDCT: Focal Lesion Detection, Lesion Conspicuity, and Image Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, William P.; Green, Doug E.; Busey, Janet M.; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Koprowicz, Kent M.; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Hsieh, Jiang; Alessio, Adam M.; Choi, Eunice; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to compare three CT image reconstruction algorithms for liver lesion detection and appearance, subjective lesion conspicuity, and measured noise. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six patients with known liver lesions were scanned with a routine clinical three-phase CT protocol using a weight-based noise index of 30 or 36. Image data from each phase were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Randomized images were presented to two independent blinded reviewers to detect and categorize the appearance of lesions and to score lesion conspicuity. Lesion size, lesion density (in Hounsfield units), adjacent liver density (in Hounsfield units), and image noise were measured. Two different unblinded truth readers established the number, appearance, and location of lesions. RESULTS Fifty-one focal lesions were detected by truth readers. For blinded reviewers compared with truth readers, there was no difference for lesion detection among the reconstruction algorithms. Lesion appearance was statistically the same among the three reconstructions. Although one reviewer scored lesions as being more conspicuous with MBIR, the other scored them the same. There was significantly less background noise in air with MBIR (mean [± SD], 2.1 ± 1.4 HU) than with ASIR (8.9 ± 1.9 HU; p < 0.001) or FBP (10.6 ± 2.6 HU; p < 0.001). Mean lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was statistically significantly higher for MBIR (34.4 ± 29.1) than for ASIR (6.5 ± 4.9; p < 0.001) or FBP (6.3 ± 6.0; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In routine-dose clinical CT of the liver, MBIR resulted in comparable lesion detection, lesion characterization, and subjective lesion conspicuity, but significantly lower background noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio compared with ASIR or FBP. This finding suggests that further investigation of the use of MBIR to enable dose

  15. Association of abdominal aortic calcium with coronary artery calcium and obstructive coronary artery disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Bryan M; Sheth, Meetkumar; Simpson, Steve; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to determine the association of abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We included 58 patients (mean age 54.4 years, 40% males) without known CAD who underwent a non-contrast abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) within 2 years. A total AAC score using Agatston method was calculated in the abdominal aorta from the takeoff of the celiac artery to the aortic bifurcation. A total of 43/58 patients had AAC. Patients with AAC were older with no differences in other baseline characteristics. None of the patients with a zero AAC score had obstructive CAD. Thus, an AAC score of zero had a 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and 23% positive predictive value (PPV) for the detection of obstructive CAD and an 80% NPV and 79% PPV for detection of any coronary plaque. Using multivariate linear regression, AAC score was an independent predictor of CAC score after adjusting for age (P < 0.001). In our analysis, AAC score correlates with CAC score and has a high NPV to rule out CAD. The absence of AAC may help exclude obstructive coronary disease and improve the selection of patients that may benefit from further risk stratification.

  16. Integrative computed tomographic imaging of cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Christian; Hanley, Michael; Bastarrika, Gorka; Ruzsics, Balazs; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) technology have created new opportunities in cardiac imaging and provided new insights into a variety of disease states. Use of 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography has been validated for the evaluation of clinically relevant coronary artery stenosis with high negative predictive values for ruling out significant obstructive disease. This technology has also advanced the care of patients with acute chest pain by simultaneous assessment of acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and acute aortic syndrome ("triple rule out"). Although MDCT has been instrumental in the advancement of cardiac imaging, there are still limitations in patients with high or irregular heart rates. Newer MDCT scanner generations hold promise to improve some of these limitations for noninvasive cardiac imaging. The evaluation of coronary artery stenosis remains the primary clinical indication for cardiac computed tomography angiography. However, the use of MDCT for simultaneous assessment of coronary artery stenosis, atherosclerotic plaque formation, ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and viability with a single modality is under intense investigation. Recent technical developments hold promise for accomplishing this goal and establishing MDCT as a comprehensive stand-alone test for integrative imaging of coronary heart disease.

  17. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Di Martino, Michele; Bernardo, Silvia; Vergari, Valeria; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor among the low urinary tract, accounting for 90% of cancer cases. Conventional cystoscopy represents the gold standard for diagnosis and local management of bladder carcinoma. As the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma is four-fold greater in men than in women, the endoscopic procedure presents objective difficulties related to the length and bending of male urethra. The most important problems are represented by intense discomfort for the patient and bleeding; furthermore, the high cost, invasivity, and local complications such as infections and mechanical lesions are well-known drawbacks. Additionally, conventional cystoscopy does not provide information about extravescical extensions of the tumor. CT cystography, combined with virtual cystoscopy, is mandatory for TNM staging of the tumor and also is useful when conventional cystoscopy is inconclusive or cannot be performed. We presents the CT cystography findings with virtual endoscopy correlation and bladder carcinoma appearance.

  18. MDCT imaging of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, Martina; Delpierre, Isabelle; Sadeghi, Niloufar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of emergency imaging is to detect treatable lesions before secondary neurological damage occurs. CT plays a primary role in the acute setting of head trauma, allowing accurate detection of lesions requiring immediate neurosurgical treatment. CT is also accurate in detecting secondary injuries and is therefore essential in follow-up. This review discusses the main characteristics of primary and secondary brain injuries. PMID:26607650

  19. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... Non-invasive - Invasive • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support ...

  20. Off-pump Versus On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Graft Patency Assessment With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Noiseux, Nicolas; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Soulez, Gilles; Prieto, Ignacio; Basile, Fadi; Mansour, Samer; Dyub, Adel M; Kieser, Teresa M; Lamy, André

    2017-06-05

    A large multicenter randomized trial (RCT) is needed to assess off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patency when performed by skilled surgeons. This prospective multicenter randomized pilot study compares graft patency after on-pump and off-pump techniques and addresses the feasibility of such an RCT. Consecutive patients were prospectively recruited for ≥64-slice computed tomography angiography graft patency assessment 1 year after randomization to off-pump or on-pump CABG. Blinded assessment of graft patency was performed, and the results were categorized as normal, ≥50% stenosis, or occlusion. A multilevel model with random effects on the patient was used to account for correlation of results in patients with multiple grafts. A total of 157 patients (3 centers, 84 off-pump and 73 on-pump patients, 512 grafts, assessability rate 98.4%) were included. Patency index (% nonoccluded grafts) was 89% for the off-pump technique and 95% for the on-pump technique (P=0.09). Patency was similar for arterial and vein grafts (both 92%; P=0.88), as well as between target territories (89% to 94%; P=0.53). In this pilot study, 1-year graft patency results after off-pump and on-pump surgery were similar. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a large multicenter RCT to compare CABG patency after on-pump with that after off-pump techniques is feasible and can be reliably undertaken using computed tomography angiography.

  1. Electromagnetic navigation versus fluoroscopy in aortic endovascular procedures: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tystad Lund, Kjetil; Tangen, Geir Arne; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode

    2017-01-01

    To explore the possible benefits of electromagnetic (EM) navigation versus conventional fluoroscopy during abdominal aortic endovascular procedures. The study was performed on a phantom representing the abdominal aorta. Intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the phantom was acquired and merged with a preoperative multidetector CT (MDCT). The CBCT was performed with a reference plate fixed to the phantom that, after merging the CBCT with the MDCT, facilitated registration of the MDCT volume with the EM space. An EM field generator was stationed near the phantom. Navigation software was used to display EM-tracked instruments within the 3D image volume. Fluoroscopy was performed using a C-arm system. Five operators performed a series of renal artery cannulations using modified instruments, alternatingly using fluoroscopy or EM navigation as the sole guidance method. Cannulation durations and associated radiation dosages were noted along with the number of cannulations complicated by loss of guidewire insertion. A total of 120 cannulations were performed. The median cannulation durations were 41.5 and 34.5 s for the fluoroscopy- and EM-guided cannulations, respectively. No significant difference in cannulation duration was found between the two modalities (p = 0.736). Only EM navigation showed a significant reduction in cannulation duration in the latter half of its cannulation series compared with the first half (p = 0.004). The median dose area product for fluoroscopy was 0.0836 [Formula: see text]. EM-guided cannulations required a one-time CBCT dosage of 3.0278 [Formula: see text]. Three EM-guided and zero fluoroscopy-guided cannulations experienced loss of guidewire insertion. Our findings indicate that EM navigation is not inferior to fluoroscopy in terms of the ability to guide endovascular interventions. Its utilization may be of particular interest in complex interventions where adequate visualization or minimal use of contrast agents is

  2. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Satoshi, Ii; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation × 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current.

  3. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current.

  4. Clinical applications of the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap: anatomical studies and preoperative perforator mapping with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Moustapha; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Ulens, Sara; Van Hedent, Eddy; Roche, Nathalie; Monstrey, Stan

    2009-09-01

    Pedicled superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flaps can be raised to cover challenging thoracic defects. We present an anatomical study based on multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) scan findings of the SEA perforators in addition to the first reported clinical series of SEAP flaps in anterior chest wall reconstruction. (a) In the CT scan study, images of a group of 20 patients who underwent MDCT scan analysis were used to visualise bilaterally the location of musculocutaneous SEAP. X- and Y-axes were used as landmarks to localise the perforators. The X-axis is a horizontal line at the junction of sternum and xyphoid (JCX) and the Y-axis is at the midline. (b) In the clinical study, seven pedicled SEAP flaps were performed in another group of patients. MDCT images revealed totally 157 perforators with a mean of 7.85 perforators per patient. The dominant perforators (137 perforators) were mainly localised in an area between 1.5 and 6.5 cm from the X-axis on both sides and between 3 and 16 cm below the Y-axis. The calibre of these dominant perforators was judged as 'good' to 'very good' in 82.5% of the cases. The average dimension of the flap was 21.7x6.7 cm. All flaps were based on one perforator. Mean harvesting time was 110 min. There were no flap losses. Minor tip necrosis occurred in two flaps. One of them was treated with excision and primary closure. Our clinical experience indicates that the SEAP flap provides a novel and useful approach for reconstruction of anterior chest wall defects. CT-based imaging allows for anatomical assessment of the perforators of the superior epigastric artery (SEA).

  5. Atherosclerotic coronary plaque in subjects with diabetic neuropathy: the prognostic cardiovascular role of Charcot neuroarthropathy--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, D; Marano, R; Di Stasio, E; Scavone, G; Savino, G; Zaccardi, F; Rizzi, A; Martini, F; Musella, T; Silvestri, V; Costantini, F; Galli, M; Caputo, S; Bonomo, L; Ghirlanda, G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the plaque composition in neuropathic type 2 diabetic subjects with and without Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) undergoing multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). The study was a single-center, observational, with unmatched case-control design. We selected 17 CN patients and 18 patients with diabetic neuropathy (DN) without CN. In all the patients, multidetector computed tomography was performed to assess the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and degree of coronary artery stenosis. Patients were classified as positive in the presence of significant CAD if there was at least one stenosis >50 % on MDCT-CA. The invasive coronary angiography was performed in case of significant stenosis detected with MDCT-CA, both as reference to standard and eventually as treatment. Groups were matched for age, sex, and traditional CAD risk factors. As compared to DN individuals, CN exhibited higher rates of significant coronary stenoses (p = 0.027; OR 7.7 [1.3-43.5]). However, no significant differences were observed in the CACS, which reflects plaque burden, in the two groups (p = 0.759). No significant differences were observed comparing CACS distribution in all subjects for stenosis higher/equal or lower than 50 % (p = 0.320). Finally, no significant differences were observed comparing CACS distribution in CN and DN subjects for coronary stenoses higher/equal or lower than 50 %. Our results suggest that CN patients have a higher prevalence of severe coronary plaques compared to DN patients. Nevertheless, coronary plaques in CN patients did not exhibit an increased degree of calcification.

  6. Improving Image Quality of On-Board Cone-Beam CT in Radiation Therapy Using Image Information Provided by Planning Multi-Detector CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Chen, Fong-Lin; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to improve the image quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) mounted on the gantry of a linear accelerator used in radiation therapy based on the image information provided by planning multi-detector CT (MDCT). Methods MDCT-based shading correction for CBCT and virtual monochromatic CT (VMCT) synthesized using the dual-energy method were performed. In VMCT, the high-energy data were obtained from CBCT, while the low-energy data were obtained from MDCT. An electron density phantom was used to investigate the efficacy of shading correction and VMCT on improving the target detectability, Hounsfield unit (HU) accuracy and variation, which were quantified by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the percent difference (%Diff) and the standard deviation of the CT numbers for tissue equivalent background material, respectively. Treatment plan studies for a chest phantom were conducted to investigate the effects of image quality improvement on dose planning. Results For the electron density phantom, the mean value of CNR was 17.84, 26.78 and 34.31 in CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT, respectively. The mean value of %Diff was 152.67%, 11.93% and 7.66% in CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT, respectively. The standard deviation within a uniform background of CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT was 85, 23 and 15 HU, respectively. With regards to the chest phantom, the monitor unit (MU) difference between the treatment plan calculated using MDCT and those based on CBCT, shading corrected CBCT and VMCT was 6.32%, 1.05% and 0.94%, respectively. Conclusions Enhancement of image quality in on-board CBCT can contribute to daily patient setup and adaptive dose delivery, thus enabling higher confidence in patient treatment accuracy in radiation therapy. Based on our results, VMCT has the highest image quality, followed by the shading corrected CBCT and the original CBCT. The research results presented in this study should be

  7. Cine MRI of Tracheal Dynamics in Healthy Volunteers and Patients With Tracheobronchomalacia.

    PubMed

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Boiselle, Phillip M; Heidinger, Benedikt; Andrinopoulou, Eleni-Rosalina; O'Donnel, Carl; Alsop, David C; Litmanovich, Diana E

    2017-10-01

    Bronchoscopy and MDCT are routinely used to assess tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). Recently, dynamic MRI (cine MRI) has been proposed as a radiation-free alternative to MDCT. In this study, we tested cine MRI assessment of airway dynamics during various breathing conditions and compared cine MRI and MDCT measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with suspected TBM. Cine MRI was found to be a technically feasible alternative to MDCT for assessing central airway dynamics.

