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Sample records for 67-kda laminin receptor

  1. Expression and regulation of the 67-kda laminin-binding protein and its precursor gene in lymphoid-cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Zhang, X; Sobel, M; Kondoh, N; Papas, T; Bhat, N

    1993-12-01

    The 67-kDa laminin-binding protein is a non-integrin laminin-binding protein that mediates cancer cell adhesion and migration. The expression of the 67-kDa laminin-binding protein and of its putative precursor, a 37-kDa polypeptide, was studied in peripheral T-cells and T-lymphoma cell lines. Immunofluorescence experiments detected antigen in both the cytosol and on the cell membrane. On immunoblots of T-cell protein extracts, both the 37-kDa precursor and the mature 67-kDa protein were present. The mRNA for the precursor was expressed in both immature and mature thymocytes. In three independent T-lymphoma cell lines, the mRNA levels were decreased after prolonged stimulation with phorbol esters. Since the latter directly activate protein kinase C, it appears that regulation of the 37-kDa precursor in T-cells may be mediated by the signal transduction cascade associated with protein kinase C activation.

  2. Laminin receptors for neurite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, H.K.; Ogle, R.C.; Cannon, F.B.; Little, C.D.; Sweeney, T.M.; Luckenbill-Edds, L.

    1988-02-01

    Laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein promotes both cell attachment and neurite outgrowth. Separate domains on laminin elicit these responses, suggesting that distinct receptors occur on the surface of cells. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells rapidly extend long processes in the presence of laminin. The authors report here that /sup 125/I-labeled laminin specifically binds to these cells and to three membrane proteins of 67, 110, and 180 kDa. These proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on laminin-Sepharose. The 67-kDa protein reacted with antibody to the previously characterized receptor for cell attachment to laminin. Antibodies to the 110-kDa and 180-kDa bands demonstrated that the 110-kDa protein was found in a variety of epithelial cell lines and in brain, whereas the 180-kDa protein was neural specific. Antibodies prepared against the 110-kDa and 180-kDa proteins inhibited neurite outgrowth induced by the neurite-promoting domain of laminin, whereas antibodies to the 67-kDa laminin receptor had no effect on neurite outgrowth. They conclude that neuronal cells have multiple cell-surface laminin receptors and that the 110-kDa and 180-kDa proteins are involved in neurite formation.

  3. Melanoma cells produce multiple laminin isoforms and strongly migrate on α5 laminin(s) via several integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yuko; Hansson, Johan; Sasaki, Takako; Rousselle, Patricia; Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Melanoma cells express and interact with laminins (LMs) and other basement membrane components during invasion and metastasis. In the present study we have investigated the production and migration-promoting activity of laminin isoforms in melanoma. Immunohistochemistry of melanoma specimens and immunoprecipitation/western blotting of melanoma cell lines indicated expression of laminin-111/121, laminin-211, laminin-411/421, and laminin-511/521. Laminin-332 was not detected. In functional assays, laminin-111, laminin-332, and laminin-511, but not laminin-211 and laminin-411, strongly promoted haptotactic cell migration either constitutively or following stimulation with insulin-like growth factors. Both placenta and recombinant laminin-511 preparations were highly active, and the isolated recombinant IVa domain of LMα5 also promoted cell migration. Function-blocking antibodies in cell migration assays revealed α6β1 integrin as the major receptor for laminin-111, and both α3β1 and α6β1 integrins for laminin-332 and laminin-511. In contrast, isolated LMα5 IVa domain-promoted melanoma cell migration was largely mediated via αVβ3 integrin and inhibited by RGD peptides. Given the ubiquitous expression of α5 laminins in melanoma cells and in melanoma-target tissues/anatomical structures, as well as the strong migration-promoting activity of these laminin isoforms, the α5 laminins emerge as putative primary extracellular matrix mediators of melanoma invasion and metastasis via α3β1 and other integrin receptors.

  4. Laminin receptor on human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Terranova, V P; Rao, C N; Kalebic, T; Margulies, I M; Liotta, L A

    1983-01-01

    Human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells possess a receptor-like moiety on their surface that has a high binding affinity (Kd = 2 nM) for laminin, a glycoprotein localized in basement membranes. Laminin preferentially stimulates (8-fold) MCF-7 cells to attach to type IV (basement membrane) collagen, whereas fibronectin stimulates attachment only 2-fold for these cells on type I collagen. The attachment properties of two other human breast carcinoma cell lines to type IV collagen were also studied. The attachment of ZR-75-1 cells was stimulated 4-fold by laminin and 5-fold by fibronectin, whereas T47-D cell attachment was stimulated 2-fold by laminin and 7-fold by fibronectin. By employing protease-derived fragments of laminin, the major domains of the laminin molecule that participate in MCF-7 cell attachment to type IV collagen were identified. The whole laminin molecule has the configuration of a four-armed cross with three short arms and one long arm. A major cell-binding domain was found to reside near the intersection point of the short arms, and the type IV collagen-binding domain was associated with the globular end regions of the short arms. The receptor for laminin on the surface of these tumor cells may be involved in the initial interaction of tumor cells via laminin with the vascular basement membrane to facilitate invasion and subsequent promotion of metastasis. Images PMID:6300843

  5. Presence of Laminin Receptors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J. D.; Dos Reis, M.; Brentani, R. R.

    1985-07-01

    A characteristic feature of infection by Staphylococcus aureus is bloodstream invasion and widespread metastatic abscess formation. The ability to extravasate, which entails crossing the vascular basement membrane, appears to be critical for the organism's pathogenicity. Extravasation by normal and neoplastic mammalian cells has been correlated with the presence of specific cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Similar laminin receptors were found in Staphylococcus aureus but not in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a noninvasive pathogen. There were about 100 binding sites per cell, with an apparent binding affinity of 2.9 nanomolar. The molecular weight of the receptor was 50,000 and pI was 4.2. Eukaryotic laminin receptors were visualized by means of the binding of S. aureus in the presence of laminin. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic invasive cells might utilize similar, if not identical, mechanisms for invasion.

  6. Laminins.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Laminins are cell adhesion molecules that comprise a family of glycoproteins found predominantly in basement membranes, which are the thin sheets of extracellular matrix that underlie epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle cells, Schwann cells, and fat cells. Many laminins self-assemble to form networks that remain in close association with cells through interactions with cell surface receptors. Laminins are vital for many physiological functions. They are essential for early embryonic development and organogenesis and have crucial functions in several tissues including muscle, nerve, skin, kidney, lung, and the vasculature. A great wealth of data on laminins is available, and an in-depth description is not attempted here. In this review, I will instead provide a snapshot of laminin structure, tissue distribution, and interactions with other matrix molecules and receptors and briefly describe laminin mutations in mice and humans. Several illuminating and timely reviews are cited that can be consulted for references to original articles and more detailed information concerning laminins.

  7. Laminins and their receptors in Schwann cells and hereditary neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    This review focuses on the influence of laminins, mediated through laminin receptors present on Schwann cells, on peripheral nerve development and pathology. Laminins influence multiple aspects of cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis, including cell survival, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and polarity. Peripheral nerves are no exception, as shown by the discovery that defective laminin signals contribute to the pathogenesis of diverse neuropathies such as merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4F, neurofibromatosis, and leprosy. In the last 5 years, advanced molecular and cell biological techniques and conditional mutagenesis in mice began revealing the role of different laminins and receptors in developing nerves. In this way, we are starting to explain morphological and pathological observations beginning at the start of the last century. Here, we review these recent advances and show how the roles of laminins and their receptors are surprisingly varied in both time and place.

  8. Laminin-induced Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering: An Alternative Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, J.E.; Glass, D.J.; Yancopoulos, G.D.; Hall, Z.W.

    1997-01-01

    The induction of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering by neurally released agrin is a critical, early step in the formation of the neuromuscular junction. Laminin, a component of the muscle fiber basal lamina, also induces AChR clustering. We find that induction of AChR clustering in C2 myotubes is specific for laminin-1; neither laminin-2 (merosin) nor laminin-11 (a synapse-specific isoform) are active. Moreover, laminin-1 induces AChR clustering by a pathway that is independent of that used by neural agrin. The effects of laminin-1 and agrin are strictly additive and occur with different time courses. Most importantly, laminin- 1–induced clustering does not require MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is part of the receptor complex for agrin. Laminin-1 does not cause tyrosine phosphorylation of MuSK in C2 myotubes and induces AChR clustering in myotubes from MuSK−/− mice that do not respond to agrin. In contrast to agrin, laminin-1 also does not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR, demonstrating that AChR tyrosine phosphorylation is not required for clustering in myotubes. Laminin-1 thus acts by a mechanism that is independent of that used by agrin and may provide a supplemental pathway for AChR clustering during synaptogenesis. PMID:9314538

  9. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  10. Differential expression of laminin receptors in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, I; Yamamoto, K; Mizuta, T; Kajihara, S; Fukushima, N; Setoguchi, Y; Morito, F; Sakai, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—Laminin receptors are involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions in malignant cells that show invasion and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma frequently shows early invasion into blood vessels, and intrahepatic and extrahepatic metastases. However, the role of laminin receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. 
Aims—To examine the expression of mRNA for laminin receptors and their isoforms in hepatocellular carcinoma. 
Methods—The expression of several laminin receptors, including α1 integrin, α6 integrin and its isoforms α6A and α6B, β1 integrin and its isoforms β1A and β1B, and 32kD/67kDa laminin binding protein was examined in human hepatocellular carcinomas and non-cancerous liver tissues using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. 
Results—α6 Integrin, β1 integrin, and laminin binding protein showed notably increased expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, compared with non-cancerous liver tissue, although the α1 integrin did not show a significant change. Furthermore, β1B integrin, a splicing variant of β1 integrin, was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma while the β1A integrin isoform did not show significant changes between hepatocellular carcinoma and surrounding non-cancerous liver tissue. 
Conclusions—The differential upregulation of laminin receptors and their splicing isoforms was shown in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that certain laminin receptors and their isoforms may be involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. 

 Keywords: laminin receptor; integrin α6β1; hepatocellular carcinoma PMID:9824613

  11. Crystal Structure of the Human Laminin Receptor Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson,K.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.; Meruelo, D.

    2008-01-01

    The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR.

  12. The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is a laminin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the putative laminin receptor function of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was assessed. For this purpose, we used a human cell line, referred to as clone A, that was derived from a highly invasive, colon adenocarcinoma. This cell line, which expresses the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, adheres to the E8 and not to the P1 fragment of laminin. The adhesion of clone A cells to laminin is extremely rapid with half- maximal adhesion observed at 5 min after plating. Adhesion to laminin is blocked by GoH3, and alpha 6 specific antibody (60% inhibition), as well as by A9, a beta 4 specific antibody (30% inhibition). Most importantly, we demonstrate that alpha 6 beta 4 binds specifically to laminin-Sepharose columns in the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+ and it is eluted from these columns with EDTA but not with NaCl. The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin does not bind to collagen-Sepharose, but the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin does bind. Clone A cells do not express alpha 6 beta 1 as evidenced by the following observations: (a) no beta 1 integrin is detected in beta 1 immunoblots of GoH3 immunoprecipitates; and (b) no alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is seen in GoH3 immunoprecipitates of clone A extracts that had been immunodepleted of all beta 4 containing integrin using the A9 antibody. These data establish that laminin is a ligand for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and that this integrin can function as a laminin receptor independently of alpha 6 beta 1. PMID:1533398

  13. The human integrin VLA-2 is a collagen receptor on some cells and a collagen/laminin receptor on others

    SciTech Connect

    Elices, M.J.; Hemler, M.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The integrin heterodimer VLA-2, previously known as a collagen receptor, is now shown also to be a laminin receptor. Adhesion of the human melanoma cell line LOX to laminin was inhibited by anti-VLA {alpha}{sup 2} antibodies. Because VLA-2-mediated LOX cell attachment to laminin was not inhibited by digestion with collagenase, collagen contamination of laminin was not a factor. In addition, VLA-2 from LOX cells bound to immobilized laminin, and binding was disrupted by EDTA but not by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. VLA-3 also bound to laminin-Sepharose, although less avidly than VLA-2. Thus, at least four separate members of the integrin {beta}{sub 1} subfamily serve as laminin receptors - i.e., VLA-2 and VLA-3 (this study) together with VLA-1 and VLA-6 (other reports). Whereas LOX and other cell lines used VLA-2 as both a laminin and collagen receptor, fibroblast VLA-2 mediated collagen but not laminin binding. Likewise, VLA-2 from platelets did not interact with laminin. Despite this functional discordancy, VLA-2 from laminin-binding and nonbinding sources was indistinguishable by all immunochemical and biochemical criteria examined. Thus, functional differences in VLA-2 may be due to cell type-specific modulation.

  14. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide inhibition of gastric mucosal laminin receptor: effect of sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, J; Czajkowski, A; Yotsumoto, F; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-11-01

    1. The effect of cell-wall lipopolysaccharide from Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium implicated in the etiology of gastric disease, on the gastric mucosal laminin-receptor was investigated. 2. The receptor, isolated from gastric epithelial cell membrane by affinity chromatography on laminin-coupled Sepharose, was radioiodinated and incorporated into liposomes which exhibited specific affinity towards laminin-coated surface. 3. The binding of liposomal receptor to laminin-coated surface was inhibited by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide, which at 50 micrograms/ml caused a nearly complete (97%) inhibition in binding. 4. The inhibitory effect of the lipopolysaccharide was prevented by a cytoprotective agent, sulglycotide, that evoked a 92% restoration in binding at 40 micrograms/ml. 5. The results demonstrate that through its lipopolysaccharide H. pylori is capable of disrupting the gastric mucosal integrity and that this detrimental effect could be successfully countered by sulglycotide.

  15. Characterization of the interaction between lysyl-tRNA synthetase and laminin receptor by NMR.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Young; Ul Mushtaq, Ameeq; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae Gyu; Seok, Min Sook; Jang, Minseok; Han, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sunghoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-08-25

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) interacts with the laminin receptor (LR/RPSA) and enhances laminin-induced cell migration in cancer metastasis. In this nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based study, we show that the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds directly to the C-terminal region of 37LRP, and the previously found inhibitors BC-K-01 and BC-K-YH16899 interfere with KRS-37LRP binding. In addition, the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds to laminin, observed by NMR and SPR. These results provide crucial insights into the structural characteristics of the KRS-LR interaction on the cell surface.

  16. A dual laminin/collagen receptor acts in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, B; Carbonetto, S; David, S

    1990-01-01

    A regeneration chamber was created in vivo by suturing a synthetic tube sealed at its distal end onto the proximal stump of a severed rat sciatic nerve. Nerves regenerated into tubes coated with laminin at a rate of 0.33 mm/day after a lag of about 2 days. At 25 days, regenerating nerves had extended 23% farther into laminin-coated tubes as compared with uncoated ones. Monoclonal antibody 3A3, which functionally interferes with a dual laminin/collagen receptor, inhibited nerve regeneration into laminin-coated tubes by 32%. In contrast, monoclonal antibody JG22, which inhibits chicken matrix receptors, had no significant effect on regeneration. Immunohistochemical studies of teased adult rat sciatic nerves indicate that 3A3 bound to Schwann cells and possibly to axons. In other studies, the heterodimeric, laminin/collagen receptor recognized by 3A3 has been shown to be a member of the integrin superfamily of adhesive receptors. These data provide evidence that an integrin receptor functions in nerve regeneration in vivo. Images PMID:2154740

  17. Looking into laminin receptor: critical discussion regarding the non-integrin 37/67-kDa laminin receptor/RPSA protein.

    PubMed

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Meruelo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LAMR/RPSA) was originally identified as a 67-kDa binding protein for laminin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that provides cellular adhesion to the basement membrane. LAMR has evolutionary origins, however, as a 37-kDa RPS2 family ribosomal component. Expressed in all domains of life, RPS2 proteins have been shown to have remarkably diverse physiological roles that vary across species. Contributing to laminin binding, ribosome biogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear functions, this protein governs critical cellular processes including growth, survival, migration, protein synthesis, development, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly given its purview, LAMR has been associated with metastatic cancer, neurodegenerative disease and developmental abnormalities. Functioning in a receptor capacity, this protein also confers susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. LAMR is clearly a molecule of consequence in human disease, directly mediating pathological events that make it a prime target for therapeutic interventions. Despite decades of research, there are still a large number of open questions regarding the cellular biology of LAMR, the nature of its ability to bind laminin, the function of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal region and its conversion from 37 to 67 kDa. This review attempts to convey an in-depth description of the complexity surrounding this multifaceted protein across functional, structural and pathological aspects. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Looking into laminin receptor: critical discussion regarding the non-integrin 37/67-kDa laminin receptor/RPSA protein

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Meruelo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LAMR/RPSA) was originally identified as a 67-kDa binding protein for laminin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that provides cellular adhesion to the basement membrane. LAMR has evolutionary origins, however, as a 37-kDa RPS2 family ribosomal component. Expressed in all domains of life, RPS2 proteins have been shown to have remarkably diverse physiological roles that vary across species. Contributing to laminin binding, ribosome biogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear functions, this protein governs critical cellular processes including growth, survival, migration, protein synthesis, development, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly given its purview, LAMR has been associated with metastatic cancer, neurodegenerative disease and developmental abnormalities. Functioning in a receptor capacity, this protein also confers susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. LAMR is clearly a molecule of consequence in human disease, directly mediating pathological events that make it a prime target for therapeutic interventions. Despite decades of research, there are still a large number of open questions regarding the cellular biology of LAMR, the nature of its ability to bind laminin, the function of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal region and its conversion from 37 to 67 kDa. This review attempts to convey an in-depth description of the complexity surrounding this multifaceted protein across functional, structural and pathological aspects. PMID:25630983

  19. Discovery of new small molecules inhibiting 67 kDa laminin receptor interaction with laminin and cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Ada; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Alfano, Daniela; Formisano, Luigi; Ragno, Pia; Selleri, Carmine; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a non-integrin receptor for laminin (LM) that derives from a 37 kDa precursor (37LRP). 67LR expression is increased in neoplastic cells and correlates with an enhanced invasive and metastatic potential. We used structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) to search for 67LR inhibitory small molecules, by focusing on a 37LRP sequence, the peptide G, able to specifically bind LM. Forty-six compounds were identified and tested on HEK-293 cells transfected with 37LRP/67LR (LR-293 cells). One compound, NSC47924, selectively inhibited LR-293 cell adhesion to LM with IC50 and Ki values of 19.35 and 2.45 μmol/L. NSC47924 engaged residues W176 and L173 of peptide G, critical for specific LM binding. Indeed, NSC47924 inhibited in vitro binding of recombinant 37LRP to both LM and its YIGSR fragment. NSC47924 also impaired LR-293 cell migration to LM and cell invasion. A subsequent hierarchical similarity search with NSC47924 led to the identification of additional four compounds inhibiting LR-293 cell binding to LM: NSC47923, NSC48478, NSC48861, and NSC48869, with IC50 values of 1.99, 1.76, 3.4, and 4.0 μmol/L, respectively, and able to block in vitro cancer cell invasion. These compounds are promising scaffolds for future drug design and discovery efforts in cancer progression. PMID:26062445

  20. Discovery of new small molecules inhibiting 67 kDa laminin receptor interaction with laminin and cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, Ada; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Alfano, Daniela; Formisano, Luigi; Ragno, Pia; Selleri, Carmine; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2015-07-20

    The 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a non-integrin receptor for laminin (LM) that derives from a 37 kDa precursor (37LRP). 67LR expression is increased in neoplastic cells and correlates with an enhanced invasive and metastatic potential. We used structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) to search for 67LR inhibitory small molecules, by focusing on a 37LRP sequence, the peptide G, able to specifically bind LM. Forty-six compounds were identified and tested on HEK-293 cells transfected with 37LRP/67LR (LR-293 cells). One compound, NSC47924, selectively inhibited LR-293 cell adhesion to LM with IC50 and Ki values of 19.35 and 2.45 μmol/L. NSC47924 engaged residues W176 and L173 of peptide G, critical for specific LM binding. Indeed, NSC47924 inhibited in vitro binding of recombinant 37LRP to both LM and its YIGSR fragment. NSC47924 also impaired LR-293 cell migration to LM and cell invasion. A subsequent hierarchical similarity search with NSC47924 led to the identification of additional four compounds inhibiting LR-293 cell binding to LM: NSC47923, NSC48478, NSC48861, and NSC48869, with IC50 values of 1.99, 1.76, 3.4, and 4.0 μmol/L, respectively, and able to block in vitro cancer cell invasion. These compounds are promising scaffolds for future drug design and discovery efforts in cancer progression.

  1. Expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor in acute myeloid leukemia cells mediates adhesion to laminin and is frequently associated with monocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Montuori, N; Selleri, C; Risitano, A M; Raiola, A M; Ragno, P; Del Vecchio, L; Rotoli, B; Rossi, G

    1999-06-01

    Lodgement, proliferation, and migration of leukemic cells within bone marrow (BM) microenvironment involves adhesion of these cells to the BM extracellular matrix molecules fibronectin and laminin. The 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a nonintegrin protein with high affinity for laminin, which plays a critical role in basement membrane invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. By Western blotting, we documented that 67LR was strongly expressed in myelomonocytic THP1 and histiocytic U937 cells and was weakly expressed in promyelocytic HL-60 cells. In HL-60 cells, 67LR expression almost disappeared after retinoic-induced granulocytic differentiation, whereas it strongly increased after phorbol ester-induced monocytic differentiation. We did not detect 67LR expression in normal BM hematopoietic cells, in precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or in chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. By contrast, we detected enhanced 67LR expression in 40% of 53 de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), which frequently exhibited monocytic or myelomonocytic morphology and expressed CD14 and CD11a (P < 0.05). Using a colorimetric assay, we found that the expression pattern of this receptor corresponded to a higher adhesion to laminin; the adhesion was specific because in vitro addition to laminin-coated wells of recombinant 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP), which is the cytoplasmic precursor containing both laminin-binding domains of cell surface 67LR, significantly reduced laminin binding of AML cells. The expression of 67LR on AML cell surface did not correlate with other differentiation and integrin antigens such as CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD11b, CD11c, CD49d, CD49e, CD45RA, and CD45RO. In contrast with 67LR behavior in solid tumors, no statistically significant difference was found between 67LR expression and any hematological characteristic of the disease at diagnosis, nor between 67LR expression and outcome of the disease as

  2. The role of phosphorylation in activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, F; Kuikman, I; Noteboom, E; Sonnenberg, A

    1993-09-05

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces phosphorylation of serine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A integrin subunit, as well as activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor. We examined whether phosphorylation correlates with the induction of high affinity binding of laminin by the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor. Two potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, serine 1041 and serine 1048, are present in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A subunit. We introduced point mutations into the alpha 6A cDNA, replacing either one or both of the serine residues with alanine. Wild-type and mutant alpha 6A cDNAs were transfected into K562 cells. All alpha 6A subunit mutants were expressed at levels similar to those of wild-type alpha 6A and formed heterodimers with endogenous beta 1. Analysis of the phosphorylation state of wild-type and mutant alpha 6A subunits in resting K562 cells and after treatment with PMA showed that serine 1041, but not serine 1048, is the target residue of PMA-induced phosphorylation. Cells expressing alpha 6A mutant subunits or wild-type alpha 6A transfectants all bound laminin in the presence, but not in the absence of PMA; however, the extent of binding differed. Cells transfected with alpha 6A containing the serine to alanine mutation showed a 2-3-fold higher binding to laminin than cells transfected with alpha 6A containing serine 1041. The results indicate that phosphorylation of the alpha 6A cytoplasmic domain is not required for the induction of high affinity of the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor by PMA, and suggest that, in contrast, it may reduce the affinity of this integrin for ligand.

  3. Laminin Receptor in Shrimp Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wang-Jing; Li, Yi-Chieh; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, genus Whispovirus, family Nimaviridae) is causing huge economic losses in global shrimp farming, but there is no effective control. Shrimp cell laminin receptor (Lamr) may have a role in WSSV infection. The objective was to characterize interactions between Penaeus monodon Lamr (PmLamr) and WSSV structural proteins. In this study, PmLamr interacted with nine WSSV structural proteins (based on yeast two-hybrid screening), of which one (VP31) was characterized. Protein pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between PmLamr and VP31; the latter was an envelope protein exposed outside the WSSV virion (based on membrane topology assays). Furthermore, similar to mammalian Lamr, there were two major protein bands in shrimp cells. Cellular localization assay demonstrated VP31 co-localized with PmLamr on transfected cells. Enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and competitive ELISA demonstrated binding of VP31 on PmLamr was dose-dependent; however, addition of WSSV virion competed for binding affinity. Furthermore, based on an in vivo neutralization assay, both VP31 and PmLamr delayed mortality in shrimp challenged with WSSV. We concluded Lamr was an important receptor for WSSV infection and the viral envelope protein VP31 may have a role in host cell recognition and binding. These data contributed to elucidating pathogenesis of WSSV infection and may help in controlling this disease. PMID:27257954

  4. Laminin Receptor in Shrimp Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Jing; Li, Yi-Chieh; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, genus Whispovirus, family Nimaviridae) is causing huge economic losses in global shrimp farming, but there is no effective control. Shrimp cell laminin receptor (Lamr) may have a role in WSSV infection. The objective was to characterize interactions between Penaeus monodon Lamr (PmLamr) and WSSV structural proteins. In this study, PmLamr interacted with nine WSSV structural proteins (based on yeast two-hybrid screening), of which one (VP31) was characterized. Protein pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between PmLamr and VP31; the latter was an envelope protein exposed outside the WSSV virion (based on membrane topology assays). Furthermore, similar to mammalian Lamr, there were two major protein bands in shrimp cells. Cellular localization assay demonstrated VP31 co-localized with PmLamr on transfected cells. Enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and competitive ELISA demonstrated binding of VP31 on PmLamr was dose-dependent; however, addition of WSSV virion competed for binding affinity. Furthermore, based on an in vivo neutralization assay, both VP31 and PmLamr delayed mortality in shrimp challenged with WSSV. We concluded Lamr was an important receptor for WSSV infection and the viral envelope protein VP31 may have a role in host cell recognition and binding. These data contributed to elucidating pathogenesis of WSSV infection and may help in controlling this disease.

  5. The muscle-specific laminin receptor alpha7 beta1 integrin negatively regulates alpha5 beta1 fibronectin receptor function.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, D; Echtermayer, F; Schöber, S; Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1999-02-01

    alpha7 beta1 is the major integrin complex expressed in differentiated muscle cells where it functions as a laminin receptor. In this work we have expressed the alpha7 integrin subunit in CHO cells to investigate the functional properties of this receptor. After transfection with alpha7 CHO cells acquired the ability to adhere and spread on laminin 1 consistent with the laminin receptor activity of the alpha7 beta1. alpha7 transfectants, however, showed a 70% reduction in the ability to adhere to fibronectin and were unable to assemble a fibronectin matrix. The degree of reduction was inversely related to the level of alpha7 expression. To define the mechanisms underlying this adhesive defect we analyzed surface expression and functional properties of the alpha5 beta1 fibronectin receptor. Although cell surface expression of alpha5 beta1 was reduced by a factor of 20-25% in alpha7 transfectants compared to control untransfected cells, this slight reduction was not sufficient to explain the dramatic reduction in cell adhesion (70%) and matrix assembly (close to 100%). Binding studies showed that the affinity of 125I-fibronectin for its surface receptor was decreased by 50% in alpha7 transfectants, indicating that the alpha5 beta1 integrin is partially inactivated in these cells. Inactivation can be reversed by Mn2+, a cation known to increase integrin affinity for their ligands. In fact, incubation of cells with Mn2+ restored fibronectin binding affinity, adhesion to fibronectin, and assembly of fibronectin matrix in alpha7 transfectants. These data indicate that alpha7 expression leads to the functional down regulation of alpha5beta1 integrin by decreasing ligand binding affinity and surface expression. In conclusion, the data reported establish the existence of a negative cooperativity between alpha7 and alpha5 integrins that may be important in determining functional regulation of integrins during myogenic differentiation.

  6. Combination of agrin and laminin increase acetylcholine receptor clustering and enhance functional neuromuscular junction formation In vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bill G X; Quigley, Anita F; Bourke, Justin L; Nowell, Cameron J; Myers, Damian E; Choong, Peter F M; Kapsa, Robert M I

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the postsynaptic membrane is a crucial step in the development of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). During development and after denervation, aneural AChR clusters form on the sarcolemma. Recent studies suggest that these receptors are critical for guiding and initiating synaptogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of agrin and laminin-1; agents with known AChR clustering activity; on NMJ formation and muscle maturation. Primary myoblasts were differentiated in vitro on collagen, laminin or collagen and laminin-coated surfaces in the presence or absence of agrin and laminin. The pretreated cells were then subject to innervation by PC12 cells. The number of neuromuscular junctions was assessed by immunocytochemical co-localization of AChR clusters and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Functional neuromuscular junctions were quantitated by analysis of the level of spontaneous as well as neuromuscular blocker responsive contractile activity and muscle maturation was assessed by the degree of myotube striation. Agrin alone did not prime muscle for innervation while a combination of agrin and laminin pretreatment increased the number of neuromuscular junctions formed and enhanced acetylcholine based neurotransmission and myotube striation. This study has direct clinical relevance for treatment of denervation injuries and creating functional neuromuscular constructs for muscle tissue repair. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chemical inhibition of prometastatic lysyl-tRNA synthetase–laminin receptor interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Gyu; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Fang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Young, Nicolas L.; Guo, Min; Cho, Hye Young; Mushtaq, AmeeqUl; Jeon, Young Ho; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Jung Min; Kang, Ho Woong; Joo, Jae Eun; Hur, Youn; Kang, Wonyoung; Yang, Heekyoung; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Aree; Kim, Kibom; Kim, Doyeun; Kang, Eun Joo; Moon, Youngji; Rhee, Kyung Hee; Han, Byung Woo; Yang, Jee Sun; Han, Gyoonhee; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Wang, Ming-Wei; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS), a protein synthesis enzyme in the cytosol, relocates to the plasma membrane after a laminin signal and stabilizes a 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) that is implicated in cancer metastasis; however, its potential as an antimetastatic therapeutic target has not been explored. We found that the small compound BC-K-YH16899, which binds to KRS, impinged on interaction of KRS with 67LR and suppressed metastasis in 3 different mouse models. The compound inhibited KRS–67LR interaction in two ways. First, it directly blocked the association between KRS and 67LR. Second, it suppressed the dynamic movement of the N-terminal extension of KRS and reduced membrane localization of KRS. However, it did not affect the catalytic activity of KRS. Our results suggest that specific modulation of a cancer-related KRS–67LR interaction may offer a way to control metastasis while avoiding the toxicities associated with inhibition of the normal functions of KRS. PMID:24212136

  8. Laminin L4 domain structure resembles adhesion modules in ephrin receptor and other transmembrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Moran, Toot; Gat, Yair; Fass, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    The ~ 800 kDa laminin heterotrimer forms a distinctive cross-shaped structure that further self-assembles into networks within the extracellular matrix. The domains at the laminin chain termini, which engage in network formation and cell-surface interaction, are well understood both structurally and functionally. By contrast, the structures and roles of additional domains embedded within the limbs of the laminin cross have remained obscure. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure, determined to 1.2 Å resolution, of the human laminin α2 subunit L4b domain, site of an inframe deletion mutation associated with mild congenital muscular dystrophy. The α2 L4b domain is an irregular β-sandwich with many short and broken strands linked by extended loops. The most similar known structures are the carbohydrate-binding domains of bacterial cellulases, the ephrin-binding domain of ephrin receptors, and MAM adhesion domains in various other eukaryotic cell-surface proteins. This similarity to mammalian adhesion modules, which was not predicted on the basis of amino acid sequence alone due to lack of detectable homology, suggests that laminin internal domains evolved from a progenitor adhesion molecule and may retain a role in cell adhesion in the context of the laminin trimer. The atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank, Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA (http://www.rcsb.org/) under codes 4YEP and 4YEQ. © 2015 FEBS.

  9. Laminin on Toxoplasma gondii mediates parasite binding to the beta 1 integrin receptor alpha 6 beta 1 on human foreskin fibroblasts and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Furtado, G C; Cao, Y; Joiner, K A

    1992-11-01

    We investigated the role of parasite-bound laminin and the host cell beta 1 integrin receptors for this extracellular matrix protein in Toxoplasma gondii binding to fibroblasts. Laminin but not fibronectin was detected on extracellular tachyzoites by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Binding of parasites to CHO cells was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies to laminin and by a monoclonal antibody directed against the globular carboxyl-terminal portion of the long arm of laminin (at or near the suggested ligand-binding sites for alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1), but not by a monoclonal antibody directed against the lateral short arms of laminin near the cross region of the molecule. Antibodies to the alpha 6 but not the alpha 2, alpha 3, or alpha 5 chains of the beta 1 family of integrins blocked parasite attachment to human foreskin fibroblasts and CHO cells. Attachment of T. gondii to cells via laminin on the parasite surface and laminin receptors on the mammalian cell is consistent with the capacity of the parasite to invade almost all nucleated cells.

  10. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis.

  11. Epistatic dissection of laminin-receptor interactions in dystrophic zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Sztal, Tamar E; Sonntag, Carmen; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Laminins form essential components of the basement membrane and are integral to forming and maintaining muscle integrity. Mutations in the human Laminin-alpha2 (LAMA2) gene result in the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy, MDC1A. We have previously identified a zebrafish model of MDC1A called candyfloss (caf), carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the zebrafish lama2 gene. In the skeletal muscle, laminins connect the muscle cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by binding either dystroglycan or integrins at the cell membrane. Through epistasis experiments, we have established that both adhesion systems individually contribute to the maintenance of fibre adhesions and exhibit muscle detachment phenotypes. However, larval zebrafish in which both adhesion systems are simultaneously genetically inactivated possess a catastrophic failure of muscle attachment that is far greater than a simple addition of individual phenotypes would predict. We provide evidence that this is due to other crucial laminins present in addition to Lama2, which aid muscle cell attachments and integrity. We have found that lama1 is important for maintaining attachments, whereas lama4 is localized and up-regulated in damaged fibres, which appears to contribute to fibre survival. Importantly, our results show that endogenous secretion of laminins from the surrounding tissues has the potential to reinforce fibre attachments and strengthen laminin-ECM attachments. Collectively these findings provide a better understanding of the cellular pathology of MDC1A and help in designing effective therapies.

  12. Functional diversity of laminins.

    PubMed

    Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are a large family of conserved, multidomain trimeric basement membrane proteins that contribute to the structure of extracellular matrix and influence the behavior of associated cells, such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, phenotype stability, and resistance to anoikis. In lower organisms such as Hydra there is only one isoform of laminin, but higher organisms have at least 16 trimeric isoforms with varying degrees of cell/tissue specificity. In vitro protein and cell culture studies, gene manipulation in animals, and laminin gene mutations in human diseases have provided insight into the specific functions of some laminins, but the biological roles of many isoforms are still largely unexplored, mainly owing to difficulties in isolating them in pure form from tissues or cells. In this review, we elucidate the evolution of laminins, describe their molecular complexity, and explore the current knowledge of their diversity and functional aspects, including laminin-mediated signaling via membrane receptors, in vitro cell biology, and involvement in various tissues gained from animal model and human disease studies. The potential use of laminins in cell biology research and biotechnology is discussed.

  13. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  14. The Transition of the 37-Kda Laminin Receptor (Rpsa) to Higher Molecular Weight Species: Sumoylation or Artifact?

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Vincent; Gando, Ivan A; Venticinque, Lisa; Hurtado, Alicia; Meruelo, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The 37-kDa laminin receptor (37LRP or RPSA) is a remarkable, multifaceted protein that functions in processes ranging from matrix adhesion to ribosome biogenesis. Its ability to engage extracellular laminin is further thought to contribute to cellular migration and invasion. Most commonly associated with metastatic cancer, RPSA is also increasingly found to be important in other pathologies, including microbial infection, neurodegenerative disease and developmental malformations. Importantly, it is thought to have higher molecular weight forms, including a 67-kDa species (67LR), the expression of which is linked to strong laminin binding and metastatic behavior. The composition of these larger forms has remained elusive and controversial. Homo- and heterodimerization have been proposed as events capable of building the larger species from the monomeric 37-kDa precursor, but solid evidence is lacking. Here, we present data suggesting that higher molecular weight species require SUMOylation to form. We also comment on the difficulty of isolating larger RPSA species for unambiguous identification and demonstrate that cell lines stably expressing tagged RPSA for long periods of time fail to produce tagged higher molecular weight RPSA. It is possible that higher molecular weight species like 67LR are not derived from RPSA.

  15. THE TRANSITION OF THE 37-kDa LAMININ RECEPTOR (RPSA) TO HIGHER MOLECULAR WEIGHT SPECIES: SUMOylation OR ARTIFACT?

    PubMed Central

    DIGIACOMO, VINCENT; GANDO, IVAN A.; VENTICINQUE, LISA; HURTADO, ALICIA; MERUELO, DANIEL

    2017-01-01

    The 37-kDa laminin receptor (37LRP or RPSA) is a remarkable, multifaceted protein that functions in processes ranging from matrix adhesion to ribosome biogenesis. Its ability to engage extracellular laminin is further thought to contribute to cellular migration and invasion. Most commonly associated with metastatic cancer, RPSA is also increasingly found to be important in other pathologies, including microbial infection, neurodegenerative disease and developmental malformations. Importantly, it is thought to have higher molecular weight forms, including a 67-kDa species (67LR), the expression of which is linked to strong laminin binding and metastatic behavior. The composition of these larger forms has remained elusive and controversial. Homo- and heterodimerization have been proposed as events capable of building the larger species from the monomeric 37-kDa precursor, but solid evidence is lacking. Here, we present data suggesting that higher molecular weight species require SUMOylation to form. We also comment on the difficulty of isolating larger RPSA species for unambiguous identification and demonstrate that cell lines stably expressing tagged RPSA for long periods of time fail to produce tagged higher molecular weight RPSA. It is possible that higher molecular weight species like 67LR are not derived from RPSA. PMID:26146125

  16. 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in normal and neoplastic hematopoietic cells: is its targeting a feasible approach?

    PubMed Central

    Montuori, Nunzia; Pesapane, Ada; Giudice, Valentina; Serio, Bianca; Rossi, Francesca W; De Paulis, Amato; Selleri, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    The 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a non-integrin cell surface receptor for laminin (LM) that derives from a 37 kDa precursor (37LRP). 67LR expression is increased in neoplastic cells and correlates with an enhanced invasive and metastatic potentialin many human solid tumors, recommending this receptor as a new promising target for cancer therapy. This is supported by in vivo studies showing that 67LR downregulation reduces tumour cell proliferation and tumour formation by inducing apoptosis. 67LR association with the anti-apoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 activates a signal transduction pathway, leading to cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, the main function of 67LR is to enhance tumor cell adhesion to the LM of basement membranes and cell migration, two crucial events in the metastasis cascade. Thus, inhibition of 67LR binding to LM has been proved to be a feasible approach to block metastatic cancer cell spread. Despite accumulating evidences on 67LR overexpression in hematologic malignancies, 67LR role in these diseases has not been clearly defined. Here, we review 67LR expression and function in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, 67LR role and prognostic impact in hematological malignancies and first attempts in targeting its activity. PMID:27896222

  17. Contribution of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor in the anti-metastatic PSP94-derived peptide PCK3145 cell surface binding

    SciTech Connect

    Annabi, Borhane; Currie, Jean-Christophe; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Dulude, Helene; Daigneault, Luc; Garde, Seema; Rabbani, Shafaat A.; Panchal, Chandra; Wu, Jinzi J.; Beliveau, Richard . E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2006-07-21

    Purpose: PCK3145 is an anti-metastatic synthetic peptide with promising therapeutic efficacy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The characterization of the PCK3145 peptide cell surface binding/internalization mechanisms and of the receptors involved remained to be explored. Results: [{sup 14}C]PCK3145 cell surface binding assays showed rapid and transient kinetic profile, that was inhibited by RGD peptides, laminin, hyaluronan, and type-I collagen. RGD peptides were however unable to inhibit PCK3145 intracellular uptake. Far-Western ligand binding studies enabled the identification of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) as a potential ligand for PCK3145. Overexpression of the recombinant 37LRP indeed led to an increase in PCK3145 binding but unexpectedly not to its uptake. Conclusions: Our data support the implication of laminin receptors in cell surface binding and in transducing PCK3145 anti-metastatic effects, and provide a rational for targeting cancers that express high levels of such laminin receptors.

  18. Distinct Roles for Laminin Globular Domains in Laminin α1 Chain Mediated Rescue of Murine Laminin α2 Chain Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, Kinga I.; Åkerlund, Mikael; Carmignac, Virginie; Elamaa, Harri; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Background Laminin α2 chain mutations cause congenital muscular dystrophy with dysmyelination neuropathy (MDC1A). Previously, we demonstrated that laminin α1 chain ameliorates the disease in mice. Dystroglycan and integrins are major laminin receptors. Unlike laminin α2 chain, α1 chain binds the receptors by separate domains; laminin globular (LG) domains 4 and LG1-3, respectively. Thus, the laminin α1 chain is an excellent tool to distinguish between the roles of dystroglycan and integrins in the neuromuscular system. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we provide insights into the functions of laminin α1LG domains and the division of their roles in MDC1A pathogenesis and rescue. Overexpression of laminin α1 chain that lacks the dystroglycan binding LG4-5 domains in α2 chain deficient mice resulted in prolonged lifespan and improved health. Importantly, diaphragm and heart muscles were corrected, whereas limb muscles were dystrophic, indicating that different muscles have different requirements for LG4-5 domains. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of the skeletal muscle did not depend on laminin α1LG4-5. However, this domain was crucial for preventing apoptosis in limb muscles, essential for myelination in peripheral nerve and important for basement membrane assembly. Conclusions/Significance These results show that laminin α1LG domains and consequently their receptors have disparate functions in the neuromuscular system. Understanding these interactions could contribute to design and optimization of future medical treatment for MDC1A patients. PMID:20657839

  19. Laminins in basement membrane assembly.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Erhard; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of all basement membranes and self-assemble into a cell-associated network. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule form the network nodes, with a strict requirement for one α, one β and one γ arm. The globular domain at the end of the long arm binds to cellular receptors, including integrins, α-dystroglycan, heparan sulfates and sulfated glycolipids. Collateral anchorage of the laminin network is provided by the proteoglycans perlecan and agrin. A second network is then formed by type IV collagen, which interacts with the laminin network through the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan and agrin and additional linkage by nidogen. This maturation of basement membranes becomes essential at later stages of embryo development.

  20. INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is reduced by the downregulation of the 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Dubiel, Evan A; Kuehn, Carina; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Vermette, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Understanding β cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions can advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and improve culture methods used in islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes. Laminin is the main constituent of the basement membrane and is involved in pancreatic β cell survival and function, even enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Most of the studies on cell responses towards laminin have focused on integrin-mediated interactions, while much less attention has been paid on non-integrin receptors, such as the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). The specificity of the receptor-ligand interaction through the adhesion of INS-1 cells (a rat insulinoma cell line) to CDPGYIGSR-, GRGDSPC- or CDPGYIGSR + GRGDSPC-covered surfaces was evaluated. Also, the effects of the 67LR knocking down over glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were investigated. Culture of the INS-1 cells on the bioactive surfaces was improved compared to the low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces, while downregulation of the 67LR resulted in reduced cell adhesion to surfaces bearing the CDPGYIGSR peptide. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was hindered by downregulation of the 67LR, regardless of the biological motif available on the biomimetic surfaces on which the cells were cultured. This finding illustrates the importance of the 67LR in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and points to a possible role of the 67LR in the mechanisms of insulin secretion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Molecular Basis of Laminin-Integrin Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are composed of three polypeptide chains, designated as α, β, and γ. The C-terminal region of laminin heterotrimers, containing coiled-coil regions, short tails, and laminin globular (LG) domains, is necessary and sufficient for binding to integrins, which are the major laminin receptor class. Laminin recognition by integrins critically requires the α chain LG domains and a glutamic acid residue of the γ chain at the third position from the C-terminus. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of the β chain contains a short amino acid sequence that modulates laminin affinity for integrins. Thus, all three of the laminin chains act cooperatively to facilitate integrin binding. Mammals possess 5 α (α1-5), 3 β (β1-3), and 3 γ (γ1-3) chains, combinations of which give rise to 16 distinct laminin isoforms. Each isoform is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, exerting its functions through binding of integrins. In this review, we detail the current knowledge surrounding the molecular basis and physiological relevance of specific interactions between laminins and integrins, and describe the mechanisms underlying laminin action through integrins.

  2. Fragment-based methods for the discovery of inhibitors modulating lysyl-tRNA synthetase and laminin receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Young; Kim, Sunghoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2017-01-15

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) is an enzyme that conjugates lysine to its cognate tRNAs in the process of protein synthesis. In addition to its catalytic function, KRS binds to the 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR) on the cell membrane and facilitates cell migration and metastasis. Modulation of this interaction by small-molecule inhibitors can be exploited to suppress cancer metastasis. In this study, we present fragment-based methods for the identification of inhibitors and monitoring protein-protein interactions between KRS and LR. First, we identified the amino acid residues, located on the KRS anticodon-binding domain, which interact with the C-terminal extension of the LR. One-dimensional (1D) relaxation-edited nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and competition experiments were designed and optimized to screen the fragment library. For screening using two-dimensional (2D) NMR, we identified the indicative signals in the KRS anticodon-binding domain and selected inhibitors that bind to KRS and compete with LR at the KRS-LR binding interface. These methods may offer an efficient approach for the discovery of anti-metastatic drugs.

  3. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Maxwell, Adam; Fay, William P.; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2016-01-01

    In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs) as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26938531

  4. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Chanda, N.; Zambre, A.; Upendran, A.; Katti, K.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Nune, S. K.; Casteel, S. W.; Smith, C. J.; Vimal, J.; Boote, E.; Robertson, J. D.; Kan, P.; Engelbrecht, H.; Watkinson, L. D.; Carmack, T. L.; Lever, J. R.; Cutler, C. S.; Caldwell, C.; Kannan, R.; Katti, K. V.

    2012-07-16

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechingallate( EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), will circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein provide unequivocal validation of our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from Au-198 isotope; the range of 198Au β-particle ( ~ 11 mm in tissue or ~1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed ~72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 days demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative “green nanotechnological“approach serves as a basis for designing target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors.

  5. Photodynamic treatment of epithelial tissue derived from patients with endometrial cancer: a contribution to the role of laminin and epidermal growth factor receptor in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, Piotr P.; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Osiecka, Beata J.; Rabczynski, Jerzy; Gerber, Jerzy

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat endometrial G1 cancer tissue derived from patients who had undergone a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. After surgical treatment the cancerous tissue was kept in a medium containing Dulbecco solution, fetal calf serum, and antibiotics. The tissue was then exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative (0.1 mg/l) and 24 h later exposed to light (total light dose--18 J/sq cm). Necrosis depth was evaluated 24 h later using a light microscope. In order to assess the possible role of the basal membrane component laminin, as well as epidermal growth factor receptor susceptibility to PDT, immunohistochemical studies were carried out. Additionally, nucleolar organizer regions evaluation was performed. Our experiment confirmed that PDT results in the necrosis in the treated endometrial cancer, while not affecting the laminin in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, PDT strongly affects the epidermal growth factor receptor and nucleolar organizer regions in cancer cells. We suggest that laminin may contribute to the prevention of cancer dissemination in the cases where PDT has to be repeated, and that after PDT the cells become less susceptible to a mitogen, like, e.g., epidermal growth factor.

  6. P-cadherin signals through the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin to induce stem cell and invasive properties in basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, André Filipe; Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Dionísio, Maria Rita; Sousa, Bárbara; Nobre, Ana Rita; Albergaria, André; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; Mendes, Nuno; Gerhard, Renê; Schmitt, Fernando; Clarke, Robert B.; Paredes, Joana

    2014-01-01

    P-cadherin is a classical cell-cell adhesion molecule that, in contrast to E-cadherin, has a positive role in breast cancer progression, being considered a poor prognostic factor in this disease. In previous reports, we have shown that this protein induces cancer stem cell and invasive properties to basal-like breast cancer cells. Here, we clarify the downstream signaling pathways that are triggered by P-cadherin to mediate these effects. We demonstrated that P-cadherin inhibition led to a significant decreased adhesion of cancer cells to the basement membrane substrate laminin, as well as to a major reduction in the expression of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin. Remarkably, the expression of this heterodimer was required for the invasive capacity and increased mammosphere forming efficiency induced by P-cadherin expression. Moreover, we showed that P-cadherin transcriptionally up-regulates the α6 integrin subunit expression and directly interacts with the β4 integrin subunit. We still showed that P-cadherin downstream signaling, in response to laminin, involves the activation of focal adhesion (FAK), Src and AKT kinases. The association between the expression of P-cadherin, α6β4 heterodimer and the active FAK and Src phosphorylated forms was validated in vivo. Our data establish that there is a crosstalk between P-cadherin and the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin signaling pathway, which link has never been previously described. The activation of this heterodimer explains the stem cell and invasive properties induced by P-cadherin to breast cancer cells, pointing to a new molecular mechanism that may be targeted to counteract the effects induced by this adhesion molecule. PMID:24553076

  7. Inhibition of human 67-kDa laminin receptor sensitizes multidrug resistance colon cancer cell line SW480 for apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-Lei; Xu, Jian; Yao, Hao-Jie; Luo, Kun-Lun; Li, Jie-Ming; Wu, Tao; Wu, Guo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion mediated drug resistance in cancer cells resulted from adhesion of the extracellular matrix is a major cause for multidrug resistance (MDR) and leads chemotherapeutic failure for colon cancer. In this study, we explored the role of 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in chemotherapeutic drug resistance in colon cancer cells. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of 67LR decreased the cell adhesion when laminins were applied. Moreover, 67LR knockdown increased the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax but inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Enhanced apoptosis was observed in 67LR siRNA-transfected SW480 cell when the cell was treated with doxorubicin for apoptosis induction. Furthermore, MTT assay revealed that the IC50 of chemotherapeutic toward SW480 cell adhesion to laminins was reduced after 67LR knockdown, indicating there was a significant increase of drug sensitivity in SW480 cell. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that 67LR plays a considerable role in the development of colon cancer MDR.

  8. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Upendran, Anandhi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Nune, Satish Kumar; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, Charles Jeffrey; Vimal, Jatin; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. David; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, John R.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), would circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein support our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from the Au-198 isotope; the range of the 198Au β-particle (approximately 11 mm in tissue or approximately 1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of a radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize the radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors, which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed approximately 72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 d demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative nanotechnological approach serves as a basis for designing biocompatible target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors. PMID:22802668

  9. PED/PEA-15 interacts with the 67 kD laminin receptor and regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Formisano, Pietro; Ragno, Pia; Pesapane, Ada; Alfano, Daniela; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Rea, Vincenza Elena Anna; Giusto, Raffaella; Rossi, Francesca W; Beguinot, Francesco; Rossi, Guido; Montuori, Nunzia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kD (PED/PEA-15) is an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased in several human cancers. In addition to apoptosis, PED/PEA-15 is involved in the regulation of other major cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and glucose metabolism. To further understand the functions of this protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using PED/PEA-15 as a bait and identified the 67 kD high-affinity laminin receptor (67LR) as an interacting partner. 67 kD laminin receptor is a non-integrin cell-surface receptor for the extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from the dimerization of a 37 kD cytosolic precursor (37LRP). The 67LR is highly expressed in human cancers and widely recognized as a molecular marker of metastatic aggressiveness. The molecular interaction of PED/PEA-15 with 67LR was confirmed by pull-down experiments with recombinant His-tagged 37LRP on lysates of PED/PEA-15 transfected HEK-293 cells. Further, overexpressed or endogenous PED/PEA-15 was co-immunoprecipitated with 67LR in PED/PEA-15-transfected HEK-293 cells and in U-373 glioblastoma cells, respectively. PED/PEA-15 overexpression significantly increased 67LR-mediated HEK-293 cell adhesion and migration to laminin that, in turn, determined PED/PEA-15 phosphorylation both in Ser-104 and Ser-116, thus enabling cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. PED/PEA-15 ability to induce cell responses to ECM-derived signals through interaction with 67LR may be of crucial importance for tumour cell survival in a poor microenvironment, thus favouring the metastatic spread and colonization. PMID:21895963

  10. The laminin-binding activity of the alpha 7 integrin receptor is defined by developmentally regulated splicing in the extracellular domain.

    PubMed Central

    Ziober, B L; Chen, Y; Kramer, R H

    1997-01-01

    The expression pattern of the laminin-binding alpha 7 beta 1 integrin is developmentally regulated in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. The X1/X2 alternative splicing in the extracellular domain of alpha 7 is found in the variable region between conserved alpha-chain homology repeat domains III and IV, a site implicated in ligand binding. To assess differences in X1/X2 isoform activity, we generated MCF-7 cell lines transfected with alpha 7-X1/X2 cDNAs. Transfectants expressing the alpha 7-X2 variant adhered rapidly to laminin 1, whereas those expressing alpha 7-X1 failed to attach. That alpha 7-X1 exists in an inactive state was established in assays using an activating beta 1 antibody that induced X1-dependent cell adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the activation of alpha 7-X1 was cell type specific, and when expressed in HT1080 cells, the integrin was converted into a fully functional receptor capable of promoting adhesion. Thus, the expression of the alpha 7-X1/X2 integrin is a novel mechanism that regulates receptor affinity states in a cell-specific context and may modulate integrin-dependent events during muscle development and repair. Images PMID:9307969

  11. The laminin family.

    PubMed

    Aumailley, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Laminins are large molecular weight glycoproteins constituted by the assembly of three disulfide-linked polypeptides, the α, β and γ chains. The human genome encodes 11 genetically distinct laminin chains. Structurally, laminin chains differ by the number, size and organization of a few constitutive domains, endowing the various members of the laminin family with common and unique important functions. In particular, laminins are indispensable building blocks for cellular networks physically bridging the intracellular and extracellular compartments and relaying signals critical for cellular behavior, and for extracellular polymers determining the architecture and the physiology of basement membranes.

  12. The laminin family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Laminins are large molecular weight glycoproteins constituted by the assembly of three disulfide-linked polypeptides, the α, β and γ chains. The human genome encodes 11 genetically distinct laminin chains. Structurally, laminin chains differ by the number, size and organization of a few constitutive domains, endowing the various members of the laminin family with common and unique important functions. In particular, laminins are indispensable building blocks for cellular networks physically bridging the intracellular and extracellular compartments and relaying signals critical for cellular behavior, and for extracellular polymers determining the architecture and the physiology of basement membranes. PMID:23263632

  13. Autoimmunity against laminins.

    PubMed

    Florea, Florina; Koch, Manuel; Hashimoto, Takashi; Sitaru, Cassian

    2016-09-01

    Laminins are ubiquitous constituents of the basement membranes with major architectural and functional role as supported by the fact that absence or mutations of laminins lead to either lethal or severely impairing phenotypes. Besides genetic defects, laminins are involved in a wide range of human diseases including cancer, infections, and inflammatory diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders. A growing body of evidence implicates several laminin chains as autoantigens in blistering skin diseases, collagenoses, vasculitis, or post-infectious autoimmunity. The current paper reviews the existing knowledge on autoimmunity against laminins referring to both experimental and clinical data, and on therapeutic implications of anti-laminin antibodies. Further investigation of relevant laminin epitopes in pathogenic autoimmunity would facilitate the development of appropriate diagnostic tools for thorough characterization of patients' antibody specificities and should decisively contribute to designing more specific therapeutic interventions.

  14. Dysregulation of laminins in intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Spenlé, C; Hussenet, T; Lacroute, J; Lefebvre, O; Kedinger, M; Orend, G; Simon-Assmann, P

    2012-02-01

    Laminins are structural components of basement membranes that regulate and control many cellular functions. Changes in basement membrane composition play significant roles in etiology of diseases. Inflammatory bowel diseases are conditions that lead to defects in the mucosal barrier which includes the basement membrane underlying the epithelium. This review will summarize the main findings related to the involvement of laminins and of the laminin-binding receptors in inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We will review the current literature devoted to studies in humans (immunolocalisation, genetic factors, microarray data), as well as experimental cell models that show that laminins contribute to the inflammation process probably linked to the deregulation of proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Laminin-111 Inhibits Bovine Fertilization but Improves Embryonic Development in vitro, and Receptor Integrin-β1 is Involved in Sperm-Oocyte Binding.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Huang, C-J; Liu, C-S; Guo, L-L; Liu, G; Liu, H-J

    2016-10-01

    This study detected the distribution of laminin during embryonic formation by immunofluorescence. To determine the possible function of laminin on developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos, the presumptive zygotes were divided and transferred to CR1aa medium supplemented with different concentrations (0 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml) of laminin. To explore the association with sperm-oocyte fusion, oocytes and/or sperm were pre-incubated with laminin or anti-β1 antibody before insemination. Laminin was absent in mature oocytes and could be detected first at the 8-cell stage and then displayed an increasing tendency. Adding 10 μg/ml laminin to the culture medium improved embryonic development including cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, total cell numbers in the blastocyst and cell numbers in the inner cell mass. Laminin inhibited sperm-oocyte fusion when incubated with oocytes and/or sperm before in vitro fertilization, and only integrin-β1 of sperm was involved in sperm-oocyte binding. Inhibition may be caused by blocking β1, but why laminin inhibits fertilization is still unknown. The results suggest that laminin plays an important role during embryonic formation and has a negative function in sperm-oocyte fusion, but improves embryonic development. However, only integrin-β1 is involved in sperm-oocyte binding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Laminins in peripheral nerve development and muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Ming; Yu, Huaxu; Chen, Zu-Lin

    2007-06-01

    Laminins are extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play an important role in cellular function and tissue morphogenesis. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), laminins are expressed in Schwann cells and participate in their development. Mutations in laminin subunits expressed in the PNS and in skeleton muscle may cause peripheral neuropathies and muscular dystrophy in both humans and mice. Recent studies using gene knockout technology, such as cell-type specific gene targeting techniques, revealed that laminins and their receptors mediate Schwann cell and axon interactions. Schwann cells with disrupted laminin expression exhibit impaired proliferation and differentiation and also undergo apoptosis. In this review, we focus on the potential molecular mechanisms by which laminins participate in the development of Schwann cells.

  17. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  18. Extraribosomal functions associated with the C terminus of the 37/67 kDa laminin receptor are required for maintaining cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, J; Jamieson, K V; Ziello, J; Tseng, J-C; Meruelo, D

    2010-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization. PMID:21243100

  19. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67-kDa laminin receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hui-Chen; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Liu, Hsien-Chun; Hsiao, Chiao-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Jung; Hu, Yu-Jung; Hung, Pei-Fang; Liu, Chi-Wei; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2009-07-01

    Insulin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to regulate fat cell mitogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-stimulated mitogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. EGCG inhibited insulin stimulation of preadipocyte proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EGCG also suppressed insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-beta, insulin receptor (IR) substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and IRS2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway proteins, RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, but not JNK. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the association of IR with the IRS1 and IRS2 proteins, but not with the IRS4 protein. These data suggest that EGCG selectively affects particular types of IRS and MAPK family members. Generally, EGCG was more effective than epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin in modulating insulin-stimulated mitogenic signaling. We identified the EGCG receptor [also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)] in fat cells and found that its expression was sensitive to growth phase, tissue type, and differentiation state. Pretreatment of preadipocytes with 67LR antiserum prevented the effects of EGCG on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS2, RAF1, and ERK1/2 and insulin-stimulated preadipocyte proliferation (cell number and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation). Moreover, EGCG tended to increase insulin-stimulated associations between the 67LR and IR, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS4 proteins. These data suggest that EGCG mediates anti-insulin signaling in preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67LR pathway.

  20. The in vitro invasiveness and interactions with laminin of K-1735 melanoma cells. Evidence for different laminin-binding affinities in high and low metastatic variants.

    PubMed

    Albini, A; Aukerman, S L; Ogle, R C; Noonan, D M; Fridman, R; Martin, G R; Fidler, I J

    1989-01-01

    The invasive and metastatic characteristics of cloned cells derived from the K-1735 murine melanoma were investigated. Cell lines which are highly metastatic in mice were found to be invasive in vitro, and to show an enhanced attachment to, spreading on and migration toward laminin. As attachment, spreading and directional migration are thought to be receptor-mediated events, the binding of laminin to these cells was studied. Biotinylated laminin was used to evaluate receptor binding by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and this method was compared with that in which the binding of radioactive laminin is measured. Both studies revealed that metastatic K-1735 cells (a) have more receptors for laminin compared with non-metastatic cells and (b) exhibit a second population of low-affinity binding sites not present on the non-metastatic cells. The differences in receptor number and type may account for the greater interaction of metastatic cells with laminin and their invasive phenotype.

  1. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  2. Role of laminins in physiological and pathological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Orend, Gertraud; Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Spenlé, Caroline; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of endothelial cells and pericytes with their microenvironment, in particular with the basement membrane, plays a crucial role during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on laminins, a major family of extracellular matrix molecules present in basement membranes. Laminins interact with cell surface receptors to trigger intracellular signalling that shapes cell behaviour. Each laminin exerts a distinct effect on endothelial cells and pericytes which largely depends on the adhesion receptor profile expressed on the cell surface. Moreover, proteolytic cleavage of laminins may affect their role in angiogenesis. We report in vitro and in vivo data on laminin-111, -411, -511 and -332 and their associated signalling that regulates cell behaviour and angiogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. We also discuss how tissue-specific deletion of laminin genes affects the behaviour of endothelial cells and pericytes and thus angiogenesis. Finally, we examine how coculture systems with defined laminin expression contribute to our understanding of the roles of laminins in normal and pathological vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

  3. Laminin-111-derived peptides and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Laminin-111 is a large trimeric basement membrane glycoprotein with many active sites. In particular, four peptides active in tumor malignancy studies have been identified in laminin-111 using a systematic peptide screening method followed by various assays. Two of the peptides (IKVAV and AG73) are found on the α1 chain, one (YIGSR) of the β1 chain and one (C16) on the γ1 chain. The four peptides have distinct activities and receptors. Since three of the peptides (IKVAV, AG73 and C16) strongly promote tumor growth, this may explain the potent effects laminin-111 has on malignant cells. The peptide, YIGSR, decreases tumor growth and experimental metastasis via a 32/67 kD receptor while IKVAV increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and protease activity via integrin receptors. AG73 increases tumor growth and metastases via syndecan receptors. C16 increases tumor growth and angiogenesis via integrins. Identification of such sites on laminin-111 will have use in defining strategies to develop therapeutics for cancer. PMID:23263633

  4. Dystroglycan loss disrupts polarity and beta-casein induction inmammary epithelial cells by perturbing laminin anchoring

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, M. Lynn; Oppizzi, Maria Luisa; Henry, Michael D.; Onishi,Akiko; Campbell, Kevin P.; Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2006-02-17

    Precise contact between epithelial cells and their underlying basement membrane is critical to the maintenance of tissue architecture and function. To understand the role that the laminin receptor dystroglycan (DG) plays in these processes, we assayed cell responses to laminin-111 following conditional ablation of DG expression in cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Strikingly, DG loss disrupted laminin-111-induced polarity and {beta}-casein production, and abolished laminin assembly at the step of laminin binding to the cell surface. DG re-expression restored these deficiencies. Investigations of mechanism revealed that DG cytoplasmic sequences were not necessary for laminin assembly and signaling, and only when the entire mucin domain of extracellular DG was deleted did laminin assembly not occur. These results demonstrate that DG is essential as a laminin-111 co-receptor in MECs that functions by mediating laminin anchoring to the cell surface, a process that allows laminin polymerization, tissue polarity, and {beta}-casein induction. The observed loss of laminin-111 assembly and signaling in DG-/-MECs provides insights into the signaling changes occurring in breast carcinomas and other cancers, where DG's laminin-binding function is frequently defective.

  5. Green tea catechins potentiate the neuritogenic action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: role of 67-kDa laminin receptor and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Fan, Tiffany K; Deng, Ronald; Rayudu, David; Chen, Zachary; Cadenas, Enrique; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2014-02-28

    Delivery of optimal amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to regions of the brain affected by neurodegenerative diseases is a daunting task. Using natural products with neuroprotective properties, such as green tea polyphenols, would be a highly useful complementary approach for inexpensive long-term treatment of these diseases. In this study, we used PC12(TrkB) cells which ectopically express TrkB, a high affinity receptor for BDNF. They differentiate and induce neurite outgrowth in response to BDNF. Using this model, we show for the first time that treatment with extremely low concentrations (<0.1 μg/ml) of unfractionated green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and low concentrations (<0.5 μM) of their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), potentiated the neuritogenic ability of a low concentration (2 ng/ml) of BDNF. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, where epigallocatechin and epicatechin, both individually lacking this activity, promoted the action of EGCG. GTPP-induced potentiation of BDNF action required the cell-surface associated 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) to which EGCG binds with high affinity. A cell-permeable catalase abolished GTPP/EGCG-induced potentiation of BDNF action, suggesting the possible involvement of H2O2 in the potentiation. Consistently, exogenous sublethal concentrations of H2O2, added as a bolus dose (5 μM) or more effectively through a steady-state generation (1 μM), potentiated BDNF action. Collectively, these results suggest that EGCG, dependent on 67 LR and H2O2, potentiates the neuritogenic action of BDNF. Intriguingly, this effect requires only submicromolar concentrations of EGCG. This is significant as extremely low concentrations of polyphenols are believed to reach the brain after drinking green tea.

  6. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake via the 67-kilodalton laminin receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Fen; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Liu, Chi-Wei; Kao, Chung-Cheng; Shih, Li-Jane; Ho, Low-Tone; Wu, Liang-Yi; Wu, Chi-Peng; Tsai, Pei-Hua; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Ku, Hui-Chen; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2010-10-01

    Insulin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are reported to regulate obesity and fat accumulation, respectively. This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 adipocytes. EGCG inhibited insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The concentration of EGCG that decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 50-60% was approximately 5-10 µM for a period of 2 h. At 10 µM, EGCG and gallic acid were more effective than (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate. We identified the EGCG receptor [also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)] in fat cells and extended the findings for this study to clarify whether EGCG-induced changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes could be mediated through the 67LR. Pretreatment of adipocytes with a 67LR antibody, but not normal rabbit immunoglobulin, prevented the effects of EGCG on insulin-increased glucose uptake. This suggests that the 67LR mediates the effect of EGCG on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Moreover, pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, such as compound C, but not with a glutathione (GSH) activator, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), blocked the antiinsulin effect of EGCG on adipocyte glucose uptake. These data suggest that EGCG exerts its anti-insulin action on adipocyte glucose uptake via the AMPK, but not the GSH, pathway. The results of this study possibly support that EGCG mediates fat content. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Endocytic trafficking of laminin is controlled by dystroglycan and is disrupted in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Huang, Ge; Akhavan, Armin; Fata, Jimmie E.; Singh, Manisha; Gray, Joe W.; Muschler, John L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dynamic interactions between cells and basement membranes serve as essential regulators of tissue architecture and function in metazoans, and perturbation of these interactions contributes to the progression of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. Here, we reveal the pathway and mechanism for the endocytic trafficking of a prominent basement membrane protein, laminin-111 (referred to here as laminin), and their disruption in disease. Live-cell imaging of epithelial cells revealed pronounced internalization of laminin into endocytic vesicles. Laminin internalization was receptor mediated and dynamin dependent, and laminin proceeded to the lysosome through the late endosome. Manipulation of laminin receptor expression revealed that the dominant regulator of laminin internalization is dystroglycan, a laminin receptor that is functionally perturbed in muscular dystrophies and in many cancers. Correspondingly, laminin internalization was found to be deficient in aggressive cancer cells displaying non-functional dystroglycan, and restoration of dystroglycan function strongly enhanced the endocytosis of laminin in both breast cancer and glioblastoma cells. These results establish previously unrecognized mechanisms for the modulation of cell–basement-membrane communication in normal cells and identify a profound disruption of endocytic laminin trafficking in aggressive cancer subtypes. PMID:25217627

  8. Endocytic trafficking of laminin is controlled by dystroglycan and is disrupted in cancers.

    PubMed

    Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Huang, Ge; Akhavan, Armin; Fata, Jimmie E; Singh, Manisha; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2014-11-15

    The dynamic interactions between cells and basement membranes serve as essential regulators of tissue architecture and function in metazoans, and perturbation of these interactions contributes to the progression of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. Here, we reveal the pathway and mechanism for the endocytic trafficking of a prominent basement membrane protein, laminin-111 (referred to here as laminin), and their disruption in disease. Live-cell imaging of epithelial cells revealed pronounced internalization of laminin into endocytic vesicles. Laminin internalization was receptor mediated and dynamin dependent, and laminin proceeded to the lysosome through the late endosome. Manipulation of laminin receptor expression revealed that the dominant regulator of laminin internalization is dystroglycan, a laminin receptor that is functionally perturbed in muscular dystrophies and in many cancers. Correspondingly, laminin internalization was found to be deficient in aggressive cancer cells displaying non-functional dystroglycan, and restoration of dystroglycan function strongly enhanced the endocytosis of laminin in both breast cancer and glioblastoma cells. These results establish previously unrecognized mechanisms for the modulation of cell-basement-membrane communication in normal cells and identify a profound disruption of endocytic laminin trafficking in aggressive cancer subtypes. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Lema F; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis.

  10. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Lema F.; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis. PMID:23263631

  11. Nucleus pulposus cell-matrix interactions with laminins.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, C L; Francisco, A T; Plopper, G E; Chen, J; Setton, L A

    2011-06-20

    The cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP) region of the intervertebral disc play a critical role in this tissue's generation and maintenance, and alterations in NP cell viability, metabolism, and phenotype with aging may be key contributors to progressive disc degeneration. Relatively little is understood about the phenotype of NP cells, including their cell-matrix interactions which may modulate phenotype and survival. Our previous work has identified strong and region-specific expression of laminins and laminin cell-surface receptors in immature NP tissues, suggesting laminin cell-matrix interactions are uniquely important to the biology of NP cells. Whether these observed tissue-level laminin expression patterns reflect functional adhesion behaviors for these cells is not known. In this study, we examined NP cell-matrix interactions with specific matrix ligands, including various laminin isoforms, using quantitative assays of cell attachment, spreading, and adhesion strength. NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers and exhibited rapid cell spreading and higher resistance to detachment force on two laminin isoforms (LM-511,LM-332) identified to be uniquely expressed in the NP region, as compared to another laminin isoform (LM-111) and several other matrix ligands (collagen, fibronectin). Additionally, NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers to laminins as compared to cells isolated from the disc's annulus fibrosus region. These findings confirm that laminin and laminin receptor expression documented in NP tissues translates into unique functional NP cell adhesion behaviors that may be useful tools for in vitro cell culture and biomaterials that support NP cells.

  12. Seventeen copies of the human 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor/p40 ribosome-associated protein gene are processed pseudogenes arisen from retropositional events.

    PubMed

    Jackers, P; Clausse, N; Fernandez, M; Berti, A; Princen, F; Wewer, U; Sobel, M E; Castronovo, V

    1996-02-07

    A cDNA coding for a 37 kDa polypeptide has been identified in several species as both the potential precursor of the 67 kDa laminin receptor (37LRP) and a putative ribosome-associated protein (p40). Interestingly, increased expression of this polypeptide (37LRP/p40) is consistently observed in invasive and metastatic cancer cells and is associated with poor prognosis. Southern-blot analysis of human genomic DNA predicted multiple copies of the 37LRP/p40 gene. In this study, we report that the number of copies of this sequence in the human genome is 26 +/- 2. We have sequenced and analyzed 19 genomic clones corresponding to the 37LRP/p40 gene and found that they were all processed pseudogenes. They all lack intronic sequences and show multiple genetic alterations leading in some cases to the appearance of stop codons. Moreover, they all bear characteristic features of retroposons as the presence of a poly(A)-tail at their 3' end and short direct repeated flanking DNA sequences. None of the pseudogenes analyzed present cis-elements in their 5' flanking region such as TATA or GC boxes. Our date reveal that over 50% of the 37LRP/p40 gene copies are pseudogenes most probably generated by retropositional events. The finding of multiple pseudogenes for the 37LRP/p40 suggests that the accumulation of several copies of this gene might have given a survival advantage to the cell in the course of evolution.

  13. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists alleviate muscle pathology in the mouse model for laminin-α2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laminin-α2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a severe muscle-wasting disease for which no curative treatment is available. Antagonists of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), including the anti-hypertensive drug losartan, have been shown to block also the profibrotic action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and thereby ameliorate disease progression in mouse models of Marfan syndrome. Because fibrosis and failure of muscle regeneration are the main reasons for the severe disease course of MDC1A, we tested whether L-158809, an analog derivative of losartan, could ameliorate the dystrophy in dyW/dyW mice, the best-characterized model of MDC1A. Methods L-158809 was given in food to dyW/dyW mice at the age of 3 weeks, and the mice were analyzed at the age of 6 to 7 weeks. We examined the effect of L-158809 on muscle histology and on muscle regeneration after injury as well as the locomotor activity and muscle strength of the mice. Results We found that TGF-β signaling in the muscles of the dyW/dyW mice was strongly increased, and that L-158809 treatment suppressed this signaling. Consequently, L-158809 reduced fibrosis and inflammation in skeletal muscle of dyW/dyW mice, and largely restored muscle regeneration after toxin-induced injury. Mice showed improvement in their locomotor activity and grip strength, and their body weight was significantly increased. Conclusion These data provide evidence that AT1 antagonists ameliorate several hallmarks of MDC1A in dyW/dyW mice, the best-characterized mouse model for this disease. Because AT1 antagonists are well tolerated in humans and widely used in clinical practice, these results suggest that losartan may offer a potential future treatment of patients with MDC1A. PMID:22943509

  14. Laminin binds to myostatin and attenuates its signaling.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Naofumi; Suzuki, Keisuke; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Takanori

    2013-09-01

    Myostatin is a growth and differentiation factor and acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Although the mechanism whereby myostatin controls muscle cell growth is mostly clarified, the regulation of myostatin activity after its secretion into the extracellular matrix (ECM) is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between laminin and myostatin and the effect of laminin on myostatin signaling in vitro. The surface plasmon resonance assay showed that laminin bound to mature myostatin and activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB), but did not bind to latency-associated protein, which remains non-covalently linked to mature myostatin. Furthermore, kinetic analysis demonstrated that the affinity of mature myostatin for laminin was similar to that for ActRIIB. Next, we examined the action of laminin on the myostatin signaling pathway using a conventional reporter assay. The luciferase activity of myostatin-treated cells was repressed significantly (P < 0.05) by coincubation of laminin. These results suggest that laminin has a potential to regulate myostatin activity through binding to mature myostatin and/or its receptor ActRIIB.

  15. Schwann cell myelination requires integration of laminin activities.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Yang, Dong-Hua; Patel, Rajesh; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Takagi, Junichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2012-10-01

    Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. The BM composition, structural bonds and ligands needed to mediate this process, however, are not well understood. Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. To identify the basis for this, and to dissect participating laminin interactions, LAMC1 gene-inactivated dorsal root ganglia were treated with recombinant laminin-211 and -111 lacking different architecture-forming and receptor-binding activities, to induce myelination. Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. Laminins that were unable to polymerize through deletions that removed critical N-terminal (LN) domains, or that lacked cell-adhesive globular (LG) domains, caused reduced BMs and almost no myelination. Laminins engineered to bind weakly to α6β1 and/or α7β1 integrins through their LG domains, even though they could effectively assemble BMs, decreased myelination. Proliferation depended upon both integrin binding to LG domains and polymerization. Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination.

  16. Schwann cell myelination requires integration of laminin activities

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Karen K.; Yang, Dong-Hua; Patel, Rajesh; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Takagi, Junichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Yurchenco, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. The BM composition, structural bonds and ligands needed to mediate this process, however, are not well understood. Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. To identify the basis for this, and to dissect participating laminin interactions, LAMC1 gene-inactivated dorsal root ganglia were treated with recombinant laminin-211 and -111 lacking different architecture-forming and receptor-binding activities, to induce myelination. Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. Laminins that were unable to polymerize through deletions that removed critical N-terminal (LN) domains, or that lacked cell-adhesive globular (LG) domains, caused reduced BMs and almost no myelination. Laminins engineered to bind weakly to α6β1 and/or α7β1 integrins through their LG domains, even though they could effectively assemble BMs, decreased myelination. Proliferation depended upon both integrin binding to LG domains and polymerization. Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination. PMID:22767514

  17. Laminin therapy for the promotion of muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Ingo; Bonomo, Adriana Cesar; Mouly, Vincent; Savino, Wilson

    2015-11-14

    Muscle regeneration is essentially due to activation of satellite cells, which can be isolated and amplified ex vivo, thus representing good candidates for cell therapy. Accumulating data show that the local microenvironment plays a major role during muscle regeneration. In the satellite cell niche, a major extracellular matrix protein is laminin. Human myoblasts transplanted into immunodeficient mice are preferentially located in laminin-enriched areas. Additionally, laminin-111 enhances myoblast proliferation in vitro and increases expression of the α7β1 integrin-type laminin receptor. Intramuscular injection of laminin-111 ameliorates muscular pathology in mdx mice, protecting muscle fibers from damage. Moreover, transplantation of human myoblasts with laminin-111 into Rag/mdx immunodeficient recipients improved efficacy of myoblast transplantation, increasing the number of human dystrophin-positive myofibres. Taken together, these data strongly indicate that exogenous laminin can ameliorate the regeneration process in different models of muscular dystrophies and can be instrumental for improving cell therapy aiming at repairing the degeneration/regeneration process in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity via 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Suqing; Cao, Yanli; Zhou, Haicheng; Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-03-18

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) regulates inflammation. We investigated the pathways involved in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) modulation of insulin and TLR4 signaling in adipocytes. Inflammation was induced in adipocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An antibody against the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR, to which EGCG exclusively binds) was used to examine the effect of EGCG on TLR4 signaling, and a TLR4/MD-2 antibody was used to inhibit TLR4 activity and to determine the insulin sensitivity of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited LPS stimulation of adipocyte inflammation by reducing inflammatory mediator and cytokine levels (IKKβ, p-NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6). Pretreatment with the 67LR antibody prevented EGCG inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, decreased glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) expression, and inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. TLR4 inhibition attenuated inflammatory cytokine levels and increased glucose uptake by reversing GLUT4 levels. These data suggest that EGCG suppresses TLR4 signaling in LPS-stimulated adipocytes via 67LR and attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake associated with decreased GLUT4 expression.

  19. Laminin 511 partners with laminin 332 to mediate directional migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Greciano, Patricia G; Moyano, Jose V; Buschmann, Mary M; Tang, Jun; Lu, Yue; Rudnicki, Jean; Manninen, Aki; Matlin, Karl S

    2012-01-01

    Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front-rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell-cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell-cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins.

  20. Laminin 511 partners with laminin 332 to mediate directional migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Greciano, Patricia G.; Moyano, Jose V.; Buschmann, Mary M.; Tang, Jun; Lu, Yue; Rudnicki, Jean; Manninen, Aki; Matlin, Karl S.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front–rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell–cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell–cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins. PMID:22031290

  1. Glycosylation of the laminin receptor (α3β1) regulates its association with tetraspanin CD151: Impact on cell spreading, motility, degradation and invasion of basement membrane by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Bane, Sanjay M; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2014-04-01

    Invasion is the key requirement for cancer metastasis. Expression of β1,6 branched N-oligosaccharides associated with invasiveness, has been shown to promote adhesion to most Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) components and haptotactic motility on ECM (fibronectin) but attenuate it on BM (laminin/matrigel) components. To explore the mechanism and to evaluate the significance of these observations in terms of invasion, highly invasive B16BL6 cells were compared with the parent (B16F10) cells or B16BL6 cells in which glycosylation was inhibited. We demonstrate that increased adhesion to matrix components induced secretion of MMP-9, important for invasion. Further, both the subunits of integrin receptors for fibronectin (α5β1) and laminin (α3β1) on B16BL6 cells were shown to carry these oligosaccharides. Although, glycosylation of receptors had no effect on their surface expression, it had same differential effect on cell spreading as haptotactic motility. Absence of correlation between invasiveness and expression of most tetraspanins (major regulators of integrin function) hints at an alternate mechanism. Here we show that glycosylation on α3β1 impedes its association with CD151 and modulates spreading and motility of cells apparently to reach an optimum required for invasion of BM. These studies demonstrate the complex mechanisms used by cancer cells to be invasive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pancreatic carcinomas deposit laminin-5, preferably adhere to laminin-5, and migrate on the newly deposited basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, T.; Lumme, A.; Linnala, A.; Kivilaakso, E.; Kiviluoto, T.; Burgeson, R. E.; Kangas, L.; Leivo, I.; Virtanen, I.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the adhesion mechanism of pancreatic carcinoma using in vitro adhesion and migration assays of stable cell lines and tumors grown from these cell lines in nude mice. We also compared the results with the expression profiles of laminins and their receptors in pancreatic carcinomas to evaluate the relevance of these mechanisms in vivo. All of the cell lines preferably adhered to laminin-5, irrespective of their capability to synthesize laminin-5. Cell migration was studied in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor, as it increased the speed of migration manyfold. Herbimycin A treatment and antibodies against the beta 1 and alpha 3 integrin subunits and laminin alpha 3 chain almost entirely blocked cell migration of the BxPC-3 cell line, whereas migration was nearly unaffected by RGD peptide and only moderately inhibited by antibody against the alpha 6 integrin subunit. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of wounded BxPC-3 cells suggested a rapid endocytosis of alpha 3 integrin subunit in the cells at the margin of the wound and a rapid, polarized rearrangement of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin. Especially HGF-treated cultures showed a prominent cytoplasmic reaction for laminin-5 at the margin of the wound. Xenografted cells formed tumors that produced and deposited the same laminin chains as the in vitro cultures. Frozen sections of human pancreatic carcinomas showed reactivity for laminin chains suggestive for expression of laminin-1 and laminin-5. Both xenografted tumors and human pancreatic carcinomas also showed stromal reactivity for laminin-5. Electron microscopy of the human tumors suggested that this was due to an abundant reduplication the basement-membrane-like material around the nests of malignant cells. Our results suggest that pancreatic carcinomas synthesize and deposit laminin-5 in the basement membrane in an abnormal manner. Invading cells adhere to this newly produced basement membrane and migrate on it by using the alpha 3 beta 1

  3. Laminin-511, inducer of hair growth, is down-regulated and its suppressor in hair growth, laminin-332 up-regulated in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tateishi, Chiharu; Sugawara, Koji; Paus, Ralf; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Ishii, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Kunimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Koichi; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has a devastating cosmetic effect, especially in the young. Recent data indicate that two major basement membrane components (laminin-332 and -511) of the skin have opposing effects on hair growth. Objective In this study, we examined the role and localization of laminin-332 and -511 in CIA. Methods We examined the expression of laminin-332 and -511 during the dystrophic catagen form of CIA induced in C57BL/6 mice by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment. Results Our data indicate that both laminin-332 and its receptor α6β4 integrin are up-regulated (both quantitatively and spatially) after mid to late dystrophic catagen around the outer root sheath (ORS) in the lower third of hair follicles in CIA. This up-regulation also occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, laminin-511 is down-regulated after mid dystrophic catagen at the protein level, with transcriptional inactivation of laminin-511 occurring transiently at the early dystrophic catagen stage in both epidermal and ORS keratinocytes. Laminin-511 expression correlates with expression of α3 integrin in CIA and we also demonstrate that laminin-511 can up-regulate the activity of the α3 integrin promoter in cultured keratinocytes. Injection of a laminin-511 rich protein extract, but not recombinant laminin-332, in the back skin of mice delays hair loss in CYP-induced CIA. Conclusions We propose that abrupt hair loss in CIA is, at least in part, caused by down-regulation of laminin-511 and up-regulation of laminin-332 at the transcriptional and translational levels. PMID:20211547

  4. Laminin-511, inducer of hair growth, is down-regulated and its suppressor in hair growth, laminin-332 up-regulated in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tateishi, Chiharu; Sugawara, Koji; Paus, Ralf; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Ishii, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Kunimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Koichi; Jones, Jonathan C R; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2010-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has a devastating cosmetic effect, especially in the young. Recent data indicate that two major basement membrane components (laminin-332 and -511) of the skin have opposing effects on hair growth. In this study, we examined the role and localization of laminin-332 and -511 in CIA. We examined the expression of laminin-332 and -511 during the dystrophic catagen form of CIA induced in C57BL/6 mice by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment. Our data indicate that both laminin-332 and its receptor alpha 6 beta 4 integrin are up-regulated (both quantitatively and spatially) after mid to late dystrophic catagen around the outer root sheath (ORS) in the lower third of hair follicles in CIA. This up-regulation also occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, laminin-511 is down-regulated after mid dystrophic catagen at the protein level, with transcriptional inactivation of laminin-511 occurring transiently at the early dystrophic catagen stage in both epidermal and ORS keratinocytes. Laminin-511 expression correlates with expression of alpha 3 integrin in CIA and we also demonstrate that laminin-511 can up-regulate the activity of the alpha 3 integrin promoter in cultured keratinocytes. Injection of a laminin-511 rich protein extract, but not recombinant laminin-332, in the back skin of mice delays hair loss in CYP-induced CIA. We propose that abrupt hair loss in CIA is, at least in part, caused by down-regulation of laminin-511 and up-regulation of laminin-332 at the transcriptional and translational levels. (c) 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laminins promote postsynaptic maturation by an autocrine mechanism at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Valdez, Gregorio; Jarad, George; Moulson, Casey L; Müller, Ulrich; Miner, Jeffrey H; Sanes, Joshua R

    2008-09-22

    A prominent feature of synaptic maturation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the topological transformation of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich postsynaptic membrane from an ovoid plaque into a complex array of branches. We show here that laminins play an autocrine role in promoting this transformation. Laminins containing the alpha4, alpha5, and beta2 subunits are synthesized by muscle fibers and concentrated in the small portion of the basal lamina that passes through the synaptic cleft at the NMJ. Topological maturation of AChR clusters was delayed in targeted mutant mice lacking laminin alpha5 and arrested in mutants lacking both alpha4 and alpha5. Analysis of chimeric laminins in vivo and of mutant myotubes cultured aneurally demonstrated that the laminins act directly on muscle cells to promote postsynaptic maturation. Immunohistochemical studies in vivo and in vitro along with analysis of targeted mutants provide evidence that laminin-dependent aggregation of dystroglycan in the postsynaptic membrane is a key step in synaptic maturation. Another synaptically concentrated laminin receptor, Bcam, is dispensable. Together with previous studies implicating laminins as organizers of presynaptic differentiation, these results show that laminins coordinate post- with presynaptic maturation.

  6. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  7. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate.

  8. Induction of a laminin isoform and alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin in renal ischemic injury and repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2002-11-01

    Ischemic injury to the kidney, a major cause of acute renal failure, leads to the detachment and loss of numerous tubular epithelial cells. Integrin-laminin interactions may promote regeneration of the damaged epithelium by influencing kidney epithelial cell adhesion and differentiation. Laminins are major structural components of basement membranes. Of the various laminin isoforms, laminin-5 is of particular interest because of its proposed role in the healing of skin wounds. In this study, we investigate the expression of laminin-5 in rat kidney after unilateral ischemia. Using a polyclonal antibody generated against laminin-5, we find that immunostaining is confined to the basement membranes of collecting ducts in the papilla and the major and minor calyces in normal kidney. With injury and regeneration, however, immunostaining becomes much more intense and widespread in basement membranes along the nephron. Immunoblotting of ischemic kidney extracts reveals significantly increased expression of a polypeptide of approximately 220 kDa, possibly corresponding to a precursor of one of the three laminin-5 chains. Immunoblotting and immunostaining also demonstrate significantly increased expression and altered localization of the alpha(3)-integrin subunit, a receptor for laminin-5. These results indicate that there is induction of a laminin isoform, possibly laminin-5, and alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin in the ischemic kidney and may implicate this receptor-ligand combination in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure and/or repair of the injured kidney epithelium.

  9. Laminin targeting of a peripheral nerve-highlighting peptide enables degenerated nerve visualization

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Heather L.; Whitney, Michael A.; Gross, Larry A.; Friedman, Beth; Adams, Stephen R.; Crisp, Jessica L.; Hussain, Timon; Frei, Andreas P.; Novy, Karel; Wollscheid, Bernd; Nguyen, Quyen T.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2016-01-01

    Target-blind activity-based screening of molecular libraries is often used to develop first-generation compounds, but subsequent target identification is rate-limiting to developing improved agents with higher specific affinity and lower off-target binding. A fluorescently labeled nerve-binding peptide, NP41, selected by phage display, highlights peripheral nerves in vivo. Nerve highlighting has the potential to improve surgical outcomes by facilitating intraoperative nerve identification, reducing accidental nerve transection, and facilitating repair of damaged nerves. To enable screening of molecular target-specific molecules for higher nerve contrast and to identify potential toxicities, NP41’s binding target was sought. Laminin-421 and -211 were identified by proximity-based labeling using singlet oxygen and by an adapted version of TRICEPS-based ligand-receptor capture to identify glycoprotein receptors via ligand cross-linking. In proximity labeling, photooxidation of a ligand-conjugated singlet oxygen generator is coupled to chemical labeling of locally oxidized residues. Photooxidation of methylene blue–NP41-bound nerves, followed by biotin hydrazide labeling and purification, resulted in light-induced enrichment of laminin subunits α4 and α2, nidogen 1, and decorin (FDR-adjusted P value < 10−7) and minor enrichment of laminin-γ1 and collagens I and VI. Glycoprotein receptor capture also identified laminin-α4 and -γ1. Laminins colocalized with NP41 within nerve sheath, particularly perineurium, where laminin-421 is predominant. Binding assays with phage expressing NP41 confirmed binding to purified laminin-421, laminin-211, and laminin-α4. Affinity for these extracellular matrix proteins explains the striking ability of NP41 to highlight degenerated nerve “ghosts” months posttransection that are invisible to the unaided eye but retain hollow laminin-rich tubular structures. PMID:27791138

  10. Aberrant Development of Thymocytes in Mice Lacking Laminin-2

    PubMed Central

    Magner, William J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Owens, Jennie; Hong, M-J. P.; Brooks, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In previous in vitro studies, we proposed a role for the extracellular matrix component, laminin- 2, and its integrin receptor, VLA-6, in thymocyte development. The characterization of two dystrophic mouse strains with different defects in laminin-2 allowed us to examine this proposal in vivo. Mice deficient in laminin-2, dy/dy, show a significant reduction in thymus size and number of thymocytes compared to normal littermates. These mice also exhibited apparent alterations of thymic architecture. Examination of the CD4/CD8 populations in dy/dy thymi showed large relative increases in the DN (CD4-CD8-) and SP (CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+) populations and a significant decrease in the DP (CD4+CD8+) population. Further examination of the DN population for CD44 and CD25 expression showed a remarkable decrease in the more mature pre-T cell populations. Analysis of apoptosis in situ, and by flow cytometry, in dy/dy thymi revealed a significant increase in apoptotic DN thymocytes in the capsule and subcapsular regions. Interestingly, thymocyte development appeared to proceed normally in dystrophic mice expressing a mutant form of laminin-2, dy2J, as well as, in fetal and neonatal dy/dy mice. We propose that laminin-2 plays an active role in thymocyte development by delivering cell survival and differentiation signals at specific stages of development in young adult mice. PMID:11097211

  11. Integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions regulate early myotome formation in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bajanca, Fernanda; Luz, Marta; Raymond, Karine; Martins, Gabriel G; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Buckingham, Margaret; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig

    2006-05-01

    We addressed the potential role of cell-laminin interactions during epaxial myotome formation in the mouse embryo. Assembly of the myotomal laminin matrix occurs as epaxial myogenic precursor cells enter the myotome. Most Myf5-positive and myogenin-negative myogenic precursor cells localise near assembled laminin, while myogenin-expressing cells are located either away from this matrix or in areas where it is being assembled. In Myf5(nlacZ/nlacZ) (Myf5-null) embryos, laminin, collagen type IV and perlecan are present extracellularly near myogenic precursor cells, but do not form a basement membrane and cells are not contained in the myotomal compartment. Unlike wild-type myogenic precursor cells, Myf5-null cells do not express the alpha6beta1 integrin, a laminin receptor, suggesting that integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions are required for myotomal laminin matrix assembly. Blocking alpha6beta1-laminin binding in cultured wild-type mouse embryo explants resulted in dispersion of Myf5-positive cells, a phenotype also seen in Myf5(nlacZ/nlacZ) embryos. Furthermore, inhibition of alpha6beta1 resulted in an increase in Myf5 protein and ectopic myogenin expression in dermomyotomal cells, suggesting that alpha6beta1-laminin interactions normally repress myogenesis in the dermomyotome. We conclude that Myf5 is required for maintaining alpha6beta1 expression on myogenic precursor cells, and that alpha6beta1 is necessary for myotomal laminin matrix assembly and cell guidance into the myotome. Engagement of laminin by alpha6beta1 also plays a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of cells in the dermomyotome prior to their entry into the myotome.

  12. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation.

  13. The role of laminins in the organization and function of neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle is known as the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Proper alignment of presynaptic and post-synaptic structures of motor neurons and muscle fibers, respectively, is essential for efficient motor control of skeletal muscles. The synaptic cleft between these two cells is filled with basal lamina. Laminins are heterotrimer extracellular matrix molecules that are key members of the basal lamina. Laminin α4, α5, and β2 chains specifically localize to NMJs, and these laminin isoforms play a critical role in maintenance of NMJs and organization of synaptic vesicle release sites known as active zones. These individual laminin chains exert their role in organizing NMJs by binding to their receptors including integrins, dystroglycan, and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Disruption of these laminins or the laminin-receptor interaction occurs in neuromuscular diseases including Pierson syndrome and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Interventions to maintain proper level of laminins and their receptor interactions may be insightful in treating neuromuscular diseases and aging related degeneration of NMJs.

  14. The effects of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on reactive oxygen species in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes depend on the glutathione and 67 kDa laminin receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Hsiao, Chiao-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ku, Hui-Chen; Hu, Yu-Jung; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2009-03-01

    Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is known as to regulate obesity and fat cell activity. However, little information is known about the effects of EGCG on oxidative reactive oxygen species (ROS) of fat cells. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes, we found that EGCG increased ROS production in dose- and time-dependent manners. The concentration of EGCG that increased ROS levels by 180-500% was approximately 50 muM for a range of 8-16 h of treatment. In contrast, EGCG dose- and time-dependently decreased the amount of intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. EGCG was more effective than (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin in changing ROS and GSH levels. This suggests a catechin-specific effect. To further examine the relation of GSH to ROS as altered by EGCG, we observed that exposure of preadipocytes and adipocytes to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a GSH precursor) blocked the EGCG-induced increases in ROS levels and decreases in GSH levels. These observations suggest a GSH-dependent effect of EGCG on ROS production. While EGCG was demonstrated to alter levels of ROS and GSH, its signaling was altered by an EGCG receptor (the so-called 67 kDa laminin receptor(67LR)) antiserum, but not by normal rabbit serum. These data suggest that EGCG mediates GSH and ROS levels via the 67LR pathway.

  15. Loss of cell surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L.; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W.; Muschler, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECMs) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors where it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression. PMID:22589276

  16. Alpha 1 beta 1 integrin on neural crest cells recognizes some laminin substrata in a Ca(2+)-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Neural crest cells migrate along pathways containing laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules. In the present study, we functionally and biochemically identify an alpha 1 beta 1 integrin heterodimer which bears the HNK-1 epitope on neural crest cells. Using a quantitative cell adhesion assay, we find that this heterodimer mediates attachment to laminin substrata prepared in the presence of Ca2+. Interestingly, neural crest cells bind to laminin-Ca2+ substrata in the presence or absence of divalent cations in the cell attachment medium. In contrast, the attachment of neural crest cells to laminin substrata prepared in the presence of EDTA, heparin, Mg2+, or Mn2+ requires divalent cations. Interactions with these laminin substrata are mediated by a different integrin heterodimer, since antibodies against beta 1 but not alpha 1 integrins inhibit neural crest cell attachment. Thus, the type of laminin substratum appears to dictate the choice of laminin receptor used by neural crest cells. The laminin conformation is determined by the ratio of laminin to Ca2+, though incorporation of heparin during substratum polymerization alters the conformation even in the presence of Ca2+. Once polymerized, the substratum appears stable, not being altered by soaking in either EDTA or divalent cations. Our findings demonstrate: (a) that the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin can bind to some forms of laminin in the absence of soluble divalent cations; (b) that substratum preparation conditions alter the conformation of laminin such that plating laminin in the presence of Ca2+ and/or heparin modulates its configuration; and (c) that neural crest cells utilize different integrins to recognize different laminin conformations. PMID:1280273

  17. Human amnion contains a novel laminin variant, laminin 7, which like laminin 6, covalently associates with laminin 5 to promote stable epithelial-stromal attachment

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Stable attachment of external epithelia to the basement membrane and underlying stroma is mediated by transmembrane proteins such as the integrin alpha6beta4 and bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 within the hemidesmosomes along the basolateral surface of the epithelial cell and their ligands that include a specialized subfamily of laminins. The laminin 5 molecule (previously termed kalinin/nicein/epiligrin) is a member of this epithelial-specific subfamily. Laminin 5 chains are not only considerably truncated within domains III-VI, but are also extensively proteolytically processed in vitro and in vivo. As a result, the domains expected to be required for the association of laminins with other basement membrane components are lacking in the mature laminin 5 molecule. Therefore, the tight binding of laminin 5 to the basement membrane may occur by a unique mechanism. To examine laminin 5 in tissue, we chose human amnion as the source, because of its availability and the similarity of the amniotic epithelial basement membrane with that of skin. We isolated the laminin 5 contained within the basement membrane of human amnion. In addition to monomeric laminin 5, we find that much of the laminin 5 isolated is covalently adducted with laminin 6 (alpha3beta1gamma1) and a novel laminin isotype we have termed laminin 7 (alpha3beta2gamma1). We propose that the association between laminin 5 and laminins 6 and 7 is a mechanism used in amnion to allow stable association of laminin 5 with the basement membrane. The beta2 chain is seen at the human amniotic epithelial-stromal interface and at the dermal-epidermal junction of fetal and adult bovine skin by immunofluorescence, but is not present, or only weakly present, in neonatal human skin. PMID:8601594

  18. A novel monoclonal antibody to human laminin α5 chain strongly inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration on laminins 511 and 521.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Omrani, Shahin; Ishikawa, Taichi; Javed, Fawad; Oikawa, Yuko; Virtanen, Ismo; Juronen, Erkki; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, a large family of αβγ heterotrimeric proteins mainly found in basement membranes, are strong promoters of adhesion and migration of multiple cell types, such as tumor and immune cells, via several integrin receptors. Among laminin α (LMα) chains, α5 displays the widest tissue distribution in adult life and is synthesized by most cell types. Here, we have generated and characterized five novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the human LMα5 chain to further study the biological relevance of α5 laminins, such as laminins 511 (α5β1γ1) and 521 (α5β2γ1). As detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, each antibody displayed unique properties when compared to mAb 4C7, the prototype LMα5 antibody. Of greatest interest, mAb 8G9, but not any other antibody, strongly inhibited α3β1/α6β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of glioma, melanoma, and carcinoma cells on laminin-511 and, together with mAb 4C7, on laminin-521. Accordingly, mAb 8G9 abolished the interaction of soluble α3β1 integrin with immobilized laminins 511 and 521. Binding of mAb 8G9 to laminin-511 was unaffected by the other mAbs to the LMα5 chain but largely hindered by mAb 4E10 to a LMβ1 chain epitope near the globular domain of laminin-511. Thus, mAb 8G9 defines a novel epitope localized at or near the integrin-binding globular domain of the LMα5 chain, which is essential for cell adhesion and migration, and identifies a potential therapeutic target in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  19. A Novel Monoclonal Antibody to Human Laminin α5 Chain Strongly Inhibits Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion and Migration on Laminins 511 and 521

    PubMed Central

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Omrani, Shahin; Ishikawa, Taichi; Javed, Fawad; Oikawa, Yuko; Juronen, Erkki; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, a large family of αβγ heterotrimeric proteins mainly found in basement membranes, are strong promoters of adhesion and migration of multiple cell types, such as tumor and immune cells, via several integrin receptors. Among laminin α (LMα) chains, α5 displays the widest tissue distribution in adult life and is synthesized by most cell types. Here, we have generated and characterized five novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the human LMα5 chain to further study the biological relevance of α5 laminins, such as laminins 511 (α5β1γ1) and 521 (α5β2γ1). As detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, each antibody displayed unique properties when compared to mAb 4C7, the prototype LMα5 antibody. Of greatest interest, mAb 8G9, but not any other antibody, strongly inhibited α3β1/α6β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of glioma, melanoma, and carcinoma cells on laminin-511 and, together with mAb 4C7, on laminin-521. Accordingly, mAb 8G9 abolished the interaction of soluble α3β1 integrin with immobilized laminins 511 and 521. Binding of mAb 8G9 to laminin-511 was unaffected by the other mAbs to the LMα5 chain but largely hindered by mAb 4E10 to a LMβ1 chain epitope near the globular domain of laminin-511. Thus, mAb 8G9 defines a novel epitope localized at or near the integrin-binding globular domain of the LMα5 chain, which is essential for cell adhesion and migration, and identifies a potential therapeutic target in malignant and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23308268

  20. Laminin α5 in the keratinocyte basement membrane is required for epidermal-dermal intercommunication.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Jeannine; Loser, Karin; Apsite, Gunita; Nischt, Roswitha; Eckes, Beate; Krieg, Thomas; Werner, Sabine; Sorokin, Lydia

    2016-12-01

    Laminin α5 is broadly expressed in the epidermal basement membrane (BM) of mature mice and its elimination at this site (Lama5(Ker5) mouse) results in hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes and a delay in hair follicle development, which correlated with upregulation of the dermally-derived laminin α2 and laminin α4 chains in the epidermal BM and of tenascin-C subjacent to the BM. In vitro studies revealed laminin 511 to be strongly adhesive for primary keratinocytes and that loss of laminin α5 does not result in cell autonomous defects in proliferation. Flow cytometry reveals that the loss of laminin α5 resulted in increased numbers of CD45(+), CD4(+) and CD11b(+) immune cells in the skin, which temporo-spatial analyses revealed were detectable only subsequent to the loss of laminin α5 and the appearance of the hyperproliferative keratinocyte phenotype. These findings indicate that immune cell changes are the consequence and not the cause of keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Loss of laminin α5 in the epidermal BM was also associated with changes in the expression of several dermally-derived growth factors involved in keratinocyte proliferation and hair follicle development in adult but not new born Lama5(Ker5) skin, including KGF, EGF and KGF-2. In situ binding of FGF-receptor-2α (IIIb)-Fc chimera (FGFR2IIIb) to mouse skin sections revealed decoration of several BMs, including the epidermal BM, which was absent in Lama5(Ker5) skin. This indicates reduced levels of FGFR2IIIb ligands, which include KGF and KGF-2, in the epidermal BM of adult Lama5(Ker5) skin. Our data suggest an initial inhibitory effect of laminin α5 on basal keratinocyte proliferation and migration, which is exacerbated by subsequent changes in growth factor expression by epidermal and dermal cells, implicating laminin α5 in epidermal-dermal intercommunication.