  8. Relationship between dimensions of muscles of mastication (masseter and lateral pterygoid) and skeletal dimensions: study of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Azaroual, Mohammed Faouzi; Fikri, Meriem; Abouqal, Redouan; Benyahya, Hicham; Zaoui, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    The masticatory muscles play an important part in determining the morphology of the facial skeleton. Skeletal typology and the characteristics of the masticatory muscles are closely linked. Several authors have studied muscle characteristics as related to facial typology. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between vertical and transverse skeletal dimensions and the dimensions (length, width and thickness) of two muscles of mastication, the masseter and the lateral pterygoid. Our study was based on CT-scan examinations of a sample composed of patients consulting the X-ray department of the Rabat-Salé Teaching Hospital, and for whom a CT-scan had been requested. Forty CT examinations of the skull, performed in the context of sinus explorations or pre-surgical work-ups in the radiology department of the Rabat-Salé Teaching Hospital, were selected for this study. The sample comprised 19 women and 21 men aged between 20 and 45, with a mean of 40.9 ± 12.8. A Siemens 32-row 64-slice spiral CT-scan device was used for spiral acquisition of data around the facial bones, with the mouth closed. The study was carried out in the parenchymal window for the muscle measurements, in the axial and coronal planes. Bone measurements were performed after 3D reconstruction in VRT mode. Our study showed that, for the masseter muscle, thickness is the dimension that correlates significantly with skeletal dimensions in the vertical, transverse and sagittal directions. For the lateral pterygoid muscle, length and width both present significant correlations with transverse skeletal dimensions. Analysis of these results shows that the dimensional characteristics of the masticatory muscles vary according to the vertical and transverse skeletal typology of the subjects concerned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Automatic polyp detection and measurement with computed tomographic colonography: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Virmani, S; Lev-Toaff, As; Ciancibello, Lm

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in detecting and measuring polyps for CT Colonography, based on an in vitro phantom study. A colon phantom was constructed with a PVC pipe of 3.8 cm diameter. Nine simulated polyps of various sizes (3.2mm-25.4mm) were affixed inside the phantom that was placed in a water bath. The phantom was scanned on a 64-slice CT scanner with tube voltage of 120 kV and current of 205 mAs. Two separate scans were performed, with different slice thickness and reconstruction interval. The first scan (thin) had a slice thickness of 1mm and reconstruction interval 0.5mm. The second scan (thick) had a slice thickness of 2mm and reconstruction interval of 1mm. Images from both scans were processed using CT Colonography software that automatically segments the colon phantom and applies CAD that automatically highlights and provides the size (maximum and minimum diameters, volume) of each polyp. Two readers independently measured each polyp (two orthogonal diameters) using both 2D and 3D views. Readers' manual measurements (diameters) and automatic measurements from CAD (diameters and volume) were compared to actual polyp sizes as measured by mechanical calipers. All polyps except the smallest (3.2mm) were detected by CAD. CAD achieved 100% sensitivity in detecting polyps ≥6mm. Mean errors in CAD automated volume measurements for thin and thick slice scans were 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Almost all CAD and manual readers' 3D measurements overestimated the size of polyps to variable extent. Both over- and underestimation of polyp sizes were observed in the readers' manual 2D measurements. Overall, Reader 1 (expert) had smaller mean error than Reader 2 (non-expert). CAD provided accurate size measurements for all polyps, and results were comparable to the two readers' manual measurements.

  10. Impact of Calcium Score on Agreement Between Multidetector Computed Tomography and Invasive Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José Alberto; Gómez de Diego, José Juan; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Mahía, Patricia; Rodrigo, José Luis; Luaces, María; Núñez-Gil, Iván Javier; Ferreiros, Joaquín; Bustos, Ana; Cabeza, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Macaya, Carlos; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo

    2017-05-18

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative to invasive coronary angiography (ICA). However, contradictory results have been reported regarding the effect of coronary artery calcium score (CS) on the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT. Our aim was to assess the agreement of MDCT and ICA and to evaluate the influence of CS on this agreement. We enrolled 266 consecutive patients who underwent evaluation with 64-slice MDCT and ICA. Standard CS software tools were used to calculate the Agatston score. Stenosis was qualitatively classified as mild, moderate, or severe by 1 blinded observer and the results were compared with those of ICA, which was used as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 188 patients (70.3%) were men. A total of 484 segments with coronary stenosis ≥ mild were qualitatively evaluated and quantified with MDCT. Noninvasive measurements were concordant with ICA in 402 stenoses (83.05%; Kappa, 0.684), with no significant differences between vessels and with no statistically significant influence of CS on this agreement (OR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.76-1.09; P = .21). Multidetector computed tomography had high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value on a per-segment, per-vessel, and per-patient basis. Non-ICA using MDCT showed good agreement with ICA in the qualitative quantification coronary stenosis and CS had no significant impact on this agreement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability of repeated coronary artery calcium scoring and radiation Dose on 64- and 16-slice computed tomography by prospective electrocardiographically-triggered axial and retrospective electrocardiographically-gated spiral computed tomography: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Arie, Ryuichi; Shen, Yun; Sunasaka, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Hideya; Ito, Katsuhide

    2008-08-01

    We sought to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, the variability and radiation doses on 64- and 16-slice computed tomography (CT) scanners by both prospective electrocardiographically (ECG)-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated scans. Coronary artery models (n = 3) with different plaque CT densities (approximately 240 Hounsfield units [HU], approximately 600 HU, and approximately 1000 HU) of four sizes (1, 3, 5, and 10 mm in length) on a cardiac phantom were scanned three times in five heart rate sequences. The tube current-time products were set to almost the same on all four protocols (32.7 mAs for 64-slice prospective and retrospective scans, 33.3 mAs for 16-slice prospective and retrospective scans). Slice thickness was set to 2.5 mm to keep the radiation dose low. Overlapping reconstruction with a 1.25-mm increment was applied on the retrospective ECG-gated scan. The CAC scores were not different between the four protocols (one-factor analysis of variance: Agatston, P = .32; volume, P = .19; and mass, P = .09). Two-factor factorial analysis of variance test revealed that the interscan variability was different between protocols (P < .01) and scoring algorithms (P < .01). The average variability of Agatston/volume/mass scoring and effective doses were as follows: 64-slice prospective scan: 16%/15%/11% and 0.5 mSv; 64-slice retrospective scan: 11%/11%/8% and 3.7 mSv; 16-slice prospective scan: 20%/18%/13% and 0.6 mSv; and 16-slice retrospective scan: 16%/15%/11% and 2.9 to 3.5 mSv (depending on the pitch). Retrospective ECG-gated 64-slice CT showed the lowest variability. Prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT, with low radiation dose, shows low variability on CAC scoring comparable to retrospective ECG-gated 16-slice CT.

  12. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain: rationale and design of the PROMISE trial.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Mudrick, Daniel W; Patel, Manesh R; Picard, Michael H; Udelson, James E; Velazquez, Eric J; Cooper, Lawton

    2014-06-01

    Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life-threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of 2 initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either (1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram) or (2) anatomical testing with ≥64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians, and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core laboratory quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed up for ≥1 year. The primary end point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis, and renal failure), or hospitalization for unstable angina. More than 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care, and anesthesiology sites. Multispecialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. The PROMISE trial will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomical testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost-effectiveness, and radiation exposure will be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain: Rationale and Design of the PROMISE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J.; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Cooper, Lawton

    2014-01-01

    Background Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. Methods The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of two initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either: 1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram); or 2) anatomic testing with >=64 slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core lab quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed for ≥1 year. The primary end-point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis and renal failure) or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results Over 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care and anesthesiology sites. Conclusion Multi-specialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. PROMISE will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomic testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost effectiveness and radiation exposure will be assessed. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT01174550 PMID:24890527

  14. Assessment of Technical and Biological Parameters of Volumetric Quantitative Computed Tomography in the Foot: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirk E.; Whiting, Bruce R.; Reiker, Gregory G.; Commean, Paul K.; Sinacore, David R.; Prior, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies exist for bone densitometry of the whole foot. A phantom study demonstrated the sources of error and necessary controls for accurate quantitative computed tomography of the foot. A loss in bone mineral density in the small foot bones may be an early indicator of diabetic foot complications. Purpose Volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) facilitates assessment of pedal bone osteopenia, which in the presence of peripheral neuropathy may well be an early sign of diabetic foot deformity. To date, sources and magnitudes of error in foot vQCT measurements have not been reported. Methods Foot phantoms were scanned using a 64-slice CT scanner. Energy (kVp), table height, phantom size and orientation, location of “bone” inserts, insert material, location of calibration phantom, and reconstruction kernel were systematically varied during scan acquisition. Results Energy (kVp) and distance from the isocenter (table height) resulted in relative attenuation changes from −5% to 22% and −5% to 0%, respectively, and average bone mineral density (BMD) changes from −0.9% to 0.0% and −1.1% to 0.3%, respectively, compared to a baseline 120 kVp scan performed at the isocenter. BMD compared to manufacturer specified values ranged on average from −2.2% to 0.9%. Phantom size and location of bone-equivalent material inserts resulted in relative attenuation changes of −1.2% to 1.4% compared to the medium sized phantom. Conclusion This study demonstrated that variations in kVp and table height can be controlled using a calibration phantom scanned at the same energy and height as a foot phantom; however, error due to soft tissue thickness and location of bones within a foot cannot be controlled using a calibration phantom alone. PMID:22147208

  15. Bailout intravenous esmolol for heart rate control in cardiac computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Rosa, Sílvia; Ramos, Ruben; Marques, Hugo; Santos, Rosana; Leal, Cecília; Casado, Helena; Saraiva, Márcia; Figueiredo, Luísa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a heart rate (HR) reduction protocol using intravenous esmolol as bailout for failed oral metoprolol regimens in patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Patients who underwent cardiac 64-MDCT in a single institution between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Those with HR above 60 beats per minute (bpm) on presentation received oral metoprolol (50-200 mg) at least one hour before CCTA. Intravenous esmolol 1-2 mg/kg was administered as a bolus whenever HR remained over 65 bpm just before imaging. The primary efficacy endpoint was HR <65 bpm during CCTA. The primary safety endpoint was symptomatic hypotension or bradycardia up to hospital discharge. During the study period CCTA was performed in 947 cases. In 86% of these, oral metoprolol was the only medication required to successfully reduce HR <60 bpm. Esmolol was used in the remaining 130 patients (14%). For esmolol-treated patients mean baseline and acquisition HR were 74±14 bpm and 63±9 bpm, respectively (p<0.001). The target HR of <65 bpm was achieved in 82 of the 130 esmolol-treated patients (63%). Considering the whole population, esmolol use led to a significant increase in the primary efficacy endpoint from 86% to 95% (p<0.001). Esmolol also resulted in a statistically, but not clinically, significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (144±22 to 115±17 mmHg; p<0.001). The combined primary safety endpoint was only observed in two (1.5%) patients. Despite optimal use of oral beta-blockers, 14% of patients needed intravenous esmolol for HR control. The pre-medication combination of oral metoprolol and on-demand administration of intravenous esmolol was safe and effective and enabled 95% of patients to be imaged with HR below 65 bpm. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Rationale and design of the HeartFlowNXT (HeartFlow analysis of coronary blood flow using CT angiography: NeXt sTeps) study.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sara; Achenbach, Stephan; Leipsic, Jonathon; Mauri, Laura; Bezerra, Hiram G; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2013-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is an established noninvasive method for visualization of coronary artery disease. However, coronary CTA lacks physiological information; thus, it does not permit differentiation of ischemia-causing lesions. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamic techniques applied to standard coronary CTA images allow for computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR), a measure of lesion-specific ischemia. The diagnostic performance of computed FFR (FFRCT) compared with invasively measured FFR is not yet fully established. HeartFlowNXT (HeartFlow analysis of coronary blood flow using coronary CT angiography: NeXt sTeps) is a prospective, international, multicenter study designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FFRCT for the detection and exclusion of flow-limiting obstructive coronary stenoses, as defined by invasively measured FFR as the reference standard. FFR values ≤ 0.80 will be considered to be ischemia causing. All subjects (N = 270; 10 investigative sites) will undergo coronary CTA (single- or dual-source CT scanners with a minimum of 64 slices) and invasive coronary angiography with FFR. Patients with insufficient quality of coronary CTA will be excluded. Blinded core laboratory interpretation will be performed for FFRCT, invasive coronary angiography, and FFR. Stenosis severity by coronary CTA will be evaluated by the investigative site in addition to a blinded core laboratory interpretation. The primary objective of the study is to determine the diagnostic performance of FFRCT compared with coronary CTA alone to noninvasively determine the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary lesions. The secondary end point comprises assessment of diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FFRCT. Copyright © 2013 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TU-EF-204-10: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Calculation Variations of Local Noise Power Spectra for CT Simulation in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dolly, S; Chen, H; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Local noise power spectrum (NPS) properties are significantly affected by calculation variables and CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters, but a thoughtful analysis of these effects is absent. In this study, we performed a complete analysis of the effects of calculation and imaging parameters on the NPS. Methods: The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64-slice CT simulator using various scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using both FBP and iDose4 reconstruction algorithms. From these images, local NPS were calculated for regions of interest (ROI) of varying locations and sizes, using four image background removal methods. Additionally, using a predetermined ground truth, NPS calculation accuracy for various calculation parameters was compared for computer simulated ROIs. A complete analysis of the effects of calculation, acquisition, and reconstruction parameters on the NPS was conducted. Results: The local NPS varied with ROI size and image background removal method, particularly at low spatial frequencies. The image subtraction method was the most accurate according to the computer simulation study, and was also the most effective at removing low frequency background components in the acquired data. However, first-order polynomial fitting using residual sum of squares and principle component analysis provided comparable accuracy under certain situations. Similar general trends were observed when comparing the NPS for FBP to that of iDose4 while varying other calculation and scanning parameters. However, while iDose4 reduces the noise magnitude compared to FBP, this reduction is spatial-frequency dependent, further affecting NPS variations at low spatial frequencies. Conclusion: The local NPS varies significantly depending on calculation parameters, image acquisition parameters, and reconstruction techniques. Appropriate local NPS calculation should be performed to capture spatial variations of

  18. Four- and Eight-Channel Aortoiliac CT Angiography: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay Foley, Dennis

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To compare performance parameters, contrast material load and radiation dose in a patient cohort having aortoiliac CT angiography using 4- and 8-channel multidetector CT (MDCT) systems. Methods. Eighteen patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms underwent initial 4-channel and follow-up 8-channel MDCT angiography. Both the 4- and 8-channel MDCT systems utilized a matrix detector of 16 x 1.25 mm rows. Scan coverage included the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries to the level of the proximal femoral arteries. For 4-channel MDCT, nominal slice thickness and beam pitch were 1.25 mm and 1.5, respectively, and for 8-channel MDCT they were 1.25 mm and 1.35 or 1.65 respectively. Scan duration, iodinated contrast material load and mean aortoiliac attenuation were compared retrospectively. Comparative radiation dose measurements for 4- and 8-channel MDCT were obtained using a multiple scan average dose technique on an abdominal phantom. Results. Compared with 4-channel MDCT, 8-channel MDCT aortoiliac angiography was performed with equivalent collimation, decreased contrast load (mean 45% decrease: 144 ml versus 83 ml of 300 mg iodine/ml contrast material) and decreased acquisition time (mean 51% shorter: 34.4 sec versus 16.9 sec) without a significant change in mean aortic enhancement (299 HU versus 300 HU, p > 0.05). Radiation dose was 2 rad for the 4-channel system and 2/1.5 rad for the 8-channel system at 1.35/1.65 pitch respectively. Conclusion. Compared with 4-channel MDCT, aortoiliac CT angiography with 8-channel MDCT produces equivalent z-axis resolution with decreased contrast load and acquisition time without increased radiation exposure.