  1. Identification of the N-acetylneuraminyllactose-specific laminin-binding protein of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen, K H; Wadström, T; Moran, A P

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori with the glycoprotein laminin was investigated. Binding of 125I-radiolabelled laminin in a liquid-phase assay by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating strains was rapid, saturable, specific, partially reversible, of high affinity, and insensitive to pH. Inhibition of laminin binding by fetuin, but not asialofetuin, and reduced bacterial binding to periodate- or sialidase-treated laminin indicated that glycosylation, particularly sialylation, was important for laminin binding by H. pylori. Inhibition experiments with monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides showed that the strains bound to a region spanning a trisaccharide. In particular, inhibition and displacement studies showed that binding to the trisaccharide N-acetylneuraminyl-alpha(2-3)-lactose [NeuAc(2-3)Lac] was preferential to that to the NeuAc(2-6)Lac isomer. Complete inhibition of laminin binding by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating strains was achieved only when isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as an inhibitor in combination with heat or protease treatment of H. pylori cells, thereby confirming the involvement of both LPS and a protein adhesin in laminin binding. Further inhibition experiments indicated that the protein receptor, rather than LPS, on H. pylori bound NeuAc(2-3)Lac. By using a Western blotting procedure, a 25-kDa outer membrane protein was identified as mediating laminin binding by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating H. pylori strains. The specificity of binding was confirmed by complete inhibition of laminin binding by the 25-kDa protein with NeuAc(2-3)Lac. The data collectively suggest that a 25-kDa outer membrane protein acts in a lectin-like manner with LPS to mediate attachment of H. pylori to laminin. PMID:9038297

  2. The opposing roles of laminin-binding integrins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramovs, Veronika; Te Molder, Lisa; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Integrins play an important role in cell adhesion by linking the cytoskeleton of cells to components in the extracellular matrix. In this capacity, integrins cooperate with different cell surface receptors, including growth factor receptors and G-protein coupled receptors, to regulate intracellular signaling pathways that control cell polarization, spreading, migration, survival, and gene expression. A distinct subfamily of molecules in the integrin family of adhesion receptors is formed by receptors that mediate cell adhesion to laminins, major components of the basement membrane that lie under clusters of cells or surround them, separating them from other cells and/or adjacent connective tissue. During the past decades, many studies have provided evidence for a role of laminin-binding integrins in tumorigenesis, and both tumor-promoting and suppressive activities have been identified. In this review we discuss the dual role of the laminin-binding integrins α3β1 and α6β4 in tumor development and progression, and examine the factors and mechanisms involved in these opposing effects.

  3. Laminins and their roles in mammals.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2008-05-01

    Laminins are alpha-beta-gamma heterotrimeric components of all basement membranes. Laminins are now known to play the central role in organizing and establishing the basement membrane. The diversity of laminins allows them to impart special structural and signaling properties to the basement membrane. Of the 12 known laminin chain genes, 10 have been either found to be mutated in humans or experimentally mutated in mice. This has led to great progress over the last several years towards understanding both the functions of laminins and the reasons for their great diversity. In this review, I will summarize the in vivo studies in mice and humans that have contributed to this new knowledge.

  4. Bridging structure with function: structural, regulatory, and developmental role of laminins.

    PubMed

    Tzu, Julia; Marinkovich, M Peter

    2008-01-01

    The basement membrane is a highly intricate and organized portion of the extracellular matrix that interfaces with a variety of cell types including epithelial, endothelial, muscle, nerve, and fat cells. The laminin family of glycoproteins is a major constituent of the basement membrane. The 16 known laminin isoforms are formed from combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma chains, with each chain containing specific domains capable of interacting with cellular receptors such as integrins and other extracellular ligands. In addition to its role in the assembly and architectural integrity of the basement membrane, laminins interact with cells to influence proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, processes activated in normal and pathologic states. In vitro these functions are regulated by the post-translational modifications of the individual laminin chains. In vivo laminin knockout mouse studies have been particularly instructive in defining the function of specific laminins in mammalian development and have also highlighted its role as a key component of the basement membrane. In this review, we will define how laminin structure complements function and explore its role in both normal and pathologic processes.

  5. Laminin promotes metalloproteinase-mediated dystroglycan processing to regulate oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Leiton, Cindy V; Aranmolate, Azeez; Eyermann, Christopher; Menezes, Michael J; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Husain, Solomon; Winder, Steve J; Colognato, Holly

    2015-11-01

    The cell surface receptor dystroglycan mediates interactions between oligodendroglia and laminin-211, an extracellular matrix protein that regulates timely oligodendroglial development. However, dystroglycan's precise role in oligodendroglial development and the potential mechanisms to regulate laminin-dystroglycan interactions remain unknown. Here we report that oligodendroglial dystroglycan is cleaved by metalloproteinases, thereby uncoupling oligodendroglia from laminin binding. Dystroglycan cleavage is selectively stimulated by oligodendrocyte progenitor cell attachment to laminin-211, but not laminin-111 or poly-D-lysine. In addition, dystroglycan cleavage occurs most prominently in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, with limited dystroglycan cleavage observed in differentiating oligodendrocytes. When dystroglycan cleavage is blocked by metalloproteinase inhibitors, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation is substantially decreased. Conversely, expression of the intracellular portion of cleaved dystroglycan results in increased oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation, suggesting that endogenous dystroglycan cleavage may promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle progression. Intriguingly, while matrix metalloproteinase-2 and/or -9 have been reported to be responsible for dystroglycan cleavage, we find that these two metalloproteinases are neither necessary nor sufficient for cleavage of oligodendroglial dystroglycan. In summary, laminin-211 stimulates metalloproteinase-mediated dystroglycan cleavage in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (but not in differentiated oligodendrocytes), which in turn promotes oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation. This novel regulation of oligodendroglial laminin-dystroglycan interactions may have important consequences for oligodendroglial differentiation, both during development and during disease when metalloproteinase levels become elevated. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  7. Laminin Levels Regulate Tissue Migration and Anterior-Posterior Polarity during Egg Morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Díaz de la Loza, María C; Díaz-Torres, Alfonsa; Zurita, Federico; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E; Moeendarbary, Emad; Franze, Kristian; Martín-Bermudo, María D; González-Reyes, Acaimo

    2017-07-05

    Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized extracellular matrices required for tissue organization and organ formation. We study the role of laminin and its integrin receptor in the regulation of tissue migration during Drosophila oogenesis. Egg production in Drosophila involves the collective migration of follicle cells (FCs) over the BM to shape the mature egg. We show that laminin content in the BM increases with time, whereas integrin amounts in FCs do not vary significantly. Manipulation of integrin and laminin levels reveals that a dynamic balance of integrin-laminin amounts determines the onset and speed of FC migration. Thus, the interplay of ligand-receptor levels regulates tissue migration in vivo. Laminin depletion also affects the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the BM and results in anterior-posterior misorientation of developing follicles. Laminin emerges as a key player in the regulation of collective cell migration, tissue stiffness, and the organization of anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laminin 411 and 511 promote the cholangiocyte differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mitani, Seiji; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-20

    The drug discovery research for cholestatic liver diseases has been hampered by the lack of a well-established human cholangiocyte model. Functional cholangiocyte-like cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to be a promising candidate for such research, but there remains no well-established method for differentiating cholangiocytes from human iPS cells. In this study, we searched for a suitable extracellular matrix to promote cholangiocyte differentiation from human iPS cells, and found that both laminin 411 and laminin 511 were suitable for this purpose. The gene expression levels of the cholangiocyte markers, aquaporin 1 (AQP1), SRY-box 9 (SOX9), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), Jagged 1 (JAG1), secretin receptor (SCTR), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT1) were increased by using laminin 411 or laminin 511 as a matrix. In addition, the percentage of AQP1-positive cells was increased from 61.8% to 92.5% by using laminin 411 or laminin 511. Furthermore, the diameter and number of cysts consisted of cholangiocyte-like cells were increased when using either matrix. We believe that the human iPS cell-derived cholangiocyte-like cells, which were generated by using our differentiation technology, would be useful for the drug discovery research of cholestatic liver diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laminin and beta1 integrin distribution in the early stages of human kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, N; Bianchi, F; Dolfi, A

    1999-01-01

    Laminin, an extracellular matrix molecule (EMM) widely expressed in the basal laminae, interacts with specific membrane receptors among which the integrin molecules are the best known. During embryo development laminin is the first synthesized EMM and plays a significant role in the morphogenesis of organs in which epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and branching take place. The present study describes the distribution of laminin and of beta1 integrin receptors during the very early stages of human kidney development. The observations were carried out on paraffin sections of human embryos ranging between the 4th and the 7th gestational week. Laminin was detected within the basement membranes of mesonephric duct, vesicles, glomerular vessels and celomic epithelium. The metanephric anlage reacted with anti-laminin immunoglobulins in the basement membrane underlying the ampullae and in few blastemic cap cells. Low levels of beta1 integrin reactivity were found in both the mesonephric and metanephric structures. This study provides for the first time data about the distribution of laminin and beta1 integrin in the early stages of human renal organogenesis suggesting a key role for these molecules in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions necessary for kidney development.

  10. Green tea polyphenols precondition against cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation via stimulation of laminin receptor, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of protein kinase Cε.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Elhiani, Albert A; Schiffman, Jason E; Hinton, David R; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2012-10-05

    As the development of synthetic drugs for the prevention of stroke has proven challenging, utilization of natural products capable of preconditioning neuronal cells against ischemia-induced cell death would be a highly useful complementary approach. In this study using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in PC12 cells, we show that 2-day pretreatment with green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects cells from subsequent OGD/R-induced cell death. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, with unfractionated GTPP more potently preconditioning cells than EGCG. GTPP-induced preconditioning required the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), to which EGCG binds with high affinity. 67LR also mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase. An exogenous ROS-generating system bypassed 67LR to induce preconditioning, suggesting that sublethal levels of ROS are indeed an important mediator in GTPP-induced preconditioning. This role for ROS was further supported by the fact that antioxidants blocked GTPP-induced preconditioning. Additionally, ROS induced an activation and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC), particularly PKCε from the cytosol to the membrane/mitochondria, which was also blocked by antioxidants. The crucial role of PKC in GTPP-induced preconditioning was supported by use of its specific inhibitors. Preconditioning was increased by conditional overexpression of PKCε and decreased by its knock-out with siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that GTPP stimulates 67LR and thereby induces NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS, which in turn induces activation of PKC, particularly prosurvival isoenzyme PKCε, resulting in preconditioning against cell death induced by OGD/R.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols Precondition against Cell Death Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation via Stimulation of Laminin Receptor, Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, and Activation of Protein Kinase Cϵ

    PubMed Central

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H.; Elhiani, Albert A.; Schiffman, Jason E.; Hinton, David R.; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2012-01-01

    As the development of synthetic drugs for the prevention of stroke has proven challenging, utilization of natural products capable of preconditioning neuronal cells against ischemia-induced cell death would be a highly useful complementary approach. In this study using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in PC12 cells, we show that 2-day pretreatment with green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects cells from subsequent OGD/R-induced cell death. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, with unfractionated GTPP more potently preconditioning cells than EGCG. GTPP-induced preconditioning required the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), to which EGCG binds with high affinity. 67LR also mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase. An exogenous ROS-generating system bypassed 67LR to induce preconditioning, suggesting that sublethal levels of ROS are indeed an important mediator in GTPP-induced preconditioning. This role for ROS was further supported by the fact that antioxidants blocked GTPP-induced preconditioning. Additionally, ROS induced an activation and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC), particularly PKCϵ from the cytosol to the membrane/mitochondria, which was also blocked by antioxidants. The crucial role of PKC in GTPP-induced preconditioning was supported by use of its specific inhibitors. Preconditioning was increased by conditional overexpression of PKCϵ and decreased by its knock-out with siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that GTPP stimulates 67LR and thereby induces NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS, which in turn induces activation of PKC, particularly prosurvival isoenzyme PKCϵ, resulting in preconditioning against cell death induced by OGD/R. PMID:22879598

  12. Laminins and retinal vascular development.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Malia M; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling vascular development, both normal and pathological, are not yet fully understood. Many diseases, including cancer and diabetic retinopathy, involve abnormal blood vessel formation. Therefore, increasing knowledge of these mechanisms may help develop novel therapeutic targets. The identification of novel proteins or cells involved in this process would be particularly useful. The retina is an ideal model for studying vascular development because it is easy to access, particularly in rodents where this process occurs post-natally. Recent studies have suggested potential roles for laminin chains in vascular development of the retina. This review will provide an overview of these studies, demonstrating the importance of further research into the involvement of laminins in retinal blood vessel formation.

  13. Laminin 332 processing impacts cellular behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rousselle, Patricia; Beck, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332, composed of the α3, β3 and γ2 chains, is an epithelial-basement membrane specific laminin variant. Its main role in normal tissues is the maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal cohesion in tissues exposed to external forces, including skin and stratified squamous mucosa. After being secreted and deposited in the extracellular matrix, laminin 332 undergoes physiological maturation processes consisting in the proteolytic processing of domains located within the α3 and the γ2 chains. These maturation events are essential for laminin 332 integration into the basement membrane where it plays an important function in the nucleation and maintenance of anchoring structures. Studies in normal and pathological situations have revealed that laminin 332 can trigger distinct cellular events depending on the level of its proteolytic cleavages. In this review, the biological and structural characteristics of laminin 332 domains are presented and we discuss whether they trigger specific functions. PMID:23263634

  14. Laminin is required for Schwann cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Ming; Chen, Zu-Lin; North, Alison J; Strickland, Sidney

    2009-04-01

    Development of the peripheral nervous system requires radial axonal sorting by Schwann cells (SCs). To accomplish sorting, SCs must both proliferate and undergo morphogenetic changes such as process extension. Signaling studies reveal pathways that control either proliferation or morphogenesis, and laminin is essential for SC proliferation. However, it is not clear whether laminin is also required for SC morphogenesis. By using a novel time-lapse live-cell-imaging technique, we demonstrated that laminins are required for SCs to form a bipolar shape as well as for process extension. These morphological deficits are accompanied by alterations in signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of Schwannomin at serine 518 and activation of Rho GTPase Cdc42 and Rac1 were all significantly decreased in SCs lacking laminins. Inhibiting Rac1 and/or Cdc42 activities in cultured SCs attenuated laminin-induced myelination, whereas forced activation of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 in vivo improved sorting and hypomyelinating phenotypes in SCs lacking laminins. These findings indicate that laminins play a pivotal role in regulating SC cytoskeletal signaling. Coupled with previous results demonstrating that laminin is critical for SC proliferation, this work identifies laminin signaling as a central regulator coordinating the processes of proliferation and morphogenesis in radial axonal sorting.

  15. Laminin: loss-of-function studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    Laminin, one of the most widely expressed extracellular matrix proteins, exerts many important functions in multiple organs/systems and at various developmental stages. Although its critical roles in embryonic development have been demonstrated, laminin's functions at later stages remain largely unknown, mainly due to its intrinsic complexity and lack of research tools (most laminin mutants are embryonic lethal). With the advance of genetic and molecular techniques, many new laminin mutants have been generated recently. These new mutants usually have a longer lifespan and show previously unidentified phenotypes. Not only do these studies suggest novel functions of laminin, but also they provide invaluable animal models that allow investigation of laminin's functions at late stages. Here, I first briefly introduce the nomenclature, structure, and biochemistry of laminin in general. Next, all the loss-of-function mutants/models for each laminin chain are discussed and their phenotypes compared. I hope to provide a comprehensive review on laminin functions and its loss-of-function models, which could serve as a reference for future research in this understudied field.

  16. Loss of cell-surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2012-05-15

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects, which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors in which it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression. ©2012 AACR.

  17. Regulation of the laminin beta 1 (LAMB1), retinoic acid receptor beta, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 genes in mutant F9 teratocarcinoma cell lines partially deficient in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Li, C; Gudas, L J

    1997-12-01

    We stably transfected a gene encoding a dominant negative regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) into F9 cells and generated cell lines partially deficient in PKA activity (DN16 and DN19). In these cell lines, the retinoic acid (RA) receptor beta and laminin beta(1) chain (LAMB1) genes were regulated normally by RA alone, indicating that in the absence of exogenous modulation of cAMP levels, the PKA signaling pathway does not seem to play a major role in the RA-associated regulation of these genes. However, alterations in gene regulation were observed when the mutant cell lines were treated with a combination of RA and cAMP analogues. Moreover, in the DN16 cell line, which exhibits the lowest PKA activity among the mutant cell lines [22% of wild type (WT) at 1 microM cAMP], there was a significant decrease in the cAMP-associated activation of the LAMB1 gene DNase I hypersensitivity site 2 enhancer, as measured by chloramphenicol acetyl transferase assays. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, less protein binding was observed at one of the motifs (C2) within this enhancer region in the DN16 cells as compared to the F9 WT cells after treatment of the cells with RA and cAMP analogues for 24 h. Furthermore, no increase in C2 binding was observed when extracts from RA-treated F9 ST or DN16 cells were subjected to in vitro phosphorylation, suggesting that PKA is involved in the induction of the C2-binding protein in RA-treated cells. In contrast to the results with RA receptor beta and LAMB1, the effects of cAMP analogues on the RA-associated regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene were not altered in the cell lines that exhibited reduced PKA activity. These results suggest that a partial reduction in PKA activity is not sufficient to abrogate the effects of cAMP analogues on all of the genes regulated by RA.

  18. Laminins: Roles and Utility in Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Valentina; Troughton, Lee D; Hamill, Kevin J

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Laminins are complex extracellular macromolecules that are major players in the control of a variety of core cell processes, including regulating rates of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Laminins, and related extracellular matrix components, have essential roles in tissue homeostasis; however, during wound healing, the same proteins are critical players in re-epithelialization and angiogenesis. Understanding how these proteins influence cell behavior in these different conditions holds great potential in identifying new strategies to enhance normal wound closure or to treat chronic/nonhealing wounds. Recent Advances: Laminin-derived bioactive peptides and, more recently, laminin-peptide conjugated scaffolds, have been designed to improve tissue regeneration after injuries. These peptides have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and granulation tissue, and in promoting re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Critical Issues: Although there is now a wealth of knowledge concerning laminin form and function, there are still areas of some controversy. These include the relative contribution of two laminin-based adhesive devices (focal contacts and hemidesmosomes) to the re-epithelialization process, the impact and implications of laminin proteolytic processing, and the importance of laminin polymer formation on cell behavior. In addition, the roles in wound healing of the laminin-related proteins, netrins, and LaNts are still to be fully defined. Future Directions: The future of laminin-based therapeutics potentially lies in the bioengineering of specific substrates to support laminin deposition for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells for graft formation and transplantation. Significant recent advances suggest that this goal is within sight.

  19. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  20. Laminin-121--recombinant expression and interactions with integrins.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takako; Takagi, Junichi; Giudici, Camilla; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Deutzmann, Rainer; Timpl, Rupert; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Tonge, David

    2010-07-01

    Laminin-121, previously referred as to laminin-3, was expressed recombinantly in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by triple transfection of full-length cDNAs encoding mouse laminin α1, β2 and γ1 chains. The recombinant laminin-121 was purified using Heparin-Sepharose followed by molecular sieve chromatography and shown to be correctly folded by electron microscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectra of recombinant laminin-121 were very similar to those of laminin-111 isolated from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS-laminin) but its T(m) value was smaller than EHS-laminin and recombinant lamnin-111 suggesting that the replacement of the β chain reduced the stability of the coiled-coil structure of laminin-121. Its binding to integrins was compared with EHS-laminin, laminin-3A32 purified from murine epidermal cell line and recombinantly expressed laminins-111, -211 and -221. Laminin-121 showed the highest affinity to α6β1 and α7β1 integrins and furthermore, laminin-121 most effectively supported neurite outgrowth. Together, this suggests that the β2 laminins have higher affinity for integrins than the β1 laminins.

  1. Isolation of a laminin-binding protein from the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani that may mediate cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, A; Bandyopadhyay, K; Kole, L; Das, P K

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding proteins on the surface of Leishmania are thought to play a crucial role in the onset of leishmaniasis, as these parasites invade mononuclear phagocytes in various organs after migrating through the ECM. In a previous report, we presented several lines of evidence suggesting that Leishmania has a specific receptor for laminin, a major ECM protein, with a Kd in the nanomolar range. Here we describe the identification, purification and biochemical characterization of the Leishmania laminin receptor. When the outer membrane proteins of L. donovani were blotted on to nitrocellulose paper and probed with laminin, a prominent laminin-binding protein of 67 kDa was identified. The purified protein was isolated by a three-step process involving DEAE-cellulose, Con A (concanavalin A)-Sepharose and laminin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and was used to raise a monospecific antibody. The same protein was obtained when parasite membrane extracts were adsorbed to antibody affinity matrix and eluted with glycine. The affinity-purified protein bound to laminin in a detergent-solubilized form as well as after integration into artificial bilayers, and was subsequently characterized as an integral membrane protein. Metaperiodate oxidation and metabolic inhibition of glycosylation studies indicate the binding protein to be glycoprotein in nature and that N-linked oligosaccharides play a part in the interaction of laminin with the binding protein. Surface-labelled parasites attached to microtitre wells coated with laminin and the 67 kDa protein blocked the adhesion to laminin substrate. We propose that the 67 kDa protein is an adhesin involved in the attachment of Leishmania to host tissues. PMID:9895301

  2. Screening of integrin-binding peptides in a laminin peptide library derived from the mouse laminin β chain short arm regions.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Takagi, Masaharu; Nakamura, Minako; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-05-15

    Laminins, major components of basement membrane, consist of three different subunits, α, β, and γ chains, and so far, five α, three β, and three γ chains have been identified. We have constructed synthetic peptide libraries derived from the laminin sequences and identified various cell-adhesive peptides. Ten active peptides from the laminin α chain sequences (α1-α5) were found to promote integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Previously, we found fourteen cell-adhesive peptides from the β1 chain sequence but their receptors have not been analyzed. Here, we expanded the synthetic peptide library to add peptides from the short arm regions of the laminin β2 and β3 chains and screened for integrin-binding peptides. Twenty-seven peptides promoted human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment in a peptide-coated plate assay. The morphological appearance of HDFs on the peptide-coated plates differed depending on the peptides. B34 (REKYYYAVYDMV, mouse laminin β1 chain, 255-266), B67 (IPYSMEYEILIRY, mouse laminin β1 chain, 604-616), B2-105 (APNFWNFTSGRG, mouse laminin β2 chain, 1081-1092), and B3-19 (GHLTGGKVQLNL, mouse laminin β3 chain, 182-193) promoted HDF spreading and HDF attachment was inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that the peptides interact with integrins. Immunostaining analyses revealed that B67 induced well-organized actin stress fibers and focal contacts containing vinculin, however, B34, B2-105, and B3-19 did not exhibit stress fiber formation or focal contacts. The inhibition assay using anti-integrin antibodies indicated that B67 interacts with α3, α6, and β1 integrins, and B34 and B3-19 interact with β1 integrin. Based on adhesion analysis of peptides modified with an alanine scan and on switching analysis with the homologous inactive sequence B2-64 (LPRAMDYDLLLRW, mouse laminin β2 chain, 618-630), the Glu(8) residue in the B67 peptide was critical for HDF adhesion. These findings are useful for identifying an integrin binding motif. The B67 peptide

  3. Accumulation of Laminin Monomers in Drosophila Glia Leads to Glial Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Disrupted Larval Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Petley-Ragan, Lindsay M; Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H; Auld, Vanessa J

    2016-01-27

    The nervous system is surrounded by an extracellular matrix composed of large glycoproteins, including perlecan, collagens, and laminins. Glial cells in many organisms secrete laminin, a large heterotrimeric protein consisting of an α, β, and γ subunit. Prior studies have found that loss of laminin subunits from vertebrate Schwann cells causes loss of myelination and neuropathies, results attributed to loss of laminin-receptor signaling. We demonstrate that loss of the laminin γ subunit (LanB2) in the peripheral glia of Drosophila melanogaster results in the disruption of glial morphology due to disruption of laminin secretion. Specifically, knockdown of LanB2 in peripheral glia results in accumulation of the β subunit (LanB1), leading to distended endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER stress, and glial swelling. The physiological consequences of disruption of laminin secretion in glia included decreased larval locomotion and ultimately lethality. Loss of the γ subunit from wrapping glia resulted in a disruption in the glial ensheathment of axons but surprisingly did not affect animal locomotion. We found that Tango1, a protein thought to exclusively mediate collagen secretion, is also important for laminin secretion in glia via a collagen-independent mechanism. However loss of secretion of the laminin trimer does not disrupt animal locomotion. Rather, it is the loss of one subunit that leads to deleterious consequences through the accumulation of the remaining subunits. This research presents a new perspective on how mutations in the extracellular matrix protein laminin cause severe consequences in glial wrapping and function. Glial-specific loss of the β or γ laminin subunit disrupted glia morphology and led to ER expansion and stress due to retention of other subunits. The retention of the unpaired laminin subunit was key to the glial disruption as loss of Tango1 blocked secretion of the complete laminin trimer but did not lead to glial or locomotion defects

  4. Glomerular laminin isoform transitions: errors in metanephric culture are corrected by grafting.

    PubMed

    St John, P L; Wang, R; Yin, Y; Miner, J H; Robert, B; Abrahamson, D R

    2001-04-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly and maturation are marked by the replacement of laminin-1 (containing alpha 1-, beta 1-, and gamma 1-chains) with laminin-11 (consisting of alpha 5-, beta 2-, and gamma 1-chains). Similarly, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-chains of type IV collagen are replaced by collagen alpha 3-, alpha 4-, and alpha 5(IV)-chains. The cellular origins of these molecules and mechanisms for isoform removal and substitution are unknown. To explore glomerular laminin isoform transitions in vitro, we assessed metanephric organ cultures. Standard culture conditions do not support endothelial cell differentiation, and glomerular structures that form in vitro are avascular. Nevertheless, extensive podocyte development occurs in these cultures, including the formation of foot processes and assembly of a GBM-like matrix. Here, we show that the podocyte-specific markers, glomerular epithelial protein 1 and nephrin, which are normally expressed in capillary loop stage glomeruli in vivo, are also expressed by glomerular figures that form in organ culture. However, the GBM-like segments that form in vitro do not undergo normal laminin isoform switching. Instead, both laminin alpha 1- and alpha 5-chains are present, as is the beta 1-chain, but not beta 2. When avascular organ-cultured kidneys are grafted into anterior eye chambers, however, kidney-derived angioblasts establish extensive vasculature by 6 days, and glomeruli are lined by endothelial cells. We evaluated embryonic day 12 (E12) vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk1)-lacZ kidneys that had first been grown in organ culture for 6--7 days and then grafted into wild-type mice. Correct laminin isoform substitution occurred and correlated with the appearance of endothelial cells expressing Flk1. Our findings indicate that endothelial cells, and/or factors present in the circulation, mediate normal GBM laminin isoform transitions in vivo.

  5. Integrating Activities of Laminins that Drive Basement Membrane Assembly and Function.

    PubMed

    Yurchenco, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Studies on extracellular matrix proteins, cells, and genetically modified animals have converged to reveal mechanisms of basement membrane self-assembly as mediated by γ1 subunit-containing laminins, the focus of this chapter. The basic model is as follows: A member of the laminin family adheres to a competent cell surface and typically polymerizes followed by laminin binding to the extracellular adaptor proteins nidogen, perlecan, and agrin. Assembly is completed by the linking of nidogen and heparan sulfates to type IV collagen, allowing it to form a second stabilizing network polymer. The assembled matrix provides structural support, anchoring the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton, and acts as a signaling platform. Heterogeneity of function is created in part by the isoforms of laminin that vary in their ability to polymerize and to interact with integrins, dystroglycan, and other receptors. Mutations in laminin subunits, affecting expression or LN domain-specific functions, are a cause of human diseases that include those of muscle, nerve, brain, and kidney.

  6. Loss of laminin-α4 results in pre- and postsynaptic modifications at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2017-04-01

    Synaptic basal lamina such as laminin-421 (α4β2γ1) mediate differentiation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Laminins interact with their pre- or postsynaptic receptors to provide stability and alignment of the pre- to postsynaptic specializations. Knockout of the laminin-α4 gene (lama4) does not alter gross NMJ morphogenesis. However, mice deficient in laminin-α4 (lama4(-/-) mice) display disruptions in the alignment of the active zones and postsynaptic folds at the NMJ, although the physiological consequences of this loss have not been examined. The present study investigated the differences in neurotransmission during the early development and maturation of the NMJ in lama4(-/-) and wild-type mice. Lama4(-/-) NMJs demonstrated a decrease in miniature end-plate potential (EPP) frequency and increased amplitude of miniature EPPs and evoked EPPs. Binomial parameters analysis of neurotransmitter release revealed a decrease in quantal release, the result of a decrease in the number of active release sites, but not in the probability of transmitter release. Lama4(-/-) NMJs displayed higher levels of synaptic depression under high-frequency stimulation and altered facilitation, suggesting compromised delivery of synaptic vesicles. This idea is supported by our molecular investigations of lama4(-/-) NMJs, where we see altered distribution of Bassoon, a molecular component of active zones, presumably resulting from perturbed neurotransmission.-Chand, K. K., Lee, K. M., Lavidis, N. A., Noakes, P. G. Loss of laminin-α4 results in pre- and postsynaptic modifications at the neuromuscular junction. © FASEB.

  7. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of, but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation. PMID:24583950

  8. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimeric Integrin-Binding Region of Laminin-111.

    PubMed

    Pulido, David; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard

    2017-03-07

    Laminins are cell-adhesive glycoproteins that are essential for basement membrane assembly and function. Integrins are important laminin receptors, but their binding site on the heterotrimeric laminins is poorly defined structurally. We report the crystal structure at 2.13 Å resolution of a minimal integrin-binding fragment of mouse laminin-111, consisting of ∼50 residues of α1β1γ1 coiled coil and the first three laminin G-like (LG) domains of the α1 chain. The LG domains adopt a triangular arrangement, with the C terminus of the coiled coil situated between LG1 and LG2. The critical integrin-binding glutamic acid residue in the γ1 chain tail is surface exposed and predicted to bind to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site in the integrin β1 subunit. Additional contacts to the integrin are likely to be made by the LG1 and LG2 surfaces adjacent to the γ1 chain tail, which are notably conserved and free of obstructing glycans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Complex between nidogen and laminin fragments reveals a paradigmatic beta-propeller interface.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junichi; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Jin-Huan; Wang, Jia-Huai; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-08-21

    Basement membranes are fundamental to tissue organization and physiology in all metazoans. The interaction between laminin and nidogen is crucial to the assembly of basement membranes. The structure of the interacting domains reveals a six-bladed Tyr-Trp-Thr-Asp (YWTD) beta-propeller domain in nidogen bound to laminin epidermal-growth-factor-like (LE) modules III3-5 in laminin (LE3-5). Laminin LE module 4 binds to an amphitheatre-shaped surface on the pseudo-6-fold axis of the beta-propeller, and LE module 3 binds over its rim. A Phe residue that shutters the water-filled central aperture of the beta-propeller, the rigidity of the amphitheatre, and high shape complementarity enable the construction of an evolutionarily conserved binding surface for LE4 of unprecedentedly high affinity for its small size. Hypermorphic mutations in the Wnt co-receptor LRP5 (refs 6-9) suggest that a similar YWTD beta-propeller interface is used to bind ligands that function in developmental pathways. A related interface, but shifted off-centre from the pseudo-6-fold axis and lacking the shutter over the central aperture, is used in the low-density lipoprotein receptor for an intramolecular interaction that is regulated by pH in receptor recycling.

  10. Laminin chains in developing and adult human myotendinous junctions.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa-Domellöf, F; Tiger, C F; Virtanen, I; Thornell, L E; Gullberg, D

    2000-02-01

    In addition to being the specialized site for transmission of force from the muscle to the tendon, the myotendinous junction (MTJ) also plays an important role in muscle splitting during morphogenesis. An early event in the formation of the MTJ is a regional deposition of basement membranes. We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the distribution of laminin chains during the development of MTJs in human limb muscle at 8-22 weeks of gestation (wg) and in adult MTJs. We used polyclonal antibodies and a new monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human laminin alpha1 G4/G5 domains. At 8-10 wg, laminin alpha1 and laminin alpha5 chains were specifically localized to the MTJ. Laminin alpha1 chain remained restricted to the MTJ at 22 wg as the laminin beta2 chain had appeared, whereas the laminin alpha5 chain became deposited along the entire length of the myotubes from 12 wg. In the adult MTJ, only vestigial amounts of laminin alpha1 and laminin alpha5 chains could be detected. On the basis of co-distribution data, we speculate that laminin alpha1 chain in the forming MTJ undergoes an isoform switch from laminin 1 to laminin 3. Our data indicate a potentially important role for laminin alpha1 chain in skeletal muscle formation. (J Histochem Cytochem 48:201-209, 2000)

  11. The extracellular matrix protein laminin α2 regulates the maturation and function of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Michael J; McClenahan, Freyja K; Leiton, Cindy V; Aranmolate, Azeez; Shan, Xiwei; Colognato, Holly

    2014-11-12

    Laminins are major constituents of the gliovascular basal lamina of the blood-brain barrier (BBB); however, the role of laminins in BBB development remains unclear. Here we report that Lama2(-/-) mice, lacking expression of the laminin α2 subunit of the laminin-211 heterotrimer expressed by astrocytes and pericytes, have a defective BBB in which systemically circulated tracer leaks into the brain parenchyma. The Lama2(-/-) vascular endothelium had significant abnormalities, including altered integrity and composition of the endothelial basal lamina, inappropriate expression of embryonic vascular endothelial protein MECA32, substantially reduced pericyte coverage, and tight junction abnormalities. Additionally, astrocytic endfeet were hypertrophic and lacked appropriately polarized aquaporin4 channels. Laminin-211 appears to mediate these effects at least in part by dystroglycan receptor interactions, as preventing dystroglycan expression in neural cells led to a similar set of BBB abnormalities and gliovascular disturbances, which additionally included perturbed vascular endothelial glucose transporter-1 localization. These findings provide insight into the cell and molecular changes that occur in congenital muscular dystrophies caused by Lama2 mutations or inappropriate dystroglycan post-translational modifications, which have accompanying brain abnormalities, including seizures. Our results indicate a novel role for laminin-dystroglycan interactions in the cooperative integration of astrocytes, endothelial cells, and pericytes in regulating the BBB.

  12. Deletion of integrin α7 subunit does not aggravate the phenotype of laminin α2 chain-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Kinga I; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2015-09-10

    Laminin-211 is a major constituent of the skeletal muscle basement membrane, exerting its biological functions by binding to cell surface receptors integrin α7β1 and dystroglycan (the latter is part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex). The importance of these molecules for normal muscle function is underscored by the fact that their respective deficiency leads to different forms of muscular dystrophy with different severity in humans and animal models. We recently demonstrated that laminin α2 chain and members of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex have overlapping but non-redundant roles despite being part of the same adhesion complex. To analyse whether laminin-211 and integrin α7 subunit have non-redundant functions we generated mice deficient in laminin α2 chain and integrin α7 subunit (dy(3K)/itga7). We show that lack of both molecules did not exacerbate the severe phenotype of laminin α2-chain deficient animals. They displayed the same weight, survival and dystrophic pattern of muscle biopsy, with similar degree of inflammation and fibrosis. These data suggest that laminin-211 and integrin α7β1 have intersecting roles in skeletal muscle.

  13. Laminin-211 in skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Johan; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    A chain is no stronger than its weakest link is an old idiom that holds true for muscle biology. As the name implies, skeletal muscle’s main function is to move the bones. However, for a muscle to transmit force and withstand the stress that contractions give rise to, it relies on a chain of proteins attaching the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. The importance of this attachment is illustrated by a large number of muscular dystrophies caused by interruption of the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interaction. One of the major components of the extracellular matrix is laminin, a heterotrimeric glycoprotein and a major constituent of the basement membrane. It has become increasingly apparent that laminins are involved in a multitude of biological functions, including cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival. This review will focus on the importance of laminin-211 for normal skeletal muscle function. PMID:23154401

  14. Ex vivo pathogenicity of anti-laminin γ1 autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Florea, Florina; Bernards, Claudia; Caproni, Marzia; Kleindienst, Jessika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Koch, Manuel; Sitaru, Cassian

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmunity against laminins has been described in several autoimmune diseases (including mucous membrane pemphigoid, anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid, and connective tissue diseases), in pregnancy loss, and in infections such as Chagas disease. Except for anti-laminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid, adequate evidence has been lacking for the tissue injury potential of laminin-specific antibodies and the pathogenic epitopes. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of antibodies targeting laminin γ1, a major constituent of basement membranes and the main antigen in anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid. Rabbit antibodies were generated against fragments of the N-terminus and C-terminus of murine laminin γ1, and their ability to disrupt ligand interactions and/or to activate complement and granulocytes was assessed using previously established ex vivo assays. Our findings document a pathogenic potential of antibodies targeting the laminin γ1 N-terminus. These antibodies interfere with the binding of nidogen to laminin and can activate granulocytes and the complement cascade. We detected antibodies with different degrees of reactivity with laminin γ1 N-terminus in patients with anti-laminin γ1 pemphigoid, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Our results provide mechanistic insights into the tissue damage associated with laminin autoimmunity and could facilitate development of appropriate diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies.

  15. Laminin database: a tool to retrieve high-throughput and curated data for studies on laminins.

    PubMed

    Golbert, Daiane C F; Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Almeida, Luiz G; Correa-de-Santana, Eliane; de Oliveira, Alice R; Mundstein, Alex S; Savino, Wilson; de Vasconcelos, Ana T R

    2011-01-01

    The Laminin(LM)-database, hosted at http://www.lm.lncc.br, is the first database focusing a non-collagenous extracellular matrix protein family, the LMs. Part of the knowledge available in this website is automatically retrieved, whereas a significant amount of information is curated and annotated, thus placing LM-database beyond a simple repository of data. In its home page, an overview of the rationale for the database is seen and readers can access a tutorial to facilitate navigation in the website, which in turn is presented with tabs subdivided into LMs, receptors, extracellular binding and other related proteins. Each tab opens into a given LM or LM-related molecule, where the reader finds a series of further tabs for 'protein', 'gene structure', 'gene expression' and 'tissue distribution' and 'therapy'. Data are separated as a function of species, comprising Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Rattus novergicus. Furthermore, there is specific tab displaying the LM nomenclatures. In another tab, a direct link to PubMed, which can be then consulted in a specific way, in terms of the biological functions of each molecule, knockout animals and genetic diseases, immune response and lymphomas/leukemias. LM-database will hopefully be a relevant tool for retrieving information concerning LMs in health and disease, particularly regarding the hemopoietic system.

  16. Relationship between laminin binding capacity and laminin expression on tumor cells sensitive or resistant to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Laybourn, K.A.; Varani, J.; Fligiel, S.E.G.; Hiserodt, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Previous studies have identified the presence of laminin binding sites on murine NK and NC sensitive tumor cells by /sup 125/I-laminin binding and laminin induced cell-cell aggregation. The finding that the addition of exogenous laminin inhibits NK/NC binding to sensitive tumor cells suggests laminin binding sites may serve as target antigens for NK cells. The present study extends earlier reports by analyzing a large panel of tumor cells for laminin binding capacity, laminin expression and sensitivity to NK/NC killing. The data indicate that all tumor cells which bind to NK/NC cells (8 lines tested) express laminin binding sites. All of these tumor cells were capable of competing for NK lysis of YAC-1 cells in cold target competition assays, and all bound enriched NK cells in direct single cell binding assays. In contrast, tumor cells expressing high levels of surface laminin (B16 melanomas, C57B1/6 fibrosarcomas, and RAS transfected 3T3 fibroblasts) but low levels of laminin binding capacity did not bind NK/NC cells and were resistant to lysis. These data support the hypothesis that expression of laminin/laminin binding sites may contribute to tumor cell sensitivity to NK/NC binding and/or killing.

  17. Secretion of laminin alpha 2 chain in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Hori, H; Tanaka, T; Fujita, S; Fukuta-Ohi, H; Hojo, S; Tamura, A; Shimizu, T; Matsumura, K

    1995-11-27

    The absence of laminin alpha 2 chain causes muscle cell degeneration and peripheral dysmyelination in congenital muscular dystrophy patients and dy mice, suggesting its role in the maintenance of sarcolemmal architecture and peripheral myelinogenesis. Here we demonstrate the secretion of laminin alpha 2 chain in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Laminin alpha 2 chain was detected as a minor component of the total CSF proteins or glycoproteins. Laminin alpha 2 chain was localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of choroid plexus, suggesting active secretion. Our results suggest that immunochemical analysis of CSF laminin alpha 2 chain could be useful as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  18. Downregulation of a newly identified laminin, laminin-3B11, in vascular basement membranes of invasive human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taizo; Kariya, Yoshinobu; Komiya, Eriko; Higashi, Shouichi; Miyagi, Yohei; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Miyazaki, Kaoru

    2011-05-01

    Laminins present in the basement membranes (BM) of blood vessels are involved in angiogenesis and other vascular functions that are critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Two major vascular laminins, the α4 (laminin-411/421) and α5 (laminin-511/521) types, have been well characterized. We recently found a third type of vascular laminin, laminin-3B11, consisting of the α3B, β1 and γ1 chains, and revealed its biological activity. Laminin-3B11 potently stimulates vascular endothelial cells to extend lamellipodial protrusions. To understand the roles of laminin-3B11 in blood vessel functions and tumor growth, we examined localization of the laminin α3B chain in normal mammary glands and breast cancers, in comparison with the α4 and α5 laminins. In the immunohistochemical analysis, the α3B laminin was co-localized with the α4 and α5 laminins in the BM of venules and capillaries of normal breast tissues, but α3B was scarcely detected in vessels near invasive breast carcinoma cells. In contrast, the α4 laminin was overexpressed in capillaries of invasive carcinomas, where a large number of macrophages were found. The α5 laminin appeared to be weakly downregulated in cancer tissues, especially in capillary vessels. Furthermore, our in vitro analysis indicated that TNF-α significantly suppressed the laminin α3B expression in vascular endothelial cells, while it, as well as IL-1β and TGF-α, upregulated the α4 expression. These results suggest that Lm3B11/3B21 may be required for normal mature vessels and interfere with tumor angiogenesis.

  19. Linker molecules between laminins and dystroglycan ameliorate laminin-alpha2-deficient muscular dystrophy at all disease stages.

    PubMed

    Meinen, Sarina; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Lin, Shuo; Lochmüller, Hanns; Ruegg, Markus A

    2007-03-26

    Mutations in laminin-alpha2 cause a severe congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A. The two main receptors that interact with laminin-alpha2 are dystroglycan and alpha7beta1 integrin. We have previously shown in mouse models for MDC1A that muscle-specific overexpression of a miniaturized form of agrin (mini-agrin), which binds to dystroglycan but not to alpha7beta1 integrin, substantially ameliorates the disease (Moll, J., P. Barzaghi, S. Lin, G. Bezakova, H. Lochmuller, E. Engvall, U. Muller, and M.A. Ruegg. 2001. Nature. 413:302-307; Bentzinger, C.F., P. Barzaghi, S. Lin, and M.A. Ruegg. 2005. Matrix Biol. 24:326-332.). Now we show that late-onset expression of mini-agrin still prolongs life span and improves overall health, although not to the same extent as early expression. Furthermore, a chimeric protein containing the dystroglycan-binding domain of perlecan has the same activities as mini-agrin in ameliorating the disease. Finally, expression of full-length agrin also slows down the disease. These experiments are conceptual proof that linking the basement membrane to dystroglycan by specifically designed molecules or by endogenous ligands, could be a means to counteract MDC1A at a progressed stage of the disease, and thus opens new possibilities for the development of treatment options for this muscular dystrophy.

  20. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells exhibit immature nucleus pulposus cell phenotype in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cell supplementation to the herniated or degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) is a potential strategy to promote tissue regeneration and slow disc pathology. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUCMSCs) – originating from the Wharton’s jelly – remain an attractive candidate for such endeavors with their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Previously, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied as a potential source for disc tissue regeneration. However, no studies have demonstrated that MSCs can regenerate matrix with unique characteristics matching that of immature nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of the IVD. In our prior work, immature NP cells were found to express specific laminin isoforms and laminin-binding receptors that may serve as phenotypic markers for evaluating MSC differentiation to NP-like cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate these markers and matrix synthesis for HUCMSCs cultured in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system. Methods HUCMSCs were seeded on top of Transwell inserts pre-coated with Matrigel™, which contained mainly laminin-111. Cells were cultured under hypoxia environment with three differentiation conditions: NP differentiation media (containing 2.5% Matrigel™ solution to provide for a pseudo-three-dimensional laminin culture system) with no serum, or the same media supplemented with either insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Cell clustering behavior, matrix production and the expression of NP-specific laminin and laminin-receptors were evaluated at days 1, 7, 13 and 21 of culture. Results Data show that a pseudo-three-dimensional culture condition (laminin-1 rich) promoted HUCMSC differentiation under no serum conditions. Starting at day 1, HUCMSCs demonstrated a cell clustering morphology similar to that of immature NP cells in situ and that observed for primary immature NP cells within the similar laminin

  1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells exhibit immature nucleus pulposus cell phenotype in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system.

    PubMed

    Chon, Brian H; Lee, Esther J; Jing, Liufang; Setton, Lori A; Chen, Jun

    2013-10-02

    Cell supplementation to the herniated or degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) is a potential strategy to promote tissue regeneration and slow disc pathology. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUCMSCs) - originating from the Wharton's jelly - remain an attractive candidate for such endeavors with their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Previously, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied as a potential source for disc tissue regeneration. However, no studies have demonstrated that MSCs can regenerate matrix with unique characteristics matching that of immature nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of the IVD. In our prior work, immature NP cells were found to express specific laminin isoforms and laminin-binding receptors that may serve as phenotypic markers for evaluating MSC differentiation to NP-like cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate these markers and matrix synthesis for HUCMSCs cultured in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system. HUCMSCs were seeded on top of Transwell inserts pre-coated with Matrigel™, which contained mainly laminin-111. Cells were cultured under hypoxia environment with three differentiation conditions: NP differentiation media (containing 2.5% Matrigel™ solution to provide for a pseudo-three-dimensional laminin culture system) with no serum, or the same media supplemented with either insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Cell clustering behavior, matrix production and the expression of NP-specific laminin and laminin-receptors were evaluated at days 1, 7, 13 and 21 of culture. Data show that a pseudo-three-dimensional culture condition (laminin-1 rich) promoted HUCMSC differentiation under no serum conditions. Starting at day 1, HUCMSCs demonstrated a cell clustering morphology similar to that of immature NP cells in situ and that observed for primary immature NP cells within the similar laminin-rich culture system (prior study

  2. Serum laminin, hydrocarbon exposure, and glomerular damage.

    PubMed Central

    Hotz, P; Thielemans, N; Bernard, A; Gutzwiller, F; Lauwerys, R

    1993-01-01

    It has been postulated that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons may damage the kidney and lead to glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. As laminin is a ubiquitous basement membrane component that seems to play a central part in the structure and function of basement membranes and as the normal renal filtration process is highly dependent on an intact glomerular basement membrane, the serum laminin concentration was examined in a population of workers exposed to hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon exposure was assessed by exposure surrogates (exposure duration and exposure score). An interaction between occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and hypertension increased the laminin concentration whereas the laminin concentration decreased in workers exposed for a long time probably because of a selection effect. In a subgroup of printers exposed to toluene whose hippuric acid excretion had been recorded for several years this interaction was confirmed when the hippuric acid excretion was substituted for the other exposure indices. In the exposed group, the age-related decline in creatinine clearance was accelerated. These results seem to confirm that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons is a non-specific factor that may promote a deterioration of renal function. PMID:8280641

  3. β2 and γ3 laminins are critical cortical basement membrane components: ablation of Lamb2 and Lamc3 genes disrupts cortical lamination and produces dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Radner, Stephanie; Banos, Charles; Bachay, Galina; Li, Yong N; Hunter, Dale D; Brunken, William J; Yee, Kathleen T

    2013-03-01

    Cortical development is dependent on the timely production and migration of neurons from neurogenic sites to their mature positions. Mutations in several receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their downstream signaling cascades produce dysplasia in brain. Although mutation of a critical binding site in the gene that encodes the ECM molecule laminin γ1 (Lamc1) disrupts cortical lamination, the ECM ligand(s) for many ECM receptors have not been demonstrated directly in the cortex. Several isoforms of the heterotrimeric laminins, all containing the β2 and γ3 chain, have been isolated from the brain, suggesting they are important for CNS function. Here, we report that mice homozygous null for the laminin β2 and γ3 chains exhibit cortical laminar disorganization. Mice lacking both of these laminin chains exhibit hallmarks of human cobblestone lissencephaly (type II, nonclassical): they demonstrate severe laminar disruption; midline fusion; perturbation of Cajal-Retzius cell distribution; altered radial glial cell morphology; and ectopic germinal zones. Surprisingly, heterozygous mice also exhibit laminar disruption of cortical neurons, albeit with lesser severity. In compound null mice, the pial basement membrane is fractured, and the distribution of a key laminin receptor, dystroglycan, is altered. These data suggest that β2 and γ3-containing laminins play an important dose-dependent role in development of the cortical pial basement membrane, which serves as an attachment site for Cajal-Retzius and radial glial cells, thereby guiding neural development.

  4. A Fractal Nature for Polymerized Laminin

    PubMed Central

    Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Cantini, Marco; Moratal, David; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system. PMID:25296244

  5. A fractal nature for polymerized laminin.

    PubMed

    Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Cantini, Marco; Moratal, David; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system.

  6. A new role for laminins as modulators of protein toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise T; Møller, Tine H; Larsen, Simon A; Jakobsen, Helle; Olsen, Anders

    2012-02-01

    Protein misfolding is a common theme in aging and several age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The processes involved in the development of these diseases are many and complex. Here, we show that components of the basement membrane (BM), particularly laminin, affect protein integrity of the muscle cells they support. We knocked down gene expression of epi-1, a laminin α-chain, and found that this resulted in increased proteotoxicity in different Caenorhabditis elegans transgenic models, expressing aggregating proteins in the body wall muscle. The effect could partially be rescued by decreased insulin-like signaling, known to slow the aging process and the onset of various age-related diseases. Our data points to an underlying molecular mechanism involving proteasomal degradation and HSP-16 chaperone activity. Furthermore, epi-1-depleted animals had altered synaptic function and displayed hypersensitivity to both levamisole and aldicarb, an acetylcholine receptor agonist and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, respectively. Our results implicate the BM as an extracellular modulator of protein homeostasis in the adjacent muscle cells. This is in agreement with previous research showing that imbalance in neuromuscular signaling disturbs protein homeostasis in the postsynaptic cell. In our study, proteotoxicity may indeed be mediated by the neuromuscular junction which is part of the BM, where laminins are present in high concentration, ensuring the proper microenvironment for neuromuscular signaling. Laminins are evolutionarily conserved, and thus the BM may play a much more causal role in protein misfolding diseases than currently recognized.

  7. Phorbol esters enhance attachment of NIH/3T3 cells to laminin and type IV collagen substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shigemi; Ben, T.L.; De Luca, L.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on the adhesive properties of NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was investigated using plastic substrates precoated with the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced NIH/3T3 cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates but had little or no effect on attachment to fibronectin and type I collagen substrates. The effect of PMA in enhancing cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates was dose dependent between 10{sup {minus}9} and 10{sup {minus}7} M. PMA was effective as early as 30 min; the effect reached a maximum at 2 h and decreased gradually. Phorbol 12, 13-dibenzoate and phorbol 12, 13-diacetate were effective but to a lesser extent and phorbol 12-myristate and phorbol 13-acetate showed little or no effect. These results suggest that PMA may enhance NIH/3T3 cell adhesion through effects on laminin and type IV collagen receptors. Retinoic acid, which itself requires at least 6 h to show an effect on attachment, did not have any effect on cell attachment in 2 h and, if anything, slightly inhibited PMA-enhanced cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates.

  8. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  9. Characterization of the laminin gene family and evolution in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sztal, Tamar; Berger, Silke; Currie, Peter D; Hall, Thomas E

    2011-02-01

    Laminins are essential components of all basement membranes and are fundamental to tissue development and homeostasis. Humans possess at least 16 different heterotrimeric laminin complexes formed through different combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma chains. Individual chains appear to exhibit unique expression patterns, leading to the notion that overlap between expression domains governs the constitution of complexes found within particular tissues. However, the spatial and temporal expression of laminin genes has not been comprehensively analyzed in any vertebrate model to date. Here, we describe the tissue-specific expression patterns of all laminin genes in the zebrafish, throughout embryonic development and into the "post-juvenile" period, which is representative of the adult body form. In addition, we present phylogenetic and microsynteny analyses, which demonstrate that the majority of our zebrafish sequences are orthologous to human laminin genes. Together, these data represent a fundamental resource for the study of vertebrate laminins.

  10. Monoclonal anti-mouse laminin antibodies: AL-1 reacts with laminin alpha1 chain, AL-2 with laminin beta1 chain, and AL-4 with the coiled-coil domain of laminin beta1 chain.

    PubMed

    Schéele, Susanne; Sasaki, Takako; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Durbeej, Madeleine; Ekblom, Peter

    2006-07-01

    We analyzed the reactivity of three different commercially available rat monoclonal antibodies raised against mouse laminin-alpha1beta1gamma1 (laminin-111), AL-1, AL-2, and AL-4. Using ELISA assays, Western blot analysis and immunostainings we present refined epitope maps for these three laminin monoclonals. AL-1 reacted, as predicted with laminin alpha1 chain. AL-4 has also been marketed as an alpha1 chain specific probe, but we show here that AL-4 detects mouse laminin beta1 chain, in the distal part of the coiled-coil region. AL-2 was predicted to react with all three chains near the cross-region, but seems to primarily react with laminin beta1 chain.

  11. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Express α7 Integrin to Mediate Their Migration on Laminin

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Norianne T.; Khankan, Rana R.; Phelps, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    The unique glia located in the olfactory system, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), are implicated as an attractive choice for transplantation therapy following spinal cord injury because of their pro-regenerative characteristics. Adult OECs are thought to improve functional recovery and regeneration after injury by secreting neurotrophic factors and making cell-to-cell contacts with regenerating processes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We show first that α7 integrin, a laminin receptor, is highly expressed at the protein level by OECs throughout the olfactory system, i.e., in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve, and olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Then we asked if OECs use the α7 integrin receptor directly to promote neurite outgrowth on permissive and neutral substrates, in vitro. We co-cultured α7+/+ and α7lacZ/lacZ postnatal cerebral cortical neurons with α7+/+ or α7lacZ/lacZ OECs and found that genotype did not effect the ability of OECs to enhance neurite outgrowth by direct contact. Loss of α7 integrin did however significantly decrease the motility of adult OECs in transwell experiments. Twice as many α7+/+ OECs migrated through laminin-coated transwells compared to α7+/+ OECs on poly-L-lysine (PLL). This is in contrast to α7lacZ/lacZ OECs, which showed no migratory preference for laminin substrate over PLL. These results demonstrate that OECs express α7 integrin, and that laminin and its α7 integrin receptor contribute to adult OEC migration in vitro and perhaps also in vivo. PMID:27078717

  12. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Express α7 Integrin to Mediate Their Migration on Laminin.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Norianne T; Khankan, Rana R; Phelps, Patricia E

    2016-01-01

    The unique glia located in the olfactory system, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), are implicated as an attractive choice for transplantation therapy following spinal cord injury because of their pro-regenerative characteristics. Adult OECs are thought to improve functional recovery and regeneration after injury by secreting neurotrophic factors and making cell-to-cell contacts with regenerating processes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We show first that α7 integrin, a laminin receptor, is highly expressed at the protein level by OECs throughout the olfactory system, i.e., in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve, and olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Then we asked if OECs use the α7 integrin receptor directly to promote neurite outgrowth on permissive and neutral substrates, in vitro. We co-cultured α7+/+ and α7lacZ/lacZ postnatal cerebral cortical neurons with α7+/+ or α7lacZ/lacZ OECs and found that genotype did not effect the ability of OECs to enhance neurite outgrowth by direct contact. Loss of α7 integrin did however significantly decrease the motility of adult OECs in transwell experiments. Twice as many α7+/+ OECs migrated through laminin-coated transwells compared to α7+/+ OECs on poly-L-lysine (PLL). This is in contrast to α7lacZ/lacZ OECs, which showed no migratory preference for laminin substrate over PLL. These results demonstrate that OECs express α7 integrin, and that laminin and its α7 integrin receptor contribute to adult OEC migration in vitro and perhaps also in vivo.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to human laminin α4 chain globular domain inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and binding of α6β1 integrin and MCAM to α4-laminins.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Taichi; Wondimu, Zenebech; Oikawa, Yuko; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Virtanen, Ismo; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    α4-Laminins, such as laminins 411 and 421, are mesenchymal laminins expressed by vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, leukocytes and other normal cell types. These laminins are recognized by α6β1 and α6β4 integrins and MCAM (CD146), and promote adhesion and migration of the cells. α4-Laminins are also expressed and secreted by some tumor cells and strongly promote tumor cell migration. Moreover, the abluminal side of blood and/or lymphatic vessels and the nerve perineurium, common tracks of tumor cell dissemination, express α4-laminins, and these laminin isoforms, when expressed in the stroma, may contribute to tumor invasion. In the present study, we examined ten mAbs to human laminin α4 chain for their reactivity with the isolated laminin α4 globular domain, their ability to inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and their effect on the binding of α6β1 integrin and MCAM to both α4-laminins. Most of the mAbs reacted with the laminin α4 globular domain, but only two, mAbs FC10 and 084, significantly inhibited tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminin-411. When used in combination, these antibodies practically abolished the cell adhesion and migration on laminin-411 and significantly reduced the cellular responses on laminin-421. Accordingly, mAbs FC10 and 084 significantly inhibited the binding of purified α6β1 integrin and MCAM to laminins 411 and 421. These results indicate that mAbs to the laminin α4 globular domain are able to inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and that α6β1 integrin and MCAM bind α4-laminins at very close sites on the globular domain. These reagents contribute to a better understanding of the biology of α4-laminins and may have a therapeutic potential in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  14. Laminin α1 regulates age-related mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix accumulation through the TGF-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liang; Kurihara, Hidetake; de Vega, Susana; Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Xu, Zhuo; Nonaka, Risa; Kazuno, Saiko; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Miner, Jeffrey H; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2014-06-01

    Laminin α1 (LAMA1), a subunit of the laminin-111 basement membrane component, has been implicated in various biological functions in vivo and in vitro. Although LAMA1 is present in kidney, its roles in the kidney are unknown because of early embryonic lethality. Herein, we used a viable conditional knockout mouse model with a deletion of Lama1 in the epiblast lineage (Lama1(CKO)) to study the role of LAMA1 in kidney development and function. Adult Lama1(CKO) mice developed focal glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria with age. In addition, mesangial cell proliferation was increased, and the mesangial matrix, which normally contains laminin-111, was greatly expanded. In vitro, mesangial cells from Lama1(CKO) mice exhibited significantly increased proliferation compared with those from controls. This increased proliferation was inhibited by the addition of exogenous LAMA1-containing laminin-111, but not by laminin-211 or laminin-511, suggesting a specific role for LAMA1 in regulating mesangial cell behavior. Moreover, the absence of LAMA1 increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation, and inhibitors of TGF-β1 receptor I kinase blocked Smad2 phosphorylation in both control and Lama1(CKO) mesangial cells, indicating that the increased Smad2 phosphorylation occurred in the absence of LAMA1 via the TGF-β1 receptor. These findings suggest that LAMA1 plays a critical role in kidney function and kidney aging by regulating the mesangial cell population and mesangial matrix deposition through TGF-β/Smad signaling. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Origin and evolution of laminin gene family diversity.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Bryony; Degnan, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Laminins are a family of multidomain glycoproteins that are important contributors to the structure of metazoan extracellular matrices. To investigate the origin and evolution of the laminin family, we characterized the full complement of laminin-related genes in the genome of the sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica. As a representative of the Demospongiae, a group consistently placed within the earliest diverging branch of animals by molecular phylogenies, Amphimedon is uniquely placed to provide insight into early steps in the evolution of metazoan gene families. Five Amphimedon laminin-related genes possess the conserved molecular features, and most of the domains found in bilaterian laminins, but all display domain architectures distinct from those of the canonical laminin chain types known from model bilaterians. This finding prompted us to perform a comparative genomic analysis of laminins and related genes from a choanoflagellate and diverse metazoans and to conduct phylogenetic analyses using the conserved Laminin N-terminal domain in order to explore the relationships between genes with distinct architectures. Laminin-like genes appear to have originated in the holozoan lineage (choanoflagellates + metazoans + several other unicellular opisthokont taxa), with several laminin domains originating later and appearing only in metazoan (animal) or eumetazoan (placozoans + ctenophores + cnidarians + bilaterians) laminins. Typical bilaterian α, β, and γ laminin chain forms arose in the eumetazoan stem and another chain type that is conserved in Amphimedon, the cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, and the echinoderm, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, appears to have been lost independently from the placozoan, Trichoplax adhaerens, and from multiple bilaterians. Phylogenetic analysis did not clearly reconstruct relationships between the distinct laminin chain types (with the exception of the α chains) but did reveal how several members of the netrin family were

  16. Cell attachment and spreading activity of mixed laminin peptide-chitosan membranes.

    PubMed

    Otagiri, Dai; Yamada, Yuji; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Laminins are a multifunctional molecule with numerous active sites that have been identified in short peptide sequences. Mixed peptide-conjugated chitosan membranes using laminin-derived active peptides have been previously demonstrated to be useful as a biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, two syndecan-binding peptides, AG73 (RKRLQVQLSIRT) and C16 (KAFDITYVRLKF), and three integrin-binding peptides, EF1zz (ATLQLQEGRLHFXFDLGKGR, X: Nle, binding to integrin α2β1), A99a (ALRGDN, binding to integrin αvβ3), and A2G10 (SYWYRIEASRTG, binding to integrin α6β1), were mixed in various combinations, conjugated to chitosan membranes, and evaluated for their cell attachment and spreading activities. The cell attachment and spreading activity of EF1zz, A99a, and A2G10 were enhanced by AG73. In contrast, C16 enhanced only the cell attachment and spreading activity of A99a and did not influence the activity of EF1zz and A2G10. As well as previous study, the AG73-chitosan membrane bound to only syndecan. On the other hand, the C16-chitosan membrane interacted with both syndecan and β1 integrin. These data suggest that interaction of different receptors can cause synergistic effects. Therefore, AG73 is widely applicable as a synergistic agent for mixed peptide-matrices using several types of integrin-binding peptides. Additionally, the A2G10/AG73-chitosan membrane may be useful to investigate detailed biological functions of α6β1 integrin, which is a major laminin-binding receptor. Using a combination of tissue-appropriate laminin-derived peptides, the mixed peptide-chitosan membranes may serve as functional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  17. An Antibody to the Lutheran Glycoprotein (Lu) Recognizing the LU4 Blood Type Variant Inhibits Cell Adhesion to Laminin α5

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Miwa, Takahiro; Tohara, Yukiko; Hamakubo, Takayuki; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Background The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein (Lu), an Ig superfamily (IgSF) transmembrane receptor, is also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM). Lu/B-CAM is a specific receptor for laminin α5, a major component of basement membranes in various tissues. Previous reports have shown that Lu/B-CAM binding to laminin α5 contributes to sickle cell vaso-occlusion. However, as there are no useful tools such as function-blocking antibodies or drugs, it is unclear how epithelial and sickled red blood cells adhere to laminin α5 via Lu/B-CAM. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we discovered a function-blocking antibody that inhibits Lu binding to laminin α5 using a unique binding assay on tissue sections. To characterize the function-blocking antibody, we identified the site on Lu/B-CAM recognized by this antibody. The extracellular domain of Lu/B-CAM contains five IgSF domains, D1-D2-D3-D4-D5. The antibody epitope was localized to D2, but not to the D3 domain containing the major part of the laminin α5 binding site. Furthermore, mutagenesis studies showed that Arg175, the LU4 blood group antigenic site, was crucial for forming the epitope and the antibody bound sufficiently close to sterically hinder the interaction with α5. Cell adhesion assay using the antibody also showed that Lu/B-CAM serves as a secondary receptor for the adhesion of carcinoma cells to laminin α5. Conclusion/Significance This function-blocking antibody against Lu/B-CAM should be useful for not only investigating cell adhesion to laminin α5 but also for developing drugs to inhibit sickle cell vaso-occlusion. PMID:21858073

  18. Laminin regulates the osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells via integrin-α2/-β1 and the activation of the FAK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Gosau, Martin; Morsczeck, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Dental follicle cells (DFCs) are ideal for studies concerning the differentiation of dental precursor cells into alveolar osteoblasts and cementoblasts. Previous investigations have suggested that the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin and the ECM receptor integrin-α2/-β1 play regulatory roles during the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. Our present data indicate that laminin impairs alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity following osteogenic induction while inducing integrin-α2/-β1 expression, osteogenic differentiation marker elevation, and DFC biomineralization. Integrin-α2/-β1 facilitates the laminin-dependent expression of osteogenic differentiation markers and the laminin-dependent inhibition of ALP activity. Moreover, these laminin-dependent effects on the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs can be reversed by the inhibition of the FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Thus, laminin regulates the inhibition of early osteogenic differentiation markers and the induction of late osteogenic differentiation markers via integrin-α2/-β1 and the activation of the FAK/ERK signaling pathway.

  19. Clinical and immunological heterogeneity of canine subepidermal blistering dermatoses with anti-laminin-332 (laminin-5) auto-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Bizikova, Petra; Dunston, Stanley M; Bond, Ross; Halliwell, Richard; Loeffler, Anette; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Chen, Mei; Marinkovich, M Peter

    2010-08-01

    Laminin-332 (laminin-5) is a basement membrane heterotrimeric protein composed of alpha-3, beta-3 and gamma-2 laminin chains. Laminin-332 polypeptides are targeted by auto-antibodies in human patients with mucous membrane (cicatricial) pemphigoid or, more rarely, subepidermal vesicular diseases that resemble epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) or bullous pemphigoid (BP). The objectives of this report were to characterize the clinical, histopathological and immunological characteristics of nine dogs with auto-antibodies targeting laminin-332. Immunological investigations consisted of direct immunofluorescence (IF), indirect IF with intact and salt-split canine gingival, and salt-split normal or laminin-332-deficient human skin, immunoblotting with purified human laminin-332 and immunoblotting with recombinant NC1 domain of human collagen VII. All dogs exhibited varying degrees of skin blistering and ulceration associated with microscopic subepidermal vesiculation with or without inflammatory cells. Indirect IF established that circulating IgG auto-antibodies bound the dermal side of salt-split canine lip and human skin. In five dogs, IgG variably recognized the basement membrane of laminin-332-deficient human skin (three dogs negative, two dogs positive). In all nine dogs, IgG auto-antibodies detected purified human laminin-332 by immunoblotting. In two dogs, additional targeting of collagen VII-NC1 was present. These observations establish laminin-332 as a novel basement membrane antigen in dogs with autoimmune blistering diseases with variable clinical phenotypes. The names 'acquired junctional epidermolysis bullosa', 'anti-laminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP)' and 'mixed auto-immune subepidermal blistering dermatosis' are proposed for dogs with clinical signs reminiscent of EBA, MMP or BP respectively.

  20. Laminin mediates tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelia

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta- casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain. PMID:7730398

  1. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristi J; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Burrell, Bryna E

    2014-05-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4⁺ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin α4 to laminin α5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin α4 function or inducing laminin α5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing α4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation.

  2. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-04-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.

  3. Laminin coatings on implant surfaces promote osseointegration: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Romanos, Georgios E

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge from indexed literature, the role of laminins in the expression of osteogenic biomarkers and osseointegration enhancement has not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the role of laminin coatings on implant surfaces in promoting osseointegration. To address the focused question, "Do laminin coatings on implant surfaces influence osseointegration?", indexed databases were searched from 1965 up to and including November 2015 using various combination of the following keywords: "Bone to implant contact"; "implant"; "laminins"; and "osseointegration". Letters to the Editor, case-reports/case-series, historic reviews, and commentaries were excluded. The pattern of the present systematic review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent data. Nine studies were included. Six studies were prospective and were performed in animals and 5 studies were in vitro. Results from 8 studies showed that laminin coatings enhanced new bone formation around implants and/or bone-to-implant contact. One study showed that laminin coated implants surfaces did not improve osseointegration. On experimental grounds, laminin coatings seem to enhance osteogenic biomarkers expression and/or osseointegration; however, from a clinical perspective, further randomized control trials are needed to assess the role of laminin coatings in promoting osseointegration around dental implants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.; Burrell, Bryna E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4+ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin α4 to laminin α5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin α4 function or inducing laminin α5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing α4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation. PMID:24691446

  5. LG4-5 domains of laminin-2 binds α-dystroglycan to allow myotube attachment and prevent anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Jesus; Zhou, YanWen; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PolyHEMA) prevents cell attachment was used here to study anoikis, the process where cells die when unattached or attached to an inappropriate matrix, in mouse C2C12 myotubes. A method was developed to efficiently embed proteins into PolyHEMA and the effect on cultured myotubes was determined. Myotubes grown on PolyHEMA-coated plates fail to attach to the surface and remain as rounded, suspended cells, undergo dramatic increases in apoptosis and necrosis, and the number of viable cells decreases,. Incorporation of merosin (laminin-211) or the short laminin globular (LG4-5) modules of the laminin α2 chain C-terminus (called 2E3) that binds α-dystroglycan diminishes both apoptosis and necrosis and increases viability while bovine serum albumin had a much lesser effect, showing the specificity of this effect for these matrix proteins. One sarcolemma receptor for laminin-binding is α-dystroglycan. An antibody which binds α-dystroglycan but which does not block laminin-binding (VIA4) had little effect on apoptosis or viability on merosin or 2E3 embedded plates while another antibody (IIH6) which specifically blocks binding dramatically decreased viability and increased apoptosis. When merosin or 2E3 are added to culture media rather than embedded on plates these can also increase viability and decrease apoptosis even though the cells remain in suspension, though the effect is not as great as found for the embedded proteins where the cells attach. Thus, we conclude that the binding of a small LG4-5 modules of laminin-211 to α-dystroglycan is important in preventing anoikis and that attachment plus binding is necessary for maximal cell survival. PMID:19739104

  6. Laminin-111 Stimulates Proliferation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Through a Reduction of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication via RhoA-Mediated Cx43 Phosphorylation and Dissociation of Cx43/ZO-1/Drebrin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Han Na; Kim, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gap junctions within extracellular matrix (ECM)-defined boundaries ensure synchronous activity between cells destined to become functional mediators that regulate cell behavior. However, the role of ECM in connexin (Cx) function in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the role of laminin-111 in the control of Cx43 functions and related signal pathways in mESCs. ECM components (laminin-111, fibronectin, and collagen I) increased Cx43 phosphorylation and decreased Lucifer yellow (Ly) diffusion. In addition, laminin-111 increased the proliferation index through reduction of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which was confirmed by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA). Laminin-111 increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src and protein kinase C (PKC), which were inhibited by integrin β1 antibody (Ab) and laminin receptor-1 (LR-1) Ab, respectively. In addition, inhibition of both FAK/Src and PKC blocked Cx43 phosphorylation. Laminin-111 increased the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activation, which was blocked by FAK/Src and PKC inhibitors, suggesting the existence of parallel pathways that merge at RhoA. Inhibition of RhoA reversed the laminin-111-induced increase of Cx43 phosphorylation and reduction of GJIC. Laminin-111 also stimulated the dissociation of Cx43/ZO-1 complex followed by disruption of Cx43/drebrin and Cx43/F-actin complexes, which were reversed by C3 (RhoA inhibitor). ZO-1 small interfering (si) RNA significantly decreased Ly diffusion. Moreover, laminin-111 decreased Cx43 labeling at the intercellular junction, whereas pretreatment with degradation inhibitors (lysosomal protease inhibitor, chloroquine; proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin) increased Cx43 expression, reversely. In conclusion, laminin-111 stimulated mESC proliferation through a reduction of GJIC via RhoA-mediated Cx43 phosphorylation and Cx43/ZO-1/drebrin complex instability-mediated Cx43

  7. An adhesome comprising laminin, dystroglycan and myosin IIA is required during notochord development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Buisson, Nicolas; Sirour, Cathy; Moreau, Nicole; Denker, Elsa; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Goullancourt, Aline; Darribère, Thierry; Bello, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane receptor for laminin that must be expressed at the right time and place in order to be involved in notochord morphogenesis. The function of Dg was examined in Xenopus laevis embryos by knockdown of Dg and overexpression and replacement of the endogenous Dg with a mutated form of the protein. This analysis revealed that Dg is required for correct laminin assembly, for cell polarization during mediolateral intercalation and for proper differentiation of vacuoles. Using mutations in the cytoplasmic domain, we identified two sites that are involved in cell polarization and are required for mediolateral cell intercalation, and a site that is required for vacuolation. Furthermore, using a proteomic analysis, the cytoskeletal non-muscle myosin IIA has been identified for the first time as a molecular link between the Dg-cytoplasmic domain and cortical actin. The data allowed us to identify the adhesome laminin-Dg-myosin IIA as being required to maintain the cortical actin cytoskeleton network during vacuolation, which is crucial to maintain the shape of notochordal cells.

  8. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G

    2012-11-23

    The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the β1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  9. The Effect of Laminin-1-Doped Nanoroughened Implant Surfaces: Gene Expression and Morphological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Bougas, Kostas; Coelho, Paulo G.; Xue, Ying; Hayashi, Mariko; Faeda, Rafael Silveira; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici; Ono, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Mustafa, Kamal; Wennerberg, Ann; Jimbo, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to observe the morphological and molecular effect of laminin-1 doping to nanostructured implant surfaces in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods. Nanostructured implants were coated with laminin-1 (test; dilution, 100 μg/mL) and inserted into the rabbit tibiae. Noncoated implants were used as controls. After 2 weeks of healing, the implants were removed and subjected to morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression analysis using the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. SEM revealed bony tissue attachment for both control and test implants. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of osteoblast markers RUNX-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I was higher (1.62-fold, 1.53-fold, 1.97-fold, and 1.04-fold, resp.) for the implants modified by laminin-1 relative to the control. All osteoclast markers investigated in the study presented higher expression on the test implants than controls as follows: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (1.67-fold), calcitonin receptor (1.35-fold), and ATPase (1.25-fold). The test implants demonstrated higher expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-10 (1.53-fold) and tumour necrosis factor-α (1.61-fold) relative to controls. Conclusion. The protein-doped surface showed higher gene expression of typical genes involved in the osseointegration cascade than the control surface. PMID:23304151

  10. LARGE2-dependent glycosylation confers laminin-binding ability on proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Inamori, Kei-ichiro; Beedle, Aaron M; de Bernabé, Daniel Beltrán-Valero; Wright, Michael E; Campbell, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    Both LARGE1 (formerly LARGE) and its paralog LARGE2 are bifunctional glycosyltransferases with xylosy- and glucuronyltransferase activities, and are capable of synthesizing polymers composed of a repeating disaccharide [-3Xylα1,3GlcAβ1-]. Post-translational modification of the O-mannosyl glycan of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) with the polysaccharide is essential for it to act as a receptor for ligands in the extracellular matrix (ECM), and both LARGE paralogs contribute to the modification in vivo. LARGE1 and LARGE2 have different tissue distribution profiles and enzymatic properties; however, the functional difference of the homologs remains to be determined, and α-DG is the only known substrate for the modification by LARGE1 or LARGE2. Here we show that LARGE2 can modify proteoglycans (PGs) with the laminin-binding glycan. We found that overexpression of LARGE2, but not LARGE1, mediates the functional modification on the surface of DG−/−, Pomt1−/− and Fktn−/− embryonic stem cells. We identified a heparan sulfate-PG glypican-4 as a substrate for the LARGE2-dependent modification by affinity purification and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Furthermore, we showed that LARGE2 could modify several additional PGs with the laminin-binding glycan, most likely within the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-protein linkage region. Our results indicate that LARGE2 can modify PGs with the GAG-like polysaccharide composed of xylose and glucuronic acid to confer laminin binding. Thus, LARGE2 may play a differential role in stabilizing the basement membrane and modifying its functions by augmenting the interactions between laminin globular domain-containing ECM proteins and PGs. PMID:27496765

  11. Biologically active sequences in the mouse laminin alpha3 chain G domain.

    PubMed

    Urushibata, Shunsuke; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Takaki, Shu; Yamada, Yuji; Fujimori, Chikara; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Kadoya, Yuichi; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2009-11-10

    The laminin alpha3 chain is mainly expressed at the skin, and its C-terminal G domain has a critical role in multiple biological functions. We screened for biologically active sites on the mouse laminin alpha3 chain G domain using 107 synthetic peptides on coated plates and conjugated to Sepharose beads with HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells, HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cells, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Eleven peptides exhibited cell attachment activity with respect to the peptide-coated plates and/or peptide-Sepharose beads. MA3G28 (WTIQTTVDRGLL) strongly binds to HaCaT cells. Four peptides promoted PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. Heparin inhibited attachment of HDFs to eight peptides on the coated plates. In contrast, EDTA significantly inhibited attachment of HDFs to MA3G27 (NAPFPKLSWTIQ) and MA3G28 but had no effect on the attachment of the other peptides. HDF cells formed well-organized actin stress fibers and focal contacts with vinculin accumulation on MA3G27. Additionally, attachment of HDFs to MA3G27 was inhibited by anti-alpha6 and anti-beta1 integrin antibodies, suggesting that MA3G27 promotes alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion. MA3G57 (NQRLASFSNAQQS) exhibited cell attachment activity only in the peptide bead assay. MA3G57 conjugated to a chitosan membrane promoted HDF attachment and spreading with well-organized actin stress fibers. The anti-beta1 integrin antibody partially inhibited attachment of HDFs to the MA3G57-chitosan membrane, suggesting that the MA3G57 site is involved in beta1 integrin-mediated cell attachment. These active sites are likely important in the biological activities of the laminin alpha3 chain G domain and would be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms of laminin-receptor interactions.

  12. Laminin alpha 2 enables glioblastoma stem cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Li, Meizhang; Hall, Peter E.; Gallagher, Joseph; Hale, James S.; Wu, Qiulian; Venere, Monica; Levy, Emily; Rani, MR Sandhya; Huang, Ping; Bae, Eunnyung; Selfridge, Julia; Cheng, Lin; Guvenc, Hacer; McLendon, Roger E.; Nakano, Ichiro; Sloan, Andrew E.; Phillips, Heidi S.; Lai, Albert; Gladson, Candece; Bredel, Markus; Bao, Shideng; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Glioblastomas (GBMs) are lethal cancers that display cellular hierarchies parallel to normal brain. At the apex are GBM stem cells (GSCs), which are relatively resistant to conventional therapy. An important driver of malignancy and self-renewal in GSCs are interactions with the adjacent perivascular niche. Extracellular matrix (ECM) cues instruct neural stem/progenitor cell-niche interactions and the objective of our study was to elucidate its composition and contribution to GSC maintenance in the perivascular niche. Methods We interrogated human tumor tissue for immunofluorescence analysis and derived GSC from tumor tissues for functional studies. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted by mining publicly available databases. Results We find that laminin ECM proteins are localized to the perivascular GBM niche and inform negative patient prognosis. To identify the source of laminins, we characterized cellular elements within the niche and found that laminin α chains were expressed by non-stem tumor cells and tumor associated endothelial cells (ECs). RNA interference targeting laminin α2 inhibited GSC growth and self-renewal. In co-culture studies of GSCs and ECs, laminin α2 knockdown in ECs resulted in decreased tumor growth. Interpretation Our studies highlight the contribution of non-stem tumor cell-derived laminin juxtracrine signaling. As laminin α2 has recently been identified as a molecular marker of aggressive ependymoma, we propose that the brain vascular ECM promotes tumor malignancy through maintenance of the GSC compartment providing not only a molecular fingerprint but also a possible therapeutic target. PMID:23280793

  13. Chimeric protein repair of laminin polymerization ameliorates muscular dystrophy phenotype.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Crosson, Stephanie C; Meinen, Sarina; Reinhard, Judith R; Rüegg, Markus A; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in laminin α2-subunit (Lmα2, encoded by LAMA2) are linked to approximately 30% of congenital muscular dystrophy cases. Mice with a homozygous mutation in Lama2 (dy2J mice) express a nonpolymerizing form of laminin-211 (Lm211) and are a model for ambulatory-type Lmα2-deficient muscular dystrophy. Here, we developed transgenic dy2J mice with muscle-specific expression of αLNNd, a laminin/nidogen chimeric protein that provides a missing polymerization domain. Muscle-specific expression of αLNNd in dy2J mice resulted in strong amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype, manifested by the prevention of fibrosis and restoration of forelimb grip strength. αLNNd also restored myofiber shape, size, and numbers to control levels in dy2J mice. Laminin immunostaining and quantitation of tissue extractions revealed increased Lm211 expression in αLNNd-transgenic dy2J mice. In cultured myotubes, we determined that αLNNd expression increased myotube surface accumulation of polymerization-deficient recombinant laminins, with retention of collagen IV, reiterating the basement membrane (BM) changes observed in vivo. Laminin LN domain mutations linked to several of the Lmα2-deficient muscular dystrophies are predicted to compromise polymerization. The data herein support the hypothesis that engineered expression of αLNNd can overcome polymerization deficits to increase laminin, stabilize BM structure, and substantially ameliorate muscular dystrophy.

  14. Study on expression of laminin in patients with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Feng, Yun; Pang, Jia-Rong; Tang, Mei; Liu, Xiu-Ying; Li, Jia-Quan; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in serum laminin expression in patients with intractable epilepsy. Our results suggest that elevated laminin may contribute to the pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy. ELISA and western blots were used to measure laminin in the serum of 30 intractable epilepsy patients, 46 nonintractable epilepsy patients, and 20 normal subjects. By ELISA, serum laminin levels were greater in intractable epilepsy patients (177.396 +/- 30.602) and nonintractable epilepsy patients (121.915 +/- 35.215) than in normal control subjects (67.474 +/- 7.197); laminin was significantly greater in the intractable epilepsy group than in the nonintractable epilepsy group. In western blots, the optical density ratio of laminin to ss-actin was 0.871 +/- 0.032 for the intractable epilepsy group, 0.686 +/- 0.017 for the nonintractable epilepsy group, and 0.385 +/- 0.024 for the normal control group. The optical density ratios of the intractable and nonintractable epilepsy groups were higher than those for the normal control group, and the intractable epilepsy group was even greater than the nonintractable epilepsy group. Thus, laminin is significantly increased in epilepsy patients, and this increase is more profound in intractable epilepsy patients.

  15. Laminin-Mediated Interactions in Thymocyte Migration and Development

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas; Golbert, Daiane Cristina Ferreira; Riederer, Ingo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Intrathymic T-cell differentiation is a key process for the development and maintenance of cell-mediated immunity, and occurs concomitantly to highly regulated migratory events. We have proposed a multivectorial model for describing intrathymic thymocyte migration. One of the individual vectors comprises interactions mediated by laminins (LMs), a heterotrimeric protein family of the extracellular matrix. Several LMs are expressed in the thymus, being produced by microenvironmental cells, particularly thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Also, thymocytes and epithelial cells express integrin-type LM receptors. Functionally, it has been reported that the dy/dy mutant mouse (lacking the LM isoform 211) exhibits defective thymocyte differentiation. Several data show haptotactic effects of LMs upon thymocytes, as well as their adhesion on TECs; both effects being prevented by anti-LM or anti-LM receptor antibodies. Interestingly, LM synergizes with chemokines to enhance thymocyte migration, whereas classe-3 semaphorins and B ephrins, which exhibit chemorepulsive effects in the thymus, downregulate LM-mediated migratory responses of thymocytes. More recently, we showed that knocking down the ITGA6 gene (which encodes the α6 integrin chain of LM receptors) in human TECs modulates a large number of cell migration-related genes and results in changes of adhesion pattern of thymocytes onto the thymic epithelium. Overall, LM-mediated interactions can be placed at the cross-road of the multivectorial process of thymocyte migration, with a direct influence per se, as well as by modulating other molecular interactions associated with the intrathymic-trafficking events. PMID:26635793

  16. Antibodies to laminin in American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Rieber, M

    1984-01-01

    We found that serum samples from patients with different clinical forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) contained immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies which reacted with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components, such as collagen types I, III, IV, and V and fibronectin. Eighty-one percent of ACL patients had high antilaminin antibody levels, with a relationship existing between ACL ulcers and antibody levels. This was not, however, the case with patients having treated and healed ACL ulcers; only 34% of these patients had elevated antilaminin antibodies. Eighty-four percent of chronic Chagas' disease patients were also found to contain antilaminin antibodies that were limited to the immunoglobulin G class, but these were not detected in patients suffering from any of 11 other infectious diseases. PMID:6418660

  17. Basement Membrane Laminin α2 Regulation of BTB Dynamics via Its Effects on F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons Is Mediated Through mTORC1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Haiqi; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2017-04-01

    A local axis connects the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, the basal ES at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the basement membrane across the seminiferous epithelium functionally in rat testes. As such, cellular events that take place simultaneously across the epithelium such as spermiation and BTB remodeling that occur at the apical ES and the basal ES, respectively, at stage VIII of the cycle are coordinated. Herein, laminin α2, a structural component of the basement membrane, was found to regulate BTB dynamics. Sertoli cells were cultured in vitro to allow the establishment of a tight junction (TJ) barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. Knockdown of laminin α2 by transfecting Sertoli cells with laminin α2-specific short hairpin RNA vs the nontargeting negative control was shown to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ barrier, illustrating laminin α2 was involved in regulating BTB dynamics. This regulatory effect was mediated through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling because the two mTORC1 downstream signaling molecules ribosomal protein S6 and Akt1/2 were activated and inactivated, respectively, consistent with earlier findings that mTORC1 is involved in promoting BTB remodeling. Also, laminin α2 knockdown induced F-actin and microtubule (MT) disorganization through changes in the spatial expression of F-actin regulators actin-related protein 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 vs end-binding protein 1 (a MT plus-end tracking protein, +TIP). These laminin α2 knockdown-mediated effects on F-actin and MT organization was blocked by exposing Sertoli cells to rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling, and also SC79, an activator of Akt. In summary, laminin α2-mediated regulation on Sertoli cell BTB dynamics is through mTORC1 signaling. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Fluorescently tagged laminin subunits facilitate analyses of the properties, assembly and processing of laminins in live and fixed lung epithelial cells and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Susan B; DeBiase, Phillip J; Kligys, Kristina; Hamill, Kevin; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses of collagen, elastin and fibronectin matrix assembly, organization and remodeling have been facilitated by the use of tagged proteins that can be visualized without the need for antibody labeling. Here, we report the generation of C-terminal tagged, full-length and "processed" (alpha3DeltaLG4-5) human alpha3 as well as C-terminal tagged, full-length human beta3 laminin subunits in adenoviral vectors. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells, which assemble laminin-332-rich matrices, as well as primary rat lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells, which elaborate a fibrous network rich in laminin-311, were infected with adenovirus encoding the tagged human laminin subunits. In HEKs and BEP2D cells, tagged, full-length alpha3, alpha3DeltaLG4-5 and beta3 laminin subunits incorporate into arrays of matrix organized into patterns that are comparable to those observed when such cells are stained using laminin-332 subunit antibody probes. Moreover, HEKs and BEP2Ds move over these tagged, laminin-332-rich matrix arrays. We have also used the tagged beta3 laminin subunit-containing matrices to demonstrate that assembled laminin-332 arrays influence laminin matrix secretion and/or assembly. In the case of rat ATII cells, although tagged alpha3 laminin subunits are not detected in the matrix of rat ATII cells infected with virus encoding full-length human alpha3 laminin protein, processed human alpha3 laminin subunits are incorporated into an extracellular fibrous array. We discuss how these novel laminin reagents can be used to study the organization, processing and assembly of laminin matrices and how they provide new insights into the potential functional importance of laminin fragments.

  19. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli bind fibronectin and laminin.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Rosa María; Almanza, Yolanda; González, Rafael; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2009-04-01

    Avian colisepticemia frequently occurs after respiratory tract damage, the primary site for infection allows bacteria to encounter an exposed basement membrane, where laminin and fibronectin are important components. We investigated the ability of an isolate of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli to bind fibronectin and laminin. Using Far-western dot blot analysis, we demonstrated the ability of this microorganism to bind basement membrane proteins fibronectin and laminin. Results from an ELISA-based approach indicate that the binding to these membrane proteins was bacterial-dose dependent. Furthermore, two specific E. coli polypeptides, of 32 kDa and 130 kDa, reacted with laminin and fibronectin, respectively. Further evaluation of these potential bacterial adhesins may provide insights into the pathogenesis of colibacillosis.

  20. Cross-linking reveals laminin coiled-coil architecture

    PubMed Central

    Armony, Gad; Jacob, Etai; Moran, Toot; Levin, Yishai; Mehlman, Tevie; Levy, Yaakov; Fass, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Laminin, an ∼800-kDa heterotrimeric protein, is a major functional component of the extracellular matrix, contributing to tissue development and maintenance. The unique architecture of laminin is not currently amenable to determination at high resolution, as its flexible and narrow segments complicate both crystallization and single-particle reconstruction by electron microscopy. Therefore, we used cross-linking and MS, evaluated using computational methods, to address key questions regarding laminin quaternary structure. This approach was particularly well suited to the ∼750-Å coiled coil that mediates trimer assembly, and our results support revision of the subunit order typically presented in laminin schematics. Furthermore, information on the subunit register in the coiled coil and cross-links to downstream domains provide insights into the self-assembly required for interaction with other extracellular matrix and cell surface proteins. PMID:27815530

  1. Laminin regulates PDGFRβ(+) cell stemness and muscle development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H; Mason, Christopher E; Strickland, Sidney

    2016-05-03

    Muscle-resident PDGFRβ(+) cells, which include pericytes and PW1(+) interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ(+) cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ(+) cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ(+) cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ(+) cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy.

  2. Laminin and the malaria parasite's journey through the mosquito midgut.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Romanico B G; Lycett, Gareth; Mahairaki, Vassiliki; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Louis, Christos

    2005-07-01

    During the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium, Plasmodium ookinetes come to rest on the basal lamina, where they transform into the sporozoite-producing oocysts. Laminin, one of the basal lamina's major components, has previously been shown to bind several surface proteins of Plasmodium ookinetes. Here, using the recently developed RNAi technique in mosquitoes, we used a specific dsRNA construct targeted against the LANB2 gene (laminin gamma1) of Anopheles gambiae to reduce its mRNA levels, leading to a substantial reduction in the number of successfully developed oocysts in the mosquito midgut. Moreover, this molecular relationship is corroborated by the intimate association of developing P. berghei parasites and laminin in the gut, as observed using confocal microscopy. Our data support the notion of laminin playing a functional role in the development of the malaria parasite within the mosquito midgut.

  3. Laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell stemness and muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H.; E. Mason, Christopher; Strickland, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Muscle-resident PDGFRβ+ cells, which include pericytes and PW1+ interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ+ cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ+ cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ+ cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy. PMID:27138650

  4. Laminin 5 expression protects against anoikis at aerogenous spread and lepidic growth of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Keiji; Ishii, Gen'ichiro; Miyamoto, Shin'ichi; Goya, Masato; Zhang, Shi-Chuan; Sangai, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Hasebe, Takahiro; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Keisuke; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2005-10-10

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung is characterized by frequent aerogenous spread (AE) and advancement along the alveolar wall (BAC growth). To elucidate the mechanism of AE metastasis and BAC growth in human lung adenocarcinoma, we established an in vivo orthotopic animal model and an in vitro culture. Investigation of expression levels of integrins, laminins and Type IV collagens, which are the major regulating molecules for cell attachment and anoikis was carried out and a clear correlation between the expression level of laminin 5 (LN5) and the BAC growth was observed using an orthotopic animal model. Introduction of LN5 cDNA to A549 cells increased anoikis resistance in an expression dependent manner. Cells with LN5 overexpression resisted with anoikis after treatment with PI3K-Akt and ERK inhibitors. The amount of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was also higher in LN5 overexpressing cells. Major tyrosine residues of the EGF receptor at 1068, 1086 and 1173, except at 1148, remained phosphorylated only in the LN5 overexpressing cells even without EGF stimulation, that indicates the ligand independent activation of EGF receptor. BAC growth ratio and AE was confirmed to be significantly correlated with LN5 expression in surgically resected human lung adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the activation of the EGF receptor by overexpressing LN5-integrin-FAK signaling pathway may play a crucial role in BAC growth and AE metastasis in human lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. The association between laminin and microglial morphology in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Wing Yip; Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that contribute to primary innate immune responses. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. The majority of microglial studies have focused on the ramified or amoeboid morphology; however, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia have recently received much attention. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia form trains with end-to-end alignment in injured brains and retinae, which is proposed as an important mechanism in CNS repair. We previously established a cell culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia simply by growing primary microglia on scratched poly-D-lysine (PDL)/laminin-coated surfaces. Here, we investigated the role of laminin in morphological changes of microglia. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains were transiently formed on scratched surfaces without PDL/laminin coating, but the microglia alignment disappeared after 3 days in culture. Amoeboid microglia digested the surrounding laminin, and the gene and protein expression of laminin-cleaving genes Adam9 and Ctss was up-regulated. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transformation from bipolar/rod-shaped into amoeboid microglia increased the expression of Adam9 and Ctss, and the expression of these genes in LPS-treated amoeboid-enriched cultures remained unchanged. These results indicate a strong association between laminin and morphological transformation of microglia, shedding new light on the role of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in CNS repair. PMID:27334934

  6. Enhanced laminin adsorption on nanowires compared to flat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hammarin, Greger; Persson, Henrik; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Prinz, Christelle N

    2014-10-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are widely used to interface living cells, and numerous nanowire-based devices have been developed to manipulate or sense cell behavior. We have, however, little knowledge on the nature of the cell-nanowire interface. Laminin is an extracellular matrix protein promoting cell attachment and growth. Here, we used a method based on fluorescence microscopy and measured the relative amount of laminin adsorbed on nanowires compared to flat surfaces. The amount of adsorbed laminin per surface area is up to 4 times higher on 55nm diameter gallium phosphide nanowires compared to the flat gallium phosphide surface between the nanowires. We show that this enhanced adsorption on nanowires cannot be attributed to electrostatic effects, nor to differences in surface chemistry, but possibly to pure geometrical effects, as increasing the nanowire diameter results in a decreased amount of adsorbed protein. The increased adsorption of laminin on nanowires may explain the exceptionally beneficial properties of nanowire substrates for cellular growth reported in the literature since laminin is often used as surface coating prior to cell cultures in order to promote cell growth, and also because primary cell suspensions contain endogenous laminin.

  7. Sarcospan integration into laminin-binding adhesion complexes that ameliorate muscular dystrophy requires utrophin and α7 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jamie L.; Oh, Jennifer; Chou, Eric; Lee, Joy A.; Holmberg, Johan; Burkin, Dean J.; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in loss of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, a laminin receptor that connects the myofiber to its surrounding extracellular matrix. Utrophin, a dystrophin ortholog that is normally localized to the neuromuscular junction, is naturally upregulated in DMD muscle, which partially compensates for the loss of dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin causes broad sarcolemma localization of utrophin, restoration of laminin binding and amelioration of disease in the mdx mouse model of DMD. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of sarcospan, a dystrophin- and utrophin-binding protein, ameliorates mdx muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan boosts levels of utrophin to therapeutic levels at the sarcolemma, where attachment to laminin is restored. However, understanding the compensatory mechanism is complicated by concomitant upregulation of α7β1 integrin, which also binds laminin. Similar to the effects of utrophin, transgenic overexpression of α7 integrin prevents DMD disease in mice and is accompanied by increased abundance of utrophin around the extra-synaptic sarcolemma. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sarcospan ‘rescue’ of muscular dystrophy, we created double-knockout mice to test the contributions of utrophin or α7 integrin. We show that sarcospan-mediated amelioration of muscular dystrophy in DMD mice is dependent on the presence of both utrophin and α7β1 integrin, even when they are individually expressed at therapeutic levels. Furthermore, we found that association of sarcospan into laminin-binding complexes is dependent on utrophin and α7β1 integrin. PMID:25504048

  8. Sarcospan integration into laminin-binding adhesion complexes that ameliorate muscular dystrophy requires utrophin and α7 integrin.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jamie L; Oh, Jennifer; Chou, Eric; Lee, Joy A; Holmberg, Johan; Burkin, Dean J; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2015-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, a laminin receptor that connects the myofiber to its surrounding extracellular matrix. Utrophin, a dystrophin ortholog that is normally localized to the neuromuscular junction, is naturally upregulated in DMD muscle, which partially compensates for the loss of dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin causes broad sarcolemma localization of utrophin, restoration of laminin binding and amelioration of disease in the mdx mouse model of DMD. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of sarcospan, a dystrophin- and utrophin-binding protein, ameliorates mdx muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan boosts levels of utrophin to therapeutic levels at the sarcolemma, where attachment to laminin is restored. However, understanding the compensatory mechanism is complicated by concomitant upregulation of α7β1 integrin, which also binds laminin. Similar to the effects of utrophin, transgenic overexpression of α7 integrin prevents DMD disease in mice and is accompanied by increased abundance of utrophin around the extra-synaptic sarcolemma. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sarcospan 'rescue' of muscular dystrophy, we created double-knockout mice to test the contributions of utrophin or α7 integrin. We show that sarcospan-mediated amelioration of muscular dystrophy in DMD mice is dependent on the presence of both utrophin and α7β1 integrin, even when they are individually expressed at therapeutic levels. Furthermore, we found that association of sarcospan into laminin-binding complexes is dependent on utrophin and α7β1 integrin. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Hedgehog Signaling and Laminin Play Unique and Synergistic Roles in Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew T.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and laminin-111, a basement membrane protein, are required for early muscle development. Hh signaling specifies different populations of muscle fibers and laminin-111 is critical for early muscle morphogenesis. However, additional requirements for Hh signaling and laminin during later phases of muscle development are not known. Furthermore, interactions between Hh signaling and laminin in this context are unknown. We used laminin gamma1 mutant zebrafish and cyclopamine to block Hh signal transduction separately and in combination to investigate their functions and interactions. We found that both Hh signaling and laminin are required for normal myosin chain expression. In addition, Hh signaling and laminin act synergistically during fast-twitch fiber elongation: fast muscle cells do not elongate in embryos deficient for both Hh signaling and laminin. Finally, we present evidence which suggests that Hh signaling is indirectly required via slow fiber specification for recovery of fast fiber elongation in laminin gamma1 mutant embryos. PMID:20063418

  10. Transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 chain in regenerating murine liver: Restricted localization of laminin chains and nidogen-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Yamato . E-mail: yamato@sapmed.ac.jp; Mochizuki, Yoichi; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2005-04-15

    Most interstitia between epithelial and endothelial cells contain basal laminae (BLs), as defined by electron microscopy. However, in liver, the sinusoidal interstitium (called space of Disse) between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) lacks BLs. Because laminins are major components of BLs throughout the body, whether laminins exist in sinusoids has been a controversial issue. Despite recent advances, the distribution and expression of laminin chains have not been well defined in mammalian liver. Here, using a panel of antibodies, we examined laminins in normal and regenerating mouse livers. Of {alpha} chains, {alpha}5 was widely observed in all BLs except for sinusoids, while the other {alpha} chains were variously expressed in Glisson's sheath and central veins. Laminin {gamma}1 was also distributed to all BLs except for sinusoids. Although the {beta}2 chain was observed in all BLs and sinusoids, the expression of {beta}1 chain was restricted to Glisson's sheath. Detailed analysis of regenerating liver revealed that {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains appeared in sinusoids and were produced by stellate cells. The staining of {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains reached its maximum intensity at 6 days after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). Moreover, in vitro studies showed that {alpha}1-containing laminin promoted spreading of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) isolated from normal liver, but not other hepatic cells. In addition, SECs isolated from regenerating liver elongated pseudopodia on {alpha}1-containing laminin more so than did cells from normal liver. The transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 may promote formation of sinusoids after PHx.

  11. Alumina-zirconia composites functionalized with laminin-1 and laminin-5 for dentistry: effect of protein adsorption on cellular response.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; Faga, M G; Mussano, F; Catalano, F; Tolosano, E; Carossa, S; Altruda, F; Martra, G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a study on laminin interaction with the surface of two alumina-zirconia composites with different percentages of ZrO2, both with submicrometric grain size. As major molecules within the basement membrane (BM), laminins are important protein fragments for epithelial cell adhesion and migration. On the other hand, alumina-zirconia composites are very attractive materials for dental applications due to their esthetic and mechanical properties. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the adsorption of two types of laminin, laminin-1 (Ln-1) and laminin-5 (Ln-5), onto the ceramics surfaces. The in vitro cell response was determined by intracellular phosphorylation of major kinases. Ceramics samples functionalized with laminins showed better cellular activation than untreated specimens; furthermore, cellular activation was found to be greater for the composite with higher percentage in zirconia when functionalized with Ln-5, whereas the adsorption of Ln-1 resulted in a greater activation for the alumina-rich oxide.

  12. Laminin promotes neuritic regeneration from cultured peripheral and central neurons

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The ability of axons to grow through tissue in vivo during development or regeneration may be regulated by the availability of specific neurite-promoting macromolecules located within the extracellular matrix. We have used tissue culture methods to examine the relative ability of various extracellular matrix components to elicit neurite outgrowth from dissociated chick embryo parasympathetic (ciliary ganglion) neurons in serum-free monolayer culture. Purified laminin from both mouse and rat sources, as well as a partially purified polyornithine-binding neurite promoting factor (PNPF-1) from rat Schwannoma cells all stimulate neurite production from these neurons. Laminin and PNPF-1 are also potent stimulators of neurite growth from cultured neurons obtained from other peripheral as well as central neural tissues, specifically avian sympathetic and sensory ganglia and spinal cord, optic tectum, neural retina, and telencephalon, as well as from sensory ganglia of the neonatal mouse and hippocampal, septal, and striatal tissues of the fetal rat. A quantitative in vitro bioassay method using ciliary neurons was used to (a) measure and compare the specific neurite-promoting activities of these agents, (b) confirm that during the purification of laminin, the neurite-promoting activity co- purifies with the laminin protein, and (c) compare the influences of antilaminin antibodies on the neurite-promoting activity of laminin and PNPF-1. We conclude that laminin and PNPF-1 are distinct macromolecules capable of expressing their neurite-promoting activities even when presented in nanogram amounts. This neurite-promoting bioassay currently represents the most sensitive test for the biological activity of laminin. PMID:6643580

  13. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A; Gard, Jaime M C; Sroka, Isis C; Strautman, Stephanie R; Nagle, Raymond B; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Cress, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modeling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (kactual ) of 3.25 min(-1) , threefold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min(-1) ), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min(-1) ), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min(-1) ). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3, and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in kactual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8-fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the kactual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1038-1049, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identification of Cell Adhesive Sequences in the N-terminal Region of the Laminin α2 Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Hozumi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Masaya; Hayashi, Takemitsu; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The laminin α2 chain is specifically expressed in the basement membrane surrounding muscle and nerve. We screened biologically active sequences in the mouse laminin N-terminal region of α2 chain using 216 soluble peptides and three recombinant proteins (rec-a2LN, rec-a2LN+, and rec-a2N) by both the peptide- or protein-coated plate and the peptide-conjugated Sepharose bead assays. Ten peptides showed cell attachment activity in the plate assay, and 8 peptides were active in the bead assay. Seven peptides were active in the both assays. Five peptides promoted neurite outgrowth with PC12 cells. To clarify the cellular receptors, we examined the effects of heparin and EDTA on cell attachment to 11 active peptides. Heparin inhibited cell attachment to 10 peptides, and EDTA significantly affected only A2-8 peptide (YHYVTITLDLQQ, mouse laminin α2 chain, 117–128)-mediated cell attachment. Cell attachment to A2-8 was also specifically inhibited by anti-integrin β1 and anti-integrin α2β1 antibodies. These results suggest that A2-8 promotes an integrin α2β1-mediated cell attachment. The rec-a2LN protein, containing the A2-8 sequence, bound to integrin α2β1 and cell attachment to rec-a2LN was inhibited by A2-8 peptide. Further, alanine substitution analysis of both the A2-8 peptide and the rec-a2LN+ protein revealed that the amino acids Ile-122, Leu-124, and Asp-125 were involved in integrin α2β1-mediated cell attachment, suggesting that the A2-8 site plays a functional role as an integrin α2β1 binding site in the LN module. These active peptides may provide new insights on the molecular mechanism of laminin-receptor interactions. PMID:22654118

  15. Laminin Functionalized Biomimetic Nanofibers For Nerve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Junka, Radoslaw; Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Large-gap peripheral nerve injuries present a significant challenge for nerve regeneration due to lack of suitable grafts, insufficient cell penetration, and repair. Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, functionalized on the surface with extracellular matrix proteins, can lead to novel therapies for repair and regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves. Here, nanofibrous scaffolds electrospun from blends of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan were fabricated. Taking advantage of the amine groups on the chitosan, the surface of the scaffolds were functionalized with laminin by carbodiimide based crosslinking. Crosslinking allowed laminin to be attached to the surfaces of the PCL-chitosan nanofibers at relatively high concentrations that were not possible using conventional adsorption methods. The nanofibrous meshes were tested for wettability, mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation. Blending of chitosan with PCL provided more favorable surfaces for attachment of Schwann cells due to the reduction of the contact angle in comparison to neat PCL. Proliferation rates of Schwann cells grown on PCL-chitosan scaffolds with crosslinked laminin were significantly higher than the rates for PCL-chitosan nanofibrous matrices with adsorbed laminin. PCL-chitosan scaffolds with modified surfaces via crosslinking of laminin could potentially serves as versatile substrates with excellent mechanical and surface properties for in vivo cell delivery for nerve tissue engineering applications. PMID:24083073

  16. Laminin-111: a potential therapeutic agent for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Goudenege, Sébastien; Lamarre, Yann; Dumont, Nicolas; Rousseau, Joël; Frenette, Jérôme; Skuk, Daniel; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2010-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) still needs effective treatments, and myoblast transplantation (MT) is considered as an approach to repair damaged skeletal muscles. DMD is due to the complete loss of dystrophin from muscles. The lack of link between the contracting apparatus and the extracellular matrix leads to frequent damage to the sarcolemma triggering muscle fiber necrosis. Laminins are major proteins in the extracellular matrix. Laminin-111 is normally present in skeletal and cardiac muscles in mice and humans but only during embryonic development. In this study, we showed that intramuscular injection of laminin-111 increased muscle strength and resistance in mdx mice. We also used laminin-111 as a coadjuvant in MT, and we showed this protein decreased considerably the repetitive cycles of degeneration, inflammatory reaction, and regeneration. Moreover, MT is significantly improved. To explain the improvement, we confirmed with the same myoblast cell batch that laminin-111 improves proliferation and drastically increases migration in vitro. These results are extremely important because DMD could be treated only by the injection of a recombinant protein, a simple and safe therapy to prevent loss of muscle function. Moreover, the improvement in MT would be significant to treat the muscles of DMD patients who are already weak.