  19. Sixty-Four-Section Cardiac Computed Tomography in Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction: Thrombus or Pannus.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet; Kalçik, Macit; Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Astarcioğlu, Mehmet Ali; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Aykan, Ahmet Çağri; Biteker, Murat; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kaya, Hasan; Yesin, Mahmut; Duran, Nilüfer Ekşi; Sevinç, Deniz; Güneysu, Tahsin

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing pannus and thrombus in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction is essential for the selection of proper treatment. We have investigated the utility of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in distinguishing between pannus and thrombus, the latter amenable to thrombolysis. Sixty-two (23 men, mean age 44±14 years) patients with suspected mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction assessed by transesophageal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational trial. Subsequently, MDCT was performed before any treatment was started. Periprosthetic masses were detected by MDCT in 46 patients, and their attenuation values were measured as Hounsfield Units (HU). Patients underwent thrombolysis unless contraindicated, and those with a contraindication or failed thrombolysis underwent surgery. A mass which was completely lysed or surgically detected as a clot was classified as thrombus, whereas a mass which was surgically detected as tissue overgrowth was classified as pannus. A definitive diagnosis could be achieved in 37 patients with 39 MDCT masses (22 thrombus and 17 pannus). The mean attenuation value of 22 thrombotic masses was significantly lower than that in 17 pannus (87±59 versus 322±122; P<0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.99; P<0.001), and a cutoff point of HU≥145 provided high sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (95.5%) in discriminating pannus from thrombus. Complete lysis was more common for masses with HU<90 compared with those with HU 90 to 145 (100% versus 42.1%; P=0.007). Sixty-four slice MDCT is helpful in identifying masses amenable to thrombolysis in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. A high (HU≥145) attenuation suggests pannus overgrowth, whereas a lower value is associated with thrombus formation. A higher attenuation (HU>90) is associated with reduced lysis rates. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Diagnostic Performance of 64- versus 256-Slice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography Compared with Conventional Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Su-Kiat; Hung, Huei-Fong; Cheng, Jun-Jack; Tseng, Min-Tsung; Law, Wai-Yip; Kuo, Chu-Jen; Chiu, Chiung-Zuan; Chang, Che-Ming; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lo, Huey-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Jer-Young; Shyu, Kou-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Pupose The newer 256-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has the capability of improving diagnostic performance in the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to 64-slice CTCA. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 64- versus 256-slice CTCA in two similar populations. Methods Our study included 120 consecutive patients who were referred for CTCA and subsequently underwent conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Sixty patients were studied by 64-slice CTCA, with the other 60 by 256-slice CTCA. We compared the technical characteristics and diagnostic performance of 64- and 256-slice CTCA for the detection of ≥ 50% stenosis of the coronary arteries on CCA. Results The 256-slice CTCA had a shorter scanning time (4.4 ± 0.6 sec vs. 5.0 ± 0.7 sec, p < 0.001) compared to 64-slice CTCA. The diagnostic accuracy rates of 256-slice CTCA based on patient analysis (97% vs. 83%, p < 0.05), vessel analysis (95% vs. 85%, p < 0.05), and segment analysis (94% vs. 88%, p < 0.05) were significantly superior to those of 64-slice CTCA. The diagnostic accuracy rates of 64- and 256-slice CTCA were affected by the presence of stent (65% vs. 75%, respectively, p > 0.05) and severe calcifications (75% vs. 82%, respectively, p > 0.05). Conclusions In two similar populations, 256-slice CTCA displayed superior diagnostic performance than 64-slice CTCA. However, the performance of 256-slide CTCA is affected in those segments that are severely calcified and/or stented. PMID:27122699

  1. Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation: MDCT Findings according to the Perforation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to describe the characteristic CT findings of gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforations at various levels of the gastrointestinal system. It is beneficial to localize the perforation site as well as to diagnose the presence of bowel perforation for planning the correct surgery. CT has been established as the most valuable imaging technique for identifying the presence, site and cause of the GI tract perforation. The amount and location of extraluminal free air usually differ among various perforation sites. Further, CT findings such as discontinuity of the bowel wall and concentrated free air bubbles in close proximity to the bowel wall can help predict the perforation site. Multidetector CT with the multiplanar reformation images has improved the accuracy of CT for predicting the perforation sites. PMID:19182505

  2. Systolic hypertension and progression of aortic valve calcification in patients with aortic stenosis: results from the PROGRESSA study.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Lionel; Capoulade, Romain; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Larose, Éric; Shen, Mylène; Dahou, Abdellaziz; Arsenault, Marie; Mathieu, Patrick; Bédard, Élisabeth; Dumesnil, Jean G; Tremblay, Alexe; Bossé, Yohan; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and is associated with worse outcomes. The current prospective study assessed the impact of systolic hypertension (SHPT) on the progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC) measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with AS. The present analysis includes the first series of 101 patients with AS prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA study. Patients underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and MDCT exams at baseline and after 2-year follow-up. AVC and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were measured using the Agatston method. Patients with SHPT at baseline (i.e. systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg; n = 37, 37%) had faster 2-year AVC progression compared with those without SHPT (i.e. systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg) (AVC median [25th percentile-75th percentile]: +370 [126-824] vs. +157 [58-303] AU; P = 0.007, respectively). Similar results were obtained with the analysis of AVC progression divided by the cross-sectional area of the aortic annulus (AVCdensity: +96 [34-218] vs. +45 [14-82] AU/cm(2), P = 0.01, respectively). In multivariable analysis, SHPT remained significantly associated with faster progression of AVC or AVCdensity (all P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to progression of CAC (+39 [3-199] vs. +41 [0-156] AU, P = 0.88). This prospective study shows for the first time that SHPT is associated with faster AVC progression but not with CAC progression in AS patients. These findings provide further support for the elaboration of randomized clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antihypertensive medication to slow the stenosis progression in patients with AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Relation of Risk Factors and Abdominal Aortic Calcium to Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Onuma, Oyere K; Pencina, Karol; Qazi, Saadia; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Chuang, Michael L; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2017-05-15

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) permit assessment of the presence and burden of coronary and systemic atherosclerosis. Risk factors for progression of CAC and AAC and the association of AAC with CAC progression have not been well characterized in a community-dwelling cohort. We studied 1,959 asymptomatic participants from the Framingham Heart Study who underwent serial MDCT scans with a median interval of 6.1 years. Primary outcomes were (a) the incidence of CAC and AAC (CAC >0 and AAC >0 with baseline CAC = 0 and AAC = 0) and (b) absolute progression of CAC (CAC > baseline CAC and AAC > baseline AAC). Covariates were collected at adjacent cycle examinations and included age, gender, use of antihypertensive therapy, use of lipid-lowering therapy, cigarette smoking, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Predictors for CAC and AAC progression included baseline CAC, baseline AAC, lipid-lowering therapy, diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI, and serum creatinine. Multivariable stepwise logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of these risk factors with CAC and AAC. Those who developed incident CAC on follow-up scanning comprised 18.8% of 1,124 participants, and 84.9% of 780 participants, with detectable baseline CAC, had further progression. Baseline AAC was a predictor of both CAC incidence and progression, independent of other risk factors. In stepwise models, addition of baseline AAC slightly improved the area under the curve from 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76) to 0.74 (0.70 to 0.78). In conclusion, standard cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with incidence and progression of CAC and AAC, and AAC augments CAC incidence and progression above cardiovascular disease risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: For CT scanning in the stationary-table modes, AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the midpoint dose on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long phantoms. Currently, a long cylindrical phantom is usually not available in many clinical facilities. The use of a long phantom is also challenging because of the heavy weight. In order to shed light on assessing the midpoint dose in CT scanning without table movement, the authors present a study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios, and perform a cross-comparison of CT dose ratios on different scanner models. Methods: The authors performed Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations with a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare), and modeled dosimetry measurements using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer type chamber and a 10-cm long pencil ion chamber. The short (15 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were computed for two PMMA diameters (16 and 32 cm), two phantom axes (the center and the periphery), and a range of beam apertures (3–25 cm). The results were compared with the published data of previous studies with other multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanners and cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners. Results: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios changed with beam apertures but were insensitive to beam qualities (80–140 kV, the head and body bowtie filters) and MDCT and CBCT scanner models. Conclusions: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios enable medical physicists to make dosimetry measurements using the standard CT dosimetry phantoms and a Farmer chamber or a 10 cm long pencil chamber, and to assess the midpoint dose in long phantoms. This method provides an effective approach for the dosimetry of CBCT scanning in the stationary-table modes, and is useful for perfusion and interventional CT.

  5. Volume estimation of low-contrast lesions with CT: a comparison of performances from a phantom study, simulations and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of lung nodule volume with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) have been shown to be more accurate and precise compared to conventional lower dimensional measurements. Quantifying the size of lesions is potentially more difficult when the object-to-background contrast is low as with lesions in the liver. Physical phantom and simulation studies are often utilized to analyze the bias and variance of lesion size estimates because a ground truth or reference standard can be established. In addition, it may also be useful to derive theoretical bounds as another way of characterizing lesion sizing methods. The goal of this work was to study the performance of a MDCT system for a lesion volume estimation task with object-to-background contrast less than 50 HU, and to understand the relation among performances obtained from phantom study, simulation and theoretical analysis. We performed both phantom and simulation studies, and analyzed the bias and variance of volume measurements estimated by a matched-filter-based estimator. We further corroborated results with a theoretical analysis to estimate the achievable performance bound, which was the Cramer-Rao’s lower bound (CRLB) of minimum variance for the size estimates. Results showed that estimates of non-attached solid small lesion volumes with object-to-background contrast of 31-46 HU can be accurate and precise, with less than 10.8% in percent bias and 4.8% in standard deviation of percent error (SPE), in standard dose scans. These results are consistent with theoretical (CRLB), computational (simulation) and empirical phantom bounds. The difference between the bounds is rather small (for SPE less than 1.9%) indicating that the theoretical- and simulation-based performance bounds can be good surrogates for physical phantom studies.

  6. Uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain: multidetector computed tomography pearls and pitfalls for the radiologist on call.

    PubMed

    Mellado, José María; Martín, Joaquín; Solanas, Susana; Yanguas, Nerea; Salceda, Javier; Cozcolluela, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We review uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain in which inconclusive multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) studies were followed by emergency surgery and unexpected diagnoses. Despite dedicated protocols and technical advances, MDCT of uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain still represents a significant challenge for the radiologist on call. We emphasize diagnostic pearls and pitfalls that may help the radiologist on call identify or suspect these uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain on MDCT. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The complex nature of discordant severe calcified aortic valve disease grading: new insights from combined Doppler echocardiographic and computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Pibarot, Philippe; Aggarwal, Shivani R; Malouf, Joseph; Araoz, Phillip A; Michelena, Hector I; Cueff, Caroline; Larose, Eric; Capoulade, Romain; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2013-12-17

    With concomitant Doppler echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) measuring aortic valve calcification (AVC) load, this study aimed at defining: 1) independent physiologic/structural determinants of aortic valve area (AVA)/mean gradient (MG) relationship; 2) AVC thresholds best associated with severe aortic stenosis (AS); and 3) whether, in AS with discordant MG, severe calcified aortic valve disease is generally detected. Aortic stenosis with discordant markers of severity, AVA in severe range but low MG, is a conundrum, unresolved by outcome studies. Patients (n = 646) with normal left ventricular ejection fraction AS underwent Doppler echocardiography and AVC measurement by MDCT. On the basis of AVA-indexed-to-body surface area (AVAi) and MG, patients were categorized as concordant severity grading (CG) with moderate AS (AVAi >0.6 cm²/m², MG <40 mm Hg), severe AS (AVAi ≤0.6 cm²/m², MG ≥ 40 mm Hg), discordant-severity-grading (DG) with low-MG (AVAi ≤0.6 cm(2)/m(2), MG <40 mm Hg), or high-MG (AVAi >0.6 cm(2)/m(2), MG ≥40 mm Hg). The MG (discordant in 29%) was strongly determined by AVA and flow but also independently and strongly influenced by AVC-load (p < 0.0001) and systemic arterial compliance (p < 0.0001). The AVC-load (median [interquartile range]) was similar within patients with DG (low-MG: 1,619 [965 to 2,528] arbitrary units [AU]; high-MG: 1,736 [1,209 to 2,894] AU; p = 0.49), higher than CG-moderate-AS (861 [427 to 1,519] AU; p < 0.0001) but lower than CG-severe-AS (2,931 [1,924 to 4,292] AU; p < 0.0001). The AVC-load thresholds separating severe/moderate AS were defined in CG-AS with normal flow (stroke-volume-index >35 ml/m(2)). The AVC-load, absolute or indexed, identified severe AS accurately (area under the curve ≥0.89, sensitivity ≥86%, specificity ≥79%) in men and women. Upon application of these criteria to DG-low MG, at least one-half of the patients were identified as severe calcified

  8. Influence of atorvastatin on coronary calcifications and myocardial perfusion defects in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Plazak, Wojciech; Gryga, Krzysztof; Dziedzic, Hanna; Tomkiewicz-Pajak, Lidia; Konieczynska, Malgorzata; Podolec, Piotr; Musial, Jacek

    2011-07-20

    Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is influenced by an increased occurrence of severe cardiovascular complications. Statins have been proven to protect a wide spectrum of SLE patients from these complications. This study was conducted to determine the possible efficacy of atorvastatin in SLE patients as assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)-based coronary calcium scoring and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the myocardium. Sixty SLE patients in stable clinical conditions were randomized to receive either atorvastatin (40 mg daily; n = 28) or placebo (n = 32). Clinical and biochemical evaluation together with MDCT-based coronary calcium scoring and SPECT studies (Tc-99 m sestamibi) were performed at the time of randomization and after 1 year of treatment. At randomization, SPECT revealed perfusion defects at rest in 22 (36.7%) patients and exercise-induced defects in 8 (13.3%), whereas MDCT revealed coronary calcifications in 15 subjects (25%). Coronary calcium deposits increased after 1 year in the placebo group (plaque volume change from 35.2 ± 44.9 to 62.9 ± 72.4, P < 0.05; calcium score from 32.1 ± 39.1 to 59.5 ± 64.4; P < 0.05), but not in the atorvastatin group (plaque volume 54.5 ± 62.4 vs. 51.0 ± 47.6, P not significant; calcium score 44.8 ± 50.6 vs. 54.9 ± 62.5, P not significant). The atorvastatin group showed a decrease in total serum cholesterol (from 5.1 ± 1.2 to 4.4 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (2.9 ± 1.0 to 2.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < 0.05), triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.6 to 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (4.4 ± 4.1 to 2.7 ± 1.7 mg/L, P < 0.05). There was no change in the mean Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score in patients from both groups. Perfusion defects observed at randomization showed no change after one year treatment with atorvastatin. In SLE patients 40 mg of atorvastatin daily for 1 year led to a decrease in

  9. SU-F-I-38: Patient Organ Specific Dose Assessment in Coronary CT Angiograph Using Voxellaized Volume Dose Index in Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fallal, Mohammadi Gh.; Riyahi, Alam N.; Graily, Gh.; Paydar, R.

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical use of multi detector computed tomography(MDCT) in diagnosis of diseases due to high speed in data acquisition and high spatial resolution is significantly increased. Regarding to the high radiation dose in CT and necessity of patient specific radiation risk assessment, the adoption of new method in the calculation of organ dose is completely required and necessary. In this study by introducing a conversion factor, patient organ dose in thorax region based on CT image data using MC system was calculated. Methods: The geometry of x-ray tube, inherent filter, bow tie filter and collimator were designed using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC-system component modules according to GE-Light-speed 64-slices CT-scanner geometry. CT-scan image of patient thorax as a specific phantom was voxellised with 6.25mm3 in voxel and 64×64×20 matrix size. Dose to thorax organ include esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine, spinal cord with imaging technical condition of prospectively-gated-coronary CT-Angiography(PGT) as a step and shoot method, were calculated. Irradiation of patient specific phantom was performed using a dedicated MC-code as DOSXYZnrc with PGT-irradiation model. The ratio of organ dose value calculated in MC-method to the volume CT dose index(CTDIvol) reported by CT-scanner machine according to PGT radiation technique has been introduced as conversion factor. Results: In PGT method, CTDIvol was 10.6mGy and Organ Dose/CTDIvol conversion factor for esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine and spinal cord were obtained as; 0.96, 1.46, 1.2, 3.28. 6.68. 1.35, 3.41 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: The results showed while, underestimation of patient dose was found in dose calculation based on CTDIvol, also dose to breast is higher than the other studies. Therefore, the method in this study can be used to provide the actual patient organ dose in CT imaging based on CTDIvol in order to calculation of real effective dose(ED) based on organ dose

  10. Utility of 18 fludeoxyglucose in preoperative positon-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in the early diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer: A study of 139 resected cases.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bueno, Francisco; García-Pérez, Rocío; Claver Valderas, María Antonia; de la Peña Moral, Jesús; Frutos Esteban, Laura; Ortiz Ruiz, Eduardo; Fuster Quiñonero, Matilde; Parrilla Paricio, Pascual

    2016-11-01

    In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), surgical resection is the only curative treatment, but due to its late clinical presentation only 15-25% patients are candidates for curative resection. The aim of this prospective, single-center study is to determine the diagnostic utility of preoperative PET-CT for early detection of PDA and early panIN lesions. We studied the histopathological features of PDA and different panIN lesions in 139 surgical samples from patients undergoing pancreatic resection (from 2010-2014), comparing these results with preoperative PET-CT and MDCT study. For tumor diagnosis in PET-CT maximum standard SUV 2.5 was used. Pancreatic baseline SUVmax is the maximum uptake of the radiotracer 18-2FDG on the ROI curve determined for the area of the normal pancreas after pathological reassessment with areas not affected by tumours or preneoplastic lesions. Tumour Uptake Index is the ratio between the tumour SUVmax and pancreatic baseline SUVmax. Using an standard maximum SUV value of 2.5, PET-CT sensitivity was 77.7% (108 of the 139 cases) against 75.5% (105 of the 139 cases) of MDCT. But when we combined this value with maximum SUV of normal pancreatic tissue from each patient, PET-CT sensitivity improved its value to 94.9%. A combination of studies of PET-CT in tumor and non-tumor tissue of each patient might be a very useful diagnostic tool not only for preoperative diagnosis of PDA, but also for early panIN lesions. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The feasibility of patient size-corrected, scanner-independent organ dose estimates for abdominal CT exams.

    PubMed

    Turner, Adam C; Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J; Cagnon, Chris H; Cody, Dianna D; Stevens, Donna M; McCollough, Cynthia H; McNitt-Gray, Michael F

    2011-02-01

    A recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of estimating the dose to individual organs from multidetector CT exams using patient-specific, scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients. However, the previous study only investigated organ dose to a single patient model from a full-body helical CT scan. The purpose of this work was to extend the validity of this dose estimation technique to patients of any size undergoing a common clinical exam. This was done by determining the influence of patient size on organ dose conversion coefficients generated for typical abdominal CT exams. Monte Carlo simulations of abdominal exams were performed using models of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers to obtain dose to radiosensitive organs for eight patient models of varying size, age, and gender. The scanner-specific organ doses were normalized by corresponding CTDIvol values and averaged across scanners to obtain scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for each patient model. In order to obtain a metric for patient size, the outer perimeter of each patient was measured at the central slice of the abdominal scan region. Then, the relationship between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and patient perimeter was investigated for organs that were directly irradiated by the abdominal scan. These included organs that were either completely ("fully irradiated") or partly ("partially irradiated") contained within the abdominal exam region. Finally, dose to organs that were not at all contained within the scan region ("nonirradiated") were compared to the doses delivered to fully irradiated organs. CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for fully irradiated abdominal organs had a strong exponential correlation with patient perimeter. Conversely, partially irradiated organs did not have a strong dependence on patient perimeter. In almost all cases, the doses delivered to nonirradiated

  12. SU-E-I-27: Estimating KERMA Area Product for CT Localizer Images

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Bennett, R; Thorpe, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the free-in-air KERMA-Area Product (KAP) incident on patients due to CT localizer scans for common CT exams. Methods: In-plane beam intensity profiles were measured in localizer acquisition mode using OSLs for a 64 slice MDCT scanner (Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI). The z-axis beam width was measured as a function of distance from isocenter. The beam profile and width were used to calculate a weighted average air KERMA per unit mAs as a function of intercepted x-axis beam width for objects symmetric about the localizer centerline.Patient areas were measured using manually drawn regions and divided by localizer length to determine average width. Data were collected for 50 head exams (lateral localizer only), 15 head/neck exams, 50 chest exams, and 50 abdomen/pelvis exams. Mean patient widths and acquisition techniques were used to calculate the weighted average free-in-air KERMA, which was multiplied by the patient area to estimate KAP. Results: Scan technique was 120 kV tube voltage, 10 mA current, and table speed of 10 cm/s. The mean ± standard deviation values of KAP were 120 ± 11.6, 469 ± 62.6, 518 ± 45, and 763 ± 93 mGycm{sup 2} for head, head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. For studies with AP and lateral localizers, the AP/lateral area ratio was 1.20, 1.33, and 1.24 for the head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. However, the AP/lateral KAP ratios were 1.12, 1.08, and 1.07, respectively. Conclusion: Calculation of KAP in CT localizers is complicated by the non-uniform intensity profile and z-axis beam width. KAP values are similar to those for simple radiographic exams such as a chest radiograph and represent a small fraction of the x-ray exposure at CT. However, as CT doses are reduced the localizer contribution will be a more significant fraction of the total exposure.

  13. Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Yick Wing; Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small

  14. [Comparison of low- and high-concentration (270 and 320 mg I/ml) iso-osmolar iodinated contrast media in coronary CT angiography: a randomized prospective single-center blinded study].

    PubMed

    Sinitsyn, V E; Komarova, M A; Mershina, E A

    2014-01-01

    To compare the image quality at coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using low-dose and low-iodine protocol study in comparison with the standard protocol. In study included 60 patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. All examinations were performed with 64-row MDCT using prospective ECG-gating and ASIR 40%. 30 patients were examined using a low-concentration (Iodixanol, 270 mg I/ml) iodinated contrast medium and low tube voltage (80 kV) (group 1), 30 patients--using of high-concentration (Iodixanol, 320 mg I/ml) iodinated contrast medium and standard tube voltage (120 kV) (group 2). Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale, images were randomised. Intra-arterial density was measured for the proximal and distal segments of left anterior descending artery (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA). Age, heart rate, BMI and scan parameters were not statistically different between the two groups. Analysis of coronaries visualization revealed the same image quality for group 1 and group 2 (image quality scores were 1.28 ± 0.28 vs. 1.34 ± 0.29, p = 0.4). There was no significant difference between mean enhancement values in the distal segments of RCA and LAD for the two groups. Intraarterial density for proximal LAD and proximal RCA for the nazpyara, umepamuenas group 2 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those values for the group 1. Conclusion. Theuse of low-dose and low-iodine protocol can be beneficial for patient safety and or image quality ithout loss of diag- stic information.

  15. Advanced Primary Epithelial Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinoma-Does Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative CT Scan for Detection of Peritoneal Metastatic Sites Reflect into Prediction of Suboptimal Debulking? A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Kiran; Vijaykumar, D K; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Antony, Mitchelle Aline; Ranganathan, Venkatesan

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in females worldwide. Optimal debulking is the standard treatment but possible only in 30-85% of advanced stages. Knowing exactly the disease extent preoperatively may predict suboptimal debulking. We analyzed diagnostic accuracy of preoperative CT scan in disease mapping and prediction of suboptimal debulking in a prospective observational study from March 2013 to May 2015 in a tertiary hospital. Adults below the age of 75 years with ECOG PS-0, 1, 2, clinically/radiologically newly diagnosed stage IIIc epithelial ovarian (EOC), and primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) were included. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy recipients were excluded. Preoperative multidetector CT (MDCT) scan showing deposits at 19 predetermined abdominopelvic sites were compared with the same sites seen at laparotomy and corresponding accuracies of CT scan calculated. Primary debulking surgery was done to achieve debulking to nil or less than 1-cm residual disease. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to determine the frequent suboptimal debulking sites and the predictive performance of the clinical and CT scan findings. A total of 36 patients were enrolled. The optimal debulking rate was 50%. The CT scan could detect the disease-bearing sites with overall sensitivity of 68.29%, specificity of 89%, accuracy of 78.07%, and positive and negative predictive values of 99 and 50.1%, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, bowel mesentery (p 0.011) and omental extension (p 0.025) were associated with suboptimal debulking. CT scan accuracy at these sites (predictive performance) was 86.1%. We identified small bowel mesentery and omental extension (to spleen/stomach/colon) as sites associated with suboptimal debulking. MDCT accurately depicts peritoneal metastases, although sensitivity is reduced in certain areas of significance for optimal debulking. Further validation with more number of patients is warranted.

  16. Bladder trauma: multidetector computed tomography cystography.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Charbel; Kanth, Nalini

    2011-08-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cystography is rapidly becoming the most recommended study for evaluation of the bladder for suspected trauma. This article reviews the bladder trauma with emphasis on the application of MDCT cystography to traumatic bladder injuries using a pictorial essay based on images collected in our level I trauma center.

  17. Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index in a Thai Population

    PubMed Central

    Yingchoncharoen, Teerapat; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness as measured by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a widely available method in Thailand. Data from a large cross-sectional study revealed a significant correlation of CAVI and the presence of coronary artery disease as detected from 64-slice coronary computed tomography arteriography. Futhermore, CAVI was shown to predict long-term cardiovascular events in the patients with intermediate cardiovascular risk.

  18. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. Methods As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Results Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = < .004). No significant differences were detected concerning the modalities’ specificities (with values between P = .98). Raters' confidence was higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography (P < .001). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT for wrist fractures proved to be similar and in some parts even higher compared to radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run. PMID:27788215

  19. Visualisation of passive middle ear implants by cone beam and multi-detector computed tomography: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T D; Kösling, S; Mlynski, R; Plontke, S K

    2016-12-01

    Modern passive middle ear titanium prostheses are filigree structures, resulting in poorer depiction on CT compared to prostheses used in the past. We compared the visibility of newer prostheses on cone beam CT (CBCT) to multi-detector CT (MDCT) with standard and lower dose in vitro, and analysed image noise and metal artefacts. Six different titanium middle ear prostheses (three partial and one total ossicular replacement prostheses, two stapes prostheses) were implanted twice in formalin-fixed head specimens-first correctly and then with displacement. Imaging was performed using standard CBCT and MDCT as well as MDCT with lower dose (36 single imaging investigations). Images were analysed with knowledge of the used types of middle ear prostheses, but blinded with respect to the positioning in the specific case. On all images the type of prostheses and their positions could be clearly recognized. Their identifiability including their details was rated as statistically significantly higher for all CBCT investigations than for MDCT. MDCT with lower dose showed the worst results. No statistical differences were found in image noise and metal artefacts. If available, CBCT should be preferred over MDCT in diagnostic evaluation of passive middle ear prostheses. • Middle ear prostheses became more filigree, leading to poorer visibility on CT. • High spatial resolution and paraxial reconstructions are necessary requirements for imaging evaluation. • CBCT and MDCT can identify type and positioning of titanium prostheses. • Metal artefacts play a minor part in filigree titanium prostheses. • Regarding visualisation of prostheses details, cone beam CT aids the evaluation.

  20. Multidetector computed tomography findings in deaths with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Levy, Angela D; Harcke, Howard T; Getz, John M; Mallak, Craig T

    2009-06-01

    This study compared autopsy with postmortem multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings in charred remains. Seventeen consecutive male subjects (mean age, 29.4 years) who perished in a fire-related event resulting in charred remains underwent total body MDCT immediately prior to routine autopsy that included serum carboxyhemoglobin measurement. MDCT showed all thermal tissue changes (skin and subcutaneous fat loss, skeletal muscle retraction, pugilistic attitude, cortical fractures, bone and organ destruction, thermal epidural hematoma, and thermal amputation) and established all fracture patterns that were lethal, but autopsy added the fire as a contributory cause of death when there was carboxyhemoglobin elevation. MDCT had limited value in determination of lethal vascular and visceral injuries. MDCT is an effective complement to autopsy in the setting of charred remains and may serve to augment a limited autopsy. This may be particularly useful in mass casualty scenarios.