  17. Laminins containing the beta2 chain modulate the precise organization of CNS synapses.

    PubMed

    Egles, Christophe; Claudepierre, Thomas; Manglapus, Mary K; Champliaud, Marie-France; Brunken, William J; Hunter, Dale D

    2007-03-01

    Synapses are formed and stabilized by concerted interactions of pre-, intra-, and post-synaptic components; however, the precise nature of the intrasynaptic components in the CNS remains obscure. Potential intrasynaptic components include extracellular matrix molecules such as laminins; here, we isolate beta2-containing laminins, including perhaps laminins 13 (alpha3beta2gamma3) and 14 (alpha4beta2gamma3), from CNS synaptosomes suggesting a role for these molecules in synaptic organization. Indeed, hippocampal synapses that form in vivo in the absence of these laminins are malformed at the ultrastructural level and this malformation is replicated in synapses formed in vitro, where laminins are provided largely by the post-synaptic neuron. This recapitulation of the in vivo function of laminins in vitro suggests that the malformations are a direct consequence of the removal of laminins from the synapse. Together, these results support a role for neuronal laminins in the structural integrity of central synapses.

  18. Expression of laminin beta1 in hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Xue-feng; Mo, Xue-an; Sun, Hong-bin; Li, Jin-mei; Zeng, Yan; Lin, Tao; Yuan, Jie; Xi, Zhi-qin; Zhu, Xi; Zheng, Jin-ou

    2008-10-10

    We investigated laminin beta1 expression in the hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy and explored the role of laminin beta1 in the pathogenesis of this condition. Fluorescence quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to measure laminin beta1 expression in surgically removed hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy, and the results were compared with control hippocampi. Fluorescence quantitative PCR showed increased expression of laminin beta1 mRNA in patient hippocampi compared with control tissues. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that laminin beta1 protein expression was significantly increased in patient hippocampi, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed accumulation of laminin beta1 in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of patient hippocampi. These findings were confirmed by Western blotting of protein preparations from patient hippocampi. Elevated expression of laminin beta1 mRNA and protein in the hippocampus suggests that laminin beta1 may play a role in the development of epileptic seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy.

  19. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate

  20. Enhancing neural stem cell response to SDF-1α gradients through hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Addington, C P; Heffernan, J M; Millar-Haskell, C S; Tucker, E W; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an expansive biochemical insult that is largely responsible for the long-term dysfunction associated with TBI; however, current clinical treatments fall short of addressing these underlying sequelae. Pre-clinical investigations have used stem cell transplantation with moderate success, but are plagued by staggeringly low survival and engraftment rates (2-4%). As such, providing cell transplants with the means to better dynamically respond to injury-related signals within the transplant microenvironment may afford improved transplantation survival and engraftment rates. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a potent chemotactic signal that is readily present after TBI. In this study, we sought to develop a transplantation vehicle to ultimately enhance the responsiveness of neural transplants to injury-induced SDF-1α. Specifically, we hypothesize that a hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (Lm) hydrogel would promote 1. upregulated expression of the SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) and 2. enhanced NPSC migration in response to SDF-1α gradients. We demonstrated successful development of a HA-Lm hydrogel and utilized standard protein and cellular assays to probe NPSC CXCR4 expression and NPSC chemotactic migration. The findings demonstrated that NPSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression after 48 h of culture on the HA-Lm gel in a manner critically dependent on both HA and laminin. Moreover, the HA-Lm hydrogel significantly increased NPSC chemotactic migration in response to SDF-1α at 48 h, an effect that was critically dependent on HA, laminin and the SDF-1α gradient. Therefore, this hydrogel serves to 1. prime NPSCs for the injury microenvironment and 2. provide the appropriate infrastructure to support migration into the surrounding tissue, equipping cells with the tools to more effectively respond to the injury microenvironment.

  1. Expression and localization of laminin 5, laminin 10, type IV collagen, and amelotin in adult murine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takaki; Shibayama, Kazuko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro

    2014-06-01

    The biochemical composition of the internal and external basal laminae in the junctional epithelium differs significantly, and the precise cellular origin of their respective molecules remains to be determined. In the present study, the expression and localization of three basement membrane-specific molecules-laminin 5 (γ2 chain), type IV collagen (α1 chain), and laminin 10 (α5 chain)-and one tooth-specific molecule, amelotin, was analyzed in adult murine gingiva by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the outermost cells in junctional epithelium facing the tooth enamel strongly expressed laminin 5 mRNA, supporting the immunohistochemical staining data. This suggests that laminin 5 is actively synthesized in junctional epithelial cells and that the products are incorporated into the internal basal lamina to maintain firm epithelial adhesion to the tooth enamel throughout life. Conversely, no amelotin mRNA signals were detected in the junctional epithelial cells, suggesting that the molecules localized on the internal basal lamina are mainly derived from maturation-stage ameloblasts. Weak and sporadic expression of type IV collagen in addition to laminin 10 in the gingiva indicates that these molecules undergo turnover less frequently in adult animals.

  2. Laminin-111 improves muscle repair in a mouse model of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Van Ry, Pam M.; Minogue, Priscilla; Hodges, Bradley L.; Burkin, Dean J.

    2014-01-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a severe and fatal muscle-wasting disease with no cure. MDC1A patients and the dyW−/− mouse model exhibit severe muscle weakness, demyelinating neuropathy, failed muscle regeneration and premature death. We have recently shown that laminin-111, a form of laminin found in embryonic skeletal muscle, can substitute for the loss of laminin-211/221 and prevent muscle disease progression in the dyW−/− mouse model. What is unclear from these studies is whether laminin-111 can restore failed regeneration to laminin-α2-deficient muscle. To investigate the potential of laminin-111 protein therapy to improve muscle regeneration, laminin-111 or phosphate-buffered saline-treated laminin-α2-deficient muscle was damaged with cardiotoxin and muscle regeneration quantified. Our results show laminin-111 treatment promoted an increase in myofiber size and number, and an increased expression of α7β1 integrin, Pax7, myogenin and embryonic myosin heavy chain, indicating a restoration of the muscle regenerative program. Together, our results show laminin-111 restores muscle regeneration to laminin-α2-deficient muscle and further supports laminin-111 protein as a therapy for the treatment of MDC1A. PMID:24009313

  3. Laminin-based Nanomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Rebekah Anne

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing motor and sensory deficits distal to the site of injury. One option for surgical repair is the nerve conduit. Conduits currently on the market are hollow tubes into which the nerve ends are sutured. Although these conduits fill the gap, they often fail due to the slow rate of regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased speed of regeneration and greater potential for functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this dissertation, I fabricated laminin-1 and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers that mimic the geometry and functionality of the peripheral nerve basement membrane. These fibers resist hydration in aqueous media and require no harsh chemical crosslinkers. Adhesion and differentiation of both neuron-like and neuroprogenitor cells is improved on laminin nanofibrous meshes over two-dimensional laminin substrates. Blend meshes with varying laminin content were characterized for composition, tensile properties, degradation rates, and bioactivity in terms of cell attachment and axonal elongation. I have established that 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain the significant neurite-promoting effects of laminin critical in peripheral nerve repair. In addition, I utilized modified collector plate design to manipulate electric field gradients during electrospinning for the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. These aligned substrates provide enhanced directional guidance cues to the regenerating axons. Finally, I replicated the clinical problem of peripheral nerve transection using a rat tibial nerve defect model for conduit implantation. When the lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment, I observed significant recovery of sensory and motor function over six weeks. This recovery was

  4. The unfolding of native laminin investigated by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, Cs.; Ramsden, J. J.; Rozlosnik, N.

    2002-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to directly measure the forces required to unfold individual domains of the extracellular matrix protein laminin. The approach-retraction cycles display a characteristic saw-tooth motif. Tooth heights and separations were used to establish a statistical relation between domain unfolding force and domain extension. The extensible domains of laminin require an unfolding force intermediate between previously established values for α-helical and β-sheet domains in other proteins. The relationship between unfolding force and extension for a given domain is not smooth; discrete steps are observed, interpreted as originating from the modularity of the protein structure.

  5. Laminin-511 and -521 enable efficient in vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Kakutani, Kazuya; Numata, Ryohei; Nakahara, Makiko; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Kruse, Friedrich; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of laminin isoforms as substrates for culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) for clinical application of tissue engineering therapy. Expression of specific laminin chains in human corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. The effect of laminin-511 and -521 on cell adhesion and proliferation was evaluated. Recombinant laminin E8 fragments (E8s), which represent functionally minimal forms of laminins, were also evaluated for their effects on cell density and cellular phenotype. The potential involvement of α3β1 and α6β1 integrins in laminin signal transduction was also investigated using neutralizing antibodies. Laminin-511 and -521 were expressed in Descemet's membrane and corneal endothelium. These laminin isoforms significantly enhanced the in vitro adhesion and proliferation, and differentiation of HCECs. A cell density of 2200 to 2400 cells/mm2 was achieved when HCECs were cultured on laminin-511 or -521, whereas the density was only 1100 cells/mm2 on an uncoated control. E8s also supported HCEC cultivation with a similar efficacy to that obtained with full-length laminin. Functional blocking of α3β1 and α6β1 integrins suppressed the adhesion of HCECs even in the presence of laminin-511. Laminin-511 and -521 were the laminin isoforms present in Descemet's membrane, and these laminins modulate the adhesion and proliferation of CECs. Laminin E8s represent an ideal xeno-free defined substrate for the culture of CECs for clinical applications.

  6. Structural basis of laminin binding to the LARGE glycans on dystroglycan

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David C.; Yoshida-Moriguchi, Takako; Zheng, Tianqing; Venzke, David; Anderson, Mary; Strazzulli, Andrea; Moracci, Marco; Yu, Liping; Hohenester, Erhard; Campbell, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Dystroglycan is a highly glycosylated extracellular matrix receptor with essential functions in skeletal muscle and the nervous system. Reduced matrix binding by α-dystroglycan (α-DG) due to perturbed glycosylation is a pathological feature of several forms of muscular dystrophy. Like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE) synthesizes the matrix-binding heteropolysaccharide [-glucuronic acid-β1,3-xylose-α1,3-]n. Using a dual exoglycosidase digestion, we confirm that this polysaccharide is present on native α-DG from skeletal muscle. The atomic details of matrix binding were revealed by a high-resolution crystal structure of laminin G-like (LG) domains 4-5 of laminin α2 bound to a LARGE-synthesized oligosaccharide. A single glucuronic acid-β1,3-xylose disaccharide repeat straddles a Ca2+ ion in the LG4 domain, with oxygen atoms from both sugars replacing Ca2+-bound water molecules. The chelating binding mode accounts for the high affinity of this protein-carbohydrate interaction. These results reveal a novel mechanism of carbohydrate recognition and provide a structural framework for elucidating the mechanisms underlying muscular dystrophy. PMID:27526028

  7. Laminin-511 expression is associated with the functionality of feeder cells in human embryonic stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Heidi; Vuoristo, Sanna; Mikhailova, Alexandra; Suuronen, Riitta; Virtanen, Ismo; Otonkoski, Timo; Skottman, Heli

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast feeder cells play an important role in supporting the derivation and long term culture of undifferentiated, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The feeder cells secrete various growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into extracellular milieu. However, the roles of the feeder cell-secreted factors are largely unclear. Animal feeder cells and use of animal serum also make current feeder cell culture conditions unsuitable for derivation of clinical grade hESCs. We established xeno-free feeder cell lines using human serum (HS) and studied their function in hESC culture. While human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) feeder cells were clearly hESC supportive, none of the established xeno-free human dermal fibroblast (hDF) feeder cells were able to maintain undifferentiated hESC growth. The two fibroblast types were compared for their ECM protein synthesis, integrin receptor expression profiles and key growth factor secretion. We show that hESC supportive feeder cells produce laminin-511 and express laminin-binding integrins α3ß1, α6ß1 and α7ß1. These results indicate specific laminin isoforms and integrins in maintenance of hESC pluripotency in feeder-dependent cultures. In addition, several genes with a known or possible role for hESC pluripotency were differentially expressed in distinct feeder cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laminins 411 and 421 differentially promote tumor cell migration via α6β1 integrin and MCAM (CD146).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Taichi; Wondimu, Zenebech; Oikawa, Yuko; Gentilcore, Giusy; Kiessling, Rolf; Egyhazi Brage, Suzanne; Hansson, Johan; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    α4-laminins, such as laminins 411 and 421, are mesenchymal laminins expressed by blood and lymphatic vessels and some tumor cells. Laminin-411 promotes migration of leukocytes and endothelial cells, but the effect of this laminin and laminin-421 on tumor cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that laminin-411 and, to a greater extent, laminin-421 significantly promote migration of tumor cells originated from melanomas, gliomas and different carcinomas via α6β1 integrin. In solid-phase binding assays, both laminins similarly bound α6β1 integrin but only laminin-421, among several laminin isoforms, readily bound MCAM (CD146), a cell-surface adhesion molecule strongly associated with tumor progression. Accordingly, a function-blocking mAb to MCAM inhibited tumor cell migration on laminin-421 but not on laminins 411 or 521. In tumor tissues, melanoma cells co-expressed MCAM, laminin α4, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, and integrin α6 and β1 chains. The present data highlight the novel role of α4-laminins in tumor cell migration and identify laminin-421 as a primary ligand for MCAM and a putative mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis.

  9. Complex interactions between the laminin 4 subunit and integrins regulate endothelial cell behavior in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Annette M.; Gonzales, Meredith; Herron, G. Scott; Nagavarapu, Usha; Hopkinson, Susan B.; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Jones, Jonathan C. R.

    2002-12-01

    The 4 laminin subunit is a component of the basement membrane of blood vessels where it codistributes with the integrins v3, 31, and 61. An antibody against the G domain (residues 919-1207; G919-1207) of the 4 laminin subunit inhibits angiogenesis in a mouse-human chimeric model, indicating the functional importance of this domain. Additional support for the latter derives from the ability of recombinant G919-1207 to support endothelial cell adhesion. In particular, endothelial cell adhesion to G919-1207 is half-maximal at 1.4 nM, whereas residues 919-1018 and 1016-1207 of the G domain are poor cellular ligands. Function blocking antibodies against integrins v3 and 1 and a combination of antibodies against 3 and α6 integrin subunits inhibit endothelial cell attachment to G919-1207. Moreover, both αvβ3 and α3β1 integrin bind with high affinity to G919-1207. Together, our studies demonstrate that the G domain of laminin α4 chain is a specific, high affinity ligand for the αvβ3 and α3β1 integrin heterodimers and that these integrins, together with α6β1, function cooperatively to mediate endothelial cell-α4 laminin interaction and hence blood vessel development. We propose a model based on these data that reconcile apparent discrepancies in the recent literature with regard to the role of the αvβ3 integrin in angiogenesis. matrix | matrix receptor | blood vessels

  10. Localization of a tumor cell adhesion domain of laminin by a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Skubitz, A.P.N.; Charonis, A.S.; Tsilibary, E.C.; Furcht, L.T. )

    1987-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to localize the domain(s) of laminin to which tumor cells adhere. Rat Y3-Ag 1.2.3 myeloma cells were fused with spleen cells from a rat immunized with a purified 440-kDa fragment of chymotrypsin-digested laminin. Three monoclonal antibodies (AL-1 to AL-3) that bound to intact laminin in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay were chosen for further analysis. The epitopes recognized by these antibodies were characterized by radioimmunoassays, immunoblotting, radioimmunoprecipitation, and immunoaffinity chromatography. In cell adhesion assays, monoclonal antibody AL-2 inhibited the highly metastatic melanoma cell line, K-1735-M4, to both intact laminin and the 440-kDa fragment of laminin. Electron microscopic examination of laminin-monoclonal antibody interactions showed that monoclonal antibody AL-2 reacted with the long arm of laminin directly below the cross-region. Two monoclonal antibodies that failed to inhibit tumor cell adhesion to laminin reacted with epitopes on the lateral short arms or cross-region of laminin as seen by electron microscopy. These results suggest that a new tumor cell binding domain of laminin may be located close to the cross-region on the long arm of laminin.

  11. Endothelial cell laminin isoforms, laminins 8 and 10, play decisive roles in T cell recruitment across the blood-brain barrier in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sixt, M; Engelhardt, B; Pausch, F; Hallmann, R; Wendler, O; Sorokin, L M

    2001-05-28

    An active involvement of blood-brain barrier endothelial cell basement membranes in development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been considered to date. Here we investigated the molecular composition and possible function of the extracellular matrix encountered by extravasating T lymphocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Endothelial basement membranes contained laminin 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and/or 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) and their expression was influenced by proinflammatory cytokines or angiostatic agents. T cells emigrating into the CNS during EAE encountered two biochemically distinct basement membranes, the endothelial (containing laminins 8 and 10) and the parenchymal (containing laminins 1 and 2) basement membranes. However, inflammatory cuffs occurred exclusively around endothelial basement membranes containing laminin 8, whereas in the presence of laminin 10 no infiltration was detectable. In vitro assays using encephalitogenic T cell lines revealed adhesion to laminins 8 and 10, whereas binding to laminins 1 and 2 could not be induced. Downregulation of integrin alpha6 on cerebral endothelium at sites of T cell infiltration, plus a high turnover of laminin 8 at these sites, suggested two possible roles for laminin 8 in the endothelial basement membrane: one at the level of the endothelial cells resulting in reduced adhesion and, thereby, increased penetrability of the monolayer; and secondly at the level of the T cells providing direct signals to the transmigrating cells.

  12. A novel disulfide pattern in laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LE) modules of laminin β1 and γ1 chains.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, Stefan; Witte, Konstanze; Ihling, Christian H; Müller, Mathias Q; Keller, Manuel V; Haehn, Sebastian; Smyth, Neil; Paulsson, Mats; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-09-28

    In-depth mass spectrometric analysis of disulfide bond patterns in recombinant mouse laminin β1 and γ1 chain N-terminal fragments comprising the laminin N-terminal (LN) domain and the first four laminin epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains revealed a novel disulfide pattern for LE domains. This showed a (2-3, 4-5, 6-7, 8-1) connectivity with the last cysteine of one LE domain being connected to the first cysteine of the following LE domain. The same pattern was also found in E4, the N-terminal β1 chain fragment derived by elastase digestion of mouse EHS tumor laminin-111, showing that this pattern occurs in native laminin. The strictly linear pattern with an interdomain disulfide has not been described previously for EGF domains. The N-terminal portions of laminin short arms, consisting of the LN domain and LE domains 1-4, are essential for laminin-laminin self-interactions, whereas the internal LE domains 7-9 in the laminin γ1 chain harbor the nidogen binding site and have a conventional disulfide pattern. This suggests that LE domains differing in function also differ in their disulfide patterns.

  13. Bifunctional peptides derived from homologous loop regions in the laminin alpha chain LG4 modules interact with both alpha 2 beta 1 integrin and syndecan-2.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Kadoya, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Nakatsuka, Hiroko; Nishi, Norio; Haruki, Masahiro; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2005-07-19

    Laminin alpha chains show diverse biological functions in a chain-specific fashion. The laminin G-like modules (LG modules) of the laminin alpha chains consist of a 14-stranded beta-sheet sandwich structure with biologically active sequences found in the connecting loops. Previously, we reported that connecting loop regions between beta-strands E and F in the mouse laminin alpha chain LG4 modules exhibited chain-specific activities. In this study, we focus on the homologous loop regions in human laminin alpha chain LG4 modules using five synthetic peptides (hEF-1-hEF-5). These homologous peptides induced chain-specific cellular responses in various cell types. Next, to examine the dual-receptor recognition model, we synthesized chimeras (cEF13A-cEF13E) derived from peptides hEF-1 and hEF-3. All of the chimeric peptides promoted fibroblast attachment as well as the parental peptides. Attachment of fibroblasts to cEF13A and cEF13B was inhibited by anti-integrin alpha2 and beta1 antibodies and by heparin, while cell adhesion to cEF13C, cEF13D, and cEF13E was blocked only by heparin. Actin organization of fibroblasts on cEF13C was not different from that on hEF-3, but cEF13B induced membrane ruffling at the tips of the actin stress fibers. These results suggest that cEF13B had bifunctional effects on cellular behaviors through alpha2beta1 integrin and heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan. We conclude that the approach utilizing chimeric peptides is useful for examining cellular mechanisms in dual-receptor systems.

  14. Immunolocalisation of laminin-1 in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Silva Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Gonçalves Ramos, Eduardo Antônio; Araújo Melo, Leonardo; Brandi Schlaepfer, Caroline; de Souza, Renata Oliveira; Campos Oliveira, Márcio; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2010-11-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) are distinct odontogenic lesions frequently affecting the jawbones. They may be associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), and may exhibit disorders involving the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalisation of laminin-1 in 20 cases of KOTs in order to contribute to the characterization of this protein, which is little studied in odontogenic tumors. Our results showed laminin-1 in all 20 KOTs studied; its labelling intensity was weak in three cases (15%), moderate in five (25%) and strong in 12 cases (60%). Laminin-1 immunolocalisation was predominantly continuous in 18 (90%) KOTs, including areas of acanthosis, subepithelial split and epithelial buds. Weak immunolabelling was observed in regions exhibiting an inflammatory process, especially in the case of intense inflammation. These findings suggest that laminin-1 does not participate in biological processes such as cystic epithelium-cystic wall separation or the formation of epithelial islands in KOTs. Furthermore, the discontinuous and weak labelling of this protein in the basement membrane of these tumors is probably a consequence of the inflammatory process in the tumor stroma.

  15. Injectable laminin-functionalized hydrogel for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Aubrey T; Mancino, Robert J; Bowles, Robby D; Brunger, Jonathan M; Tainter, David M; Chen, Yi-Te; Richardson, William J; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A

    2013-10-01

    Cell delivery to the pathological intervertebral disc (IVD) has significant therapeutic potential for enhancing IVD regeneration. The development of injectable biomaterials that retain delivered cells, promote cell survival, and maintain or promote an NP cell phenotype in vivo remains a significant challenge. Previous studies have demonstrated NP cell - laminin interactions in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region of the IVD that promote cell attachment and biosynthesis. These findings suggest that incorporating laminin ligands into carriers for cell delivery may be beneficial for promoting NP cell survival and phenotype. Here, an injectable, laminin-111 functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-LM111) hydrogel was developed as a biomaterial carrier for cell delivery to the IVD. We evaluated the mechanical properties of the PEG-LM111 hydrogel, and its ability to retain delivered cells in the IVD space. Gelation occurred in approximately 20 min without an initiator, with dynamic shear moduli in the range of 0.9-1.4 kPa. Primary NP cell retention in cultured IVD explants was significantly higher over 14 days when cells were delivered within a PEG-LM111 carrier, as compared to cells in liquid suspension. Together, these results suggest this injectable laminin-functionalized biomaterial may be an easy to use carrier for delivering cells to the IVD.

  16. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers regenerate acute muscle defect.

    PubMed

    Eren Cimenci, Cagla; Uzunalli, Gozde; Uysal, Ozge; Yergoz, Fatih; Karaca Umay, Ebru; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-09-15

    Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration of acute muscle injury in a rat model. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers significantly promoted satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle and accelerated myofibrillar regeneration following acute muscle injury. In addition, the LM/E-PA scaffold treatment significantly reduced the time required for the structural and functional repair of skeletal muscle. This study represents one of the first examples of molecular- and tissue-level regeneration of skeletal muscle facilitated by bioactive peptide nanofibers following acute muscle injury. Sports, heavy lifting and other strength-intensive tasks are ubiquitous in modern life and likely to cause acute skeletal muscle injury. Speeding up regeneration of skeletal muscle injuries would not only shorten the duration of recovery for the patient, but also support the general health and functionality of the repaired muscle tissue. In this work, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic nanosystem to enhance muscle regeneration. We tested its activity in a rat tibialis anterior muscle by injecting the bioactive nanosystem. The evaluation of the regeneration and differentiation capacity of skeletal muscle suggested that the laminin

  17. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  18. Single-cell force spectroscopy as a technique to quantify human red blood cell adhesion to subendothelial laminin.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Partola, Kostyantyn; Zhang, Jing; Andemariam, Biree; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-12-18

    Single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assay, enables quantitative study of cell adhesion while maintaining the native state of surface receptors in physiological conditions. Human healthy and pathological red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface proteins which mediate cell-cell interactions, or cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In particular, RBCs adhere with high affinity to subendothelial matrix laminin via the basal cell adhesion molecule and Lutheran protein (BCAM/Lu). Here, we established SCFS as an in vitro technique to study human RBC adhesion at baseline and following biochemical treatment. Using blood obtained from healthy human subjects, we recorded adhesion forces from single RBCs attached to AFM cantilevers as the cell was pulled-off of substrates coated with laminin protein. We found that an increase in the overall cell adhesion measured via SCFS is correlated with an increase in the resultant total force measured on 1 µm(2) areas of the RBC membrane. Further, we showed that SCFS can detect significant changes in the adhesive response of RBCs to modulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Lastly, we identified variability in the RBC adhesion force to laminin amongst the human subjects, suggesting that RBCs maintain diverse levels of active BCAM/Lu adhesion receptors. By using single-cell measurements, we established a powerful new method for the quantitative measurement of single RBC adhesion with specific receptor-mediated binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlates with poor prognosis and promotes invasion in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Feng; Jiang, Peng; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Fei; Li, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of laminin γ2 and its correlation with prognosis in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Laminin γ2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 72 extrahepatic CCA patients after surgical resection. Knockdown of laminin γ2 was achieved via small interfering RNA transfection in the extrahepatic CCA cell line QBC939. Thirty-six of 72 extrahepatic CCAs (50%) stained positive for laminin γ2 in two types of patterns: stromal staining (28/72, 39%) and cytoplasmic staining (24/72, 33%). All 16 paracancerous tissue samples showed negative staining. Both stromal and cytoplasmic laminin γ2 expressions correlated with lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlated with poor overall survival and early recurrence. Cox regression analysis further demonstrated that laminin γ2 expression was a significant independent predictor of poor overall survival and early recurrence. Immunofluorescence staining revealed cytoplasmic expression of laminin γ2 in QBC939 cells. Knockdown of laminin γ2 significantly reduced QBC939 cell invasion and migration. Aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlates with poor prognosis and promotes invasion in extrahepatic CCA. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compositional and structural requirements for laminin and basement membranes during mouse embryo implantation and gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey H; Li, Cong; Mudd, Jacqueline L; Go, Gloriosa; Sutherland, Ann E

    2004-05-01

    Laminins are components of all basement membranes and have well demonstrated roles in diverse developmental processes, from the peri-implantation period onwards. Laminin 1 (alpha1beta1gamma1) is a major laminin found at early stages of embryogenesis in both embryonic and extraembryonic basement membranes. The laminin gamma1 chain has been shown by targeted mutation to be required for endodermal differentiation and formation of basement membranes; Lamc1(-/-) embryos die within a day of implantation. We report the generation of mice lacking laminin alpha1 and laminin beta1, the remaining two laminin 1 chains. Mutagenic insertions in both Lama1 and Lamb1 were obtained in a secretory gene trap screen. Lamb1(-/-) embryos are similar to Lamc1(-/-) embryos in that they lack basement membranes and do not survive beyond embryonic day (E) 5.5. However, in Lama1(-/-) embryos, the embryonic basement membrane forms, the embryonic ectoderm cavitates and the parietal endoderm differentiates, apparently because laminin 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) partially compensates for the absent laminin 1. However, such compensation did not occur for Reichert's membrane, which was absent, and the embryos died by E7. Overexpression of laminin alpha5 from a transgene improved the phenotype of Lama1(-/-) embryos to the point that they initiated gastrulation, but this overexpression did not rescue Reichert's membrane, and trophoblast cells did not form blood sinuses. These data suggest that both the molecular composition and the integrity of basement membranes are crucial for early developmental events.

  1. Laminin-database v.2.0: an update on laminins in health and neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Golbert, Daiane C F; Santana-van-Vliet, Eliane; Mundstein, Alex S; Calfo, Vicente; Savino, Wilson; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R

    2014-01-01

    The laminin (LM)-database, hosted at http://www.lm.lncc.br, was published in the NAR database 2011 edition. It was the first database that provided comprehensive information concerning a non-collagenous family of extracellular matrix proteins, the LMs. In its first version, this database contained a large amount of information concerning LMs related to health and disease, with particular emphasis on the haemopoietic system. Users can easily access several tabs for LMs and LM-related molecules, as well as LM nomenclatures and direct links to PubMed. The LM-database version 2.0 integrates data from several publications to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge of LMs in health and disease. The novel features include the addition of two new tabs, 'Neuromuscular Disorders' and 'miRNA--LM Relationship'. More specifically, in this updated version, an expanding set of data has been displayed concerning the role of LMs in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the putative involvement of microRNAs. Given the importance of LMs in several biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell death, this upgraded version expands for users a panoply of information, regarding complex molecular circuitries that involve LMs in health and disease, including neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and an antigen I/II-deficient mutant to laminin films.

    PubMed

    Busscher, Henk J; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Norde, Willem; Petersen, Fernanda C; Scheie, Anne A; van der Mei, Henny C

    2007-04-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant IB03987 was nearly unable to adhere to laminin films under flow conditions due to a lack of specific interactions (0.8 x 10(6) and 1.1 x 10(6) cells cm(-2) at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) compared with parent strain LT11 (21.8 x 10(6) and 26.1 x 10(6) cells cm(-2)). The adhesion of both the parent and mutant strains was slightly greater at pH 6.8 than at pH 5.8. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrated that the parent strain experienced less repulsion when it approached a laminin film than the mutant experienced. Upon retraction, combined specific and nonspecific adhesion forces were stronger for the parent strain (up to -5.0 and -4.9 nN at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) than for the mutant (up to -1.5 and -2.1 nN), which was able to interact only through nonspecific interactions. Enthalpy was released upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of the parent strain but not upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of IB03987. A comparison of the adhesion forces in AFM with the adhesion forces reported for specific ligand-receptor complexes resulted in the conclusion that the number of antigen I/II binding sites for laminin on S. mutans LT11 is on the order of 6 x 10(4) sites per organism and that the sites are probably arranged along exterior surface structures, as visualized here by immunoelectron microscopy.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a laminin-binding protein (AhLBP) from Acanthamoeba healyi.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeon-Chul; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Jeong, Hae-Jin; Chung, Dong-Il

    2004-01-01

    Adherence of Acanthamoeba to host tissue is believed to be crucial in the establishment of amoebic keratitis or GAE. We have isolated a cDNA from a GAE-causing gymnoamoeba, Acanthamoeba healyi, encoding a protein that binds laminin by screening with a peptide G-specific DNA probe. The cDNA clone (AhLBP) was identified on the basis of sequence homology to the nonintegrin mammalian metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). The predicted amino acid sequence is 256 residues long with a calculated molecular mass of 28.2kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.48. Southern and Northern blot analyses suggested the gene as a single copy in A. healyi genome and expressed as a single transcript of approximately 1.0kb. Virulent strains of Acanthamoeba revealed higher level of the AhLBP mRNA expression than soil isolates. Specific binding of the purified recombinant protein to laminin was confirmed by sandwich Western blot. The polypeptide encoded by AhLBP shared substantial identity with the acidic class ribosomal proteins involved in protein synthesis. Therefore, the AhLBP may be multifunctional in A. healyi, acting as a laminin-binding molecule but also playing a role in cell division and growth. AhLBP-EGFP fusion protein expressed in A. healyi was localized mainly at the cell membrane and nucleus and at cytoplasm with lesser degree. N-terminal 64 amino acids were important for the localization at the cell membrane. This is the first description of a cDNA encoding a laminin-binding protein from protozoan parasites.

  4. Anchorage mediated by integrin alpha6beta4 to laminin 5 (epiligrin) regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of a membrane-associated 80-kD protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Detachment of basal keratinocytes from basement membrane signals a differentiation cascade. Two integrin receptors alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 mediate adhesion to laminin 5 (epiligrin), a major extracellular matrix protein in the basement membrane of epidermis. By establishing a low temperature adhesion system at 4 degrees C, we were able to examine the exclusive role of alpha6beta4 in adhesion of human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) and the colon carcinoma cell LS123. We identified a novel 80-kD membrane-associated protein (p80) that is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to dissociation of alpha6beta4 from laminin 5. The specificity of p80 phosphorylation for laminin 5 and alpha6beta4 was illustrated by the lack of regulation of p80 phosphorylation on collagen, fibronectin, or poly-L-lysine surfaces. We showed that blocking of alpha3beta1 function using inhibitory mAbs, low temperature, or cytochalasin D diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase but not p80 phosphorylation. Therefore, under our assay conditions, p80 phosphorylation is regulated by alpha6beta4, while motility via alpha3beta1 causes phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Consistent with a linkage between p80 dephosphorylation and alpha6beta4 anchorage to laminin 5, we found that phosphatase inhibitor sodium vanadate, which blocked the p80 dephosphorylation, prevented the alpha6beta4-dependent cell anchorage to laminin 5 at 4degreesC. In contrast, adhesion at 37 degrees C via alpha3beta1 was unaffected. Furthermore, by in vitro kinase assay, we identified a kinase activity for p80 phosphorylation in suspended HFKs but not in attached cells. The kinase activity, alpha6beta4, and its associated adhesion structure stable anchoring contacts were all cofractionated in the Triton- insoluble cell fraction that lacks alpha3beta1. Thus, regulation of p80 phosphorylation, through the activities of p80 kinase and phosphatase, correlates with alpha6beta4-SAC anchorage to laminin 5 at 4

  5. Megakaryocytic cells synthesize and platelets secrete alpha5-laminins, and the endothelial laminin isoform laminin 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) strongly promotes adhesion but not activation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Nigatu, Ayele; Sime, Wondossen; Gorfu, Gezahegn; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Andurén, Ingegerd; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Doi, Masayuki; Tryggvason, Karl; Hjemdahl, Paul; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Following vascular injury, basement membrane (BM) components of the blood vessels are exposed to circulating cells and may contribute to hemostasis and/or thrombosis. Laminins 8 (LN-8) (alpha4beta1gamma1) and 10 (LN-10) (alpha5beta1gamma1) are major laminin isoforms of the endothelial BM, and LN-8 is also secreted by activated platelets. In the present study, we demonstrate synthesis of alpha5-laminins LN-10 and LN-11 (alpha5beta2gamma1) by megakaryocytic cells, and intracellular expression of these laminin isoforms in blood platelets. In contrast to platelet LN alpha4 chain that had an apparent molecular weight of 180 kDa and associated mostly to LNbeta1 chain, platelet LNalpha5 consisted of 300/350 kDa polypeptides and associated mainly to LNbeta2. Both alpha4- and alpha5-laminins were secreted by platelets following stimulation. When compared to recombinant human (rh) LN-8, rhLN-10 was much more adhesive to platelets, though adhesion to both proteins was largely mediated via alpha6beta1 integrin. In spite of their adhesive properties, rhLN-8 and rhLN-10 induced neither P-selectin expression nor cell aggregation, two signs of platelet activation. This study demonstrates synthesis/expression of heterotrimeric alpha5-laminins in hematopoietic/blood cells, and provides evidence for the adhesive, but not activating, role of endothelial laminin isoforms in platelet biology.

  6. Characterization of dp6troglycan-laminin interaction in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Chiba, A; Endo, T; Kobata, A; Anderson, L V; Hori, H; Fukuta-Ohi, H; Kanazawa, I; Campbell, K P; Shimizu, T; Matsumura, K

    1996-04-01

    Dystoroglycan is encoded by a single gene and cleaved into two proteins, alpha and beta-dystroglycan, by posttranslational processing. The 120kDa peripheral nerve isoform of alpha-dystroglycan binds laminin-2 comprised of the alpha 2, beta 1, and gamma 1 chains. In congenital muscular dystrophy and dy mice deficient in laminin alpha 2 chain, peripheral myelination is disturbed, suggesting a role for the dystroglycan- laminin interaction in peripheral myelinogenesis. To begin to test this hypothesis, we have characterized the dystroglycan-laminin interaction in peripheral nerve. We demonstrate that (1) alpha-dystroglycan is an extracellular peripheral membrane glycoprotein that links beta-dystroglycan in the Schwann cell outer membrane with laminin-2 in the endoneurial basal lamina, and (2) dystrophin homologues Dp116 and utrophin are cytoskeletal proteins of the Schwann cell cytoplasm. We also present data that suggest a role for glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan in the interaction with laminin.

  7. Stimulated endothelial cell adhesion and angiogenesis with laminin-5 modification of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Kameha R; Dal Ponte, Donny; Stone, Alice L; Hoying, James B; Nagle, Raymond B; Williams, Stuart K

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical implants often exhibit poor clinical performance due to the formation of a periimplant avascular fibrous capsule. Surface modification of synthetic materials has been evaluated to accelerate the formation of functional microcirculation in association with implants. The current study used a flow-mediated protein deposition system to modify expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) with a laminin-5-rich conditioned growth medium and with medium from which laminin-5 had been selectively removed. An in vitro model of endothelial cell adherence determined that laminin-5 modification resulted in significantly increased adhesion of human microvessel endothelial cells to ePTFE. In vivo studies evaluating the periimplant vascular response to laminin-5-treated samples indicated that absorption of laminin-5-rich conditioned medium supported accelerated neovascularization of ePTFE implants. A flow system designed to treat porous implant materials facilitates laminin-5 modification of commercially available ePTFE, resulting in increased endothelial cell adhesion in vitro and increased vascularization in vivo.

  8. Scaffold-forming and Adhesive Contributions of Synthetic Laminin-binding Proteins to Basement Membrane Assembly.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Capizzi, Stephanie; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2009-03-27

    Laminins that possess three short arms contribute to basement membrane assembly by anchoring to cell surfaces, polymerizing, and binding to nidogen and collagen IV. Although laminins containing the alpha4 and alpha5 subunits are expressed in alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, they may be ineffective substitutes because they bind weakly to cell surfaces and/or because they lack the third arm needed for polymerization. We asked whether linker proteins engineered to bind to deficient laminins that provide such missing activities would promote basement membrane assembly in a Schwann cell model. A chimeric fusion protein (alphaLNNd) that adds a short arm terminus to laminin through the nidogen binding locus was generated and compared with the dystrophy-ameliorating protein miniagrin (mAgrin) that binds to the laminin coiled-coil dystroglycan and sulfatides. alphaLNNd was found to mediate laminin binding to collagen IV, to bind to galactosyl sulfatide, and to selectively convert alpha-short arm deletion-mutant laminins LmDeltaalphaLN and LmDeltaalphaLN-L4b into polymerizing laminins. This protein enabled polymerization-deficient laminin but not an adhesion-deficient laminin lacking LG domains (LmDeltaLG) to assemble an extracellular matrix on Schwann cell surfaces. mAgrin, on the other hand, enabled LmDeltaLG to form an extracellular matrix on cell surfaces without increasing accumulation of non-polymerizing laminins. These gain-of-function studies reveal distinct polymerization and anchorage contributions to basement membrane assembly in which the three different LN domains mediate the former, and the LG domains provide primary anchorage with secondary contributions from the alphaLN domain. These findings may be relevant for an understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of laminin deficiency states.

  9. Biological activities of the homologous loop regions in the laminin α chain LG modules.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Yuji; Urushibata, Shunsuke; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-06-10

    Each laminin α chain (α1-α5 chains) has chain-specific diverse biological functions. The C-terminal globular domain of the α chain consists of five laminin-like globular (LG1-5) modules and plays a critical role in biological activities. The LG modules consist of a 14-stranded β-sheet (A-N) sandwich structure. Previously, we described the chain-specific biological activities of the loop regions between the E and F strands in the LG4 modules using five homologous peptides (G4EF1-G4EF5). Here, we further analyze the biological activities of the E-F strands loop regions in the rest of LG modules. We designed 20 homologous peptides (approximately 20 amino acid length), and 17 soluble peptides were used for the cell attachment assay. Thirteen peptides promoted cell attachment activity with different cell morphologies. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, G2EF1, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by heparin, and peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, and G2EF1 specifically bound to syndecan-overexpressing cells. Cell attachment to peptides G2EF3, G3EF1, G3EF3, G5EF1, G5EF3, and G5EF5 was inhibited EDTA. Further, cell attachment to peptides G3EF3, G5EF1, and G5EF5 was inhibited by both anti-integrin α2 and β1 antibodies, whereas cell attachment to peptide G5EF3 was inhibited by only anti-integrin β1 antibody. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF4, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by both heparin and EDTA and was not inhibited by anti-integrin antibodies. The active peptide sequence alignments suggest that the syndecan-binding peptides contain a "basic amino acid (BAA)-Gly-BAA" motif in the middle of the molecule and that the integrin-binding peptides contain an "acidic amino acid (AAA)"-Gly-BAA motif. Core-switched peptide analyses suggested that the "BAA-Gly-BAA" motif is critical for binding to syndecans and that the "AAA-Gly-BAA" motif has potential to recognize integrins. These findings are useful for understanding chain-specific biological activities of laminins and to evaluate

  10. Changes in Laminin Expression Pattern during Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pook, Martin; Teino, Indrek; Kallas, Ade; Maimets, Toivo; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Jaks, Viljar

    2015-01-01

    Laminin isoforms laminin-511 and -521 are expressed by human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and can be used as a growth matrix to culture these cells under pluripotent conditions. However, the expression of these laminins during the induction of hESC differentiation has not been studied in detail. Furthermore, the data regarding the expression pattern of laminin chains in differentiating hESC is scarce. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap and investigated the potential changes in laminin expression during early hESC differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). We found that laminin-511 but not -521 accumulates in the committed cells during early steps of hESC differentiation. We also performed a comprehensive analysis of the laminin chain repertoire and found that pluripotent hESC express a more diverse range of laminin chains than shown previously. In particular, we provide the evidence that in addition to α1, α5, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, hESC express α2, α3, β3, γ2 and γ3 chain proteins and mRNA. Additionally, we found that a variant of laminin α3 chain-145 kDa-accumulated in RA-treated hESC showing that these cells produce prevalently specifically modified version of α3 chain in early phase of differentiation.

  11. Changes in Laminin Expression Pattern during Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pook, Martin; Teino, Indrek; Kallas, Ade; Maimets, Toivo; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Jaks, Viljar

    2015-01-01

    Laminin isoforms laminin-511 and -521 are expressed by human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and can be used as a growth matrix to culture these cells under pluripotent conditions. However, the expression of these laminins during the induction of hESC differentiation has not been studied in detail. Furthermore, the data regarding the expression pattern of laminin chains in differentiating hESC is scarce. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap and investigated the potential changes in laminin expression during early hESC differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). We found that laminin-511 but not -521 accumulates in the committed cells during early steps of hESC differentiation. We also performed a comprehensive analysis of the laminin chain repertoire and found that pluripotent hESC express a more diverse range of laminin chains than shown previously. In particular, we provide the evidence that in addition to α1, α5, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, hESC express α2, α3, β3, γ2 and γ3 chain proteins and mRNA. Additionally, we found that a variant of laminin α3 chain—145 kDa—accumulated in RA-treated hESC showing that these cells produce prevalently specifically modified version of α3 chain in early phase of differentiation. PMID:26378917

  12. Spatial and temporal control of laminin-332 and -511 expressions during hair morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tateishi, Chiharu; Sugawara, Koji; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Kishi, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Hair is one of the smallest organs, but has many important functions to mammals. Hair morphogenesis occurs through the reciprocal exchange of epithelial and mesenchymal signals. There are some reports about the expression of laminin-511 and -332 during hair morphogenesis, but are no reports of the chronological expression and function of laminin-511 and its counter regulator laminin-332 during hair morphogenesis. Our results of immunoblotting revealed that laminin-332 proteins were detected at stage 0 and downregulated during stage 1 to stage 2, and then recovered at stage 3. However, laminin α5 expression was constant throughout stages 0-3. According to the results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the mRNA expression of all laminin-332 subunits increased gradually from stage 0 to stage 2, while the mRNA expression of all laminin-511 subunits remained constant from stage 0 to stage 3. Our results suggest that the proper expression of laminin-332 and laminin-511 may regulate appropriate hair morphogenesis.

  13. The requirement of the glutamic acid residue at the third position from the carboxyl termini of the laminin gamma chains in integrin binding by laminins.

    PubMed

    Ido, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Aya; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ito, Shunsuke; Li, Shaoliang; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2007-04-13

    Laminins are the major cell-adhesive proteins in the basement membrane, consisting of three subunits termed alpha, beta, and gamma. The putative binding site for integrins has been mapped to the G domain of the alpha chain, although trimerization with beta and gamma chains is necessary for the G domain to exert its integrin binding activity. The mechanism underlying the requirement of beta and gamma chains in integrin binding by laminins remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of the gamma chain is involved in modulation of the integrin binding activity of laminins. We found that deletion of the C-terminal three but not two amino acids within the gamma1 chain completely abrogated the integrin binding activity of laminin-511. Furthermore, substitution of Gln for Glu-1607, the amino acid residue at the third position from the C terminus of the gamma1 chain, also abolished the integrin binding activity, underscoring the role of Glu-1607 in integrin binding by the laminin. We also found that the conserved Glu residue of the gamma2 chain is necessary for integrin binding by laminin-332, suggesting that the same mechanism operates in the modulation of the integrin binding activity of laminins containing either gamma1 or gamma2 chains. However, the peptide segment modeled after the C-terminal region of gamma1 chain was incapable of either binding to integrin or inhibiting integrin binding by laminin-511, making it unlikely that the Glu residue is directly recognized by integrin. These results, together, indicate a novel mechanism operating in ligand recognition by laminin binding integrins.

  14. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina.

  15. Molecular analysis of laminin N-terminal domains mediating self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Odenthal, Uwe; Haehn, Sebastian; Tunggal, Patrick; Merkl, Barbara; Schomburg, Dietmar; Frie, Christian; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil

    2004-10-22

    The ability of laminins to self-polymerize is crucial for the formation of basement membranes. Development of this polymerized network has profound effects upon tissue architecture as well as on the intracellular organization and differentiation of neighboring cells. The laminin N-terminal (LN) domains have been shown to mediate this interaction and studies using proteolytic fragments derived from laminin-1 led to the theory that network assembly depends on the formation of a heterotrimeric complex between LN domains derived from alpha, beta, and gamma chains in different laminin molecules with homologous interactions being insignificant. The laminin family consists of 15 known isoforms formed from five alpha, three beta, and three gamma chains, of which some are truncated and lack the N-terminal LN domain. To address whether the model of heterotrimeric complex formation is applicable to laminin isoforms other than laminin-1, eight LN domains found in the laminin protein family were recombinantly expressed and tested in three different assays for homologous and heterologous interactions. The results showed that the lack of homologous interactions is an exception, with such interactions being seen for LN domains derived from all alpha chains and from the beta2 and beta3 subunits. The gamma chain-derived LN domains showed a far more limited binding repertoire, particularly in the case of the gamma3 chain, which is found present in a range of non-basement membrane locations. Further, whereas the interactions depended upon Ca2+ ions, with EDTA reversibly abrogating binding, EDTA-induced conformational changes were not reversible. Together these results demonstrate that the assembly model proposed on the basis of laminin-1 may be a simplification, with the assembly of naturally occurring laminin networks being far more complex and highly dependent upon which laminin isoforms are present.

  16. Laminin-5 Degradation Due to Mustard in Cultured Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    attachment, because mutations in the genes encoding the laminin-5 chains underlie the severe blistering phenotype of Herlitz’ junctional epidermolysis ... bullosa (5). In this study, we investigated how laminin-5 may be involved in mustard induced blister formation by using low (multiple 1 µM and 5 µM

  17. Laminin: a possible role as a mediator of natural cell-mediated functions

    SciTech Connect

    Laybourn, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Cell-mediated cytotoxicity is clearly important in regulating host response during tumorgenicity. Natural killer (NK), and Natural Cytotoxic (NC) lymphocytes responsible for mediating cytolysis, are subpopulations of non-B, non-T, nonphagocytic, nonadherent lymphocytes capable of spontaneously lysing a variety of tumor targets. Evidence is presented that laminin, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, is present on the surface of murine NK cells. In addition, NK sensitive tumor targets are able to bind laminin. This suggest that laminin participates as a ligand in the binding of NK cells to their tumor targets. The saturable binding of laminin by NK and NC sensitive tumor targets was shown by laminin-induced cell-cell aggregation/adherence, and /sup 125/I-laminin binding studies. Exogenous laminin inhibited NK cytotoxicity but not CTL cytotoxicity in vitro. In comparison, NK-resistant tumor cells bound little, if any exogenous laminin. Modulating NK activity in vivo prior to challenging mice with an inoculation of a murine fibrosarcoma, showed that elimination or activation of NK activity resulted in an increase or decrease in pulmonary metastases, respectively.