  1. Clinical significance of multidetector-row computed tomography in breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Fujita, Takeo; Takabatake, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hirotoshi; Ogasawara, Yutaka; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Several reports support the association of higher ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence rates with positive or intermediate margins compared with negative pathologic margins. Precise evaluation of tumor extension and adequate surgical margin are important factors affecting tumor recurrence after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Many studies have reported the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing the tumor extension of breast cancer, but few have evaluated the utility of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). The results of this study show the clinical significance of MDCT for detecting cancer extension and demonstrate the clinical role of MDCT in BCS. Subjects comprised 136 patients grouped into two categories based on whether or not tumor extension was evaluated with MDCT preoperatively. The positive surgical margin rate and breast conservation rate were analyzed in each group and the clinical role of MDCT in BCS was evaluated. Moreover, evaluation of intraductal extension was done both with MDCT and histologically, and computed tomography (CT)-pathologic correlations were examined retrospectively. Finally, the margin-positive cases were analyzed in relation to their clinical characteristics. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detection of the intraductal component were 71.8%, 85.7%, 82.1%, and 76.9%, respectively. The positive surgical margin rate and conservation rate are 7.46% and 81.9%, respectively, for those who were diagnosed with MDCT preoperatively; their corresponding rates without MDCT were 16.67% and 67.9%. Most margin-positive patients have remarkable lymphatic space invasion. Positive surgical margins were often recognized toward the nipple. For diagnosing the intraductal extension, MDCT shows sufficient diagnosability. Moreover, MDCT can provide appropriate information for the determination of adequate surgical margins and contribute to increases in breast conservation

  2. The utility of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the surveillance for postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Min, Yang Won; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the utility of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in surveillance for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. This retrospective study analyzed 147 patients who underwent surveillance with alternating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and Gd-MRI after hepatectomy for HCC. The patients were followed-up every 3 months during the first 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. At each visit, MDCT was performed but once a year (every 12 months), Gd-MRI was performed instead of MDCT. Each HCC recurrence detection rate of MDCT and Gd-MRI was evaluated, and recurrent HCC characteristics were compared according to the detection test. A total of 63 patients had recurrent HCC. Among them, 9 were detected with Gd-MRI and 29 with MDCT. The baseline characteristics of patients with recurrent HCC showed no significant differences according to the detection test. The HCC recurrence detection rate of Gd-MRI and MDCT was 4.8% (9/180) and 4.3% (29/580), respectively, on the per test basis (P = 0.764). However, in the population with a follow-up period of ≥12 months, the detection rate of Gd-MRI and MDCT was 4.3% (7/150) and 1.5% (19/400), respectively (P = 0.035). Recurrent HCCs detected with Gd-MRI were smaller than those detected with MDCT (tumor size < 2 cm, 100% vs 65.5%, P = 0.040). Our data suggest that Gd-MRI has advantages in detecting recurrent HCC after hepatectomy. Surveillance with alternating MDCT and Gd-MRI may identify more recurrent HCC in an early stage than with MDCT alone in patients who received hepatectomy for HCC. PMID:28002336

  3. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Performed with Expanded-Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Fabrizio Bezzi, Mario; Bruni, Antonio; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-02-15

    We assessed, in a prospective study, the efficacy of multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency in patients treated with the Viatorr (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered stent-graft. Eighty patients who underwent TIPS procedure using the Viatorr self-expanding e-PTFE stent-graft were evaluated at follow-up of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with clinical and laboratory tests as well as ultrasound-color Doppler (USCD) imaging. In case of varices, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was also performed. In addition, the shunt was evaluated using MDCT at 6 and 12 months. In all cases of abnormal findings and discrepancy between MDCT and USCD, invasive control venography was performed. MDCT images were acquired before and after injection of intravenous contrast media on the axial plane and after three-dimensional reconstruction using different algorithms. MDCT was successfully performed in all patients. No artefacts correlated to the Viatorr stent-graft were observed. A missing correlation between UCSD and MDCT was noticed in 20 of 80 (25%) patients. Invasive control venography confirmed shunt patency in 16 (80%) cases and shunt malfunction in 4 (20%) cases. According to these data, MDCT sensitivity was 95.2%; specificity was 96.6%; and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively. USCD sensitivity was 90%; specificity was 75%; and PPV and NPV were 54.5 and 95.7%, respectively. A high correlation (K value = 0.85) between MDCT and invasive control venography was observed. On the basis of these results, MDCT shows superior sensitivity and specificity compared with USCD in those patients in whom TIPS was performed with the Viatorr stent-graft. MDCT can be considered a valid tool in the follow-up of these patients.

  4. A study considering the force required for broken glass bottles to penetrate a skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Gary; Lawes, Simon; Hainsworth, Sarah; Rutty, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Injuries and assaults related to alcohol consumption are a growing concern in many countries. In such cases, the use of impulsive weapons, an object from the immediate environment, such as a glass bottle, is not uncommon. This current study utilises a material testing system to measure the force required to push a broken glass bottle into a skin simulant with the displacement of the bottle into the skin simulant being recorded simultaneously, using a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). From this data, load versus displacement plots were produced. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) was also used to analyse bottle wall thickness to determine if a relationship could be found between force required for penetration and bottle wall thickness. The forces required for the penetration of the skin simulant ranged from 9.8 to 56.7 N. The range was found to be independent of bottle type with the variation in force for penetration being attributed to the varying fracture points, with some fractures presenting a sharper point on first contact with the skin. Although the dangers associated with the use of broken bottles as weapons is apparent, there is a paucity of information in this area in the current English literature, which this study has addressed. The results of this study also highlight the risks of attempting reconstructions of broken bottle stab events.

  5. A clinical comparison study of a novel statistical iterative and filtered backprojection reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No"l, Peter B.; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Renger, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Dobritz, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm employed in reduced dose MDCT acquisitions provides low reconstruction quality, e.g. high noise level, and many artifacts. Thus, there is the need for efficient reconstruction methods that have dose reduction potential while providing high reconstruction quality. In this work we present a comparison study between a statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm called iDose and the FBP algorithm. iDose is a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm which provides enhanced image quality while reducing the radiation dose compared to conventional algorithms. We report on the performance of the two algorithms with respect to uniformity, noise characteristics, spatial resolution, and patient studies. With respect to the uniformity of the Hounsfield Units (HU), we found that the mean HU value remains stable while employing iDose. With iDose the noise is significantly reduced. This is reflected by an improvement in the contrast-to-noise ratio and in the noise-power-spectrum compared to the FBP. The measurements of the modulation-transfer-function confirm that with iDose there is no decline in spatial resolution. In clinical studies, slices reconstructed with the iDose algorithm showed significantly lower mean noise. Inspired by our phantom and clinical results, we come to the conclusion that iDose is an important tool when considering the reduction of radiation dose in CT. However, continuous efforts to reduce radiation dose should be further proceeded.

  6. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study) was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC) of the radiologist and SVM models. Results In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0.876, respectively. While the

  7. Multi-detector row CT as a "one-stop" examination in the preoperative evaluation of the morphology and function of living renal donors: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen; Yan, Chaogui; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Xuhui; Chen, Yaqing; Liu, Mingjuan; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2011-02-01

    We designed to investigate the feasibility of multi-detector row computerized tomography (CT) as a "one-stop" examination for the simultaneous preoperative evaluation of the morphology and function of living renal donors. 21 living renal donors were examined by 64-slice spiral CT with a three-phase enhancement CT scan and two inserted dynamic scans. The maximum intensity projection (MIP), multi-planar reformation (MPR), and volume reconstruction (VR) procedures were performed to compare the renal parenchyma, renal vessels, and collecting system with operational findings. The known Patlak equation was used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); exact GFR information was acquired by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our results as following, there were 3 cases of artery variation and 3 cases of vein variation. CT findings all corresponded with the operation, and the sensitivity, positive predictive value, specialty, and negative predictive value of CT were all 100%. The r of the GFR values estimated from CT is 0.894 (left) (P < 0.001) and 0.881 (right) (P < 0.001). In conclusions, our findings demonstrate that 64-slice spiral CT may offer a "one-stop" examination to replace SPECT in the preoperative evaluation of living renal donors to simultaneously provide information regarding both anatomy and the GFR of living renal donors.

  8. Automatic exposure control in pediatric and adult multidetector CT examinations: A phantom study on dose reduction and image quality

    SciTech Connect

    Papadakis, Antonios E.; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a modern x,y,z modulation-based automatic exposure control system (AEC) for dose reduction in pediatric and adult multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging and evaluate the quality of the images obtained. Five physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate the average individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year old child, and adult were scanned with a MDCT scanner, equipped with a modern AEC system. Dose reduction (%DR) was calculated as the percentage difference of the mean modulated and the preset tube current-time product that is prescribed for standard head and body scan protocols. The effect of the tube potential and the orientation of the topogram acquisition on dose reduction were assessed. Image quality was evaluated on the basis of image noise and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The dose reduction values achieved in pediatric phantoms were remarkably lower than those achieved for the adult. The efficiency of the AEC is decreased at 80 kVp compared to higher tube potentials and for helical scans following an anterior posterior (AP-AEC) compared to a lateral (LAT-AEC) topogram acquisition. In AP-AEC scans, the dose reduction ranged between 4.7 and 34.7% for neonate, 15.4 and 30.9% for 1 year old, 3.1 and 26.7% for 5 years old, 1.2 and 58.7% for 10 years old, and 15.5 and 57.4% for adult. In LAT-AEC scans, the corresponding dose reduction ranged between 11.0 and 36.5%, 27.2 and 35.7%, 11.3 and 35.6%, 0.3 and 67.0%, and 15.0 and 61.7%, respectively. AP-AEC scans resulted in a 17.1% and 19.7% dose increase in the thorax of neonate and the pelvis of the 10-year old phantom, respectively. The variation in the measured noise among images obtained along the scanning z axis was lower in AEC activated compared to fixed milliamperes scans. However, image noise was significantly increased (P<.001) and SNR significantly decreased (P<.001) in most AEC activated compared to fixed milliamperes scans. In conclusion, AEC resulted in a (i

  9. A reliable radiographic measurement for evaluation of normal distal tibiofibular syndesmosis: a multi-detector computed tomography study in adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxi; Qiang, Minfei; Zhang, Kun; Li, Haobo; Dai, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Syndesmotic injury may be difficult to diagnose, and radiological evaluation is very important. The purpose of this study was to offer a series of reliable and repeatable normal tibiofibular syndesmosis parameters in diagnosing injuries of the syndesmosis. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and radiographs of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis in 484 cases were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant parameters included the tibiofibular clear space (TCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), the depth of the incisura fibularis (IFD), and the height of the incisura fibularis (IFH), which were measured by novel three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) techniques. The distance between the measuring plane of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and the tibial plafond was measured. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the root mean square standard deviation (RMS-SD), to determine measurement precision. Sex differences of parameters were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body height as the covariate. Paired sample t-testing was used to compare parameters in different image modalities, including radiography, and 2-D and 3-D CT. The reliability of the 3-D images measurement (ICC range, 0.907 to 0.972) was greater than that for the 2-D axial images (ICC range, 0.895 to 0.927), and the AP view radiographs (ICC range, 0.742 to 0.838). The intra-rater RMS-SD of the 3-D CT, 2-D CT and radiographic measurements were less than 0.94 mm, 0.26 mm, and 2.87 mm, respectively. The measuring plane of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis showed the sex difference, which was 12.1 mm proximal to the tibial plafond in the male group and 7.8 mm in the female group. In this plane, the parameters for tibiofibular syndesmosis were measured in different image modalities. All variables were significantly different between females and males (p < 0.05). 3-D measurement technique could be helpful to identify

  10. Iodine-125 Seeds Strand for Treatment of Tumor Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen Yan, Zhiping Luo, Jianjun Fang, Zhuting Wu, Linlin Liu, QingXin Qu, Xudong Liu, Lingxiao Wang, Jianhua

    2013-10-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model of implanted inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) and to evaluate the effect of linear iodine-125 seeds strand in treating implanted IVCTT. Methods: Tumor cell line VX{sub 2} was inoculated subcutaneously into New Zealand rabbit to develop the parent tumor. The tumor strip was inoculated into inferior vena cava (IVC) to establish the IVCTT model. The IVCTT was confirmed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) after 2 weeks. Twelve rabbits with IVCTT were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (group T; n = 6) underwent Iodine-125 seeds brachytherapy, and the control group (group C; n = 6) underwent blank seeds strand. The blood laboratory examination (including blood routine examination, hepatic and renal function), body weight, survival time, and IVCTT volume by MDCT were monitored. All rabbits were dissected postmortem, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated on the basis of histopathology. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index (PI) and apoptosis index (AI) of IVCTT were compared between two groups. T test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis were used. Results: The success rate of establishing IVCTT was 100 %. The body weight loss and cachexia of rabbits in group C appeared earlier than in group T. Body weight in the third week, the mean survival time, PI, AI in groups T and C were 2.23 {+-} 0.12 kg, 57.83 {+-} 8.68 days, (16.73 {+-} 5.18 %), (29.47 {+-} 7.18 %), and 2.03 {+-} 0.13 kg, 43.67 {+-} 5.28 days, (63.01 {+-} 2.01 %), (6.02 {+-} 2.93 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group T and group C (P < 0.05). The IVCTT volume of group T was remarkably smaller than that of group C. Conclusions: Injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into IVC is a reliable method to establish IVCTT animal model. The linear Iodine-125 seeds strand brachytherapy was a safe and effective method for treating IVCTT

  11. Characterization of trabecular bone plate-rod microarchitecture using multirow detector CT and the tensor scale: Algorithms, validation, and applications to pilot human studies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Punam K.; Liu, Yinxiao; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Letuchy, Elena M.; Xu, Ziyue; Amelon, Ryan E.; Burns, Trudy L.; Torner, James C.; Levy, Steven M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease associated with increased risk of low-trauma fractures leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD); however, increasing evidence suggests that trabecular bone (TB) microarchitectural quality is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. A tensor scale based algorithm for in vivo characterization of TB plate-rod microarchitecture at the distal tibia using multirow detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is presented and its performance and applications are examined. Methods: The tensor scale characterizes individual TB on the continuum between a perfect plate and a perfect rod and computes their orientation using optimal ellipsoidal representation of local structures. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using computer-generated phantom images at a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio achievable in vivo. The robustness of the method was examined in terms of stability across a wide range of voxel sizes, repeat scan reproducibility, and correlation between TB measures derived by imaging human ankle specimens under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. Finally, the application of the method was evaluated in pilot human studies involving healthy young-adult volunteers (age: 19 to 21 yr; 51 females and 46 males) and patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (age: 19 to 21 yr; six males and six females). Results: An error of (3.2% ± 2.0%) (mean ± SD), computed as deviation from known measures of TB plate-width, was observed for computer-generated phantoms. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 was observed for tensor scale TB measures in repeat MD-CT scans where the measures were averaged over a small volume of interest of 1.05 mm diameter with limited smoothing effects. The method was found to be highly stable at different voxel sizes with an error of (2.29% ± 1.56%) at an in vivo voxel size

  12. Characterization of trabecular bone plate-rod microarchitecture using multirow detector CT and the tensor scale: Algorithms, validation, and applications to pilot human studies.

    PubMed

    Saha, Punam K; Liu, Yinxiao; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Letuchy, Elena M; Xu, Ziyue; Amelon, Ryan E; Burns, Trudy L; Torner, James C; Levy, Steven M; Calarge, Chadi A

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a common bone disease associated with increased risk of low-trauma fractures leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD); however, increasing evidence suggests that trabecular bone (TB) microarchitectural quality is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. A tensor scale based algorithm for in vivo characterization of TB plate-rod microarchitecture at the distal tibia using multirow detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is presented and its performance and applications are examined. The tensor scale characterizes individual TB on the continuum between a perfect plate and a perfect rod and computes their orientation using optimal ellipsoidal representation of local structures. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using computer-generated phantom images at a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio achievable in vivo. The robustness of the method was examined in terms of stability across a wide range of voxel sizes, repeat scan reproducibility, and correlation between TB measures derived by imaging human ankle specimens under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. Finally, the application of the method was evaluated in pilot human studies involving healthy young-adult volunteers (age: 19 to 21 yr; 51 females and 46 males) and patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (age: 19 to 21 yr; six males and six females). An error of (3.2% ± 2.0%) (mean ± SD), computed as deviation from known measures of TB plate-width, was observed for computer-generated phantoms. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 was observed for tensor scale TB measures in repeat MD-CT scans where the measures were averaged over a small volume of interest of 1.05 mm diameter with limited smoothing effects. The method was found to be highly stable at different voxel sizes with an error of (2.29% ± 1.56%) at an in vivo voxel size as compared to the original

  13. Usefulness of 40-slice multidetector row computed tomography to detect coronary disease in patients prior to cardiac valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Kefer, Joëlle; Pasquet, Agnès; Coche, Emmanuel; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2007-12-01

    Preoperative identification of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients prior to valve surgery requires systematic invasive coronary angiography. The purpose of this current prospective study was to evaluate whether exclusion of CAD by multi-detector CT (MDCT) might potentially avoid systematic cardiac catheterization in these patients. Eighty-two patients (53 males, 62 +/- 13 years) scheduled to undergo valve surgery underwent 40-slice MDCT before invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). According to QCA, 15 patients had CAD (5 one-vessel, 6 two-vessel and 4 three-vessel disease). The remaining 67 patients had no CAD. On a per-vessel basis, MDCT correctly identified 27/29 (sensitivity 93%) vessels with and excluded 277/299 vessels (specificity 93%) without CAD. On a per-patient basis, MDCT correctly identified 14/15 patients with (sensitivity 93%) and 60/67 patients without CAD (specificity 90%). Positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 67% and 98%. Performing invasive angiography only in patients with abnormal MDCT might have avoided QCA in 60/82 (73%). MDCT could be potentially useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with valve disease. By selecting only those patients with coronary lesions to undergo invasive coronary angiography, it could avoid cardiac catheterization in a large number of patients without CAD.