  18. Lung-specific loss of the laminin α3 subunit confers resistance to mechanical injury.

    PubMed

    Urich, Daniela; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Takawira, Desire; Chiarella, Sergio E; Soberanes, Saul; Gonzalez, Angel; Koentgen, Frank; Manghi, Tomas; Hopkinson, Susan B; Misharin, Alexander V; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Budinger, G R Scott; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2011-09-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix that are secreted by epithelial cells and which are crucial for the normal structure and function of the basement membrane. We have generated a mouse harboring a conditional knockout of α3 laminin (Lama3(fl/fl)), one of the main laminin subunits in the lung basement membrane. At 60 days after intratracheal treatment of adult Lama3(fl/fl) mice with an adenovirus encoding Cre recombinase (Ad-Cre), the protein abundance of α3 laminin in whole lung homogenates was more than 50% lower than that in control-treated mice, suggesting a relatively long half-life for the protein in the lung. Upon exposure to an injurious ventilation strategy (tidal volume of 35 ml per kg of body weight for 2 hours), the mice with a knockdown of the α3 laminin subunit had less severe injury, as shown by lung mechanics, histology, alveolar capillary permeability and survival when compared with Ad-Null-treated mice. Knockdown of the α3 laminin subunit resulted in evidence of lung inflammation. However, this did not account for their resistance to mechanical ventilation. Rather, the loss of α3 laminin was associated with a significant increase in the collagen content of the lungs. We conclude that the loss of α3 laminin in the alveolar epithelium results in an increase in lung collagen, which confers resistance to mechanical injury.

  19. Laminin-111 Peptides Conjugated to Fibrin Hydrogels Promote Formation of Lumen Containing Parotid Gland Cell Clusters.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Jones, Joshua P; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T; Baker, Olga J

    2016-06-13

    Previous studies showed that mouse submandibular gland cells form three-dimensional structures when grown on Laminin-111 gels. The use of Laminin-111 for tissue bioengineering is complicated due to its lack of purity. By contrast, the use of synthetic peptides derived from Laminin-111 is beneficial due to their high purity and easy manipulation. Two Laminin-111 peptides have been identified for salivary cells: the A99 peptide corresponding to the α1 chain from Laminin-111 and the YIGSR peptide corresponding to the β1 chain from Laminin-111, which are important for cell adhesion and migration. We created three-dimensional salivary cell clusters using a modified fibrin hydrogel matrix containing immobilized Laminin-111 peptides. Results indicate that the YIGSR peptide improved morphology and lumen formation in rat parotid Par-C10 cells as compared to cells grown on unmodified fibrin hydrogel. Moreover, a combination of both peptides not only allowed the formation of functional three-dimensional salivary cell clusters but also increased attachment and number of cell clusters. In summary, we demonstrated that fibrin hydrogel decorated with Laminin-111 peptides supports attachment and differentiation of salivary gland cell clusters with mature lumens.

  20. The role of pericytic laminin in blood brain barrier integrity maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Jyoti; Zhang, Xuanming; Yao, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Laminin, a major component of the basement membrane, plays an important role in blood brain barrier regulation. At the neurovascular unit, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes synthesize and deposit different laminin isoforms into the basement membrane. It has been shown that laminin α4 (endothelial laminin) regulates vascular integrity at embryonic/neonatal stage, while astrocytic laminin maintains vascular integrity in adulthood. Here, we investigate the function of pericyte-derived laminin in vascular integrity. Using a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that loss of pericytic laminin leads to hydrocephalus and BBB breakdown in a small percentage (10.7%) of the mutants. Interestingly, BBB disruption always goes hand-in-hand with hydrocephalus in these mutants, and neither symptom is observed in the rest 89.3% of the mutants. Further mechanistic studies show that reduced tight junction proteins, diminished AQP4 expression, and decreased pericyte coverage are responsible for the BBB disruption. Together, these data suggest that pericyte-derived laminin is involved in the maintenance of BBB integrity and regulation of ventricular size/development. PMID:27808256

  1. Keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 protein promotes melanin synthesis via regulation of tyrosine uptake.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-08-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  3. Keratinocyte-derived Laminin-332 Protein Promotes Melanin Synthesis via Regulation of Tyrosine Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake. PMID:24951591

  4. Coupled expression and colocalization of 140K cell adhesion molecules, fibronectin, and laminin during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of chick lung cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression and distribution of fibronectin, laminin, and the 140K cell adhesion molecules (140K complex) in embryonic chick lung cells by a combination of biochemical and immunofluorescent approaches. The 140K complex was identified by monoclonal antibody JG22E as a complex of glycoproteins averaging 140,000 Mr and has been implicated in vitro as a receptor for fibronectin and laminin. Our studies provide the first description that the 140K complex is developmentally regulated, and that the 140K complex appears to be involved in adhesion of epithelial and endothelial cells during morphogenesis. We have shown that the 140K complex is expressed in high quantity in embryonic lung cell types, but is markedly reduced in all of the differentiated cell types except smooth muscle. Embryonic lung cells are enriched in 140K complex on portions of cells in close proximity to areas rich in fibronectin. For example, during the formation of airways and alveolar tissues, 140K complex is concentrated at the basal surfaces of epithelial cells adjacent to fibronectin. Likewise, during the angiogenic invasion of capillaries into lung mesenchyme, the 140K complex becomes localized at sites on the basal surfaces of endothelial cells in close contact with fibronectin. Finally, cytodifferentiating lung smooth muscle cells show unusually high levels of 140K complex, fibronectin, and laminin that persist into the adult. In contrast to fibronectin, laminin is found to be uniformly distributed in the basement membranes of differentiating epithelial cells. It becomes prominent in adult alveolar epithelium and airway epithelium concomitant with a reduction or loss of 140K complex and fibronectin at cell-basement membrane attachment sites. Surprisingly, laminin is also present in a punctate pattern in the mesenchyme of early lung buds, however, laminin, fibronectin, and 140K complex are greatly reduced or lost during mesenchymal maturation. Our results are consistent with

  5. Regional differences in the expression of laminin isoforms during mouse neural tube development

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Carvalho, Rita; Wallace, Adam; Sorokin, Lydia; Sasaki, Takako; Greene, Nicholas D.E.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Many significant human birth defects originate around the time of neural tube closure or early during post-closure nervous system development. For example, failure of the neural tube to close generates anencephaly and spina bifida, faulty cell cycle progression is implicated in primary microcephaly, while defective migration of neuroblasts can lead to neuronal migration disorders such as lissencephaly. At the stage of neural tube closure, basement membranes are becoming organised around the neuroepithelium, and beneath the adjacent non-neural surface ectoderm. While there is circumstantial evidence to implicate basement membrane dynamics in neural tube and surface ectodermal development, we have an incomplete understanding of the molecular composition of basement membranes at this stage. In the present study, we examined the developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo at mid-gestation (embryonic day 9.5), with particular reference to laminin composition. We performed in situ hybridization to detect the mRNAs of all eleven individual laminin chains, and immunohistochemistry to identify which laminin chains are present in the basement membranes. From this information, we inferred the likely laminin variants and their tissues of origin: that is, whether a given basement membrane laminin is contributed by epithelium, mesenchyme, or both. Our findings reveal major differences in basement composition along the body axis, with the rostral neural tube (at mandibular arch and heart levels) exhibiting many distinct laminin variants, while the lumbar level where the neural tube is just closing shows a much simpler laminin profile. Moreover, there appears to be a marked difference in the extent to which the mesenchyme contributes laminin variants to the basement membrane, with potential contribution of several laminins rostrally, but no contribution caudally. This information paves the way towards a mechanistic analysis of basement membrane laminin function during early

  6. Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

    PubMed Central

    Ghidinelli, Monica; Poitelon, Yannick; Shin, Yoon Kyoung; Ameroso, Dominique; Williamson, Courtney; Ferri, Cinzia; Pellegatta, Marta; Espino, Kevin; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly; Podini, Paola; Taveggia, Carla; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Park, Hwan Tae

    2017-01-01

    Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination. Lm211 can inhibit Nrg1III by limiting protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which is required to initiate myelination. We provide evidence that excessive PKA activation amplifies promyelinating signals downstream of neuregulin, including direct activation of the neuregulin receptor ErbB2 and its effector Grb2-Associated Binder-1 (Gab1), thereby elevating the expression of the key transcription factors Oct6 and early growth response protein 2 (Egr2). The inhibitory effect of Lm211 is seen only in fibers of small caliber. These data may explain why hereditary neuropathies associated with decreased laminin function are characterized by focally thick and redundant myelin. PMID:28636612

  7. Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination.

    PubMed

    Ghidinelli, Monica; Poitelon, Yannick; Shin, Yoon Kyoung; Ameroso, Dominique; Williamson, Courtney; Ferri, Cinzia; Pellegatta, Marta; Espino, Kevin; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly; Podini, Paola; Taveggia, Carla; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Park, Hwan Tae; Feltri, Maria Laura

    2017-06-01

    Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination. Lm211 can inhibit Nrg1III by limiting protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which is required to initiate myelination. We provide evidence that excessive PKA activation amplifies promyelinating signals downstream of neuregulin, including direct activation of the neuregulin receptor ErbB2 and its effector Grb2-Associated Binder-1 (Gab1), thereby elevating the expression of the key transcription factors Oct6 and early growth response protein 2 (Egr2). The inhibitory effect of Lm211 is seen only in fibers of small caliber. These data may explain why hereditary neuropathies associated with decreased laminin function are characterized by focally thick and redundant myelin.

  8. Tea polyphenols inhibit rat vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and migration on collagen and laminin via interference with cell-ECM interaction.

    PubMed

    Lo, Huey-Ming; Hung, Chi-Feng; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2007-09-01

    Occlusive lesions of atherosclerosis are the consequence of focal accumulation within the innermost layer of the artery of leukocytes from the circulation and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the underlying media. Tea polyphenol especially (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to have cardiovascular protective effect. However, the effects of other catechins such as (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) on SMC's functions have not been fully understood. In the present study, we investigate the effects of tea catechins on SMC adhesion and migration. Our results indicate that EGCG and ECG but not (+)-catechin were able to inhibit SMC adhesion on collagen and laminin, two abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins expressed in physiological and pathological conditions. Further analyses indicate that EGCG could bind laminin more than collagen. Moreover, EGCG could inhibit SMC adhesion to integrin beta1 Ab and affect SMC's beta1 integrin expression, suggesting it affects SMC's cellular components. In migration experiment, laminin- and PDGF-BB-induced SMC migration were both inhibited by EGCG in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the data presented here provide evidence showing that among these tea catechins, EGCG and ECG are relatively effective inhibitors on SMC-ECM interaction and their action mechanisms are through interference with SMC's integrin beta1 receptor and binding to ECM proteins.

  9. Association of the Laminin, Alpha 5 (LAMA5) rs4925386 with height and longevity in an elderly population from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Crocco, Paolina; De Rango, Francesco; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    Studies in animal models and humans suggest that reduced growth and adult stature are associated with lifespan extension. Moreover, epidemiological studies reported a positive association between adult height and risk of multiple cancers. Yet, it is unclear which factors mediate these relationships. Laminins are major components of the basement membranes and cooperate with growth factors and matrix-dependent receptors in cell proliferation and differentiation. Previously, we reported the association of rs659822-C/T in LAMA5, encoding the laminin-α5 chain, with weight and height in a cohort of healthy 64-107 aged Italian individuals. Notably, two independent meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies found the C-allele of LAMA5 rs4925386-C/T correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. We tested additional SNPs within the LAMA5 gene for association with anthropometric traits and longevity in our cohort of elderly subjects (N=624). Under an additive model, the rs2427283-C allele (P=0.02) and the rs4925386-T allele (P=0.01) were associated with shorter stature. Age-stratified analyses showed that the rs4925386-T allele was also positively associated with longevity (P=0.001). The association of LAMA5 rs4925386 alleles with both inter-individual differences in height and in longevity suggests that laminins may be among the factors linking stature and cancer susceptibility.

  10. Laminin isoforms: biological roles and effects on the intracellular distribution of nuclear proteins in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, Natacha; Gross, Isabelle; Gendry, Patrick; Stutzmann, Jeanne; Freund, Jean-Noel; Kedinger, Michele; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Launay, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Launay@inserm.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-02-15

    Laminins are structurally and functionally major components of the extracellular matrix. Four isoforms of laminins (laminin-1, -2, -5 and -10) are expressed in a specific pattern along the crypt-villus axis of the intestine. Previous works indicated that expression of these isoforms is developmentally regulated and that laminins could modulate the behaviour of intestinal cells, but the exact role of each isoform remained unclear. Here, we report the first systematic analysis of the cellular functions of the four isoforms using the human colon adenocarcinoma Caco2/TC7 cell line as a model. We compared the respective abilities of each isoform to modulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. We found that the isoforms were functionally distinct, with laminin-10 being the most adhesive substratum, laminin-2, laminin-5 and laminin-10 enhancing cellular proliferation and at the opposite, laminin-1 stimulating intestinal cell differentiation. To begin to characterise the molecular events induced by the different isoforms, we examined by immunofluorescence the intracellular distribution of several nuclear proteins, recently highlighted by a nuclear proteomic approach. We observed clear nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of these proteins, which depended on the laminin isoform. These results provide evidence for a distinct functional role of laminins in intestinal cell functions characterised by specific localisation of nuclear proteins.

  11. Laminins in Epithelial Cell Polarization: Old Questions in Search of New Answers.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Karl S; Myllymäki, Satu-Marja; Manninen, Aki

    2017-02-03

    Laminin, a basement membrane protein discovered in 1979, was shortly thereafter implicated in the polarization of epithelial cells in both mammals and a variety of lower organisms. To transduce a spatial cue to the intrinsic polarization machinery, laminin must polymerize into a dense network that forms the foundation of the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that activation of the small GTPase Rac1 by β1-integrins mobilizes laminin-binding integrins and dystroglycan to consolidate formation of the laminin network and initiate rearrangements of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton to help establish the apicobasal axis. A key coordinator of spatial signals from laminin is the serine-threonine kinase Par-1, which is known to affect dystroglycan availability, microtubule and actin organization, and lumen formation. The signaling protein integrin-linked kinase (ILK) may also play a role. Despite significant advances, knowledge of the mechanism by which assembled laminin produces a spatial signal remains fragmentary, and much more research into the complex functions of laminin in polarization and other cellular processes is needed.

  12. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Karabulut, Senem; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-07-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value.

  13. Processing of laminin α chains generates peptides involved in wound healing and host defense.

    PubMed

    Senyürek, Ilknur; Kempf, Wolfgang E; Klein, Gerd; Maurer, Andreas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Schäfer, Luisa; Wanke, Ines; Christ, Christina; Stevanovic, Stefan; Schaller, Martin; Rousselle, Patricia; Garbe, Claus; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Laminins play a fundamental role in basement membrane architecture and function in human skin. The C-terminal laminin G domain-like (LG) modules of laminin α chains are modified by proteolysis to generate LG1-3 and secreted LG4-5 tandem modules. In this study, we provide evidence that skin-derived cells process and secrete biologically active peptides from the LG4-5 module of the laminin α3, α4 and α5 chain in vitro and in vivo. We show enhanced expression and processing of the LG4-5 module of laminin α3 in keratinocytes after infection and in chronic wounds in which the level of expression and further processing of the LG4-5 module correlated with the speed of wound healing. Furthermore, bacterial or host-derived proteases promote processing of laminin α3 LG4-5. On a functional level, we show that LG4-5-derived peptides play a role in wound healing. Moreover, we demonstrate that LG4-derived peptides from the α3, α4 and α5 chains have broad antimicrobial activity and possess strong chemotactic activity to mononuclear cells. Thus, the data strongly suggest a novel multifunctional role for laminin LG4-5-derived peptides in human skin and its involvement in physiological processes and pathological conditions such as inflammation, chronic wounds and skin infection.

  14. Laminin regulates postnatal oligodendrocyte production by promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor survival in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Relucio, Jenne; Menezes, Michael J; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Colognato, Holly

    2012-10-01

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix proteins are expressed broadly during embryonic brain development, but are enriched at ventricular and pial surfaces where laminins mediate radial glial attachment during corticogenesis. In the adult brain, however, laminin distribution is restricted, yet is found within the vascular basal lamina and associated fractones of the ventricular zone (VZ)-subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche, where laminins regulate adult neural progenitor cell proliferation. It remains unknown, however, if laminins regulate the wave of oligodendrogenesis that occurs in the neonatal/early postnatal VZ-SVZ. Here we report that Lama2, the gene that encodes the laminin α2-subunit, regulates postnatal oligodendrogenesis. At birth, Lama2-/- mice had significantly higher levels of dying oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the OPC germinal zone of the dorsal SVZ. This translated into fewer OPCs, both in the dorsal SVZ well as in an adjacent developing white matter tract, the corpus callosum. In addition, intermediate progenitor cells that give rise to OPCs in the Lama2-/- VZ-SVZ were mislocalized and proliferated nearer to the ventricle surface. Later, delays in oligodendrocyte maturation (with accompanying OPC accumulation), were observed in the Lama2-/- corpus callosum, leading to dysmyelination by postnatal day 21. Together these data suggest that prosurvival laminin interactions in the developing postnatal VZ-SVZ germinal zone regulate the ability, or timing, of oligodendrocyte production to occur appropriately.

  15. Presence of laminin-binding proteins in trichomonads and their role in adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Casta e Silva Filho, F; de Souza, W; Lopes, J D

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion is regarded as an important feature in the pathogenesis of various microorganisms. Ability to recognize extracellular matrix proteins, such as laminin or fibronectin, has been correlated with invasiveness. We report that laminin enhances the adhesion of the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus to a polystyrene substrate and to the surface of epithelial cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line) in vitro. The enhancement was higher for T. vaginalis than for T. foetus. Addition of anti-laminin antibodies to medium significantly inhibited the adhesion of parasites to polystyrene substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy of replicas of the parasite's surface labeled with antibody-gold complexes showed laminin-binding sites distributed over the parasite surface. Iodinated P1 fragment of laminin, which retains the laminin-binding site, binds saturably to the parasite surface with a Kd of 19.5 nM, for about 3 X 10(5) binding sites per cell. Immunoblotting analysis of whole parasite extracts showed that a protein of 118 kDa is responsible for laminin binding. Images PMID:2973059

  16. Improvement of Sciatic Nerve Regeneration Using Laminin-Binding Human NGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjie; Sun, Changkai; Zhao, Hui; Lin, Hang; Han, Qianqian; Wang, Jingyu; Ma, Hui; Chen, Bing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Dai, Jianwu

    2009-01-01

    Background Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA), NGF-β could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. Methods Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-β fused with NtA (LBD-NGF) from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. Findings LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. Conclusion Fused with NtA, NGF-β could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:19587785

  17. Drosophila laminins act as key regulators of basement membrane assembly and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jose M.; Torgler, Catherine N.; Molnar, Cristina; Tepass, Ulrich; López-Varea, Ana; Brown, Nicholas H.; de Celis, Jose F.; Martín-Bermudo, Maria D.

    2009-01-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules found in all basement membranes. In mammals, they have been involved in diverse developmental processes, from gastrulation to tissue maintenance. The Drosophila genome encodes two laminin α chains, one β and one Γ, which form two distinct laminin trimers. So far, only mutations affecting one or other trimer have been analysed. In order to study embryonic development in the complete absence of laminins, we mutated the gene encoding the sole laminin β chain in Drosophila, LanB1, so that no trimers can be made. We show that LanB1 mutant embryos develop until the end of embryogenesis. Electron microscopy analysis of mutant embryos reveals that the basement membranes are absent and the remaining extracellular material appears disorganised and diffuse. Accordingly, abnormal accumulation of major basement membrane components, such as Collagen IV and Perlecan, is observed in mutant tissues. In addition, we show that elimination of LanB1 prevents the normal morphogenesis of most organs and tissues, including the gut, trachea, muscles and nervous system. In spite of the above structural roles for laminins, our results unravel novel functions in cell adhesion, migration and rearrangement. We propose that while an early function of laminins in gastrulation is not conserved in Drosophila and mammals, their function in basement membrane assembly and organogenesis seems to be maintained throughout evolution. PMID:19906841

  18. Drosophila laminins act as key regulators of basement membrane assembly and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Torgler, Catherine N; Molnar, Cristina; Tepass, Ulrich; López-Varea, Ana; Brown, Nicholas H; de Celis, Jose F; Martín-Bermudo, Maria D

    2009-12-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules found in all basement membranes. In mammals, they have been involved in diverse developmental processes, from gastrulation to tissue maintenance. The Drosophila genome encodes two laminin alpha chains, one beta and one Gamma, which form two distinct laminin trimers. So far, only mutations affecting one or other trimer have been analysed. In order to study embryonic development in the complete absence of laminins, we mutated the gene encoding the sole laminin beta chain in Drosophila, LanB1, so that no trimers can be made. We show that LanB1 mutant embryos develop until the end of embryogenesis. Electron microscopy analysis of mutant embryos reveals that the basement membranes are absent and the remaining extracellular material appears disorganised and diffuse. Accordingly, abnormal accumulation of major basement membrane components, such as Collagen IV and Perlecan, is observed in mutant tissues. In addition, we show that elimination of LanB1 prevents the normal morphogenesis of most organs and tissues, including the gut, trachea, muscles and nervous system. In spite of the above structural roles for laminins, our results unravel novel functions in cell adhesion, migration and rearrangement. We propose that while an early function of laminins in gastrulation is not conserved in Drosophila and mammals, their function in basement membrane assembly and organogenesis seems to be maintained throughout evolution.

  19. Over-expression of laminin correlates to recovery of vasogenic edema following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, J-Y; Ko, A-R; Kang, T-C

    2014-09-05

    In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the up-regulation of laminin expression represents the astroglio-vascular responses to status epilepticus (SE) in the rat brain to better understand the role of vasogenic edema in epileptogenic insult. In the hippocampus, vasogenic edema was observed in the hippocampus 12h after SE when astroglial degeneration was undetected. Vasogenic edema in the hippocampus was more severe in the CA1 region where astroglial loss was absent than in the dentate gyrus showing astroglial degeneration. In the piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema was accompanied by appearance of astroglial degeneration 12h after SE. Laminin expression in the hippocampus and the PC was increased 3 days and 4 days after SE, respectively. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the hippocampus and the PC with concomitant reduction of SMI-71 (the endothelial barrier antigen) expression. Four weeks after SE, laminin expression was reduced in vessels showing strong SMI-71 expression within vasogenic edema lesion. Inhibition of SE-induced vasogenic edema formation by BQ788 effectively prevented laminin over-expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that laminin over-expression may be one of consequences from vasogenic edema rather than astroglial loss, and that laminin over-expression may promote migration of astrocytes to damaged or newly generated vessels to repair brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption accompanied by the reconstruction of endothelial barrier. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ablation of astrocytic laminin impairs vascular smooth muscle cell function and leads to hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H.; Kruyer, Anna; Jno-Charles, Odella; Akhmerov, Akbarshakh

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes express laminin and assemble basement membranes (BMs) at their endfeet, which ensheath the cerebrovasculature. The function of astrocytic laminin in cerebrovascular integrity is unknown. We show that ablation of astrocytic laminin by tissue-specific Cre-mediated recombination disrupted endfeet BMs and led to hemorrhage in deep brain regions of adult mice, resembling human hypertensive hemorrhage. The lack of astrocytic laminin led to impaired function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), where astrocytes have a closer association with VSMCs in small arterioles, and was associated with hemorrhagic vessels, which exhibited VSMC fragmentation and vascular wall disassembly. Acute disruption of astrocytic laminin in the striatum of adult mice also impaired VSMC function, indicating that laminin is necessary for VSMC maintenance. In vitro, both astrocytes and astrocytic laminin promoted brain VSMC differentiation. These results show that astrocytes regulate VSMCs and vascular integrity in small vessels of deep brain regions. Therefore, astrocytes may be a possible target for hemorrhagic stroke prevention and therapy. PMID:23857767

  1. The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, α1, α3, α6 and β1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

  2. Laminin synthesized by stationary and migrating rat liver epithelial cells lacks the A chain.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, T; Manske, M; Geimer, P; Bade, E G

    1991-09-01

    The expression of laminin chains was analyzed in normal and Ha-ras1-transformed rat liver epithelial cells. The normal, nontumorigenic cells were induced to migrate by epidermal growth factor, whereas the Ha-ras1-transformed, malignant derivatives migrate constitutively. None of these cells express a typical (EHS-like) laminin A chain. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]-methionine-labeled liver cell lysates with an antibody against EHS-laminin revealed B1 and B2 chains and, in addition, two high Mr polypeptides. These polypeptides were not recognized by the antibody in immunoblots, suggesting that they might constitute alternative laminin A chains. Analysis of the expression of all three laminin chains at the RNA and protein level revealed that the pattern of expression of the stationary cells does not differ from that of the migratory ones and is also not influenced by epidermal growth factor. These results indicate that expression of a typical laminin A chain by rat liver epithelial cells is not required for the secretion and deposition of the protein in the extracellular matrix. The data also indicate that an EHS-like laminin A chain is not required for the migration of these epithelial cells.

  3. Brain-derived and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor fusion protein immobilization to laminin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoxin; Yuan, Junjie; Xu, Jiafeng; Chen, Xinwei; Ying, Xinjiang; Dong, Pin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve often causes hoarseness, dyspnea, dysphagia, and sometimes asphyxia due to vocal cord paralysis which result in a reduction of quality of life. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) play critical roles in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, methods for efficiently delivering these molecules are lacking, which limits their use in clinical applications. The present study reports an effective strategy for targeting BDNF and GDNF to laminin by fusing the N-terminal domains of these molecules with agrin (NtA). More specifically, laminin-binding efficacy was assessed and sustained release assays of the delivery of BDNF or GDNF fused with NtA (LBD-BDNF or LBD-GDNF) to laminin were conducted in vitro. In addition, the bioactivity of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF on laminin in vitro was investigated. LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF were each able to specifically bind to laminin and maintain their activity in vitro. Moreover, neurotrophic factors with NtA retained higher concentrations and bioactivity levels compared with those without NtA. The ratio of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF that produced optimal effects was 4:6. BDNF and GDNF fused with NtA were effective in specifically binding to laminin. As laminin is a major component of the extracellular matrix, LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF may prove useful in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:28123487

  4. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; KARABULUT, SENEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value. PMID:27330797

  5. Efficient Adhesion Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Laminin Fragments in an Uncoated Manner

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Isobe, Takehisa; Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    We describe highly effective adhesion culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using laminin fragments without precoating. Culture substrates have been generally thought to exert a cell adhesion effect when they are precoated onto culture vessels. However, simple addition of laminin fragments to a cell suspension during passaging accelerated the adhesion of single dissociated hPSCs onto culture vessels that were not precoated with any culture substrate. Interestingly, similar to conventional precoating, the uncoated addition of laminin fragments supported robust adhesion of single hPSCs and maximum adhesion at a much lower concentration compared with precoating. Similar to precoating laminin fragments, hPSCs seeded with uncoated laminin fragments grew well without cell detachment and maintained pluripotency after continuous subculture. We tested other culture substrates, including full-length laminin and vitronectin, to support hPSC adhesion in the uncoated manner, but only laminin fragments had the potential for application in the uncoated manner. This cost-effective and time-efficient method may contribute to expansion of culture of hPSCs and accelerate the development of regenerative medicine using hPSCs. PMID:28134277

  6. What Kind of Signaling Maintains Pluripotency and Viability in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Laminin-511 with Serum-Free Medium?

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Xeno-free medium contains no animal-derived components, but is composed of minimal growth factors and is serum free; the medium may be supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS medium). Serum-free and xeno-free culture of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) uses a variety of components based on ITS medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) that contain high levels of iron salt and glucose. Culture of hiPSCs also requires scaffolding materials, such as extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan, and vitronectin. The scaffolding component laminin-511, which is composed of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, binds to α3β1, α6β1, and α6β4 integrins on the cell membrane to induce activation of the PI3K/AKT- and Ras/MAPK-dependent signaling pathways. In hiPSCs, the interaction of laminin-511/α6β1 integrin with the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin confers protection against apoptosis through the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway (the major pathways for cell death) and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (Fyn)-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. The expression levels of α6β1 integrin and E-cadherin on cell membranes are controlled through the activation of insulin receptor/insulin, FGF receptor/FGF2, or activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-dependent TGF-β signaling. A combination of growth factors, medium constituents, cell membrane-located E-cadherin, and α6β1 integrin-induced signaling is required for pluripotent cell proliferation and for optimal cell survival on a laminin-511 scaffold. In this review, we discuss and explore the influence of growth factors on the cadherin and integrin signaling pathways in serum-free and xeno-free cultures of hiPSCs during the preparation of products for regenerative medicinal therapies. In addition, we suggest the optimum serum-free medium components for use with laminin-511, a new scaffold for hi

  7. Laminin network formation studied by reconstitution of ternary nodes in solution.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Alan; Hohenester, Erhard

    2012-12-28

    The polymerization of laminins into a cell-associated network is a key process in basement membrane assembly. Network formation is mediated by the homologous short arm tips of the laminin heterotrimer, each consisting of a globular laminin N-terminal (LN) domain followed by a tandem of laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LEa) domains. How the short arms interact in the laminin network is unclear. Here, we have addressed this question by reconstituting laminin network nodes in solution and analyzing them by size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Recombinant LN-LEa1-4 fragments of the laminin α1, α2, α5, β1, and γ1 chains were monomeric in solution. The β1 and γ1 fragments formed the only detectable binary complex and ternary complexes of 1:1:1 stoichiometry with all α chain fragments. Ternary complex formation required calcium and did not occur at 4 °C, like the polymerization of full-length laminins. Experiments with chimeric short arm fragments demonstrated that the LEa2-4 regions of the β1 and γ1 fragments are dispensable for ternary complex formation, and an engineered glycan in the β1 LEa1 domain was also tolerated. In contrast, mutation of Ser-68 in the β1 LN domain (corresponding to a Pierson syndrome mutation in the closely related β2 chain) abolished ternary complex formation. We conclude that authentic ternary nodes of the laminin network can be reconstituted for structure-function studies.

  8. Merosin and laminin in myogenesis; specific requirement for merosin in myotube stability and survival

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Laminin (laminin-1; alpha 1-beta 1-gamma 1) is known to promote myoblast proliferation, fusion, and myotube formation. Merosin (laminin- 2 and -4; alpha 2-beta 1/beta 2-gamma 1) is the predominant laminin variant in skeletal muscle basement membranes; genetic defects affecting its structure or expression are the causes of some types of congenital muscular dystrophy. However, the precise nature of the functions of merosin in muscle remain unknown. We have developed an in vitro system that exploits human RD and mouse C2C12 myoblastic cell lines and their clonal variants to study the roles of merosin and laminin in myogenesis. In the parental cells, which fuse efficiently to multinucleated myotubes, merosin expression is upregulated as a function of differentiation while laminin expression is downregulated. Cells from fusion-deficient clones do not express either protein, but laminin or merosin added to the culture medium induced their fusion. Clonal variants which fuse, but form unstable myotubes, express laminin but not merosin. Exogenous merosin converted these myotubes to a stable phenotype, while laminin had no effect. Myotube instability was corrected most efficiently by transfection of the merosin-deficient cells with the merosin alpha 2 chain cDNA. Finally, merosin appears to promote myotube stability by preventing apoptosis. Hence, these studies identify novel biological functions for merosin in myoblast fusion and muscle cell survival; furthermore, these explain some of the pathogenic events observed in congenital muscular dystrophy caused by merosin deficiency and provide in vitro models to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of this disease. PMID:8830776

  9. Aberrant expression of laminin-332 promotes cell proliferation and cyst growth in ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Suparna; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yoder, Bradley; Torres, Vicente E.; Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane abnormalities have often been observed in kidney cysts of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and animal models. There is an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, including laminin-α3,β3,γ2 (laminin-332), in human autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Knockdown of PKD1 paralogs in zebrafish leads to dysregulated synthesis of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that altered basement membrane assembly may be a primary defect in ADPKD. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-332 is aberrantly expressed in cysts and precystic tubules of human autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) kidneys as well as in the kidneys of PCK rats, an orthologous ARPKD model. There was aberrant expression of laminin-γ2 as early as postnatal day 2 and elevated laminin-332 protein in postnatal day 30, coinciding with the formation and early growth of renal cysts in PCK rat kidneys. We also show that a kidney cell line derived from Oak Ridge polycystic kidney mice, another model of ARPKD, exhibited abnormal lumen-deficient and multilumen structures in Matrigel culture. These cells had increased proliferation rates and altered expression levels of laminin-332 compared with their rescued counterparts. A function-blocking polyclonal antibody to laminin-332 significantly inhibited their abnormal proliferation rates and rescued their aberrant phenotype in Matrigel culture. Furthermore, abnormal laminin-332 expression in cysts originating from collecting ducts and proximal tubules as well as in precystic tubules was observed in a human end-stage ADPKD kidney. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of laminin-332 contributes to the aberrant proliferation of cyst epithelial cells and cyst growth in genetic forms of PKD. PMID:24370592

  10. Stable, Covalent Attachment of Laminin to Microposts Improves the Contractility of Mouse Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical output of contracting cardiomyocytes, the muscle cells of the heart, relates to healthy and disease states of the heart. Culturing cardiomyocytes on arrays of elastomeric microposts can enable inexpensive and high-throughput studies of heart disease at the single-cell level. However, cardiomyocytes weakly adhere to these microposts, which limits the possibility of using biomechanical assays of single cardiomyocytes to study heart disease. We hypothesized that a stable covalent attachment of laminin to the surface of microposts improves cardiomyocyte contractility. We cultured cells on polydimethylsiloxane microposts with laminin covalently bonded with the organosilanes 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. We measured displacement of microposts induced by the contractility of mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes, which attach better than mature cardiomyocytes to substrates. We observed time-dependent changes in contractile parameters such as micropost deformation, contractility rates, contraction and relaxation speeds, and the times of contractions. These parameters were affected by the density of laminin on microposts and by the stability of laminin binding to micropost surfaces. Organosilane-mediated binding resulted in higher laminin surface density and laminin binding stability. 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane provided the highest laminin density but did not provide stable protein binding with time. Higher surface protein binding stability and strength were observed with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. In cultured cardiomyocytes, contractility rate, contraction speeds, and contraction time increased with higher laminin stability. Given these variations in contractile function, we conclude that binding of laminin to microposts via 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde improves contractility observed by an increase in beating rate and contraction speed as it occurs during the

  11. Stable, covalent attachment of laminin to microposts improves the contractility of mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Zaleta-Rivera, Kathia; Ashley, Euan A; Pruitt, Beth L

    2014-09-10

    The mechanical output of contracting cardiomyocytes, the muscle cells of the heart, relates to healthy and disease states of the heart. Culturing cardiomyocytes on arrays of elastomeric microposts can enable inexpensive and high-throughput studies of heart disease at the single-cell level. However, cardiomyocytes weakly adhere to these microposts, which limits the possibility of using biomechanical assays of single cardiomyocytes to study heart disease. We hypothesized that a stable covalent attachment of laminin to the surface of microposts improves cardiomyocyte contractility. We cultured cells on polydimethylsiloxane microposts with laminin covalently bonded with the organosilanes 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. We measured displacement of microposts induced by the contractility of mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes, which attach better than mature cardiomyocytes to substrates. We observed time-dependent changes in contractile parameters such as micropost deformation, contractility rates, contraction and relaxation speeds, and the times of contractions. These parameters were affected by the density of laminin on microposts and by the stability of laminin binding to micropost surfaces. Organosilane-mediated binding resulted in higher laminin surface density and laminin binding stability. 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane provided the highest laminin density but did not provide stable protein binding with time. Higher surface protein binding stability and strength were observed with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. In cultured cardiomyocytes, contractility rate, contraction speeds, and contraction time increased with higher laminin stability. Given these variations in contractile function, we conclude that binding of laminin to microposts via 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde improves contractility observed by an increase in beating rate and contraction speed as it occurs during the

  12. Modulation of the Metastatic Activity of Melanoma Cells by Laminin and Fibronectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Victor P.; Williams, Jeannette E.; Liotta, Lance A.; Martin, George R.

    1984-11-01

    Metastatic mouse melanoma cells have a high affinity for the basement membrane and the ability to degrade it; these properties may allow tumor cells to invade the membrane and disseminate. In this study it was found that the metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells varied when the cells were exposed in culture to fibronectin or laminin. After removal of fibronectin or exposure to laminin, the cells had an increased affinity for basement membrane collagen, were more invasive of basement membranes in vitro, and produced more lung colonies in vivo. These changes are correlated with and may be due to an increase in the laminin-binding capacity of the tumor cell surface.

  13. Transient laminin beta 1a Induction Defines the Wound Epidermis during Zebrafish Fin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Merriman, Alexander F; Savage, Jeremiah; Willer, Jason; Wahlig, Taylor; Katsanis, Nicholas; Yin, Viravuth P; Poss, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer. These events facilitate expression of the morphogenetic factors shha and lef1, basolateral positioning of phosphorylated Igf1r, patterning of new osteoblasts, and regeneration of bone. By contrast, lamb1a function is dispensable for juvenile body growth, homeostatic adult tissue maintenance, repair of split fins, or renewal of genetically ablated osteoblasts. fgf20a mutations or transgenic Fgf receptor inhibition disrupt lamb1a expression, linking a central growth factor to epithelial maturation during regeneration. Our findings reveal transient induction of lamb1a in epithelial cells as a key, growth factor-guided step in formation of a signaling-competent regeneration epidermis.

  14. Migration of breast cancer cell lines in response to pulmonary laminin 332.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Philip M; Sivadas, Priyanka; Hua, Spencer S; Xiao, Cally; Gutierrez, Alyssa B; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Because tumor cell motility is a requirement for metastasis, we hypothesized that lung tissue harbors substances that induce tumor cell migration. MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells exposed to small airway epithelial cells and conditioned medium exhibited dose-dependent tumor cell migration. Among the extracellular matrix proteins in the conditioned medium identified by mass spectrometry, laminin 332 (LM332) had the greatest contribution to the migration of MCF-7 cells. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry for LM332-specific chains identified LM332 in the lung and in pulmonary epithelial cells. Antibodies to either LM332 or its integrin receptor inhibited MCF-7 motility, and knockdown of LM332 chains also reduced its migration-inducing activity. Taken together, these findings implicate LM332 as a component of lung tissue that can induce motility in breast carcinoma cells that have been transported to lung during metastasis. Earlier studies on LM332 in tumor progression have examined LM332 expression in tumor cells. This investigation, in comparison, provides evidence that the tumor promoting potential of LM332 may originate in the lung microenvironment rather than in tumor cells alone. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that the motility-inducing properties of the microenvironment can reside in epithelial cells. The findings raise the possibility that LM332 plays a role in the pulmonary metastases of breast carcinoma and may provide a target for antimetastasis therapy.

  15. Recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia: a possible mechanism of adherence to human type II alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Erika; Gonzalez, Angel; Muñoz, César; Urán, Marta E; Restrepo, Angela; John Hamilton, Andrew; Elena Cano, Luz

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses the recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia, as well as its possible role in the adherence of conidia to A549 cells. Adherence of conidia to immobilized laminin was shown to be specific, as anti-laminin antibodies, soluble laminin or the laminin-derived peptides IKVAV and CDPGYIGSR inhibited this interaction. RGD containing peptides and various monosaccharides had no effect on adherence, with the exception of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Pre-treatment of conidia with fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not with BSA, also resulted in significant inhibition, suggesting that P. brasiliensis conidia might cross-recognize host proteins involved in colonization. In assays using transmission electron microscopy, we observed internalization of conidia 30 min after exposition to A549 cells. Laminin present on the surface of A549 cells shown to serve as mediator of this interaction, with a significant decrease in fungal adherence when the epithelial cells were pre-treated with anti-laminin antibodies or when conidia were pre-incubated with either soluble laminin or the laminin-specific peptides. Together these results suggest that the recognition of laminin by P. brasiliensis conidia is a key process in the interaction with pulmonary epithelial cells, where this extracellular matrix protein acts as bridging molecule.

  16. Laminins containing the β2 and γ3 chains regulate astrocyte migration and angiogenesis in the retina.

    PubMed

    Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Bachay, Galina; Biswas, Saptarshi; Pinzón-Duarte, Germán; Hunter, Dale D; Brunken, William J

    2013-05-01

    Pathologies of retinal blood vessels are among the major causes of blindness worldwide. A key cell type that regulates retinal vascular development is the astrocyte. Generated extrinsically to the retina, astrocytes migrate into the retina through the optic nerve head. Even though there is a strong correlation between astrocyte distribution and retinal vascular development, the factors that guide astrocytes into the retina remain unclear. In this study, we show that astrocytes migrate within a laminin-containing basement membrane - the inner limiting membrane. Genetic deletion of the laminin β2 and γ3 chains affects astrocyte migration and spatial distribution. We show that laminins act as haptotactic factors in vitro in an isoform-specific manner, inducing astrocyte migration and promoting astrocyte differentiation. The addition of exogenous laminins to laminin-null retinal explants rescues astrocyte migration and spatial patterning. Furthermore, we show that the loss of laminins reduces β1 integrin expression in astrocytes. Culturing laminin-null retinal astrocytes on laminin substrates restores focal localization of β1 integrin. Finally, we show that laminins containing β2 and γ3 chains regulate subsequent retinal blood vessel growth and maintain vascular integrity. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate clearly that laminins containing β2 and γ3 chains are indispensable for migration and spatial organization of astrocytes and that they play a crucial role during retinal angiogenesis in vivo.

  17. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  18. The promotion of cerebral ischemia recovery in rats by laminin-binding BDNF.

    PubMed

    Han, Qianqian; Li, Bo; Feng, Hua; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Zhao, Yannan; Huang, Jingchun; Dai, Jianwu

    2011-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have therapeutic effects on cerebral ischemia. However, the delivery approach limits its application. Laminin is a rich extra cellular matrix in the central nervous system, and is highly expressed in the ischemic region after cerebral ischemia. We reported here by fusing with laminin-binding domain (LBD) to BDNF to construct laminin-binding BDNF (LBD-BDNF). LBD-BDNF could target accumulated laminin in the ischemic region and exert targeting therapy of injured neurons after ischemia. We examined the laminin-binding ability and neurotrophic bioactivity of LBD-BDNF in vitro, and assessed its targeting therapy using a rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in vivo. It was found that LBD-BDNF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain BDNF activity both in vitro and in vivo. LBD-BDNF treatment attenuated neural-degeneration after MCAO, and also resulted in a reduction of infarct volume that is associated with a parallel improvement in neurological functional outcome and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of hippocamp.

  19. Laminin-111 protein therapy prevents muscle disease in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Jachinta E; Gurpur, Praveen B; Burkin, Dean J

    2009-05-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. Loss of dystrophin results in reduced sarcolemmal integrity and increased susceptibility to muscle damage. The alpha(7)beta(1)-integrin is a laminin-binding protein up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of DMD patients and in the mdx mouse model. Transgenic overexpression of the alpha(7)-integrin alleviates muscle disease in dystrophic mice, making this gene a target for pharmacological intervention. Studies suggest laminin may regulate alpha(7)-integrin expression. To test this hypothesis, mouse and human myoblasts were treated with laminin and assayed for alpha(7)-integrin expression. We show that laminin-111 (alpha(1), beta(1), gamma(1)), which is expressed during embryonic development but absent in normal or dystrophic skeletal muscle, increased alpha(7)-integrin expression in mouse and DMD patient myoblasts. Injection of laminin-111 protein into the mdx mouse model of DMD increased expression of alpha(7)-integrin, stabilized the sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscle from exercised-induced damage. These findings demonstrate that laminin-111 is a highly potent therapeutic agent for the mdx mouse model of DMD and represents a paradigm for the systemic delivery of extracellular matrix proteins as therapies for genetic diseases.

  20. Crystal structure of the LG1-3 region of the laminin alpha2 chain.

    PubMed

    Carafoli, Federico; Clout, Naomi J; Hohenester, Erhard

    2009-08-21

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric glycoproteins with many essential functions in basement membrane assembly and function. Cell adhesion to laminins is mediated by a tandem of five laminin G-like (LG) domains at the C terminus of the alpha chain. Integrin binding requires an intact LG1-3 region, as well as contributions from the coiled coil formed by the alpha, beta, and gamma chains. We have determined the crystal structure at 2.8-A resolution of the LG1-3 region of the laminin alpha2 chain (alpha 2LG1-3). The three LG domains adopt typical beta-sandwich folds, with canonical calcium binding sites in LG1 and LG2. LG2 and LG3 interact through a substantial interface, but LG1 is completely dissociated from the LG2-3 pair. We suggest that the missing gamma chain tail may be required to stabilize the interaction between LG1 and LG2-3 in the biologically active conformation. A global analysis of N-linked glycosylation sites shows that the beta-sandwich faces of LG1 are free of carbohydrate modifications in all five laminin alpha chains, suggesting that these surfaces may harbor the integrin binding site. The alpha 2LG1-3 structure provides the first atomic view of the integrin binding region of laminins.

  1. Laminin-511: a multi-functional adhesion protein regulating cell migration, tumor invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Normand; Kusuma, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes. At least 16 isoforms have now been described, each with distinct spatio-temporal expression patterns and functions. The laminin-511 heterotrimer (α5β1γ1) is one of the more recent isoforms to be identified and a potent adhesive and pro-migratory substrate for a variety of normal and tumor cell lines in vitro. As our understanding of its precise function in normal tissues and in pathologies is rapidly unraveling, current evidence suggests an important regulatory role in cancer. This review describes published data on laminin-511 expression in several malignancies and experimental evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies supporting its functional role during tumor progression. A particular emphasis is put on more recent studies from our laboratory and that of others indicating that laminin-511 contributes to tumor dissemination and metastasis in advanced breast carcinomas and other tumor types. Collectively, the experimental evidence suggests that high expression of laminin-511 has prognostic significance and that targeting tumor-laminin-511 interactions may have therapeutic potential in advanced cancer patients.

  2. Laminins and Nidogens in the Pericellular Matrix of Chondrocytes: Their Role in Osteoarthritis and Chondrogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schminke, Boris; Frese, Jenny; Bode, Christa; Goldring, Mary B; Miosge, Nicolai

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of laminins and nidogen-2 in osteoarthritis (OA) and their potential to support chondrogenic differentiation. We applied immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, siRNA, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and proteome analysis for the investigation of cartilage tissue and isolated chondrocytes in three-dimensional culture obtained from patients with late-stage knee OA and nidogen-2 knockout mice. We demonstrate that subunits of laminins appear in OA cartilage and that nidogen-2-null mice exhibit typical osteoarthritic features. Chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) produced high levels of laminin-α1, laminin-α5, and nidogen-2 in their pericellular matrix, and laminin-α1 enhanced collagen type II and reduced collagen type I expression by cultured CPCs. Nidogen-2 increased SOX9 gene expression. Knockdown of nidogen-2 reduced SOX9 expression, whereas it up-regulated RUNX2 expression. This study reveals that the influence of the pericellular matrix on CPCs is important for the expression of the major regulator transcription factors, SOX9 and RUNX2. Our novel findings that laminins and nidogen-2 drive CPCs toward chondrogenesis may help in the elucidation of new treatment strategies for cartilage tissue regeneration.

  3. Linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis reacts with multiple laminins and integrins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Qian, Hua; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Sogame, Ryosuke; Harada, Kazutoshi; Nakagomi, Daiki; Shimada, Shinji; Tateishi, Chiharu; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Since the original description by Zone et al in 1994, the disease entity and target antigens in linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis (LAGBD) have not been clarified in 20 years. To determine autoantibodies and autoantigens in a new LAGBD case which showed atypical clinical and histopathological findings without apparent mucosal involvement. We performed various indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies. Indirect immunofluorescence of 1M NaCl-split skin showed IgG and IgA reactivity with both epidermal and dermal sides. Immunoblotting studies using various antigen sources revealed circulating IgG and IgA antibodies reactive with laminin-332, laminin-γ1 and integrin α6β4 in various patterns. Absorption study using recombinant proteins of laminin-γ1 indicated that the patient serum reacted with different epitopes between laminin-γ1 and laminin-γ2. This study presented for the first time a LAGBD patient with IgG and IgA antibodies to various laminins and integrins.

  4. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  5. The cellular origin of laminin determines its role in blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2015-03-01

    Laminin of different cellular sources has distinct functions. In addition to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), aorta also contains a small population of nestin(+) cells, whose function remains unknown. This study investigates the role of SMC- and nestin(+) cell-derived laminin in blood pressure (BP) regulation and SMC contractibility. Using mice with laminin deficiency in SMCs (SKO) or nestin(+) cells (NKO), we examined laminin-dependent changes in BP. Contractile protein expression was reduced in SKO but not NKO mice, consistent with their, respectively, low and normal baseline BP measurements. At the ultrastructural level, SKO SMCs maintained the contractile phenotype with reduced elasticity, whereas NKO SMCs switched to the synthetic phenotype and showed degeneration. Additionally, angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased BP in SKO but not NKO mice. It also enhanced contractile proteins to the same levels and induced SMC degeneration in both knockout mice. These data suggest that SMC laminin regulates BP via modulating contractile protein expression, whereas nestin(+) cell-derived laminin contributes to SMC phenotypic switch.

  6. Synergistic effect of laminin and mesenchymal stem cells on tracheal mucosal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Jin Ho; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Park, Seok-Won; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have been successfully undertaken of tracheal reconstruction in terms of the maintaining the framework of the graft, most cases of reconstruction failure have resulted from delayed mucosal regeneration. The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether laminin-coated asymmetrically porous membrane (APM) scaffold enhances mucosal regeneration, to compare the mucosalization capability with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded APM, and to determine whether laminin coating and MSC seeding has a synergistic effect on mucosal regeneration. We reconstructed the full-thickness anterior tracheal defect of 36 New Zealand White rabbits with the APM scaffold. MSCs were isolated from the rabbit's inguinal fat. The animals were divided into 4 groups by the presence of laminin coating on APM and application of MSC [Group I, -/- (laminin/MSC); Group II, -/+; Group III, +/-; Group IV, +/+]. Endoscopy and histologic evaluation were performed and the results were compared among the groups. The results showed that ciliated columnar epithelium was regenerated earlier in groups II and III than in group I. Furthermore, the application of laminin and MSC had synergistic effects on tracheal epithelial regeneration. These results demonstrate that tracheal reconstruction by laminin-coated APM seeded with MSCs is most effective in enhancing tracheal mucosalization, and appears to be promising strategy in the regenerative treatment of tracheal defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces.

  8. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-21

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces.

  9. Chronic stress induced disturbances in Laminin: a significant contributor to modulating microglial pro-inflammatory tone?

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Giovanni; Mabotuwana, Nishani; Zhao, Zidan; Mahmoud, Abdolhoseini; Johnson, Sarah J; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick R

    2017-09-21

    Over the last decade, evidence supporting a link between microglia enhanced neuro-inflammatory signalling and mood disturbance has continued to build. One issue that has not been well addressed yet are the factors that drive microglia to enter into a higher pro-inflammatory state. The current study addressed the potential role of the extracellular matrix protein Laminin. C57BL6 adult mice were either exposed to chronic stress or handled for 6 consecutive weeks. Changes in Laminin, microglial morphology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were examined in tissue obtained from mice exposed to a chronic restraint stress procedure. These in-vivo investigations were complemented by an extensive set of in-vitro experiments utilising both a primary microglia and BV2 cell line to examine how Laminin influenced microglial pro-inflammatory tone. Chronic stress was associated with enhanced the expression of Laminin, microglial de-ramification and pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling. We further identified that microglia when cultured in the presence of Laminin produced and released significantly greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; took longer to return to baseline following stimulation and exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity. These results suggest that chronic restraint stress is capable of modulating Laminin within the CNS, an effect that has implications for understanding environmental mediated disturbances of microglial function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The influence of Tribenoside on expression and deposition of epidermal laminins in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Takaki, Shu; Matsuda, Yuji; Okabe, Koichi; Taniguchi, Masakazu; Oomachi, Kengo; Samejima, Teruyuki; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Tribenoside has been used clinically for hemorrhoidal disease associated with coagulation, inflammation, and wounds. However, the pharmacological mechanism of tribenoside activity has never been clear. In this study we examined whether tribenoside affected expression and deposition of laminins that are required for reconstruction of basement membranes (BMs) during wound healing in hemorrhoidal disease. HaCaT cells, which are derived from human epidermis, were treated in growth media supplemented with tribenoside. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific for laminin chains showed that HaCaT cells constitutively expressed laminin alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains. Tribenoside treatment of HaCaT cells did not induce expression of other laminin chains. We also quantified the expression of laminin chains in tribenoside-treated cells using real-time PCR. The expression level of laminin alpha3, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains was not affected. In contrast, the expression of laminin alpha5 in the tribenoside-treated cells was four times higher than that of control cells. Immunocytochemistry also showed that tribenoside accelerated the focal deposition of laminin-332 (alpha3, beta3, gamma2). These results suggest that tribenoside interacts with epidermal cells and regulates the expression and localization of laminins to help reconstruct BMs in wound healing of hemorrhoids.

  11. Tumour cell membrane laminin expression is associated with basal-like phenotype and poor survival in Nigerian breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A O J; Ebili, H O; Iyawe, V O; Banjo, A A F; Salami, B S; Rakha, E A; Nolan, C; Ellis, I O; Green, A R

    2016-08-01

    Laminin is a glycoprotein with diverse functions in carcinogenesis including cell proliferation, invasion, metastases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In breast cancer (BC) laminin expression is speculated to be associated with unfavourable clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. We hypothesize that laminin expression would contributed to the aggressive nature of basal like and triple negative BC phenotype observed in Black women. The expression of laminin was determined in a well-characterised Nigerian cohort of 255 BC using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Laminin expression was compared with clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Laminin was expressed in 146 (57.3%) cases and significantly correlated with younger age at diagnosis (p=0.005), premenopausal status (p=0.003), expression of EGFR (p=0.002), ID4 and MTA1, basal cytokeratin 5/6, p53, and triple negative tumours (all p<0.001). In addition, there was an inverse association of laminin expression with E-cadherin (p=0.03), ER and PgR (all p<0.001) and a trend with BRCA1 (p=0.05). Univariate survival analysis showed tumours positive for laminin had significantly poorer breast cancer specific survival (BCSS, p=0.009) and disease free interval (p=0.03), but not associated in Cox multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that laminin expression may have important roles in the aggressive nature observed in the basal-like and triple negative molecular subtype of Nigerian BC women.

  12. Effects of penicillin and erythromycin on adherence of invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes to laminin

    PubMed Central

    Šmitran, Aleksandra; Vuković, Dragana; Gajić, Ina; Marinković, Jelena; Ranin, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between the invasiveness of group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains and their abilities to adhere to laminin and assessed the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin and erythromycin on the ability of GAS to adhere to laminin. The adherence of noninvasive and highly invasive isolates of GAS to laminin was significantly higher than the adherence displayed by isolates of low invasiveness. Antibiotic treatment caused significant reductions in adherence to laminin in all three groups of strains. Penicillin was more successful in reducing the adherence abilities of the tested GAS strains than erythromycin. PMID:26270594

  13. Analysis of adhesive binding forces between laminin-1 and C2C12 muscle cell membranes measured via high resolution force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, George; Gilbert, Richard; Ortiz, Christine

    2002-03-01

    Laminins are a family of glycoproteins that regulate cell differentiation, shape, and motility through interactions with various cell surface receptors. Here, we have directly measured the biomolecular adhesive binding forces between a cantilever / probe tip that was covalently attached with laminin-1 and membrane receptors on C2C12 muscle cells using the technique of high-resolution force spectroscopy (HRFS). On retraction of the probe tip away from the membrane surface, discrete, long-range adhesive unbinding events were always observed. Statistical analysis of the data revealed an initial broad distribution of heterogeneous unbinding events (occurring at separation distances, D=0-2µm from the point of maximum compression) of magnitude 92.23±37.87pN followed by a narrow distribution of homogeneous unbinding events (occurring at D > 2µm) of magnitude 38.16±9.10pN, which is suggestive of an individual biomolecular adhesive interaction. On-going studies include loading rate dependence and effect of dystroglycan mutation.

  14. The adhesion GPCR GPR126 has distinct, domain-dependent functions in Schwann cell development mediated by interaction with Laminin-211

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sarah C.; Luo, Rong; Liebscher, Ines; Giera, Stefanie; Jeong, Sung-jin; Mogha, Amit; Ghidinelli, Monica; Feltri, M. Laura; Schöneberg, Torsten; Piao, Xianhua; Monk, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Myelin ensheathes axons to allow rapid propagation of action potentials and proper nervous system function. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) radially sort axons into a 1:1 relationship before wrapping an axonal segment to form myelin. SC myelination requires the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126, which undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a 7-transmembrane-containing C-terminal fragment (CTF). Here, we show that GPR126 has domain-specific functions in SC development whereby the NTF is necessary and sufficient for axon sorting while the CTF promotes wrapping through cAMP elevation. These biphasic roles of GPR126 are governed by interactions with Laminin-211, which we define as a novel ligand for GPR126 that modulates receptor signaling via a tethered agonist. Our work suggests a model in which Laminin-211 mediates GPR126-induced cAMP levels to control early and late stages of SC development. PMID:25695270

  15. Functional regeneration of the transected recurrent laryngeal nerve using a collagen scaffold loaded with laminin and laminin-binding BDNF and GDNF

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoxin; Yuan, Junjie; Chen, Xinwei; Xu, Jiafeng; Li, Yu; Dong, Pin

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury remains a challenge due to the lack of effective treatments. In this study, we established a new drug delivery system consisting of a tube of Heal-All Oral Cavity Repair Membrane loaded with laminin and neurotrophic factors and tested its ability to promote functional recovery following RLN injury. We created recombinant fusion proteins consisting of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) fused to laminin-binding domains (LBDs) in order to prevent neurotrophin diffusion. LBD-BDNF, LBD-GDNF, and laminin were injected into a collagen tube that was fitted to the ends of the transected RLN in rats. Functional recovery was assessed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after injury. Although vocal fold movement was not restored until 12 weeks after injury, animals treated with the collagen tube loaded with laminin, LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF showed improved recovery in vocalisation, arytenoid cartilage angles, compound muscle action potentials and regenerated fibre area compared to animals treated by autologous nerve grafting (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate the drug delivery system induced nerve regeneration following RLN transection that was superior to that induced by autologus nerve grafting. It may have potential applications in nerve regeneration of RLN transection injury. PMID:27558932

  16. Lung-specific loss of α3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-04-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression.

  17. Alignment and composition of laminin-polycaprolactone nanofiber blends enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neal, Rebekah A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Foley, Patricia L; Swami, Nathan; Ogle, Roy C; Botchwey, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing deficits distal to the injury site. Conduits for repair currently on the market are hollow tubes; however, they often fail due to slow regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased regeneration speed and functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in regeneration. To that end, laminin and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers were fabricated to mimic peripheral nerve basement membrane. In vitro assays established 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain neurite-promoting effects of laminin. In addition, modified collector plate design to introduce an insulating gap enabled the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. The effects of laminin content and fiber orientation were evaluated in rat tibial nerve defect model. The lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment to assess changes in motor and sensory recovery. Retrograde nerve conduction speed at 6 weeks was significantly faster in animals receiving aligned nanofiber conduits than in those receiving random nanofiber conduits. Animals receiving nanofiber-filled conduits showed some conduction in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas in animals receiving hollow conduits, no impulse conduction was detected. Aligned PCL nanofibers significantly improved motor function; aligned laminin blend nanofibers yielded the best sensory function recovery. In both cases, nanofiber-filled conduits resulted in better functional recovery than hollow conduits. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of natural-synthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identification of laminin α5 short arm peptides active for endothelial cell attachment and tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Sugawara, Yumika; Harashima, Nozomi; Fujii, Shogo; Ikari, Kazuki; Kumai, Jun; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2017-02-21

    Laminin-511, a major component of endothelial basement membrane, consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains. The short arm region of the α5 chain is a structural feature of endothelial laminins. In this study, we identified active sequences for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides. The short arm of the α5 chain contains three globular domains [laminin N-terminal globular domain, laminin 4 domain a, and laminin 4 domain b (LN, L4a, and L4b)] and three rod-like elements [laminin epidermal growth factor-like domain a, b, and c (LEa, LEb, and LEc)]. The cell attachment assay using recombinant proteins showed that RGD-independent cell attachment sites were localized in the α5LN-LEa domain. Further, we synthesized 70 peptides covering the amino acid sequences of the α5LN-LEa domain. Of the 70 peptides, A5-16 (mouse laminin α5 230-243: LENGEIVVSLVNGR) potently exhibited endothelial cell attachment activity. An active sequence analysis using N-terminally and C-terminally truncated A5-16 peptides showed that the nine-amino acid sequence IVVSLVNGR was critical for the endothelial cell attachment activity. Cell adhesion to the peptides was dependent on both cations and heparan sulfate. Further, the A5-16 peptide inhibited the capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs with the cells forming small clumps with short tubes. The eight-amino acid sequence EIVVSLVN in the A5-16 peptide was critical to inhibit HUVEC tube formation. This amino acid sequence could be useful for grafts and thus modulate endothelial cell behavior for vascular surgery. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Laminin and Collagen IV: Two Polypeptides as Marker of Dystocic Labor.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Cavallotti, Carlo; Resta, Leonardo; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Di Tommaso, Silvia; Vergara, Daniele; Gustapane, Sarah; Giacci, Francesco; Tinelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Collagen IV and Laminin are localized in cells and tissue of numerous human organs including the uterus, where these polypeptides control either age changes, or uterus growth in pregnancy, or ripening and dilatation in labor. Authors examined the polypeptides distribution of collagen IV and Laminin in the human pregnant uterus, in normal and dystocic labor, to clarify their physiologic role, by distribution and/or their changes in prolonged dystocic labor. We collected lower uterine segment (LUS) fragments during cesarean section (CS); these biopsies were treated with basic morphological staining for the observation of microscopic- anatomic details. Other samples were processed with immunohistochemical staining for collagen IV and for membrane bound Laminin. All morphological and immunochemical results were analyzed with quantitative analysis of images and statistical analysis of data. Both Collagen IV and Laminin show changes in the pregnant uterus before 4 hours of full cervical dilatation in patients after 4 hours. All the three types of the human uterine cells, mucosal, submucosal and smooth muscular cells, are more reduced in LUS after 4 hours of cervical dilatation in dystocic labor. The connective tissues (including fibroblast) show the most evident changes in the dystocic LUS, collagen IV and laminin changes during cervical dilatation in prolonged dystocic labor, with a decreased elasticity with increased roughness and dryness. The LUS anatomical modifications during labor can be the cause of pathological changes in protracted dystocic labor. In the dystocic labor that lasts more than 4 hours from the complete cervical ripening and dilatation, the laminin and collagen IV concentration reduces in the LUS tissue. In dystocic labor, delivery should be completed before the 3 hours of full dilation, to avoid a reduction of laminin and collagen IV and a worsening of LUS healing for the next pregnancy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  20. A Review on the Potential Role of Basement Membrane Laminin in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reviewed alterations to basement membrane laminin in psoriasis and how disruption of this layer could lead to at least some of the pathological changes observed. We here postulate that basement membrane laminin is the key antigen in driving psoriasis, inducing a T cell-mediated autoimmune response. For laminin to be considered as the key autoantigen in psoriasis, it would be reasonable to expect the following to be demonstrable: (1) that autoantigens are present in psoriatic inflammation; (2) that basement membrane laminin is perturbed in involved and uninvolved skin, and that some of the pathological changes associated with psoriasis could be predicted as a sequel to this; (3) that disruption of the basement membrane is among the earliest events in the evolution of psoriatic lesions; (4) that as streptococcal pharyngitis is the most clearly defined event to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, then a T cell-mediated autoimmune response to laminin should be anticipated as a potential sequelae to streptococcal pharyngitis; (5) that T cells in psoriasis can be shown to react to peptides with homology to laminin; (6) that HLACw6, as the most closely related gene associated with psoriasis and which is involved in antigen expression, should be preferentially expressed within lesional psoriasis towards the basement membrane, together with other proximal associated immune activity; and (7) that there is some association between antilaminin pemphigoid, a humorally mediated autoimmune disease to skin basement membrane laminin, and psoriasis. We here review the data relevant to each of these requirements. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  1. Lung-Specific Loss of α3 Laminin Worsens Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I.; Rogel, Micah R.; Eisenberg, Jessica L.; Hamill, Kevin J.; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A.; Ridge, Karen M.; Misharin, Alexander V.; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3fl/fl). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression. PMID:25188360

  2. Laminin C1 expression by uterine carcinoma cells is associated with tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hiroyasu; Wu, Ren-Chin; Wang, Yihong; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Shiozawa, Tanri; Wang, Tian-Li; Fader, Amanda N; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Molecular markers associated with tumor progression in uterine carcinoma are poorly defined. In this study, we determine whether upregulation of LAMC1, a gene encoding extracellular matrix protein, laminin γ1, is associated with various uterine carcinoma subtypes and stages of tumor progression. An analysis of the immunostaining patterns of laminin γ1 in normal endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and a total of 150 uterine carcinomas, including low-grade and high-grade endometrioid carcinomas, uterine serous and clear cell carcinoma, was performed. Clinicopathological correlation was performed to determine biological significance. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set was used to validate our results. As compared to normal proliferative and secretory endometrium, for which laminin γ1 immunoreactivity was almost undetectable, increasing laminin C1 staining intensity was observed in epithelial cells from atypical hyperplasia to low-grade endometrioid to high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, respectively. Laminin γ1 expression was significantly associated with FIGO stage, myometrial invasion, cervical/adnexal involvement, angiolymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. Similarly, analysis of the endometrial carcinoma data set from TCGA revealed that LAMC1 transcript levels were higher in high-grade than those in low-grade endometrioid carcinoma. Silencing LAMC1 expression by siRNAs in a high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cell line did not affect its proliferative activity but significantly suppressed cell motility and invasion in vitro. These data suggest that laminin γ1 may contribute to the development and progression of uterine carcinoma, likely through enhancing tumor cell motility and invasion. Laminin γ1 warrants further investigation regarding its role as a biomarker and therapeutic target in uterine carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential role for laminin 5 in hypoxia-mediated apoptosis of human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Esco, M A; Wang, Z; McDermott, M L; Kurpakus-Wheater, M

    2001-11-01

    Laminin 5 functions to promote cell-matrix adhesion and therefore is hypothesized to abrogate apoptosis initiated through the loss of epithelial cell contact with extracellular matrix. Laminin 5 levels are decreased in epithelial cells cultured in a hypoxic environment. Exposure of epithelial cells to hypoxia may induce apoptotic pathways transmitted through changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Using an apoptosis assay based on mitochondrial membrane integrity, the effect of hypoxia (2% oxygen) on human corneal epithelial cell viability was determined. Both a virally transformed corneal epithelial cell line and third passage corneal epithelial cells were resistant to hypoxia-mediated apoptosis for up to 5 days in culture. However, at 7 days in culture, a statistically significant increase in apoptosis was noted in hypoxic corneal epithelial cells compared to normoxic (20% oxygen) controls. Increased apoptosis in hypoxic epithelium at 7 days in culture correlated with decreased deposition of laminin 5 into the extracellular matrix, as determined by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the extracellular processing of the alpha3 and gamma2 chains of laminin 5 was negatively impacted by corneal epithelial cell exposure to hypoxia for 7 days. Treatment of human corneal epithelial cells cultured in 20% oxygen with function-inhibiting antibodies to laminin 5 for 2 or 3 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in proliferation, and concomitant increase in apoptosis, compared with untreated normoxic controls. Based on these results, it appears that mechanisms of hypoxia-mediated apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells may be initiated by the loss of processed laminin 5 in the extracellular matrix or by the loss of laminin 5-epithelial cell communication and transmitted through mitochondria.

  4. An Anti-Human Lutheran Glycoprotein Phage Antibody Inhibits Cell Migration on Laminin-511: Epitope Mapping of the Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto-Okawa, Yurie; Maeda, Yuka; Harashima, Nozomi; Sugawara, Yumika; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Hui, Kam Man; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Ito, Yuji; Kikkawa, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    The Lutheran glycoprotein (Lu), also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM), is an Ig superfamily (IgSF) transmembrane receptor for laminin α5. Although Lu is not present in normal hepatocytes, its expression is significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we isolated thirteen phage antibodies to Lu from a phage library of peripheral blood from HCC patients, suggesting that these patients produced autoantibodies against endogenous Lu. To characterize the phage antibodies, we determined the Lu domains they recognize. The extracellular domain of Lu contains five IgSF domains, D1-D2-D3-D4-D5. The epitope of one phage antibody (A7) was localized to the D5 domain. The other phage antibodies recognized the D2 domain, which is also recognized by a function blocking mouse monoclonal antibody. One of the antibodies to D2 (C7) inhibited the binding of Lu to ligand, and it also prevented tumor cell migration on laminin-511 (LM-511). However, the C7 scFv purified from the periplasm fraction of bacteria did not exhibit the inhibitory effects, indicating that the scFv form could not sterically inhibit the binding of Lu to LM-511. We also identified the amino acid residues that form the epitope recognized by the C7 phage antibody. Mutagenesis studies showed that Arg247 is necessary for forming the epitope. The C7 phage antibody and its epitope may be useful for developing drugs to prevent HCC progression and/or metastasis. PMID:28060819

  5. Laminin-111 enriched fibrin hydrogels for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Marcinczyk, Madison; Elmashhady, Hady; Talovic, Muhamed; Dunn, Andrew; Bugis, Faiz; Garg, Koyal

    2017-10-01

    Laminin (LM)-111 supplementation has improved muscle regeneration in several models of disease and injury. This study investigated a novel hydrogel composed of fibrinogen and LM-111. Increasing LM-111 concentration (50-450 μg/mL) in fibrin hydrogels resulted in highly fibrous scaffolds with progressively thinner interlaced fibers. Rheological testing showed that all hydrogels had viscoelastic behavior and the Young's modulus ranged from 2-6KPa. C2C12 myobalsts showed a significant increase in VEGF production and decrease in IL-6 production on LM-111 enriched fibrin hydrogels as compared to pure fibrin hydrogels on day 4. Western blotting results showed a significant increase in MyoD and desmin protein quantity but a significant decrease in myogenin protein quantity in myoblasts cultured on the LM-111 (450 μg/mL) enriched fibrin hydrogel. Combined application of electromechanical stimulation significantly enhanced the production of VEGF and IGF-1 from myoblast seeded fibrin-LM-111 hydrogels. Taken together, these observations offer an important first step toward optimizing a tissue engineered constructs for skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The follicular thyroid cell line PCCL3 responds differently to laminin and to polylaminin, a polymer of laminin assembled in acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Palmero, C Y; Miranda-Alves, L; Sant'Ana Barroso, M M; Souza, E C L; Machado, D E; Palumbo-Junior, A; Santos, C A N; Portilho, D M; Mermelstein, C S; Takiya, C M; Carvalho, D P; Hochman-Mendez, C; Coelho-Sampaio, T; Nasciutti, L E

    2013-08-25

    The extracellular-matrix protein laminin forms polymers both in vivo and in vitro. Acidification of pH leads to the formation of an artificial polymer with biomimetic properties, named polylaminin (polyLM). Follicle cells in the thyroid are in close contact with laminin, but their response to this important extracellular signal is still poorly understood. PCCL3 thyroid follicular cells cultured on glass, on regular laminin (LM) or on laminin previously polymerized in acidic pH (polyLM) showed different cell morphologies and propensities to proliferate, as well as differences in the organization of their actin cytoskeleton. On polyLM, cells displayed a typical epithelial morphology and radially organized actin fibers; whereas on LM, they spread irregularly on the substrate, lost cell contacts, and developed thick actin fibers extending through the entire cytoplasm. Iodide uptake decreased similarly in response to both laminin substrates, in comparison to glass. On both the LM and polyLM substrates, the expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) decreased slightly but not significantly. NIS showed dotted immunostaining at the plasma membrane in the cells cultured on glass; on polyLM, NIS was observed mainly in the perinuclear region, and more diffusely throughout the cytoplasm on the LM substrate. Additionally, polyLM specifically favored the maintenance of cell polarity in culture. These findings indicate that PCCL3 cells can discriminate between LM and polyLM and that they respond to the latter by better preserving the phenotype observed in the thyroid tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Forced expression of laminin beta1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin beta2, a model for Pierson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung Hee; Jarad, George; VanDeVoorde, Rene G; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-09-13

    Pierson syndrome is a congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurological defects caused by mutations in LAMB2, the gene encoding the basement membrane protein laminin β2 (Lamβ2). It is the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) that is defective in Pierson syndrome, as Lamβ2 is a component of laminin-521 (LM-521; α5β2γ1), the major laminin in the mature GBM. In both Pierson syndrome and the Lamb2(-/-) mouse model for this disease, laminin β1 (Lamβ1), a structurally similar homolog of Lamβ2, is marginally increased in the GBM, but it fails to fully compensate for the loss of Lamβ2, leading to the filtration barrier defects and nephrotic syndrome. Here we generated several lines of Lamβ1 transgenic mice and used them to show that podocyte-specific Lamβ1 expression in Lamb2(-/-) mice abrogates the development of nephrotic syndrome, correlating with a greatly extended lifespan. In addition, the more Lamβ1 was expressed, the less urinary albumin was excreted. Transgenic Lamβ1 expression increased the level of Lamα5 in the GBM of rescued mice, consistent with the desired increased deposition of laminin-511 (α5β1γ1) trimers. Ultrastructural analysis revealed occasional knob-like subepithelial GBM thickening but intact podocyte foot processes in aged rescued mice. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations.

  8. α1- and α5-containing laminins regulate the development of bile ducts via β1 integrin signals.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Kikkawa, Yamato; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-08-17

    Signals derived from basal lamina components are important for developing three-dimensional architecture of epithelial tissues. Laminins consisting of α, β, and γ subunits in basal lamina play pivotal roles in the formation and maintenance of epithelial tissue structures. However, it remains unclear which laminin isoforms transmit signals and how epithelial cells receive them to regulate multiple developmental processes. In three-dimensional culture of a liver progenitor cell line, Hepatic Progenitor Cells Proliferating on Laminin (HPPL), the cells establish apicobasal polarity and form cysts with a central lumen. Neutralizing antibody against β1 integrin blocked the formation and maintenance of the cyst structure, indicating that β1 integrin signaling was necessary throughout the morphogenesis. Although the addition of α1-containing laminin, a ligand of β1 integrin, induced cyst formation, it was dispensable for the maintenance of the cyst, suggesting that HPPL produces another ligand for β1 integrin to maintain the structure. Indeed, we found that HPPL produced α5-containing laminin, and siRNA against laminin α5 partially inhibited the lumen formation. In fetal liver, p75NTR(+) periportal fibroblasts and bile duct epithelial cells, known as cholangiocytes, expressed α1- and α5-containing laminins, respectively. In laminin α5 KO liver, cholangiocytes normally emerged, but the number of bile ducts was decreased. These results suggest that α1-containing laminin is sufficient as a component of the basal lamina for the commitment of bipotential liver progenitors to cholangiocytes and the apicobasal polarization, whereas α5-containing laminin is necessary for the formation of mature duct structures. Thus, α1- and α5-containing laminins differentially regulate the sequential events to form epithelial tissues via β1 integrin signals.

  9. Maintenance of Hepatic Functions in Primary Human Hepatocytes Cultured on Xeno-Free and Chemical Defined Human Recombinant Laminins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Zemack, Helen; Johansson, Helene; Hagbard, Louise; Jorns, Carl; Li, Meng; Ellis, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Refined methods for maintaining specific functions of isolated hepatocytes under xeno-free and chemical defined conditions is of great importance for the development of hepatocyte research and regenerative therapy. Laminins, a large family of heterotrimeric basement membrane adhesion proteins, are highly cell and tissue type specific components of the extracellular matrix and strongly influence the behavior and function of associated cells and/or tissues. However, detailed biological functions of many laminin isoforms are still to be evaluated. In this study, we determined the distribution of laminin isoforms in human liver tissue and isolated primary human hepatocytes by western blot analysis, and investigated the efficacy of different human recombinant laminin isoforms on hepatic functions during culture. Protein expressions of laminin-chain α2, α3, α4, β1, β3, γ1, and γ2 were detected in both isolated human hepatocytes and liver tissue. No α1 and α5 expression could be detected in liver tissue or hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from five different individual livers, and cultured on human recombinant laminin isoforms -111, -211, -221, -332, -411, -421, -511, and -521 (Biolamina AB), matrigel (extracted from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma), or collagen type IV (Collagen). Hepatocytes cultured on laminin showed characteristic hexagonal shape in a flat cell monolayer. Viability, double stranded DNA concentration, and Ki67 expression for hepatocytes cultured for six days on laminin were comparable to those cultured on EHS and Collagen. Hepatocytes cultured on laminin also displayed production of human albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, bile acids, and gene expression of liver-enriched factors, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, glucose-6-phosphate, cytochrome P450 3A4, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. We conclude that all forms of human recombinant laminin tested maintain cell viability and liver-specific functions of primary human

  10. α1- and α5-containing Laminins Regulate the Development of Bile Ducts via β1 Integrin Signals*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Kikkawa, Yamato; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Signals derived from basal lamina components are important for developing three-dimensional architecture of epithelial tissues. Laminins consisting of α, β, and γ subunits in basal lamina play pivotal roles in the formation and maintenance of epithelial tissue structures. However, it remains unclear which laminin isoforms transmit signals and how epithelial cells receive them to regulate multiple developmental processes. In three-dimensional culture of a liver progenitor cell line, Hepatic Progenitor Cells Proliferating on Laminin (HPPL), the cells establish apicobasal polarity and form cysts with a central lumen. Neutralizing antibody against β1 integrin blocked the formation and maintenance of the cyst structure, indicating that β1 integrin signaling was necessary throughout the morphogenesis. Although the addition of α1-containing laminin, a ligand of β1 integrin, induced cyst formation, it was dispensable for the maintenance of the cyst, suggesting that HPPL produces another ligand for β1 integrin to maintain the structure. Indeed, we found that HPPL produced α5-containing laminin, and siRNA against laminin α5 partially inhibited the lumen formation. In fetal liver, p75NTR+ periportal fibroblasts and bile duct epithelial cells, known as cholangiocytes, expressed α1- and α5-containing laminins, respectively. In laminin α5 KO liver, cholangiocytes normally emerged, but the number of bile ducts was decreased. These results suggest that α1-containing laminin is sufficient as a component of the basal lamina for the commitment of bipotential liver progenitors to cholangiocytes and the apicobasal polarization, whereas α5-containing laminin is necessary for the formation of mature duct structures. Thus, α1- and α5-containing laminins differentially regulate the sequential events to form epithelial tissues via β1 integrin signals. PMID:22761447

  11. Ultrastructure of acetylcholine receptor aggregates parallels mechanisms of aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Dennis D; Lee, Lara K; Stollberg, Jes

    2001-01-01

    Background Acetylcholine receptors become aggregated at the developing neuromuscular synapse shortly after contact by a motorneuron in one of the earliest manifestations of synaptic development. While a major physiological signal for receptor aggregation (agrin) is known, the mechanism(s) by which muscle cells respond to this and other stimuli have yet to be worked out in detail. The question of mechanism is addressed in the present study via a quantitative examination of ultrastructural receptor arrangement within aggregates. Results In receptor rich cell membranes resulting from stimulation by agrin or laminin, or in control membrane showing spontaneous receptor aggregation, receptors were found to be closer to neighboring receptors than would be expected at random. This indicates that aggregation proceeds heterogeneously: nanoaggregates, too small for detection in the light microscope, underlie developing microaggregates of receptors in all three cases. In contrast, the structural arrangement of receptors within nanoaggregates was found to depend on the aggregation stimulus. In laminin induced nanoaggregates receptors were found to be arranged in an unstructured manner, in contrast to the hexagonal array of about 10 nm spacing found for agrin induced nanoaggregates. Spontaneous aggregates displayed an intermediate amount of order, and this was found to be due to two distinct population of nanoaggregates. Conclusions The observations support earlier studies indicating that mechanisms by which agrin and laminin-1 induced receptor aggregates form are distinct and, for the first time, relate mechanisms underlying spontaneous aggregate formation to aggregate structure. PMID:11749670

  12. Renal collecting system growth and function depend upon embryonic γ1 laminin expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Hua; McKee, Karen K; Chen, Zu-Lin; Mernaugh, Glenda; Strickland, Sidney; Zent, Roy; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2011-10-01

    In order to understand the functions of laminins in the renal collecting system, the Lamc1 gene was inactivated in the developing mouse ureteric bud (UB). Embryos bearing null alleles exhibited laminin deficiency prior to mesenchymal tubular induction and either failed to develop a UB with involution of the mesenchyme, or developed small kidneys with decreased proliferation and branching, delayed renal vesicle formation and postnatal emergence of a water transport deficit. Embryonic day 12.5 kidneys revealed an almost complete absence of basement membrane proteins and reduced levels of α6 integrin and FGF2. mRNA levels for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and mediators of the GDNF/RET and WNT11 signaling pathway were also decreased. Furthermore, collecting duct cells derived from laminin-deficient kidneys and grown in collagen gels were found to proliferate and branch slowly. The laminin-deficient cells exhibited decreased activation of growth factor- and integrin-dependent pathways, whereas heparin lyase-treated and β1 integrin-null cells exhibited more selective decreases. Collectively, these data support a requirement of γ1 laminins for assembly of the collecting duct system basement membrane, in which immobilized ligands act as solid-phase agonists to promote branching morphogenesis, growth and water transport functions.

  13. Interaction of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BRO-A and host cell protein laminin.

    PubMed

    Kang, W K; Imai, N; Suzuki, M; Iwanaga, M; Matsumoto, S; Zemskov, E A

    2003-01-01

    The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) contains five baculovirus repeated ORF ( bro) genes, all of which are expressed as delayed early genes. We have recently reported that BmNPV BRO proteins, specially BRO-A and BRO-C, contain a nucleic acid binding activity and are involved in nucleosome structures in nuclei of infected cells. To further understand the function of bro-a gene, we looked for factors interacting with BmNPV BRO-A using the yeast two-hybrid system. Fifteen clones obtained from a cDNA library of mock-infected cells and one from a library prepared at 2 h postinfection (p.i.) were found to comprise one distinct gene, which was identified as the Bombyx homolog (bLaminin) of Drosophila laminin beta1. A direct interaction between BRO-A and N-terminal region of bLaminin was demonstrated by in vitro pull-down experiments. Further pull-down assays using BmN cell extracts and anti-laminin antibodies also showed interaction of both proteins. In addition, two more clones were obtained from cDNA library of 12 h p.i. and were found to encode BRO-A itself, indicating that BRO-A forms an oligomer. Taken together, we propose that BRO-A may function as a laminin binding protein.

  14. Construction of a fucoidan/laminin functional multilayer to direction vascular cell fate and promotion hemocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Ye, Changrong; Wang, Yan; Su, Hong; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan; F Maitz, Manfred; Zhao, Anshan

    2016-07-01

    Surface biofunctional modification of cardiovascular stents is a versatile approach to reduce the adverse effects after implantation. In this work, a novel multifunctional coating was fabricated by coimmobilization of the sulfated polysaccharide of brown algae fucoidan and laminin to biomimic the vascular intimal conditions in order to support rapid endothelialization, prevent restenosis and improve hemocompatibility. The surface properties of the coating such as hydrophilicity, bonding density of biomolecules and stability were evaluated and optimized. According to the biocompatibility tests, the fucoidan/laminin multilayer coated surface displayed less platelet adhesion with favorable anticoagulant property. In addition, the fucoidan/laminin complex showed function to selectively regulate vascular cells growth behavior. The proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) on the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was significantly promoted. For the smooth muscle cells (SMCs), inhibitory effects on cell adhesion and proliferation were observed. In conclusion, the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was successfully fabricated with desirable anticoagulant and endothelialization properties which show a promising application in the vascular devices such as vascular stents or grafts surface modification.

  15. [Effect of laminin on structural karyotype variability of kangaroo rat kidney cell lines].

    PubMed

    Polianskaia, G G; Goriachaia, T S; Pinaev, G P

    2003-01-01

    The structural karyotypic variability has been investigated in the "markerless" epithelial-like Rat kangaroo kidney cell lines NBL-3-17 and NBL-3-11 on cultivation on a laminin-2/4 coated surface. In cell line NBL-3-17, cultivated on the laminin-coated surface for 2, 4 and 12 days, and in cell line NBL-3-11, cultivated on the laminin-coated surface for 2 and 4 days, there is a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, both chromosomal breaks and dicentrics (telomeric associations). Different sensitivity of individual chromosomes to inducing chromosomal breaks was observed in addition to a preferential involvement of some chromosomes in dicentric formation. Structural instability of chromosomes at cultivation on laminin demonstrates nonspecific reaction of the "markerless" cell lines to unfavourable factors of the environment. We discuss possible reasons of differences in the character of karyotypic variability between a cell line of the Indian muntjac skin fibroblasts and epithelial-like Rat kangaroo kidney cell lines cultivated on laminin.

  16. Role of laminin in maintenance of type II pneumocyte morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, S.R.; Yarnell, J.A.; Fisher, C.S.; Fabisiak, J.P.; Rannels, D.E. )

    1987-12-01

    Loss of differentiated function by type II pneumocytes plated on plastic surfaces was demonstrated by decreased lamellar body content, increased cellular protein, and rapid cellular flattening, changes that were retarded modestly by plating cells on laminin-coated surfaces. Laminin surfaces also inhibited ({sup 3}H)thymidine (THM) incorporation into cellular DNA by 40% compared with plastic at 40 h, but did not alter an additional mitogenic effect of rat serum over fetal calf serum. In contrast, cells plated on the laminin-rich basement membrane-like gel formed from an extract of EHS mouse sarcoma, matrix gel (MG), maintained a high content of intracellular lipids in lamellar inclusions and retained a rounded morphology for at least 3 days. MG markedly inhibited THM incorporation and morphological changes when cells were cultured on this surface of when MG was formed over cells initially plated on plastic for various intervals. The importance of the laminin component of MG was demonstrated when these surfaces were pretreated with a highly specific antilaminin serum. Type II cells commenced flattening on the treated MG surface, and THM incorporation increased with the same time course as did control cells on plastic. The data suggest that short-term culture and study of differentiated type II pneumocytes may require a laminin-rich substratum. THM incorporation into type II cell DNA provides an important early and sensitive index of cell-basement membrane interaction and subsequent maintenance of function.

  17. Different ideas associated renal malformation and laminin α5 expression caused by maternal nicotine exposures.

    PubMed

    Shariati Kohbanani, M; Taghavi, M M; Shabanizadeh, A; Jafari Naveh, H R; Taghipour, Z; Kazemi Arababadi, M

    2016-03-31

    The number of smokers is increasing specially in pregnant mothers and millions of children with health problems are born from the smoker mothers. Nicotine as a toxic substance crosses from placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. In this study, the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on expression levels of kidney laminin α5 in newborn mice were examined. Timed pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day from day 7 of gestation to the last day of the pregnancy (Group 1) and from day 7 until the two weeks of postnatal (Group 2). Sham control groups were injected with saline. After the last injection, all the newborn mice were anesthetized; their kidneys were removed and prepared for analysis of mRNA and protein expression of laminin α5 using Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Our results showed that mRNA levels of kidney laminin α5 in newborn mice were increased in group 1 when compared to sham control group and also group 2. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the protein levels of laminin α5 in the glomerulus have significantly increased in group 1 when compared to group 2. In the proximal convoluted tubules, the parameter had a high significant increase in group 1 in comparison to control and also group 2. According to the results, it seems that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin α5 expression which may cause defects in kidney function during life time.

  18. In vivo evaluation of a novel implant coating agent: laminin-1.

    PubMed

    Bougas, Kostas; Jimbo, Ryo; Vandeweghe, Stefan; Tovar, Nick; Baldassarri, Marta; Alenezi, Ali; Janal, Malvin; Coelho, Paulo G; Wennerberg, Ann

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of implant coating with laminin-1 on the early stages of osseointegration in vivo. Turned titanium implants were coated with the osteoprogenitor-stimulating protein, laminin-1 (TL). Their osteogenic performance was assessed with removal torque, histomorphometry, and nanoindentation in a rabbit model after 2 and 4 weeks. The performance of the test implants was compared with turned control implants (T), alkali- and heat-treated implants (AH), and AH implants coated with laminin-1. After 2 weeks, TL demonstrated significantly higher removal torque as compared with T and equivalent to AH. Bone area was significantly higher for the test surface after 4 weeks, while no significant changes were detected on the micromechanical properties of the surrounding bone. Within the limitations of this study, our results suggest a great potential for laminin-1 as a coating agent. A turned implant surface coated with laminin-1 could enhance osseointegration comparable with a bioactive implant surface while keeping the surface smooth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Endothelial basement membrane laminin 511 is essential for shear stress response.

    PubMed

    Di Russo, Jacopo; Luik, Anna-Liisa; Yousif, Lema; Budny, Sigmund; Oberleithner, Hans; Hofschröer, Verena; Klingauf, Juergen; van Bavel, Ed; Bakker, Erik Ntp; Hellstrand, Per; Bhattachariya, Anirban; Albinsson, Sebastian; Pincet, Frederic; Hallmann, Rupert; Sorokin, Lydia M

    2017-01-17

    Shear detection and mechanotransduction by arterial endothelium requires junctional complexes containing PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin, as well as firm anchorage to the underlying basement membrane. While considerable information is available for junctional complexes in these processes, gained largely from in vitro studies, little is known about the contribution of the endothelial basement membrane. Using resistance artery explants, we show that the integral endothelial basement membrane component, laminin 511 (laminin α5), is central to shear detection and mechanotransduction and its elimination at this site results in ablation of dilation in response to increased shear stress. Loss of endothelial laminin 511 correlates with reduced cortical stiffness of arterial endothelium in vivo, smaller integrin β1-positive/vinculin-positive focal adhesions, and reduced junctional association of actin-myosin II In vitro assays reveal that β1 integrin-mediated interaction with laminin 511 results in high strengths of adhesion, which promotes p120 catenin association with VE-cadherin, stabilizing it at cell junctions and increasing cell-cell adhesion strength. This highlights the importance of endothelial laminin 511 in shear response in the physiologically relevant context of resistance arteries. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  20. Laminin and Matrix metalloproteinase 11 regulate Fibronectin levels in the zebrafish myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Molly H; Alrowaished, Sarah S; Goody, Michelle F; Crawford, Bryan D; Henry, Clarissa A

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix. One such shift involves the replacement of Fibronectin (Fn)-rich matrix, which is essential for both somite and early muscle development, with laminin-rich matrix essential for normal function of the myotome. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying this transition. We show that laminin polymerization indirectly promotes Fn downregulation at the MTJ, via a matrix metalloproteinase 11 (Mmp11)-dependent mechanism. Laminin deposition and organization is required for localization of Mmp11 to the MTJ, where Mmp11 is both necessary and sufficient for Fn downregulation in vivo. Furthermore, reduction of residual Mmp11 in laminin mutants promotes a Fn-rich MTJ that partially rescues skeletal muscle architecture. These results identify a mechanism for Fn downregulation at the MTJ, highlight crosstalk between laminin and Fn, and identify a new in vivo function for Mmp11. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel signaling pathway mediating Fn downregulation. Our data revealing new regulatory mechanisms that guide ECM remodeling during morphogenesis in vivo may inform pathological conditions in which Fn is dysregulated.

  1. Laminin-α2 Chain-Deficient Congenital Muscular Dystrophy: Pathophysiology and Development of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Laminin-211 is a major constituent of the skeletal muscle basement membrane. It stabilizes skeletal muscle and influences signal transduction events from the myomatrix to the muscle cell. Mutations in the gene encoding the α2 chain of laminin-211 lead to congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A), a life-threatening disease characterized by severe hypotonia, progressive muscle weakness, and joint contractures. Common complications include severely impaired motor ability, respiratory failure, and feeding difficulties. Several adequate animal models for laminin-α2 chain deficiency exist and analyses of different MDC1A mouse models have led to a significant improvement in our understanding of MDC1A pathogenesis. Importantly, the animal models have been indispensable tools for the preclinical development of new therapeutic approaches for laminin-α2 chain deficiency, highlighting a number of important disease driving mechanisms that can be targeted by pharmacological approaches. In this chapter, I will describe laminin-211 and discuss the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of MDC1A as well as progression toward development of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential expression of laminin isoforms in diabetic nephropathy and other renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Setty, Suman; Michael, Alfred A; Fish, Alfred J; Michael Mauer, S; Butkowski, Ralph J; Virtanen, Ismo; Kim, Youngki

    2012-06-01

    Laminin a non-collagenous glycoprotein is a major component of the renal glomerular basement membrane and mesangium. Thus far eleven distinct chains have been described, permutations of which make up 15 laminin isoforms. Laminin molecules interact with cells and other matrix molecules during organ development and differentiation. We studied the distribution of laminin isoforms in patients with type 1 diabetic nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy/ Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Immunofluorescence microscopic studies with laminin-chain-specific antibodies to the α1, α2, α5, β1, β2 and γ1 chains detected α2, β1 and γ1 chain expression in the normal mesangium and α5, β2 and γ1 in normal glomerular basement membrane. Significantly, constituents of the glomerular basement membrane, α5, β2 and γ1 chains were overexpressed in kidneys with diabetic nephropathy. Initially the constituents of the mesangium increased commensurate with the degree of mesangial expansion and degree of diabetic nephropathy. Reduction in α2 chain intensity was observed with severe mesangial expansion and in the areas of nodular glomerulosclerosis. In addition, with late disease aberrant expression of α2 and β2 chains was observed in the mesangium. Glomerular basement membrane in renal disease overexpressed molecules normally present in that location. In summary, the alterations in basement membrane composition in various renal diseases seem to not only reflect the balance between synthesis and degradation of normal basement membrane constituents, but also their aberrant expression.

  3. Laminin-411 is a vascular ligand for MCAM and facilitates TH17 cell entry into the CNS.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Ken; Fitzgerald, Kent; Baker, Jeanne; Regnstrom, Karin; Gardai, Shyra; Bard, Frederique; Mocci, Simonetta; Seto, Pui; You, Monica; Larochelle, Catherine; Prat, Alexandre; Chow, Samuel; Li, Lauri; Vandevert, Chris; Zago, Wagner; Lorenzana, Carlos; Nishioka, Christopher; Hoffman, Jennifer; Botelho, Raquel; Willits, Christopher; Tanaka, Kevin; Johnston, Jennifer; Yednock, Ted

    2012-01-01

    TH17 cells enter tissues to facilitate pathogenic autoimmune responses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the adhesion molecules involved in the unique migratory capacity of TH17 cells, into both inflamed and uninflamed tissues remain unclear. Herein, we characterize MCAM (CD146) as an adhesion molecule that defines human TH17 cells in the circulation; following in vitro restimulation of human memory T cells, nearly all of the capacity to secrete IL-17 is contained within the population of cells expressing MCAM. Furthermore, we identify the MCAM ligand as laminin 411, an isoform of laminin expressed within the vascular endothelial basement membranes under inflammatory as well as homeotstatic conditions. Purified MCAM-Fc binds to laminin 411 with an affinity of 27 nM, and recognizes vascular basement membranes in mouse and human tissue. MCAM-Fc binding was undetectable in tissue from mice with targeted deletion of laminin 411, indicating that laminin 411 is a major tissue ligand for MCAM. An anti-MCAM monoclonal antibody, selected for inhibition of laminin binding, as well as soluble MCAM-Fc, inhibited T cell adhesion to laminin 411 in vitro. When administered in vivo, the antibody reduced TH17 cell infiltration into the CNS and ameliorated disease in an animal model of MS. Our data suggest that MCAM and laminin 411 interact to facilitate TH17 cell entry into tissues and promote inflammation.

  4. Laminin-411 Is a Vascular Ligand for MCAM and Facilitates TH17 Cell Entry into the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Ken; Fitzgerald, Kent; Baker, Jeanne; Regnstrom, Karin; Gardai, Shyra; Bard, Frederique; Mocci, Simonetta; Seto, Pui; You, Monica; Larochelle, Catherine; Prat, Alexandre; Chow, Samuel; Li, Lauri; Vandevert, Chris; Zago, Wagner; Lorenzana, Carlos; Nishioka, Christopher; Hoffman, Jennifer; Botelho, Raquel; Willits, Christopher; Tanaka, Kevin; Johnston, Jennifer; Yednock, Ted

    2012-01-01

    TH17 cells enter tissues to facilitate pathogenic autoimmune responses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the adhesion molecules involved in the unique migratory capacity of TH17 cells, into both inflamed and uninflamed tissues remain unclear. Herein, we characterize MCAM (CD146) as an adhesion molecule that defines human TH17 cells in the circulation; following in vitro restimulation of human memory T cells, nearly all of the capacity to secrete IL-17 is contained within the population of cells expressing MCAM. Furthermore, we identify the MCAM ligand as laminin 411, an isoform of laminin expressed within the vascular endothelial basement membranes under inflammatory as well as homeotstatic conditions. Purified MCAM-Fc binds to laminin 411 with an affinity of 27 nM, and recognizes vascular basement membranes in mouse and human tissue. MCAM-Fc binding was undetectable in tissue from mice with targeted deletion of laminin 411, indicating that laminin 411 is a major tissue ligand for MCAM. An anti-MCAM monoclonal antibody, selected for inhibition of laminin binding, as well as soluble MCAM-Fc, inhibited T cell adhesion to laminin 411 in vitro. When administered in vivo, the antibody reduced TH17 cell infiltration into the CNS and ameliorated disease in an animal model of MS. Our data suggest that MCAM and laminin 411 interact to facilitate TH17 cell entry into tissues and promote inflammation. PMID:22792325

  5. Laminin-5 Induces Osteogenic Gene Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells through an ERK-dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Klees, Robert F.; Salasznyk, Roman M.; Kingsley, Karl; Williams, William A.; Boskey, Adele; Plopper, George E.

    2005-01-01

    The laminin family of proteins is critical for managing a variety of cellular activities including migration, adhesion, and differentiation. In bone, the roles of laminins in controlling osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are unknown. We report here that laminin-5 is found in bone and expressed by hMSC. hMSC isolated from bone synthesize laminin-5 and adhere to exogenous laminin-5 through α3β1 integrin. Adhesion to laminin-5 activates extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) within 30 min and leads to phosphorylation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/CBFA-1 within 8 d. Cells plated on laminin-5 for 16 d express increased levels of osteogenic marker genes, and those plated for 21 d deposit a mineralized matrix, indicative of osteogenic differentiation. Addition of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 mitigates these effects. We conclude that contact with laminin-5 is sufficient to activate ERK and to stimulate osteogenic differentiation in hMSC. PMID:15574877

  6. Laminin gamma1 is critical for Schwann cell differentiation, axon myelination, and regeneration in the peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney

    2003-11-24

    Laminins are heterotrimeric extracellular matrix proteins that regulate cell viability and function. Laminin-2, composed of alpha2, beta1, and gamma1 chains, is a major matrix component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To investigate the role of laminin in the PNS, we used the Cre-loxP system to disrupt the laminin gamma1 gene in Schwann cells. These mice have dramatically reduced expression of laminin gamma1 in Schwann cells, which results in a similar reduction in laminin alpha2 and beta1 chains. These mice exhibit motor defects which lead to hind leg paralysis and tremor. During development, Schwann cells that lack laminin gamma1 were present in peripheral nerves, and proliferated and underwent apoptosis similar to control mice. However, they were unable to differentiate and synthesize myelin proteins, and therefore unable to sort and myelinate axons. In mutant mice, after sciatic nerve crush, the axons showed impaired regeneration. These experiments demonstrate that laminin is an essential component for axon myelination and regeneration in the PNS.

  7. Relationship between neuronal migration and cell-substratum adhesion: laminin and merosin promote olfactory neuronal migration but are anti- adhesive

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Regulation by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of migration, motility, and adhesion of olfactory neurons and their precursors was studied in vitro. Neuronal cells of the embryonic olfactory epithelium (OE), which undergo extensive migration in the central nervous system during normal development, were shown to be highly migratory in culture as well. Migration of OE neuronal cells was strongly dependent on substratum- bound ECM molecules, being specifically stimulated and guided by laminin (or the laminin-related molecule merosin) in preference to fibronectin, type I collagen, or type IV collagen. Motility of OE neuronal cells, examined by time-lapse video microscopy, was high on laminin-containing substrata, but negligible on fibronectin substrata. Quantitative assays of adhesion of OE neuronal cells to substrata treated with different ECM molecules demonstrated no correlation, either positive or negative, between the migratory preferences of cells and the strength of cell-substratum adhesion. Moreover, measurements of cell adhesion to substrata containing combinations of ECM proteins revealed that laminin and merosin are anti-adhesive for OE neuronal cells, i.e., cause these cells to adhere poorly to substrata that would otherwise be strongly adhesive. The evidence suggests that the anti- adhesive effect of laminin is not the result of interactions between laminin and other ECM molecules, but rather an effect of laminin on cells, which alters the way in which cells adhere. Consistent with this view, laminin was found to interfere strongly with the formation of focal contacts by OE neuronal cells. PMID:1918163

  8. Drosophila laminin: sequence of B2 subunit and expression of all three subunits during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study, we described the cloning of the genes encoding the three subunits of Drosophila laminin, a substrate adhesion molecule, and the cDNA sequence of the B1 subunit (Montell and Goodman, 1988). This analysis revealed the similarity of Drosophila laminin with the mouse and human complexes in subunit composition, domain structure, and amino acid sequence. In this paper, we report the deduced amino acid sequence of the B2 subunit. We then describe the expression and tissue distribution of the three subunits of laminin during Drosophila embryogenesis using both in situ hybridization and immunolocalization techniques, with particular emphasis on its expression in and around the developing nervous system. PMID:2808533

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-01-01

    The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. PMID:18259070

  10. Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J..

    2000-02-01

    Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.

  11. Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 in the muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K J; Kim, S S; North, K N

    1998-01-01

    Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 are responsible for a subset of the muscular dystrophies. In this study we aim to characterise the nature and frequency of abnormalities of these proteins in an Australian population and to formulate an investigative algorithm to aid in approaching the diagnosis of the muscular dystrophies. To reduce ascertainment bias, biopsies with dystrophic (n=131) and non-dystrophic myopathic (n=71) changes were studied with antibodies to dystrophin, alpha, beta, and gamma sarcoglycan, beta dystroglycan, and laminin alpha2, and results were correlated with clinical phenotype. Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, or laminin alpha2 were present in 61/131 (47%) dystrophic biopsies and in 0/71 myopathic biopsies, suggesting that immunocytochemical study of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 may, in general, be restricted to patients with dystrophic biopsies. Two patients with mutations identified in gamma sarcoglycan had abnormal dystrophin (by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot), showing that abnormalities of dystrophin may be a secondary phenomenon. Therefore, biopsies should not be excluded from sarcoglycan analysis on the basis of abnormal dystrophin alone. The diagnostic yield was highest in those with severe, rapidly progressive limb-girdle weakness (92%). Laminin alpha2 deficiency was identified in 5/131 (4%) patients; 215 patients presented after infancy, indicating that abnormalities of laminin alpha2 are not limited to the congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype. Overall patterns of immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting provided a guide to mutation analysis and, on the basis of this study, we have formulated a diagnostic algorithm to guide the investigation of patients with muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:9610800

  12. Peroxynitrous acid induces structural and functional modifications to basement membranes and its key component, laminin.