  14. Differences in episode-based care costs for multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography versus myocardial perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Min, James K; Robinson, Matthew; Shaw, Leslee J; Lin, Fay; Legorreta, Antonio P; Gilmore, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a novel method for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The opportunity costs that favour MDCT over other CAD diagnostic methods is currently unknown. This study used an episodes of care cost model based on epidemiologic and economic data evaluating individuals without known CAD undergoing MDCT or myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). It was a multicenter retrospective database review of medical and pharmacy-related claims linked by episodes of care from 2002 to 2005. CAD-related episodes of care costs were examined 1-year downstream for patients after initial MDCT that were matched to patients who underwent MPS. After adjustment for patient factors, 1-year total CAD-related episodes of care costs for MDCT were 16.4% lower than MPS, by an average of $682 (95% confidence interval $14, $1,350) per patient. While costs per CAD-related episode were similar between MDCT and MPS groups ($4,284 vs. $4,277, p=0.08). Patients without known CAD who undergo MDCT as an initial diagnostic test, compared to MPS, incurred fewer CAD-related episodes of care and lower overall CAD-related costs.

  15. Does Computed Tomography Change our Observation and Management of Fracture Non-Unions?

    PubMed Central

    Kleinlugtenbelt, Ydo V.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.B.; Toor, Jay; Amaechi, Christian; Maas, Mario; Bhandari, Mohit; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) in addition to plain radiographs influences radiologists’ and orthopedic surgeons’ diagnosis and treatment plans for delayed unions and non-unions. Methods: A retrospective database of 32 non-unions was reviewed by 20 observers. On a scale of 1 to 5, observers rated on X-Ray and a subsequent Multi Detector Helical Computer Tomography (MDCT) scan was performed to determine the following categories: “healed”, “bridging callus present”, “persistent fracture line” or “surgery advised”. Interobserver reliability in each category was calculated using the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The influence of the MDCT scan on the raters’ observations was determined in each case by subtracting the two scores of both time points. Results: All four categories show fair interobserver reliability when using plain radiographs. MDCT showed no improvement, the reliability was poor for the categories “bridging callus present” and “persistent fracture line”, and fair for “healed” and “surgery advised”. In none of the cases, MDCT led to a change of management from nonoperative to operative treatment or vice versa. For 18 out of 32 cases, the treatment plans did not alter. In seven cases MDCT led to operative treatment while on X-ray the treatment plan was undecided. Conclusion: In this study, the interobserver reliability of MDCT scan is not greater than conventional radiographs for determining non-union. However, a MDCT scan did lead to a more invasive approach in equivocal cases. Therefore a MDCT is only recommended for making treatment strategies in those cases. PMID:27847846

  16. Detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparison of multi-detector CT with digital subtraction angiography and Lipiodol CT

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Hua; Guan, Yong-Song; Zhou, Xiang-Ping; Huang, Juan; Sun, Long; Li, Xiao; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of biphasic multi-detector row helical computed tomography (MDCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and Lipiodol computed tomography (CT) in detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with nodular HCC underwent biphasic MDCT examination: hepatic arterial phase (HAP) 25 s and portal venous phase (PVP) 70 s after injection of the contrast medium (1.5 mL/kg). They also underwent hepatic angiography and intra-arterial infusion of iodized oil. Lipiodol CT was performed 3-4 wk after infusion. MDCT images were compared with DSA and Lipiodol CT images for detection of hepatic nodules. RESULTS: The three imaging techniques had the same sensitivity in detecting nodules >20 mm in diameter. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity among HAP-MDCT, Lipiodol CT and DSA for nodules of 10-20 mm in diameter. For the nodules <10 mm in diameter, HAP-MDCT identified 47, Lipiodol CT detected 27 (χ2 = 11.3, P = 0.005<0.01, HAP-MDCT vs Lipiodol CT) and DSA detected 16 (χ2 = 9.09, P = 0.005<0.01 vs Lipiodol CT and χ2 = 29.03, P = 0.005<0.01vs HAP-MDCT). However, six nodules <10 mm in diameter were detected only by Lipiodol CT. CONCLUSION: MDCT and Lipiodol CT are two complementary modalities. At present, MDCT does not obviate the need for DSA and subsequent Lipiodol CT as a preoperative examination for HCC. PMID:15633215

  17. Adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension: an image quality study of low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media combined with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Qiong; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Anqin; Li, Haojie; Liang, Lili; Hu, Yao; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Daoyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing the radiation and iodine contrast doses in adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension patients. A total of 148 hypertension patients who were suspected for adrenal lesions or renal artery stenoses were assigned to two groups and. Group A (n=74) underwent a low tube voltage, low molecular weight dextran enhanced multi-detector row spiral CT (MDCT) (80 kVp, 270 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the raw data were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) and ASIR at four different levels of blending (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%, respectively). The control group (Group B, n=74) underwent conventional MDCT (120 kVp, 370 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the data were reconstructed with FBP. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) were measured in the renal vessels, normal adrenal tissue, adrenal neoplasms and subcutaneous fat. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded, and an effective dose (ED) was obtained. Two-tailed independent t-tests, paired Chi-square tests and Kappa consistency tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. The CTDIvol , DLP and total iodine dose in group A were decreased by 47.8%, 49.0% and 26.07%, respectively, compared to group B (P<.001). In the qualitative quality analysis, the radiologists rated the 60% ASIR the highest. The mean value of noise (SD) was significantly lower in the 40%, 60% and 80% ASIR-A groups compared with FBP-B for all comparisons. Compared to FBP-B, CNR was significantly higher, with 40%, 60% and 80% ASIR in renal artery stems (P<.05). Compared with FBP-B, a significant increase in the SNR of 40%, 60%, or 80% ASIR was observed in all cases (P<.05). Compared with conventional protocols, the use of low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast

  18. Thin-section CT of lung without ECG gating: 64-detector row CT can markedly reduce cardiac motion artifact which can simulate lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Masahiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Atsuo; Daimon, Tadahisa; Honda, Osamu; Mihara, Naoki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2009-01-01

    Motion artifacts, which can mimic thickened bronchial wall and the cystic appearance of bronchiectasis, constitute a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of interstitial or bronchial disease. Therefore, purpose of our study was to evaluate whether 64-detector row CT (64-MDCT) enables a reduction in respiratory or cardiac motion artifacts in the lung area on thin-section CT without ECG gating, and to examine the correlation between cardiac motion artifact and heart rate. Thirty-two patients with suspected diffuse lung disease, who underwent both 8- and 64-MDCT (gantry rotation time, 0.5 and 0.4s, respectively), were included. The heart rates of an additional 155 patients were measured (range, 48-126 beats per minute; mean, 76 beats per minute) immediately prior to 64-MDCT, and compared to the degree of cardiac motion artifact. Two independent observers evaluated the following artifacts on a monitor without the knowledge of relevant clinical information: (1) artifacts on 8- and 64-MDCT images with 1.25-mm thickness and those on 64-MDCT images with 0.625-mm thickness in 32 patients; and (2) artifacts on 64-MDCT images with 0.625-mm thickness in 155 patients. Interobserver agreement was good in evaluating artifacts on 8-MDCT images with 1.25-mm thickness (weighted Kappa test, kappa=0.61-0.71), and fair or poor in the other evaluations (kappa<0.31). Two observers stated that cardiac motion artifacts were more significant on 8-MDCT than on 64-MDCT in all 32 patients. Statistically significant differences were found at various checkpoints only in comparing artifacts between 8- and 64-MDCT for 1.25-mm thickness (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p<0.0017). Cardiac motion artifacts on 64-MDCT had no significant correlation with heart rate (Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test). The high temporal resolution of 64-MDCT appears to reduce cardiac motion artifact that can affect thin-section scans of the lung parenchyma.

  19. A novel biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis: serum DKK1 concentration correlates with coronary artery calcification and atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Park, Kyoung Un; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Chae, In-Ho; Song, Junghan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2011-09-01

    DKK1 modulates Wnt signaling, which is involved in the atherosclerosis. However, no data exist regarding the usefulness of measuring serum DKK1 concentration in predicting coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 270 consecutive patients (62.8 ± 11.2 yr; 70% male) were included. A contrast-enhanced 64-slice coronary MDCT was performed to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Agatston calcium scores (CS) were calculated to quantify the coronary artery calcification (CAC). DKK1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each subsequent DKK1 quartile, there was a significant increase in CAC (P = 0.004) and the number of segments with coronary atherosclerosis (P < 0.001). In addition, DKK1 concentration was significantly higher in patients with atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of plaque composition (P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified DKK1 as an independent risk factor for the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The adjusted odds ratio for coronary atherosclerotic plaque was 4.88 (95% CI, 1.67 to 14.25) for highest versus lowest quartile of the DKK1 levels. Furthermore, patients with DKK1 concentrations ≥ 68.6 pg/mL demonstrated coronary atherosclerotic plaques even when they had low CS. Serum DKK1 concentrations correlate with the coronary atherosclerosis and play an independent role in predicting the presence of coronary atherosclerosis.

  20. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) versus multidetector computed tomography in hemodynamically stable emergency patients.

    PubMed

    Fornell Pérez, R

    2017-02-10

    This critically appraised topic (CAT) study aims to evaluate the quality and extent of the scientific evidence that supports the use of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) versus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in hemodynamically stable trauma patients in the emergency room. An efficient search of the literature yielded several recent articles with a high level of evidence. The CAT study concludes that FAST is an acceptable initial imaging test in hemodynamically stable patients, although its performance is limited in certain circumstances. The decision whether to use MDCT should be determined by evaluating the patient's degree of instability and the distance to the MDCT scanner. Nevertheless, few articles address the question of the distance to MDCT scanners in emergency departments.

  1. Controversies about effects of low-kilovoltage MDCT acquisition on Agatston calcium scoring.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Fabrice C; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Ghaye, Benoît; Raaijmakers, Rolf; Coche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent articles have advocated the possibility of obtaining Agatston coronary calcium scoring at 100 kVp by using a single adapted elevated calcium threshold. To evaluate the influence of kilovoltage potential protocols on the Agatston score, we acquired successive scans of a calcium scoring phantom at 4 levels of kilovoltage potential (80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp, 55 mAs) and measured semiautomatically the individual and the total Agatston score of 6 inserts (of 5-mm and 3-mm diameter) containing hydroxyapatite at different concentrations (800, 400, 200 mg/cm(3)). Our results showed that Agatston scores obtained at various low-kilovoltage potential protocols can be highly overestimated in some particular cases. At 80 kVp, for example, mean measured Agatston score was multiplied by a factor from 1.06 (5-mm highest density insert) to 2.67 (3-mm lowest density insert) compared with the Agatston scores performed at 120 kVp. Indeed in the one hand, reducing kilovoltage potential in multidetector CT acquisitions increase the CT density of coronary calcifications that can be measured on the reconstructed images. On the other hand, Agatston score is a multi-threshold measurement (with a step weighting function). Consequently low kilovoltage potential can lead to overweight some calcifications scores. For these reasons, Agatston score with low kilovoltage potential acquisition cannot be reliably adapted by a unique recalibration of the standard calcium attenuation threshold of 130 HU and requires a standardized CT acquisition protocol at 120 kVp. Alternatives to performing low-dose coronary artery calcium scans are either using coronary calcium scans with reduced tube current (low mAs) at 120 kVp with the iterative reconstructions or using mass/volume scoring (not influenced by kilovoltage potential variations). Finally, we emphasized that incorrect Agatston score evaluation may have important clinical, financial, and health care implications.

  2. Typical MDCT Angiography Findings of an Unusual Cutaneous Neoplasia; Masson Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Samanci, Cesur; Bakan, Selim; Alis, Denizcan; Kaur, Ahmet; Şanlı, Deniz Tekcan; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), also known as masson tumour, is a lesion composed of proliferating endothelial cells. Case Report In this article we explained clinical, histological and radiological features of IPEH involving the scalp, localized on the left side of the skull and in the periauricular region. Conclusions Radiologically, intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia could be misdiagnosed as malignant or benign vascular tumour. On cross-sectional imaging it is useful demonstrating the extremely vascular component of IPEH. But IPEH has no specific radiologic features that we can use to differentiate from the aforementioned lesions. Due to that, histopathological examinations are needed to diagnose IPEH. PMID:25624958

  3. Congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries: case report using MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Matusz, Petru; Miclăuş, Graţian Dragoslav; Banciu, Christian Dragoş; Sas, Ioan; Joseph, Shamfa C; Pirtea, Laurenţiu Cornel; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    A congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries is a rare congenital abnormality that can occur in the presence of multiple other anomalies. We describe an atypical case of a right congenital solitary kidney with three renal arteries (RA) one main RA and two additional renal arteries in a 75-year-old woman with uterine didelphys. The main RA had an intraluminal diameter larger than the diameter of the additional renal arteries (AdRAs) at the origin (0.53 cm for the main RA; 0.49 cm and 0.32 cm for the two AdRAs). Both the AdRAs had a greater length than the main RA (3.51 cm for the main RA; 3.70 cm and 4.77 cm for the two AdRAs). The calculated volume of the kidney was 283 cm³, while the volume of the renal parenchyma was 258 cm³. Knowledge of this variant is extremely important in clinical practice as it has been found to be associated with proteinuria, hypertension and renal insufficiency.

  4. Small bowel obstruction in the emergency department: MDCT features of common and uncommon causes.

    PubMed

    Tirumani, Harika; Vassa, Ravi; Fasih, Najla; Ojili, Vijayanadh

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction is a common condition encountered by the radiologist in the emergency department. Though intestinal adhesions and obstructed hernias are the most common causes of acute small bowel obstruction, a variety of uncommon and rare conditions can cause acute and subacute bowel obstruction. Imaging plays a key role in the workup of bowel obstruction by identifying the cause, level, and degree of bowel obstruction. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the multi-detector computed tomography features of common and uncommon causes of acute and subacute small bowel obstruction.

  5. Characteristic image quality of a third generation dual-source MDCT scanner: Noise, resolution, and detectability

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Justin; Wilson, Joshua; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the inherent image quality characteristics of a new multidetector computed tomography system in terms of noise, resolution, and detectability index as a function of image acquisition and reconstruction for a range of clinically relevant settings. Methods: A multisized image quality phantom (37, 30, 23, 18.5, and 12 cm physical diameter) was imaged on a SOMATOM Force scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions) under variable dose, kVp, and tube current modulation settings. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) with iterative strengths of 3, 4, and 5. Image quality was assessed in terms of the noise power spectrum (NPS), task transfer function (TTF), and detectability index for a range of detection tasks (contrasts of approximately 45, 90, 300, −900, and 1000 HU, and 2–20 mm diameter) based on a non-prewhitening matched filter model observer with eye filter. Results: Image noise magnitude decreased with decreasing phantom size, increasing dose, and increasing ADMIRE strength, offering up to 64% noise reduction relative to FBP. Noise texture in terms of the NPS was similar between FBP and ADMIRE (<5% shift in peak frequency). The resolution, based on the TTF, improved with increased ADMIRE strength by an average of 15% in the TTF 50% frequency for ADMIRE-5. The detectability index increased with increasing dose and ADMIRE strength by an average of 55%, 90%, and 163% for ADMIRE 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Assessing the impact of mA modulation for a fixed average dose over the length of the phantom, detectability was up to 49% lower in smaller phantom sections and up to 26% higher in larger phantom sections for the modulated scan compared to a fixed tube current scan. Overall, the detectability exhibited less variability with phantom size for modulated scans compared to fixed tube current scans. Conclusions: Image quality increased with increasing dose and decreasing phantom size. The CT system exhibited nonlinear noise and resolution properties, especially at very low-doses, large phantom sizes, and for low-contrast objects. Objective image quality metrics generally increased with increasing dose and ADMIRE strength, and with decreasing phantom size. The ADMIRE algorithm could offer comparable image quality at reduced doses or improved image quality at the same dose. The use of tube current modulation resulted in more consistent image quality with changing phantom size.

  6. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  7. Evaluation of Lung MDCT Nodule Annotation Across Radiologists and Methods1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy D.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Aberle, Denise R.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; MacMahon, Heber; Mullan, Brian F.; Yankelevitz, David F.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Armato, Samuel G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Gur, David; Henschke, Claudia I.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Bland, Peyton H.; Laderach, Gary; Pais, Richie; Qing, David; Piker, Chris; Guo, Junfeng; Starkey, Adam; Max, Daniel; Croft, Barbara Y.; Clarke, Laurence P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Integral to the mission of the National Institutes of Health–sponsored Lung Imaging Database Consortium is the accurate definition of the spatial location of pulmonary nodules. Because the majority of small lung nodules are not resected, a reference standard from histopathology is generally unavailable. Thus assessing the source of variability in defining the spatial location of lung nodules by expert radiologists using different software tools as an alternative form of truth is necessary. Materials and Methods The relative differences in performance of six radiologists each applying three annotation methods to the task of defining the spatial extent of 23 different lung nodules were evaluated. The variability of radiologists’ spatial definitions for a nodule was measured using both volumes and probability maps (p-map). Results were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model that included nested random effects. Results Across the combination of all nodules, volume and p-map model parameters were found to be significant at P < .05 for all methods, all radiologists, and all second-order interactions except one. The radiologist and methods variables accounted for 15% and 3.5% of the total p-map variance, respectively, and 40.4% and 31.1% of the total volume variance, respectively. Conclusion Radiologists represent the major source of variance as compared with drawing tools independent of drawing metric used. Although the random noise component is larger for the p-map analysis than for volume estimation, the p-map analysis appears to have more power to detect differences in radiologist-method combinations. The standard deviation of the volume measurement task appears to be proportional to nodule volume. PMID:16979075

  8. Computerized detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT: the usefulness of statistical texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

    2009-11-01

    Accurate detection of diffuse lung disease is an important step for computerized diagnosis and quantification of this disease. It is also a difficult clinical task for radiologists. We developed a computerized scheme to assist radiologists in the detection of diffuse lung disease in multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists selected 31 normal and 37 abnormal CT scans with ground glass opacity, reticular, honeycombing and nodular disease patterns based on clinical reports. The abnormal cases in our database must contain at least an abnormal area with a severity of moderate or severe level that was subjectively rated by the radiologists. Because statistical texture features may lack the power to distinguish a nodular pattern from a normal pattern, the abnormal cases that contain only a nodular pattern were excluded. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. The lungs were first segmented in each slice by use of a thresholding technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64 × 64 × 64 matrix size. For each VOI, we determined and employed statistical texture features, such as run-length and co-occurrence matrix features, to distinguish abnormal from normal lung parenchyma. In particular, we developed new run-length texture features with clear physical meanings to considerably improve the accuracy of our detection scheme. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by the use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. We investigated the impact of new and conventional texture features, VOI size and the dimensionality for regions of interest on detecting diffuse lung disease. When we employed new texture features for 3D VOIs of 64 × 64 × 64 voxels, our system achieved the highest performance level: a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal VOIs, and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal cases. Our computerized scheme would be useful for assisting radiologists in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.

  9. Criteria for establishing shielding of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) rooms.

    PubMed

    Verdun, F R; Aroua, A; Baechler, S; Schmidt, S; Trueb, P R; Bochud, F O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare two methods used for determining the proper shielding of computed tomography (CT) rooms while considering recent technological advances in CT scanners. The approaches of the German Institute for Standardisation and the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements were compared and a series of radiation measurements were performed in several CT rooms at the Lausanne University Hospital. The following three-step procedure is proposed for assuring sufficient shielding of rooms hosting new CT units with spiral mode acquisition and various X-ray beam collimation widths: (1) calculate the ambient equivalent dose for a representative average weekly dose length product at the position where shielding is required; (2) from the maximum permissible weekly dose at the location of interest, calculate the transmission factor F that must be taken to ensure proper shielding and (3) convert the transmission factor into a thickness of lead shielding. A similar approach could be adopted to use when designing shielding for fluoroscopy rooms, where the basic quantity would be the dose area product instead of the load of current (milliampere-minute).

  10. Defining vascular signatures of malignant hepatic masses: role of MDCT with 3D rendering.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sameer; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2013-08-01

    Malignant hepatic masses, both primary and metastatic lesions, have characteristic CT appearances and enhancement patterns. Owing to advances in CT resolution, high-quality vascular maps can be generated with 3D rendering tools to aid hepatic mass evaluation. These renderings enable identification of neovascularity, which is critical for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions, and facilitate identification of small hyperenhancing malignant hepatic tumors. In this review, CT features of malignant hepatic masses are discussed in conjunction with a demonstration of the role for 3D vascular mapping.

  11. MDCT imaging following nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: Protocol optimization and patterns of tumor recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Coquia, Stephanie F; Johnson, Pamela T; Ahmed, Sameer; Fishman, Elliot K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the common and uncommon sites of renal cell carcinoma recurrence throughout the body by examining their appearances on computerized tomography (CT). CT imaging protocols will be discussed. The sites of recurrence have been categorized into 4 groups: chest and mediastinum, abdomen and pelvis, musculoskeletal, and neurological. For each site of recurrence, a representative CT image correlate with discussion is provided. The unique CT appearance of renal cell carcinoma recurrence and how it can be used in lesion detection will be discussed. Renal cell carcinoma recurrences are hypervascular like the primary tumor, which can aid in not only lesion detection but also in some cases, differentiation from other primary tumors. Through CT case review of various sites of recurrence, lesions are shown to be easily seen on arterial phase while sometimes being nearly inconspicuous on venous or delayed phases. Coronal and sagittal reconstructions can also improve diagnostic sensitivity. CT is the most commonly used imaging tool for surveillance of renal cell carcinoma recurrence after nephrectomy. Knowledge of sites of recurrence as well as the utility of arterial phase imaging and multiplanar reconstructions will aid in optimizing detection of disease recurrence. PMID:24349648

  12. MDCT of pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the pathophysiology, gamut of imaging findings, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Spain, James; Rheinboldt, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Representing an ascending, sexually spread pyogenic infection of the female genital tract, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a commonly encountered cause for emergency visits and hospitalizations among young and adult female patients. Though gynecologic evaluation and sonography constitute the mainstay of diagnosis, multidetector CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is not uncommonly performed, often as the initial imaging modality, due to the frequently vague and indeterminate clinical presentation. As such, knowledge and attenuation to the often subtle early imaging features of PID afford the radiologist a critical chance to direct and expedite appropriate pathways of patient care, minimizing the risk for secondary complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and enteric adhesions. In this paper, we will review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, early and late imaging features of PID as well as potential secondary complications and treatment options. Additionally, we will discuss published data metrics on CT performance regarding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis as well as potential imaging differential diagnostic considerations.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound versus multidetector computed tomography in preoperative gastric cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Cimavilla Román, Marta; de la Serna Higuera, Carlos; Loza Vargas, Luz Andrea; Benito Fernández, César; Barrio Andrés, Jesús; Madrigal Rubiales, Beatriz; Fernández Pérez, Gabriel; Pérez-Miranda, Manuel

    2017-09-25

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the gold standard technique in loco-regional staging of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). Nevertheless, the introduction of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) allows accurate studies to be performed. To compare the diagnostic yield of EUS and MDCT in loco-regional preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma. This was a retrospective and comparative study of all surgical patients with GAC and preoperative staging by EUS and 64-row MDCT. The results for each case were compared with the histological data. Seventy seven surgical patients with GAC were identified and forty two had a complete preoperative staging and were finally included in the study. With regard to overall accuracy of T staging, EUS was superior to MDCT (62% vs 50%). In a subanalysis of early stages (T1-T2) and advanced stages (T3-T4), accuracy and sensitivity (S) were higher for EUS than for MDTC (83.3% vs 64.29% and 84.4% vs 59.5% respectively), although this did not reach statistical significance. The overall accuracy and sensitivity of EUS for N staging was lower than that for MDCT, although neither comparison reached statistical significance (57% vs 64% and 29% vs 55%). EUS diagnostic yield is similar to new MDCT with regard to T and N preoperative staging of GAC. Nevertheless, both techniques should be considered as complementary until more extensive and randomized studies can confirm these results.

  14. Accuracy of percutaneous soft-tissue interventions using a multi-axis, C-arm CT system and 3D laser guidance.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewa, Michael; Rathmann, Nils; Kara, Kerim; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Diehl, Steffen J

    2015-10-01

    Purpose of this phantom study was to compare the accuracy of needle placement using a multi-axis, C-arm-based, flat-panel, cone-beam computed tomography system (CBCT guidance) with that under multi-detector computed tomography guidance (MDCT guidance). In an abdominal phantom, eight lesions (six lesions in the liver and two in the renal pelvises, respectively) were each punctured in-plane and off-plane with a 20G needle under CBCT and MDCT guidance. Access paths were initially defined and reproduced identically on the two systems. In total, 32 interventions were conducted. CBCT and MDCT guidance was compared prospectively with respect to technical success, accuracy, and overall procedural time. All 32 interventions were technically successful in that it was possible to hit the respective lesion in each procedure. When comparing the accuracy of MDCT to CBCT guidance there was no significant difference in absolute, angular, and longitudinal deviation for either in- or off-plane interventions. Overall procedural duration was significantly longer under CBCT guidance for in-plane interventions (888 vs 527s, p=0.00005), whereas, for off-plane procedures there was no significant difference between CBCT and MDCT guidance (920 vs 701s, p=0.08). Off-plane interventions took significantly longer than in-plane interventions under MDCT guidance (701 vs 527s, p=0.03), whereas under CBCT guidance no significant difference could be found between off- and in-plane procedures (920 vs. 888s, p=0.2). In this phantom study, we could show that percutaneous soft-tissue interventions under CBCT guidance can be conducted with an accuracy comparable to that under MDCT guidance. Although overall procedural duration is in general shorter using MDCT guidance, CBCT-guided interventions offer the advantage of more degrees of freedom, which is of particular importance for off-plane procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Usefulness of multidetector computed tomography before and after pulmonary vein isolation.

    PubMed

    Revilla Orodea, Ana; Sánchez Lite, Israel; Gallego Beuth, Julio César; Sevilla Ruiz, Teresa; Sandín Fuentes, María G; Amat Santos, Ignacio Jesús; San Román Calvar, José Alberto

    To analyze the usefulness of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the preprocedural evaluation and follow-up of patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary veins and the impact of the MDCT findings on the approach to treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 92 consecutive MDCT studies done in 80 patients between January 2011 and June 2013; 70 (76%) studies were done before a first ablation procedure and 22 (24%) were done in patients who had undergone an ablation procedure. Findings were useful in 34% of the patients who underwent MDCT before the first ablation procedure and in 68% of the studies done after a procedure. The incidence of stroke associated with the ablation procedure was 3%, similar to the incidence recorded in our center before we started to use MDCT to evaluate the anatomy of the left atrium. All symptomatic patients had some pulmonary vein stenosis, and 80% had significant stenosis. Furthermore, the stenoses progressed very rapidly; treatment with balloon angioplasty was associated with early restenosis. Stenting was an alternative in cases of failed angioplasty. In the preprocedural evaluation and postprocedural follow-up of patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation, MDCT is useful for guiding treatment and detecting complications. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Scan time and patient dose for thoracic imaging in neonates and small children using axial volumetric 320-detector row CT compared to helical 64-, 32-, and 16- detector row CT acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Kroft, Lucia J M; Roelofs, Joost J H; Geleijns, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    Recently a 320-detector-row CT (MDCT) scanner has become available that allows axial volumetric scanning of a 16-cm-long range (50 cm field of view) in a single 0.35-s rotation. For imaging neonates and small children, volume scanning is potentially of great advantage as the entire scan range can be acquired in 0.35 s, which can reduce motion artefacts and may reduce the need for sedation in clinical CT imaging. Also, because there is no over-ranging associated with axial volumetric scanning, this may reduce patient radiation dose. To evaluate, by means of a phantom study, scan time and patient dose for thoracic imaging in neonates and small children by using axial cone-beam and helical fan-beam MDCT acquisitions. Paediatric imaging protocols were assessed for a 320-MDCT volumetric scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba, Otawara, Japan). The 320-MDCT scanner allows for cone-beam acquisitions with coverage up to 160 mm, but it also allows for helical fan-beam acquisitions in 64-, 32-, or 16-MDCT modes. The acquisition configurations that were evaluated were 320 x 0.5 mm, 240 x 0.5 mm, and 160 x 0.5 mm for axial volumetric scanning, and 64 x 0.5 mm, 32 x 0.5 mm, and 16 x 0.5 mm for helical scanning. Dose assessment was performed for clinically relevant paediatric angiographic or chest/mediastinum acquisition protocols with tube voltages of 80 or 100 kVp and tube currents between 40 and 80 mA. Scan time was 0.35 s for 320-MDCT acquisitions, scan times varied between 1.9 s and 8.3 s for helical acquisitions. Dose savings varying between 18% and 40% were achieved with axial volumetric scanning as compared to helical scanning (for 320- versus 64-MDCT at 160 mm and 80 kVp, and for 320- versus 16-MDCT at 80 mm and 100 kVp, respectively). Statistically significant reduction in radiation dose was found for axial 320-MDCT volumetric scanning compared to helical 64-, 32-, and 16-MDCT scanning. Axial thoracic CT of neonates and small children with volumetric 320-MDCT can be performed

  17. The clinical outcome of occult pulmonary contusion on multidetector-row computed tomography in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Deunk, Jaap; Poels, Tielke C; Brink, Monique; Dekker, Helena M; Kool, Digna R; Blickman, Johan G; van Vugt, Arie B; Edwards, Michael John Richard

    2010-02-01

    Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) is a more sensitive modality as compared with conventional radiography (CR) in detecting pulmonary injuries. MDCT often detects pulmonary contusion that is not visualized by CR, defined as occult pulmonary contusion (OPC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether OPC on MDCT has implications for the outcome in blunt trauma patients. We used prospectively collected data from 1,040 adult high-energy blunt trauma patients who were primarily presented at our emergency department and who underwent CR and MDCT of the chest. All patients with pulmonary contusion were identified and divided into two groups: The "CR/computed tomography (CT) group" consisted of patients with pulmonary contusion visible on both CR and MDCT. The "CT-only" group consisted of patients with OPC, visible exclusively on MDCT. The control group consisted of blunt trauma patients without pulmonary contusion. These groups were compared with respect to difference in mortality and other outcome measures. In addition, a multivariate analysis was performed. Two hundred fifty-five patients suffered pulmonary contusion: The CT-only group consisted of 157 and the CR/CT group of 98 patients. The CT-only group did not differ from the control group with respect to mortality rate and other outcome measures. However, compared with the CR/CT group, mortality rate was significantly lower (8% versus 16%, p = 0.039) and most other outcome measures were significantly better in the CT-only group. OPC on MDCT is not associated with a worse outcome as compared with patients without pulmonary contusion. OPC has a better outcome as compared with pulmonary contusion visible on both CR and MDCT.

  18. Sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum: a tertiary center experience.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vladimir M; Wani, Sachin B; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris M; Mullady, Daniel K; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S; Early, Dayna S; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Azar, Riad R

    2013-04-01

    There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: (1) evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum; and (2) assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and cross-sectional imaging. The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than the sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) (P < 0.001 for each). On review by expert radiologists, the sensitivity of MDCT increased to 83.3% in cases where the pancreatic duct was visualized, with fair IOA (κ = 0.34). Expert review of MRCPs did not identify any additional cases of pancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (κ = 0.43). Endoscopic ultrasound is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum.

  19. SENSITIVITY OF ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND, MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PANCREAS DIVISUM: A TERTIARY CENTER EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vladimir M.; Wani, Sachin B.; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris; Mullady, Daniel; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S.; Early, Dayna S.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Azar, Riad R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: 1. Evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum. 2. Assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent ERP and cross-sectional imaging. RESULTS The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) [p<0.001 for each]. On review by expert radiologists the sensitivity of MDCT increased to 83.3% in cases where the pancreatic duct was visualized, with fair IOA (қ=0.34). Expert review of MRCPs did not identify any additional cases of pancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (қ=0.43). CONCLUSIONS EUS is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum. PMID:23211370

  20. Preoperative evaluation value of aortic arch lesions by multidetector computed tomography angiography in type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Chen, Qiang; Lai, Qing-quan; Huang, Wen-han; Wu, Hong; Li, Wei-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to preoperatively evaluate the value of aortic arch lesions by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography in type A aortic dissection (AD). From January 2013 to December 2015, we enrolled 42 patients with type A AD who underwent MDCT angiography in our hospital. The institutional database of patients was retrospectively reviewed to identify MDCT angiography examinations for type A AD. Surgical corrections were conducted in all patients to confirm diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT angiography was 100% in all 42 patients. The intimal tear site locations that were identified in patients included the ascending aorta (n = 25), aortic arch (n = 12), and all other sites (n = 5). Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the aortic arch anatomy among the cases. Regarding the distance between the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries, compared with the control group, most cases with type A AD had a significant variation. MDCT angiography plays an important role in detecting aortic arch lesions of type A AD, especially in determining the location of the intimal entry site and change of branch blood vessels. Surgeons can formulate an appropriate operating plan, according to the preoperative MDCT diagnosis information. PMID:27684852

  1. Value and Accuracy of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Rishi Philip; Moorkath, Abdunnisar; Basti, Ram Shenoy; Suresh, Hadihally B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Objective; To find out the role of MDCT in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice with respect to the cause and level of the obstruction, and its accuracy. To identify the advantages of MDCT with respect to other imaging modalities. To correlate MDCT findings with histopathology/surgical findings/Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography (ERCP) findings as applicable. Material/Methods This was a prospective study conducted over a period of one year from August 2014 to August 2015. Data were collected from 50 patients with clinically suspected obstructive jaundice. CT findings were correlated with histopathology/surgical findings/ERCP findings as applicable. Results Among the 50 people studied, males and females were equal in number, and the majority belonged to the 41–60 year age group. The major cause for obstructive jaundice was choledocholithiasis. MDCT with reformatting techniques was very accurate in picking a mass as the cause for biliary obstruction and was able to differentiate a benign mass from a malignant one with high accuracy. There was 100% correlation between the CT diagnosis and the final diagnosis regarding the level and type of obstruction. MDCT was able to determine the cause of obstruction with an accuracy of 96%. Conclusions MDCT with good reformatting techniques has excellent accuracy in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice with regards to the level and cause of obstruction. PMID:27429673

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice multidetector-row CT for detection of in-stent restenosis vs detection of stenosis in nonstented coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Kefer, Joelle M; Coche, Emmanuel; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting in-stent restenosis. Fifty patients with 69 previously implanted coronary stents underwent 16-slice MDCT before quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of in-stent restenosis defined as >50% lumen diameter stenosis (DS) in stented and nonstented coronary segments >1.5-mm diameter was computed using QCA as reference. According to QCA, 18/69 (25%) stented segments had restenosis. In addition, 33/518 (6.4%) nonstented segments had >50% DS. In-stent restenosis was correctly identified on MDCT images in 12/18 stents, and absence of restenosis was correctly identified in 50/51 stents. Stenosis in native coronary arteries was correctly identified in 22/33 segments and correctly excluded in 482/485 segments. Thus, sensitivity (67% vs 67% p=1.0), specificity (98% vs 99%, p=0.96) and overall diagnostic accuracy (90% vs 97%, p=0.68) was similarly high for detecting in-stent restenosis as for detecting stenosis in nonstented coronary segments. MDCT has similarly high diagnostic accuracy for detecting in-stent restenosis as for detecting coronary artery disease in nonstented segments. This suggests that MDCT could be clinically useful for identification of restenosis in patients after coronary stenting.

  3. Comparison between blinded and partially blinded detection of gastric cancer with multidetector CT using surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Lee, D H; Ko, Y T

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare blinded with partially blinded detection of gastric cancer with multidetector (MD) CT by using surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as reference standards. 44 patients with gastric cancer underwent MDCT with air as an oral contrast agent. Surgery was performed on 37 patients, ESD on six and surgery after ESD on one. To provide comparison cases of blinded evaluation, 38 MDCT examinations were added for cases where no focal gastric lesion was seen on endoscopy. Two radiologists, blinded to the presence, number and location of the tumours, evaluated axial and axial plus multiplanar reformation (MPR) images of 82 MDCT examinations with or without gastric cancer. For partially blinded evaluation, the same radiologists, blinded to the location and number of tumours, evaluated axial and axial plus MPR images of 44 MDCT examinations of gastric cancer. Differences in assessment were resolved by consensus. 45 gastric cancers were found in surgical and ESD specimens. Detection rates of gastric cancer from axial and axial plus MPR images during blinded evaluation and from axial and axial plus MPR images during partially blinded evaluation were 62% (28/45), 64% (29/45), 64% (29/45) and 71% (32/45), respectively. There was no statistical significance for the comparison between blinded and partially blinded detection rates of gastric cancer. The detection rate of gastric cancer with MDCT during blinded evaluation showed no specific difference compared with the detection rate of gastric cancer with MDCT during partially blinded evaluation.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  5. Comparison of Two Accelerators for Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Calculations, NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p Coprocessor: A Case Study for X-ray CT Imaging Dose Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George; Carothers, Christopher D.

    2014-06-01

    Hardware accelerators are currently becoming increasingly important in boosting high performance computing sys- tems. In this study, we tested the performance of two accelerator models, NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor, using a new Monte Carlo photon transport package called ARCHER-CT we have developed for fast CT imaging dose calculation. The package contains three code variants, ARCHER - CTCPU, ARCHER - CTGPU and ARCHER - CTCOP to run in parallel on the multi-core CPU, GPU and coprocessor architectures respectively. A detailed GE LightSpeed Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) scanner model and a family of voxel patient phantoms were included in the code to calculate absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs under specified scan protocols. The results from ARCHER agreed well with those from the production code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). It was found that all the code variants were significantly faster than the parallel MCNPX running on 12 MPI processes, and that the GPU and coprocessor performed equally well, being 2.89~4.49 and 3.01~3.23 times faster than the parallel ARCHER - CTCPU running with 12 hyperthreads.

  6. Role of multidetector-row CT in assessing the source of arterial haemorrhage in patients with pelvic vascular trauma. Comparison with angiography.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A; Niola, R; Tortora, G; Ponticiello, G; Russo, G; Di Nuzzo, L; Gagliardi, N; Scaglione, M; Merola, S; Stavolo, C; Maglione, F; Romano, L

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the role of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in identifying active bleeding and its source in polytrauma patients with pelvic vascular injuries with or without associated fractures of the pelvis. From January 2003 to December 2007, 28 patients (19 men and nine women, age range 16-80 years) with acute symptoms from blunt pelvic trauma and a drop in haematocrit underwent MDCT and angiography. Conventional radiography of the pelvis was performed in all patients at the time of admission to the emergency department. MDCT was performed with a four-row unit in 15 patients and a 16-row unit in the remaining 13 patients. The study included whole-body CT to identify craniocerebral, vertebral, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic injuries. CT was performed before and after rapid infusion (4-5 ml/s) of intravenous contrast material (120 ml) using a power injector. A triphasic contrast-enhanced study was performed in all patients. MDCT images were transferred to a workstation to assess pelvic fracture, site of haematoma and active extravasation of contrast material, visibility of possible vascular injuries and associated traumatic lesions. At angiography, an abdominal and pelvic aortogram was obtained in all cases before selective catheterisation of the internal iliac arteries and superselective catheterisation of their branches for embolisation purposes. Results related to identifying the source of bleeding at MDCT were compared with sites of bleeding or vascular injury identified by selective pelvic angiography. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MDCT were determined. MDCT allowed us to identify pelvic bleeding in 21/28 patients (75%), with most cases being detected in the delayed contrast-enhanced phase (13/21 cases, 61.9%). Injured arteries were identified on MDCT in 12/21 cases (57%): the obturator artery (n=9), internal iliac artery (n=6), internal pudendal artery (n=6) and superior gluteal artery (n=5) were most frequently

  7. A study on a pedicle-screw-based reduction method for artificially reduced artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is a quantitative analysis of the degree of the reduction of the artifacts that are induced by pedicle screws through the application of the recently developed iterative metallic artifact reduction (I MAR) software. Screw-type implants that are composed of 4.5 g/cm3 titanium (Ti) with an approximate average computed tomography (CT) value of 6500 Hounsfield units (HUs) that are used for the treatment of spinal diseases were placed in paraffin, a tissueequivalent material, and then dried. After the insertion, the scanning conditions were fixed as 120 kVp and 250 mA using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) (Enlarge, Siemens, Germany). The slice thickness and the increment were set at the fields of view (FOVs) of 3 mm and 120 mm, respectively; the pitch is 0.8; the rotation time is 1 s; and the I MAR software was applied to the raw data of the acquired images to compare the CT-value changes of the posterior images. When the I MAR software was applied to animal vertebrae, it was possible to reduce the 65.7% image loss of the black-hole-effect image through the application of the I MAR software. When the I MAR image loss (%) was compared with the white-streak-effect image, the high-intensity image type with the white-streak effect could be reduced by 91.34% through the application of the I MAR software. In conclusion, a metal artifact that is due to a high-density material can be reduced more effectively when the I MAR algorithm is applied compared with that from the application of the conventional MAR algorithm. The I MAR can provide information on the various tissues that form around the artifact and the reduced metal structures, which can be helpful for radiologists and clinicians in their determination of an accurate diagnosis.

  8. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Major Hip Surgeries at a Single Institution: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Venous thoromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most significant complications after hip surgeries. Many studies have been reported about the incidence of VTE after THA, but a small number of reports were found concerning Periacetabular osteotomy, Revision THA and Surgery for hip fracture postoperatively. Furthermore, there exists no comparative study of the incidence of VTE among major hip surgeries at a single institution. We reported the incidence of VTE among hip surgeries performed at a single institution. Methods: A total of 820 Hip surgeries were performed at same institution. The procedures included 420 hips that underwent primary total hip arthroplasties (THA), 91 revision or removal of total hip arthroplasties (Revision THA), 144 periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and 165 surgery for hip fracture (SHF) between 2006 and 2012. VTE was detected by Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) that scanned 768 cases and by ultrasound that scanned 52cases postoperative 10-14 days. Results: The overall incidence of VTE was 12.2% (100 of 820). The incidence of VTE after THA was 13.1% (55 of 420), Revision THA was 13.2% (12 of 91), PAO was 2.1% (3 of 144) and SHF was 18.1% (30 of 165). The incidence of VTE was significantly higher in SHF than in PAO. Conclusion: This data indicates that the incidence of VTE after PAO is significantly lower than SHF and relatively lower than THA and Revision THA. A younger age and non-invasion of the bone marrow of the femur may have affected the result. Prophylaxis therapy was effective especially on SHF. PMID:27499823

  9. Measurement of radiation dose in cerebral CT perfusion study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Fukutomi, Yukimi; Oomoto, Kenji; Murase, Kenya; Miki, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate radiation dose in cerebral perfusion studies with a multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanner on various voltage and current settings by using a human head phantom. Following the CT perfusion study protocol, continuous cine scans (1 sec/rotation x60 sec) consisting of four 5-mm-thick contiguous slices were performed three times at variable tube voltages of 80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV with the same tube current setting of 200 mA and on variable current settings of 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA, and 200 mA with the same tube voltage of 80 kV. Radiation doses were measured using a total of 41 theroluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed in the human head phantom. Thirty-six TLDs were inside and three were on the surface of the slice of the X-ray beam center, and two were placed on the surface 3 cm caudal assuming the lens position. Average radiation doses of surface, inside, and lens increased in proportion to the increase