    PubMed

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y; Hammer, Astrid; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Laminin, the most abundant BM glycoprotein, is a structural and biologically active component. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo at sites of inflammation from superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Considerable data supports ONOOH formation in human atherosclerotic lesions, and an involvement of this oxidant in atherosclerosis development and lesion rupture. These effects may be mediated, at least in part, via extracellular matrix damage. In this study we demonstrate co-localization of 3-nitrotyrosine (a product of tyrosine damage by ONOOH) and laminin in human atherosclerotic lesions. ONOOH-induced damage to BM was characterized for isolated murine BM, and purified murine laminin-111. Exposure of laminin-111 to ONOOH resulted in dose-dependent loss of protein tyrosine and tryptophan residues, and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, 6-nitrotryptophan and the cross-linked material di-tyrosine, as detected by amino acid analysis and Western blotting. These changes were accompanied by protein aggregation and fragmentation as detected by SDS-PAGE. Endothelial cell adhesion to isolated laminin-111 exposed to 10 μM or higher levels of ONOOH was significantly decreased (~25%) compared to untreated controls. These data indicate that laminin is oxidized by equimolar or greater concentrations of ONOOH, with this resulting in structural and functional changes. These modifications, and resulting compromised cell-matrix interactions, may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction, a weakening of the structure of atherosclerotic lesions, and an increased propensity to rupture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mouse Acetylcholinesterase Enhances Neurite Outgrowth of Rat R28 Cells Through Interaction With Laminin-1

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Laura E.; Klaczinski, Janine; Schütz, Corina; Rudolph, Lydia; Layer, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates synaptic transmission at cholinergic synapses by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, but can also exert ‘non-classical’, morpho-regulatory effects on developing neurons such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Here, we investigated the role of AChE binding to laminin-1 on the regulation of neurite outgrowth by using cell culture, immunocytochemistry, and molecular biological approaches. To explore the role of AChE, we examined fiber growth of cells overexpressing different forms of AChE, and/or during their growth on laminin-1. A significant increase of neuritic growth as compared with controls was observed for neurons over-expressing AChE. Accordingly, addition of globular AChE to the medium increased total length of neurites. Co-transfection with PRIMA, a membrane anchor of AChE, led to an increase in fiber length similar to AChE overexpressing cells. Transfection with an AChE mutant that leads to the retention of AChE within cells had no stimulatory effect on neurite length. Noticeably, the longest neurites were produced by neurons overexpressing AChE and growing on laminin-1, suggesting that the AChE/laminin interaction is involved in regulating neurite outgrowth. Our findings demonstrate that binding of AChE to laminin-1 alters AChE activity and leads to increased neurite growth in culture. A possible mechanism of the AChE effect on neurite outgrowth is proposed due to the interaction of AChE with laminin-1. PMID:22570738

  14. Regulation of cellular interactions with laminin by integrin cytoplasmic domains: the A and B structural variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin differentially modulate the adhesive strength, morphology, and migration of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M

    1994-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits have structural variants that are identical in their extracellular and transmembrane domains but that differ in their cytoplasmic domains. The functional significance of these variants, however, is unknown. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the A and B variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin laminin receptor differ in function. For this purpose, we expressed the alpha 6A and alpha 6B cDNAs, as well as a truncated alpha 6 cDNA (alpha 6-delta CYT) in which the cytoplasmic domain sequence was deleted after the GFFKR pentapeptide, in P388D1 cells, an alpha 6 deficient macrophage cell line. Populations of stable alpha 6A, alpha 6B, and alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants that expressed equivalent levels of cell surface alpha 6 were obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorter and shown to form heterodimers with endogenous beta 1 subunits. Upon attachment to laminin, the alpha 6A transfectants extended numerous pseudopodia. In contrast, the alpha 6B transfectants remained rounded and extended few processes. The transfectants were also examined for their ability to migrate toward a laminin substratum using Transwell chambers. The alpha 6A transfectants were three- to fourfold more migratory than the alpha 6B transfectants. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants did not attach to laminin in normal culture medium, but they did attach in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants migrated to a lesser extent than either the alpha 6A or alpha 6B transfectants in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6 transfectants differed significantly in the concentration of substratum bound laminin required for half-maximal adhesion in the presence of Mn2+:alpha 6A (2.1 micrograms/ml), alpha 6B (6.3 micrograms/ml), and alpha 6-delta CYT (8.8 micrograms/ml). Divalent cation titration studies revealed that these transfectants also differed significantly in both the [Ca2+] and [Mn2+] required to obtain half-maximal adhesion to laminin

  15. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Fangxu . E-mail: jiang@wehi.edu.au; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-08-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its {alpha}{sub 6} integrin and {alpha}-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells.

  16. Conformation Analysis of Peptides Derived from Laminin Alpha 1-2 Chain Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironao; Fukuda, Masaki; Miyakawa, Takeshi; Morikawa, Ryota; Takasu, Masako

    Laminin is one of the components of the basement membrane and has diverse biological activities. Several functional peptides (EF1-EF5) are identified from LG4 modules of laminin alpha 1-5 chains. Thus, we perform conformation analysis of EF1 and EF2 using molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, we perform structure sampling with NPT ensemble (300 K, 1 bar). Our results show that EF1 peptide has β-sheet structure in water, and EF2 peptide does not have. Likewise, the EF2 peptide has unstable structure compared with the EF1 peptide in water.

  17. Laminin 332 Deposition is Diminished in Irradiated Skin in an Animal Model of Combined Radiation and Wound Skin Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, M. M.; Lopez, A.; Olasz, E. B.; Duncan, N. E.; Demara, M.; Kittipongdaja, W.; Fish, B. L.; Mäder, M.; Schock, A.; Morrow, N. V.; Semenenko, V. A.; Baker, J. E.; Moulder, J. E.; Lazarova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Skin exposure to ionizing radiation affects the normal wound healing process and greatly impacts the prognosis of affected individuals. We investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on wound healing in a rat model of combined radiation and wound skin injury. Using a soft X-ray beam, a single dose of ionizing radiation (10–40 Gy) was delivered to the skin without significant exposure to internal organs. At 1 h postirradiation, two skin wounds were made on the back of each rat. Control and experimental animals were euthanized at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days postirradiation. The wound areas were measured, and tissue samples were evaluated for laminin 332 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 expression. Our results clearly demonstrate that radiation exposure significantly delayed wound healing in a dose-related manner. Evaluation of irradiated and wounded skin showed decreased deposition of laminin 332 protein in the epidermal basement membrane together with an elevated expression of all three laminin 332 genes within 3 days postirradiation. The elevated laminin 332 gene expression was paralleled by an elevated gene and protein expression of MMP2, suggesting that the reduced amount of laminin 332 in irradiated skin is due to an imbalance between laminin 332 secretion and its accelerated processing by elevated tissue metalloproteinases. Western blot analysis of cultured rat keratinocytes showed decreased laminin 332 deposition by irradiated cells, and incubation of irradiated keratinocytes with MMP inhibitor significantly increased the amount of deposited laminin 332. Furthermore, irradiated keratinocytes exhibited a longer time to close an artificial wound, and this delay was partially corrected by seeding keratinocytes on laminin 332-coated plates. These data strongly suggest that laminin 332 deposition is inhibited by ionizing radiation and, in combination with slower keratinocyte migration, can contribute to the delayed wound healing of irradiated skin. PMID

  18. Laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions occur in temporally and spatially distinct patterns in developing kidney glomerular basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Dale R; St John, Patricia L; Stroganova, Larysa; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Steenhard, Brooke M

    2013-10-01

    Kidney glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) undergo laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions during glomerular development, which are believed to be required for maturation of the filtration barrier. Specifically, GBMs of earliest glomeruli contain laminin α1β1γ1 and collagen α1α2α1(IV), whereas mature glomeruli contain laminin α5β2γ1 and collagen α3α4α5(IV). Here, we used confocal microscopy to simultaneously evaluate expression of different laminin and collagen IV isoforms in newborn mouse GBMs. Our results show loss of laminin α1 from GBMs in early capillary loop stages and continuous linear deposition of laminin bearing the α5 chain thereafter. In contrast, collagen α1α2α1(IV) persisted in linear patterns into late capillary loop stages, when collagen α3α4α5(IV) first appeared in discontinuous, non-linear patterns. This patchy pattern for collagen α3α4α5(IV) continued into maturing glomeruli where there were lengths of linear, laminin α5-positive GBM entirely lacking either isoform of collagen IV. Relative abundance of laminin and collagen IV mRNAs in newborn and 5-week-old mouse kidneys also differed, with those encoding laminin α1, α5, β1, β2, and γ1, and collagen α1(IV) and α2(IV) chains all significantly declining at 5 weeks, but α3(IV) and α4(IV) were significantly upregulated. We conclude that different biosynthetic mechanisms control laminin and type IV collagen expression in developing glomeruli.

  19. Laminin and Type IV Collagen Isoform Substitutions Occur in Temporally and Spatially Distinct Patterns in Developing Kidney Glomerular Basement Membranes

    PubMed Central

    St. John, Patricia L.; Stroganova, Larysa; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Steenhard, Brooke M.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) undergo laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions during glomerular development, which are believed to be required for maturation of the filtration barrier. Specifically, GBMs of earliest glomeruli contain laminin α1β1γ1 and collagen α1α2α1(IV), whereas mature glomeruli contain laminin α5β2γ1 and collagen α3α4α5(IV). Here, we used confocal microscopy to simultaneously evaluate expression of different laminin and collagen IV isoforms in newborn mouse GBMs. Our results show loss of laminin α1 from GBMs in early capillary loop stages and continuous linear deposition of laminin bearing the α5 chain thereafter. In contrast, collagen α1α2α1(IV) persisted in linear patterns into late capillary loop stages, when collagen α3α4α5(IV) first appeared in discontinuous, non-linear patterns. This patchy pattern for collagen α3α4α5(IV) continued into maturing glomeruli where there were lengths of linear, laminin α5-positive GBM entirely lacking either isoform of collagen IV. Relative abundance of laminin and collagen IV mRNAs in newborn and 5-week-old mouse kidneys also differed, with those encoding laminin α1, α5, β1, β2, and γ1, and collagen α1(IV) and α2(IV) chains all significantly declining at 5 weeks, but α3(IV) and α4(IV) were significantly upregulated. We conclude that different biosynthetic mechanisms control laminin and type IV collagen expression in developing glomeruli. PMID:23896970

  20. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-09-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is /approx/9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged.

  1. Amino acid sequence and distribution of mRNA encoding a major skeletal muscle laminin binding protein: an extracellular matrix-associated protein with an unusual COOH-terminal polyaspartate domain.

    PubMed

    Clegg, D O; Helder, J C; Hann, B C; Hall, D E; Reichardt, L F

    1988-08-01

    Two cDNAs encoding an abundant chicken muscle extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated laminin-binding protein (LBP) have been isolated and sequenced. The predicted primary amino acid sequence includes a probable signal peptide and a site for N-linked glycosylation, but lacks a hydrophobic segment long enough to span the membrane. The COOH terminus consists of an unusual repeat of 33 consecutive aspartate residues. Comparison with other sequences indicates that this protein is different from previously described LBPs and ECM receptors. RNA blot analysis of LBP gene expression showed that LBP mRNA was abundant in skeletal and heart muscle, but barely detectable in other tissues. Blots of chicken genomic DNA suggest that a single gene encodes this LBP. The amino acid sequence and mRNA distribution are consistent with the biochemical characterization described by Hall and co-workers (Hall, D. E., K. A. Frazer, B. C. Hahn, and L. F. Reichardt. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:687-697). These analyses indicate that LBP is an abundant ECM-associated muscle protein with an unusually high negative charge that interacts with both membranes and laminin, and has properties of a peripheral, not integral membrane protein. Taken together, our studies show that muscle LBP is a secreted, peripheral membrane protein with an unusual polyaspartate domain. Its laminin and membrane binding properties suggest that it may help mediate muscle cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. We propose the name "aspartactin" for this LBP.

  2. Amino acid sequence and distribution of mRNA encoding a major skeletal muscle laminin binding protein: an extracellular matrix-associated protein with an unusual COOH-terminal polyaspartate domain

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding an abundant chicken muscle extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated laminin-binding protein (LBP) have been isolated and sequenced. The predicted primary amino acid sequence includes a probable signal peptide and a site for N-linked glycosylation, but lacks a hydrophobic segment long enough to span the membrane. The COOH terminus consists of an unusual repeat of 33 consecutive aspartate residues. Comparison with other sequences indicates that this protein is different from previously described LBPs and ECM receptors. RNA blot analysis of LBP gene expression showed that LBP mRNA was abundant in skeletal and heart muscle, but barely detectable in other tissues. Blots of chicken genomic DNA suggest that a single gene encodes this LBP. The amino acid sequence and mRNA distribution are consistent with the biochemical characterization described by Hall and co-workers (Hall, D. E., K. A. Frazer, B. C. Hahn, and L. F. Reichardt. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:687-697). These analyses indicate that LBP is an abundant ECM-associated muscle protein with an unusually high negative charge that interacts with both membranes and laminin, and has properties of a peripheral, not integral membrane protein. Taken together, our studies show that muscle LBP is a secreted, peripheral membrane protein with an unusual polyaspartate domain. Its laminin and membrane binding properties suggest that it may help mediate muscle cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. We propose the name "aspartactin" for this LBP. PMID:3417769

  3. Characterization of commercial laminin preparations from human placenta in comparison to recombinant laminins 2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1).

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Gorfu, Gezahegn; Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Smirnov, Sergei; Yurchenco, Peter; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2006-03-01

    Laminins, a family of large heterotrimeric (alphabetagamma) proteins, are major components of basement membranes implicated in a variety of cellular functions. Different commercial laminin preparations isolated from human placenta have been widely used in functional studies but their molecular properties are poorly known. In the present study, we characterized several of these preparations by ELISA, silver staining and Western blotting, in comparison to mouse laminin 1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and recombinant human laminins 2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1). The cell migration-promoting activity of different batches was also tested. The placenta laminin preparations differed from one another and consisted of highly fragmented proteins, a mixture of laminin isoforms, and/or contaminating fibronectin. Major functional differences between batches were also observed, reflecting molecular heterogeneity. Previous data obtained in functional studies using these preparations need to be interpreted with caution and may require revision, and future functional studies demand prior molecular characterization of the laminins, particularly their alpha-chain.

  4. Bortezomib partially improves laminin α2 chain-deficient muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Körner, Zandra; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely C; Holmberg, Johan; Carmignac, Virginie; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy, caused by mutations in LAMA2 (the gene encoding laminin α2 chain), is a severe and incapacitating disease for which no therapy is yet available. We have recently demonstrated that proteasome activity is increased in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle and that treatment with the nonpharmaceutical proteasome inhibitor MG-132 reduces muscle pathology in laminin α2 chain-deficient dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice. Here, we explore the use of the selective and therapeutic proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (currently used for treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma) in dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice and in congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A muscle cells. Outcome measures included quantitative muscle morphology, gene and miRNA expression analyses, proteasome activity, motor activity, and survival. Bortezomib improved several histological hallmarks of disease, partially normalized miRNA expression (miR-1 and miR-133a), and enhanced body weight, locomotion, and survival of dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice. In addition, bortezomib reduced proteasome activity in congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A myoblasts and myotubes. These findings provide evidence that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially reduces laminin α2 chain-deficient muscular dystrophy. Investigation of the clinical efficacy of bortezomib administration in congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A clinical trials may be warranted.

  5. Biophysical analysis of a lethal laminin alpha-1 mutation reveals altered self-interaction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Nikodemus, Denise; Besong, Tabot M D; Reuten, Raphael; Meier, Markus; Harding, Stephen E; Winzor, Donald J; Koch, Manuel; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Laminins are key basement membrane molecules that influence several biological activities and are linked to a number of diseases. They are secreted as heterotrimeric proteins consisting of one α, one β, and one γ chain, followed by their assembly into a polymer-like sheet at the basement membrane. Using sedimentation velocity, dynamic light scattering, and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we studied self-association of three laminin (LM) N-terminal fragments α-1 (hLM α-1N), α-5 (hLM α-5N) and β-3 (hLM β-3N) originating from the short arms of the human laminin αβγ heterotrimer. Corresponding studies of the hLM α-1N C49S mutant, equivalent to the larval lethal C56S mutant in zebrafish, have shown that this mutation causes enhanced self-association behavior, an observation that provides a plausible explanation for the inability of laminin bearing this mutation to fulfill functional roles in vivo, and hence for the deleterious pathological consequences of the mutation on lens function.

  6. Bone apposition to laminin-1 coated implants: histologic and 3D evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bougas, K; Jimbo, R; Vandeweghe, S; Hayashi, M; Bryington, M; Kozai, Y; Schwartz-Filho, H O; Tovar, N; Adolfsson, E; Ono, D; Coelho, P G; Wennerberg, A

    2013-05-01

    Laminin-1 has been reported as one of the factors responsible for the nucleation of calcium phosphates and, in vitro, has been reported to selectively recruit osteoprogenitors. This article focused on its in vivo effects, and evaluated the effect of laminin-1 local application on osseointegration. Polished cylindrical hydroxyapatite implants were coated with laminin-1 (test) and the bone responses in the rabbit tibiae after 2 and 4 weeks were evaluated and compared to the non-coated implants (control). Before the samples were processed for histological sectioning, they were three-dimensionally analysed with micro computed tomography (μCT). Both evaluation methods were analysed with regards to bone area around the implant and bone to implant contact. From the histologic observation, new bone formation around the laminin-1 coated implant at 2 weeks seemed to have increased the amount of supporting bone around the implant, however, at 4 weeks, the two groups presented no notable differences. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional morphometric evaluation revealed that both histologic and three-dimensional analysis showed some tendency in favour of the test group implants, however there was no statistical significance between the test and control group results. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Moeton, Martina; Kanski, Regina; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Geerts, Dirk; van Tijn, Paula; Wiche, Gerhard; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAPα is the canonical splice variant and is expressed in all GFAP-positive cells. In the human brain, the alternatively spliced transcript GFAPδ marks specialized astrocyte populations, such as subpial astrocytes and the neurogenic astrocytes in the human subventricular zone. We here show that shifting the GFAP isoform ratio in favor of GFAPδ in astrocytoma cells, by selectively silencing the canonical isoform GFAPα with short hairpin RNAs, induced a change in integrins, a decrease in plectin, and an increase in expression of the extracellular matrix component laminin. Together, this did not affect cell proliferation but resulted in a significantly decreased motility of astrocytoma cells. In contrast, a down-regulation of all GFAP isoforms led to less cell spreading, increased integrin expression, and a >100-fold difference in the adhesion of astrocytoma cells to laminin. In summary, isoform-specific silencing of GFAP revealed distinct roles of a specialized GFAP network in regulating the interaction of astrocytoma cells with the extracellular matrix through laminin.-Moeton, M., Kanski, R., Stassen, O. M. J. A., Sluijs, J. A., Geerts, D., van Tijn, P., Wiche, G., van Strien, M. E., Hol, E. M. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin dependent motility and cell adhesion. © FASEB.

  8. Laminin α4 Deficient Mice Exhibit Decreased Capacity for Adipose Tissue Expansion and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N.; Brey, Eric M.; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4−/−) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4−/− mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25310607

  9. Regulation of laminin and entactin mRNA levels by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, M.E.; Phillips, S.L.; Carlin, B.E.; Merlie, J.P.; Chung, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP induced F9 embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate to parietal endoderm; the morphological changes were accompanied by the increased synthesis of the basement membrane glycoproteins laminin and entactin. cDNA clones have been isolated for the A (400 kD), B1 (220 kD), and B2 (205 kD) chains of laminin. Northern blot analysis indicated that the A, B1, and B2 chains were encoded by RNA species of 9.8, 6.0, and 8.0 kb, respectively. The kinetics of induction of the laminin mRNAs were studied by dot-blotting dilutions of RNA extracted from F9 cells cultured in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP for increasing amounts of time and hybridizing to /sup 32/P-labeled recombinant plasmids. Very low levels of the A and B chain RNAs were found in uninduced cells, and a large increase occurred between 48 and 72 hr of growth in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. A cDNA clone was also obtained for entactin, a 150 kD glycoprotein that forms a complex with laminin. Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment also increased the amount of entactin RNA in F9 cells. These results suggested that a common mechanism may exist for the coordinate regulation of the 4 basement membrane protein genes during differentiation.

  10. Differential regulation of laminin b1 transgene expression in the neonatal and adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Baker, H; Gudas, L J

    2004-01-01

    Laminins are the major glycoproteins present in basement membrane, a type of extracellular matrix. We showed that the LAMB1 gene, which encodes the laminin beta1 subunit, is transcriptionally activated by retinoic acid in embryonic stem cells. However, little information is available concerning LAMB1 developmental regulation and spatial expression in the adult mouse brain. In this study we used transgenic mice expressing different lengths of LAMB1 promoter driving beta-galactosidase to investigate developmental and adult transcriptional regulation in the regions of the brain in which the laminin beta1 protein is expressed. CNS expression was not observed in transgenic mice carrying a 1.4LAMB1betagal construct. Mice carrying a 2.5LAMB1betagal construct expressed the LAMB1 transgene, as assayed by X-gal staining, only in the molecular layer of the neonatal cerebellum. In contrast, a 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene showed broad regional expression in the adult mouse brain, including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, colliculi, striatum, and substantia nigra. Similar expression patterns were observed for the endogenous laminin beta1 protein and for the 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene, analyzed with an antibody against the beta-galactosidase protein. The 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene expression in the hippocampal tri-synaptic circuit suggests a role for the LAMB1 gene in learning and memory.

  11. Corrective transduction of human epidermal stem cells in laminin-5-dependent junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Dellambra, E; Vailly, J; Pellegrini, G; Bondanza, S; Golisano, O; Macchia, C; Zambruno, G; Meneguzzi, G; De Luca, M

    1998-06-10

    Laminin-5 is composed of three distinct polypeptides, alpha3, beta3, and gamma2, which are encoded by three different genes, LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. We have isolated epidermal keratinocytes from a patient presenting with a lethal form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa characterized by a homozygous mutation of the LAMB3 gene, which led to complete absence of the beta3 polypeptide. In vitro, beta3-null keratinocytes were unable to synthesize laminin-5 and to assemble hemidesmosomes, maintained the impairment of their adhesive properties, and displayed a decrease of their colony-forming ability. A retroviral construct expressing a human beta3 cDNA was used to transduce primary beta3-null keratinocytes. Clonogenic beta3-null keratinocytes were transduced with an efficiency of 100%. Beta3-transduced keratinocytes were able to synthesize and secrete mature heterotrimeric laminin-5. Gene correction fully restored the keratinocyte adhesion machinery, including the capacity of proper hemidesmosomal assembly, and prevented the loss of the colony-forming ability, suggesting a direct link between adhesion to laminin-5 and keratinocyte proliferative capacity. Clonal analysis demonstrated that holoclones expressed the transgene permanently, suggesting stable correction of epidermal stem cells. Because cultured keratinocytes are used routinely to make autologous grafts for patients suffering from large skin or mucosal defects, the full phenotypic reversion of primary human epidermal stem cells defective for a structural protein opens new perspectives in the long-term treatment of genodermatoses.

  12. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  13. Tissue distribution of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chain during embryonic and fetal human development.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Matthias; Miosge, Nicolai; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2010-04-01

    Laminins are the major glycoproteins present in all basement membranes. Previously, we showed that perlecan is present during human development. Although an overview of mRNA-expression of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains in various developing fetal organs is already available, a systematic localization of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains on the protein level during embryonic and fetal human development is missing. Therefore, we studied the immunohistochemical expression and tissue distribution of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains in various developing embryonic and fetal human organs between gestational weeks 8 and 12. The laminin beta1 chain was ubiquitously expressed in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, blood vessels, liver, kidney, skin, pancreas, intestine, heart and skeletal system. Furthermore, the laminin beta2 chain was present in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, skin, heart and skeletal system. The findings of this study support and expand upon the theory that these two laminin chains are important during human development.

  14. Transgenic Expression of Human LAMA5 Suppresses Murine Lama5 mRNA and Laminin α5 Protein Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Steenhard, Brooke M.; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Stroganova, Larysa; Isom, Kathryn; St. John, Patricia L.; Andrews, Glen K.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Abrahamson, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin α5 is required for kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly, and mice with targeted deletions of the Lama5 gene fail to form glomeruli. As a tool to begin to understand factors regulating the expression of the LAMA5 gene, we generated transgenic mice carrying the human LAMA5 locus in a bacterial artificial chromosome. These mice deposited human laminin α5 protein into basement membranes in heart, liver, spleen and kidney. Here, we characterized two lines of transgenics; Line 13 expressed ∼6 times more LAMA5 than Line 25. Mice from both lines were healthy, and kidney function and morphology were normal. Examination of developing glomeruli from fetal LAMA5 transgenics showed that the human transgene was expressed at the correct stage of glomerular development, and deposited into the nascent GBM simultaneously with mouse laminin α5. Expression of human LAMA5 did not affect the timing of the mouse laminin α1–α5 isoform switch, or that for mouse laminin β1–β2. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that human laminin α5 originated in both glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes, known to be origins for mouse laminin α5 normally. Notably, in neonatal transgenics expressing the highest levels of human LAMA5, there was a striking reduction of mouse laminin α5 protein in kidney basement membranes compared to wildtype, and significantly lower levels of mouse Lama5 mRNA. This suggests the presence in kidney of a laminin expression monitor, which may be important for regulating the overall production of basement membrane protein. PMID:21915268

  15. Differential expression of galectin-1 and its interactions with cells and laminins in the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Jing, Liufang; So, Stephen; Lim, Shaun W; Richardson, William J; Fitch, Robert D; Setton, Lori A; Chen, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1), an endogenous β-galactoside-binding protein, binds to laminins, which are highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of Gal-1 protein in IVD tissues during aging and the effect of Gal-1 on IVD cell adhesion to laminins. Tissues from rat, porcine, and human (scoliosis or disc degeneration) IVDs were used to evaluate Gal-1 expression via immunostaining, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Attachment of isolated IVD cells (porcine and human) on select laminin isoforms (LM-111 and LM-511) was compared with/without pre-incubation with exogenous Gal-1. A biotinylated Gal-1(B-Gal-1) was used to evaluate for binding to IVD cells and to select for IVD cells by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). NP cells expressed high levels of Gal-1 protein as compared to anulus fibrosus (AF) cells in immature tissues, while exogenous Gal-1 increased both NP and AF cell attachment to laminins and exhibited a similar binding to both cell types in vitro. With aging, Gal-1 levels in NP tissue appeared to decrease. In addition, incubation with B-Gal-1 was able to promote the retention of more than 50% of IVD cells via MACS. Our results provide new findings for the presence and functional role of Gal-1 within IVDs. Similar staining patterns for Gal-1 and LM-511 in IVD tissue suggest that Gal-1 may serve as an adhesion molecule to interact with both cells and laminins. This MACS protocol may be useful for selecting pure IVD cells from mixed cells of pathological tissue.

  16. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells.

  17. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells. PMID:26406476

  18. Hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels increase neural stem cell transplant retention and migratory response to SDF-1α.

    PubMed

    Addington, C P; Dharmawaj, S; Heffernan, J M; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2016-09-17

    The chemokine SDF-1α plays a critical role in mediating stem cell response to injury and disease and has specifically been shown to mobilize neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) towards sites of neural injury. Current neural transplant paradigms within the brain suffer from low rates of retention and engraftment after injury. Therefore, increasing transplant sensitivity to injury-induced SDF-1α represents a method for increasing neural transplant efficacy. Previously, we have reported on a hyaluronic acid-laminin based hydrogel (HA-Lm gel) that increases NPSC expression of SDF-1α receptor, CXCR4, and subsequently, NPSC chemotactic migration towards a source of SDF-1α in vitro. The study presented here investigates the capacity of the HA-Lm gel to promote NPSC response to exogenous SDF-1α in vivo. We observed the HA-Lm gel to significantly increase NPSC transplant retention and migration in response to SDF-1α in a manner critically dependent on signaling via the SDF-1α-CXCR4 axis. This work lays the foundation for development of a more effective cell therapy for neural injury, but also has broader implications in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine given the essential roles of SDF-1α across injury and disease states.

  19. PDGF enhances IRES-mediated translation of Laminin B1 by cytoplasmic accumulation of La during epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole C C; Huber, Heidemarie; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Laminin B1 (LamB1) regulates tumor cell migration and invasion. Carcinoma cells acquire invasive properties by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a fundamental step in dissemination of metastatic cells from the primary tumor. Recently, we showed that enhanced translation of LamB1 upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We demonstrated that the IRES transacting factor La binds the minimal IRES motif and positively modulates IRES activity of LamB1. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances IRES activity of LamB1 by the increasing cytoplasmic localization of La during EMT. Accordingly, cells expressing dominant negative PDGF receptor display reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of La and show no elevation of IRES activity or endogenous LamB1 levels after stimulation with PDGF. Furthermore, La-mediated regulation of LamB1 IRES activity predominantly depends on MAPK/ERK signaling downstream of PDGF. Notably, LamB1 expression is not significantly downregulated by the impairment of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In vivo, knockdown of La associated with decreased LamB1 expression and reduced tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that PDGF is required for the cytoplasmic accumulation of La that triggers IRES-dependent translation of LamB1 during EMT.

  20. Basal lamina strengthens cell membrane integrity via the laminin G domain-binding motif of α-dystroglycan

    PubMed Central

    Han, Renzhi; Kanagawa, Motoi; Yoshida-Moriguchi, Takako; Rader, Erik P.; Ng, Rainer A.; Michele, Daniel E.; Muirhead, David E.; Kunz, Stefan; Moore, Steven A.; Iannaccone, Susan T.; Miyake, Katsuya; McNeil, Paul L.; Mayer, Ulrike; Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Faulkner, John A.; Campbell, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle basal lamina is linked to the sarcolemma through transmembrane receptors, including integrins and dystroglycan. The function of dystroglycan relies critically on posttranslational glycosylation, a common target shared by a genetically heterogeneous group of muscular dystrophies characterized by α-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation. Here we show that both dystroglycan and integrin α7 contribute to force-production of muscles, but that only disruption of dystroglycan causes detachment of the basal lamina from the sarcolemma and renders muscle prone to contraction-induced injury. These phenotypes of dystroglycan-null muscles are recapitulated by Largemyd muscles, which have an intact dystrophin–glycoprotein complex and lack only the laminin globular domain-binding motif on α-dystroglycan. Compromised sarcolemmal integrity is directly shown in Largemyd muscles and similarly in normal muscles when arenaviruses compete with matrix proteins for binding α-dystroglycan. These data provide direct mechanistic insight into how the dystroglycan-linked basal lamina contributes to the maintenance of sarcolemmal integrity and protects muscles from damage. PMID:19633189

  1. Soluble Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule is detectable in plasma of hepatocellular carcinoma patients and modulates cellular interaction with laminin-511 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Miwa, Takahiro; Tanimizu, Naoki; Kadoya, Yuichi; Ogawa, Takaho; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-10-15

    Lutheran (Lu), an immunoglobulin superfamily transmembrane receptor, is also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM). Lu/B-CAM is a specific receptor for laminin α5, a subunit of laminin-511 (LM-511) that is a major component of basement membranes in various tissues. Our previous study showed that Lu/B-CAM was cleaved by MT1-MMP and released from cell surfaces. In this study we examined the soluble Lu/B-CAM in culture media and in plasma of mice bearing HuH-7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and patients with HCC. Two HCC cell lines, HepG2 and HuH-7, released Lu/B-CAM into the culture media. Although Lu/B-CAM was cleaved by MT1-MMP in HuH-7 cells, HepG2 cells released Lu/B-CAM in a MMP-independent manner. The concentration of Lu/B-CAM released into mouse plasma correlated with tumor size. Moreover the soluble Lu/B-CAM in plasma of HCC patients was significantly decreased after resection of the tumor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that although the expression of Lu/B-CAM was observed in most HCCs, MT1-MMP was not always expressed in tumor tissues, suggesting that a part of Lu/B-CAM in plasma of HCC patients was also released in a MMP-independent manner. In vitro studies showed that the soluble Lu/B-CAM released from HCC cells bound to LM-511. Moreover the soluble Lu/B-CAM influenced cell migration on LM-511. These results suggest that soluble Lu/B-CAM serves as not only a novel marker for HCC but also a modulator in tumor progression.

  2. Laminin-111 Protein Therapy Reduces Muscle Pathology and Improves Viability of a Mouse Model of Merosin-Deficient Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Jachinta E.; Knapp, Jolie R.; Hodges, Bradley L.; Wuebbles, Ryan D.; Burkin, Dean J.

    2012-01-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a lethal muscle-wasting disease that is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, resulting in the loss of laminin-α2 protein. MDC1A patients exhibit severe muscle weakness from birth, are confined to a wheelchair, require ventilator assistance, and have reduced life expectancy. There are currently no effective treatments or cures for MDC1A. Laminin-α2 is required for the formation of heterotrimeric laminin-211 (ie, α2, β1, and γ1) and laminin-221 (ie, α2, β2, and γ1), which are major constituents of skeletal muscle basal lamina. Laminin-111 (ie, α1, β1, and γ1) is the predominant laminin isoform in embryonic skeletal muscle and supports normal skeletal muscle development in laminin-α2–deficient muscle but is absent from adult skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined whether treatment with Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm–derived mouse laminin-111 protein could rescue MDC1A in the dyW−/− mouse model. We demonstrate that laminin-111 protein systemically delivered to the muscles of laminin-α2–deficient mice prevents muscle pathology, improves muscle strength, and dramatically increases life expectancy. Laminin-111 also prevented apoptosis in laminin-α2–deficient mouse muscle and primary human MDC1A myogenic cells, which indicates a conserved mechanism of action and cross-reactivity between species. Our results demonstrate that laminin-111 can serve as an effective protein substitution therapy for the treatment of muscular dystrophy in the dyW−/− mouse model and establish the potential for its use in the treatment of MDC1A. PMID:22322301

  3. Laminin-111 protein therapy reduces muscle pathology and improves viability of a mouse model of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Jachinta E; Knapp, Jolie R; Hodges, Bradley L; Wuebbles, Ryan D; Burkin, Dean J

    2012-04-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a lethal muscle-wasting disease that is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, resulting in the loss of laminin-α2 protein. MDC1A patients exhibit severe muscle weakness from birth, are confined to a wheelchair, require ventilator assistance, and have reduced life expectancy. There are currently no effective treatments or cures for MDC1A. Laminin-α2 is required for the formation of heterotrimeric laminin-211 (ie, α2, β1, and γ1) and laminin-221 (ie, α2, β2, and γ1), which are major constituents of skeletal muscle basal lamina. Laminin-111 (ie, α1, β1, and γ1) is the predominant laminin isoform in embryonic skeletal muscle and supports normal skeletal muscle development in laminin-α2-deficient muscle but is absent from adult skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined whether treatment with Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm-derived mouse laminin-111 protein could rescue MDC1A in the dy(W-/-) mouse model. We demonstrate that laminin-111 protein systemically delivered to the muscles of laminin-α2-deficient mice prevents muscle pathology, improves muscle strength, and dramatically increases life expectancy. Laminin-111 also prevented apoptosis in laminin-α2-deficient mouse muscle and primary human MDC1A myogenic cells, which indicates a conserved mechanism of action and cross-reactivity between species. Our results demonstrate that laminin-111 can serve as an effective protein substitution therapy for the treatment of muscular dystrophy in the dy(W-/-) mouse model and establish the potential for its use in the treatment of MDC1A.

  4. Regeneration of Aplysia bag cell neurons is synergistically enhanced by substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Callen; Dufresne, Eric R; Dufrense, Eric R; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-11

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  5. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  6. The heterotrimeric laminin coiled-coil domain exerts anti-adhesive effects and induces a pro-invasive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Santos-Valle, Patricia; Guijarro-Muñoz, Irene; Cuesta, Angel M; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Villate, Maider; Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J; Sanz, Laura; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric cross-shaped extracellular matrix glycoproteins with terminal globular domains and a coiled-coil region through which the three chains are assembled and covalently linked. Laminins are key components of basement membranes, and they serve as attachment sites for cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In this work, we produced a recombinant fragment comprising the entire laminin coiled-coil of the α1-, β1-, and γ1-chains that assemble into a stable heterotrimeric coiled-coil structure independently of the rest of the molecule. This domain was biologically active and not only failed to serve as a substrate for cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation but also inhibited cell adhesion to laminin when added to cells in a soluble form at the time of seeding. Furthermore, gene array expression profiling in cells cultured in the presence of the laminin coiled-coil domain revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell motility and invasion. These findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and zymography assays. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the laminin coiled-coil domain displays anti-adhesive functions and has potential implications for cell migration during matrix remodeling.

  7. Expression of laminin β1 and integrin α2 in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Xue-feng; Mo, Xue-an; Li, Jing-mei; Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Jin-ou; Feng, Yun; Tang, Mei

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the expression of laminin β1 and integrin α2 in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy and explored the role of these molecules in the pathogenesis of this disease. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to test the expression of laminin β1 and integrin α2 in samples (from the brain bank of our department, n=32) of surgically removed anterior temporal neocortex tissues from intractable epilepsy patients, and the results were compared with those of controls (n=10). We found that laminin β1 and integrin α2 protein expression was significantly increased in the anterior temporal neocortex as compared with controls (immunohistochemistry optical density: laminin β1 = 0.36 ± 0.01 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03 for control; integrin α2=0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01 for control; p<.05). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that laminin β1 and integrin α2 accumulated in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, with strong fluorescence intensity in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy. Thus, our work demonstrates that laminin β1 and integrin α2 expression is elevated in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue from patients with intractable epilepsy.

  8. The Heterotrimeric Laminin Coiled-Coil Domain Exerts Anti-Adhesive Effects and Induces a Pro-Invasive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Valle, Patricia; Guijarro-Muñoz, Irene; Cuesta, Ángel M.; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Villate, Maider; Álvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz, Laura; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric cross-shaped extracellular matrix glycoproteins with terminal globular domains and a coiled-coil region through which the three chains are assembled and covalently linked. Laminins are key components of basement membranes, and they serve as attachment sites for cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In this work, we produced a recombinant fragment comprising the entire laminin coiled-coil of the α1-, β1-, and γ1-chains that assemble into a stable heterotrimeric coiled-coil structure independently of the rest of the molecule. This domain was biologically active and not only failed to serve as a substrate for cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation but also inhibited cell adhesion to laminin when added to cells in a soluble form at the time of seeding. Furthermore, gene array expression profiling in cells cultured in the presence of the laminin coiled-coil domain revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell motility and invasion. These findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and zymography assays. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the laminin coiled-coil domain displays anti-adhesive functions and has potential implications for cell migration during matrix remodeling. PMID:22723936

  9. The role of alpha3beta1 integrin in determining the supramolecular organization of laminin-5 in the extracellular matrix of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    deHart, Gregory W; Healy, Kevin E; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2003-02-01

    Analyses of mice with targeted deletions in the genes for alpha3 and beta1 integrin suggest that the alpha3beta1 integrin heterodimer likely determines the organization of the extracellular matrix within the basement membrane of skin. Here we tested this hypothesis using keratinocytes derived from alpha3 integrin-null mice. We have compared the organizational state of laminin-5, a ligand of alpha3beta1 integrin, in the matrix of wild-type keratinocytes with that of laminin-5 in the matrix of alpha3 integrin-null cells. Laminin-5 distributes diffusely in arc structures in the matrix of wild-type mouse keratinocytes, whereas laminin-5 is organized into linear, spike-like arrays by the alpha3 integrin-null cells. The fact that alpha3 integrin-null cells are deficient in their ability to assemble a proper laminin-5 matrix is also shown by their failure to remodel laminin-5 when plated onto surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 protein. In sharp contrast, wild-type keratinocytes organize exogenously added laminin-5 into discrete ring-like organizations. These findings led us next to assess whether differences in laminin-5 organization in the matrix of the wild-type and alpha3 integrin-null cells impact cell behavior. Our results indicate that alpha3 integrin-null cells are more motile than their wild-type counterparts and leave extensive trails of laminin-5 over the surface on which they move. Moreover, HEK 293 cells migrate significantly more on the laminin-5-rich matrix derived from the alpha3 integrin-null cells than on the wild-type keratinocyte laminin-5 matrix. In addition, alpha3 integrin-null cells show low strength of adhesion to surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 compared to wild-type cells although both the wild type and the alpha3 integrin-null keratinocytes adhere equally strongly to laminin-5 that has been organized into arrays by other epithelial cells. These data suggest: (1) that alpha3beta1 integrin plays an important role in determining the

  10. Anchorless cell surface proteins function as laminin-binding adhesins in Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM22.

    PubMed

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Kondoh, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Keita; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Anchorless cell surface proteins (CSPs) were extracted with 1 M lithium chloride solution from Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM22. Loss of the anchorless CSPs resulted in a 2-fold decrease in FSMM22 cells bound to a constitutive extracellular matrix glycoprotein, laminin, in vitro. DNA-binding protein HU, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and 30S ribosomal protein S19 (RpsS) were identified by mass spectrometry in the extract as laminin-binding adhesins. Among the four proteins, RpsS was immunohistochemically confirmed to exist on the cell surface. Our findings strongly suggest that anchorless CSPs can enhance bacterial adhesion to the host. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M; Meehan, Daniel T; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  12. Laminin gene LAMB4 is somatically mutated and expressionally altered in gastric and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; An, Chang Hyeok; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are important in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in maintenance of normal epithelial cell structures. However, mutation status of laminin chain-encoding genes remains unknown in cancers. Aim of this study was to explore whether laminin chain genes are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that laminin chain genes LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4 had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the genes in 88 GC and 139 CRC [high MSI (MSI-H) or stable MSI/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L)] by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. In the present study, we found LAMB4 (11.8% of GC and 7.6% of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA3 (2.9% of GC and 2.5 of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA1 (5.9% of GC with MSI-H) and LAMB1 frameshift mutations (1.3% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in MSS/MSI-L (0/114). We also analyzed LAMB4 expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Loss of LAMB4 expression was identified in 17-32% of the GC and CRC. Of note, the loss expression was more common in the cancers with LAMB4 mutation or those with MSI-H. Our data show that frameshift mutations of LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4, and loss of LAMB4 may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H.

  13. Laminin α2-Mediated Focal Adhesion Kinase Activation Triggers Alport Glomerular Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M.; Meehan, Daniel T.; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages. PMID:24915008

  14. Schwann Cells Increase Prostate and Pancreatic Tumor Cell Invasion Using Laminin Binding A6 Integrin.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Isis C; Chopra, Harsharon; Das, Lipsa; Gard, Jaime M C; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Human pancreatic and prostate cancers metastasize along nerve axons during perineural invasion. The extracellular matrix laminin class of proteins is an abundant component of both myelinated and non-myelinated nerves. Analysis of human pancreatic and prostate tissue revealed both perineural and endoneural invasion with Schwann cells surrounded or disrupted by tumor, respectively. Tumor and nerve cell co-culture conditions were used to determine if myelinating or non-myelinating Schwann cell (S16 and S16Y, respectively) phenotype was equally likely to promote integrin-dependent cancer cell invasion and migration on laminin. Conditioned medium from S16 cells increased tumor cell (DU145, PC3, and CFPAC1) invasion into laminin approximately 1.3-2.0 fold compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) treated cells. Integrin function (e.g., ITGA6p formation) increased up to 1.5 fold in prostate (DU145, PC3, RWPE-1) and pancreatic (CFPAC1) cells, and invasion was dependent on ITGA6p formation and ITGB1 as determined by function-blocking antibodies. In contrast, conditioned medium isolated from S16Y cells (non-myelinating phenotype) decreased constitutive levels of ITGA6p in the tumor cells by 50% compared to untreated cells and decreased ITGA6p formation 3.0 fold compared to S16 treated cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed loss of ITGA6p formation as reversible and independent of overall loss of ITGA6 expression. These results suggest that the myelinating phenotype of Schwann cells within the tumor microenvironment increased integrin-dependent tumor invasion on laminin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-10-20

    In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

  16. β1-Integrin Orients Epithelial Polarity via Rac1 and LamininD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Datta, Anirban; Leroy, Pascale; O'Brien, Lucy Erin; Mak, Grace; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh; Matlin, Karl S.; Mostov, Keith E.; Zegers, Mirjam M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells polarize and orient polarity in response to cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Although there has been much recent progress in understanding the general polarizing machinery of epithelia, it is largely unclear how this machinery is controlled by the extracellular environment. To explore the signals from cell-matrix interactions that control orientation of cell polarity, we have used three-dimensional culture systems in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells form polarized, lumen-containing structures. We show that interaction of collagen I with apical β1-integrins after collagen overlay of a polarized MDCK monolayer induces activation of Rac1, which is required for collagen overlay-induced tubulocyst formation. Cysts, comprised of a monolayer enclosing a central lumen, form after embedding single cells in collagen. In those cultures, addition of a β1-integrin function-blocking antibody to the collagen matrix gives rise to cysts that have defects in the organization of laminin into the basement membrane and have inverted polarity. Normal polarity is restored by either expression of activated Rac1, or the inclusion of excess laminin-1 (LN-1). Together, our results suggest a signaling pathway in which the activation of β1-integrins orients the apical pole of polarized cysts via a mechanism that requires Rac1 activation and laminin organization into the basement membrane. PMID:15574881

  17. Regulated synthesis and functions of laminin 5 in polarized madin-darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Z; Kavanaugh, Gina M; Buschmann, Mary M; Stickley, Shaun M; Koch, Manuel; Goss, Kathleen Heppner; Waechter, Holly; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2006-08-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize laminin (LN)5 during regeneration of the epithelium after ischemic injury. LN5 is a truncated laminin isoform of particular importance in the epidermis, but it is also constitutively expressed in a number of other epithelia. To investigate the role of LN5 in morphogenesis of a simple renal epithelium, we examined the synthesis and function of LN5 in the spreading, proliferation, wound-edge migration, and apical-basal polarization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells synthesize LN5 only when subconfluent, and they degrade the existing LN5 matrix when confluent. Through the use of small-interfering RNA to knockdown the LN5 alpha3 subunit, we were able to demonstrate that LN5 is necessary for cell proliferation and efficient wound-edge migration, but not apical-basal polarization. Surprisingly, suppression of LN5 production caused cells to spread much more extensively than normal on uncoated surfaces, and exogenous keratinocyte LN5 was unable to rescue this phenotype. MDCK cells also synthesized laminin alpha5, a component of LN10, that independent studies suggest may form an assembled basal lamina important for polarization. Overall, our findings indicate that LN5 is likely to play an important role in regulating cell spreading, migration, and proliferation during reconstitution of a continuous epithelium.

  18. Migration of epithelial cells on laminins: RhoA antagonizes directionally persistent migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Chometon, Gretel; Wen, Tingting; Qu, Haiyan; Mauch, Cornelia; Krieg, Thomas; Aumailley, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal expression of laminin isoforms is assumed to provide specific local information to neighboring cells. Here, we report the remarkably selective presence of LM-111 at the very tip of hair follicles where LM-332 is absent, suggesting that epithelial cells lining the dermal-epidermal junction at this location may receive different signals from the two laminins. This hypothesis was tested in vitro by characterizing with functional and molecular assays the comportment of keratinocytes exposed to LM-111 and LM-332. The two laminins induced morphologically distinct focal adhesions, and LM-332, but not LM-111, elicited persistent migration of keratinocytes. The different impact on cellular behavior was associated with distinct activation patterns of Rho GTPases and other signaling intermediates. In particular, while LM-111 triggered a robust activation of Cdc42, LM-332 provoked a strong and sustained activation of FAK. Interestingly, activation of Rac1 was necessary but not sufficient to promote migration because there was no directed migration on LM-111 despite Rac1 activation. In contrast, RhoA antagonized directional migration, since silencing of RhoA by RNA interference boosted unidirectional migration on LM-332. Molecular analysis of the role of RhoA strongly suggested that the mechanisms involve disassembly of cell-cell contacts, loss of the cortical actin network, mobilization of α6β4 integrin out of stable adhesions, and displacement of the integrin from its association with the insoluble pool of intermediate filaments.

  19. The extracellular matrix component laminin promotes gap junction formation in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland are believed to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other not only by mechanical means, but also by gap junctional cell-to-cell communication. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland (S100b-GFP rats), we recently revealed that FS cells in primary culture markedly change their shape, and form numerous interconnections with neighboring FS cells in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. Morphological and functional changes in cells are believed to be partly modified by matricrine signaling, by which ECM components function as cellular signals. In the present study, we examined whether gap junction formation between FS cells is affected by matricrine cues. A cell sorter was used to isolate FS cells from male S100b-GFP rat anterior pituitary for primary culture. We observed that mRNA and protein levels of connexin 43 in gap junction channels were clearly higher in the presence of laminin. In addition, we confirmed the formation of gap junctions between FS cells in primary culture by electron microscopy. Interestingly, we also observed that FS cells in the presence of laminin displayed well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Our findings suggest that, in anterior pituitary gland, FS cells may facilitate functional roles such as gap junctional cell-to-cell communication by matricrine signaling.

  20. Laminin active peptide/agarose matrices as multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuji; Hozumi, Kentaro; Aso, Akihiro; Hotta, Atsushi; Toma, Kazunori; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2012-06-01

    Cell adhesive peptides derived from extracellular matrix components are potential candidates to afford bio-adhesiveness to cell culture scaffolds for tissue engineering. Previously, we covalently conjugated bioactive laminin peptides to polysaccharides, such as chitosan and alginate, and demonstrated their advantages as biomaterials. Here, we prepared functional polysaccharide matrices by mixing laminin active peptides and agarose gel. Several laminin peptide/agarose matrices showed cell attachment activity. In particular, peptide AG73 (RKRLQVQLSIRT)/agarose matrices promoted strong cell attachment and the cell behavior depended on the stiffness of agarose matrices. Fibroblasts formed spheroid structures on the soft AG73/agarose matrices while the cells formed a monolayer with elongated morphologies on the stiff matrices. On the stiff AG73/agarose matrices, neuronal cells extended neuritic processes and endothelial cells formed capillary-like networks. In addition, salivary gland cells formed acini-like structures on the soft matrices. These results suggest that the peptide/agarose matrices are useful for both two- and three-dimensional cell culture systems as a multifunctional biomaterial for tissue engineering.

  1. α-5 Laminin Synthesized by Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Promotes Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Laperle, Alex; Hsiao, Cheston; Lampe, Michael; Mortier, Jaime; Saha, Krishanu; Palecek, Sean P; Masters, Kristyn S

    2015-08-11

    Substrate composition significantly impacts human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) self-renewal and differentiation, but relatively little is known about the role of endogenously produced extracellular matrix (ECM) components in regulating hPSC fates. Here we identify α-5 laminin as a signature ECM component endogenously synthesized by undifferentiated hPSCs cultured on defined substrates. Inducible shRNA knockdown and Cas9-mediated disruption of the LAMA5 gene dramatically reduced hPSC self-renewal and increased apoptosis without affecting the expression of pluripotency markers. Increased self-renewal and survival was restored to wild-type levels by culturing the LAMA5-deficient cells on exogenous laminin-521. Furthermore, treatment of LAMA5-deficient cells with blebbistatin or a ROCK inhibitor partially restored self-renewal and diminished apoptosis. These results demonstrate that endogenous α-5 laminin promotes hPSC self-renewal in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This finding has implications for understanding how stem cells dynamically regulate their microenvironment to promote self-renewal and provides guidance for efforts to design substrates for stem cell bioprocessing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cutaneous myxidiosis in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathology, histochemistry and laminin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Borreca, C; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-07-01

    Histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the integument of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), infected by Myxidium sp. are reported. Skin samples from affected and unaffected eels were dissected, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's staining method, Alcian Blue 8 GX pH 2.5/Periodic acid-Schiff's and McCallum-Goodpasture's Gram stain. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed using a primary polyclonal laminin antibody. Histologically, cysts (diameter 2-3 mm) were observed mainly under the scale pockets, encircled by a thin collagen layer, lined by elongated, flattened fibroblasts and containing bipolar, PAS- and Gram-positive spores with opposite polar capsules. The epidermis stretched by the underlying cyst appeared dysplastic, thinned with a significant reduction in mucous cells number. Only inconsistent and aspecific inflammatory reaction was noted around the cysts at the dermis/epidermis interface. Intense laminin-like protein immunolabel was documented in the plasmodial ectoplasm and related to host anergia. This was the first report of laminin immunolabel in a member of the Myxozoa. Epidermal dysplasia represents likely an aspecific response against the underlying tensile force exerted by the developing parasite cyst, while fibroblast and collagen encapsulation denote a parasite-driven host response protecting, rather than harming, the encircled parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genotype/phenotype analysis in Chinese laminin-α2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Tan, D; Wang, S; Song, S; Yang, H; Gao, K; Liu, A; Jiao, H; Mao, B; Ding, J; Chang, X; Wang, J; Wu, Y; Yuan, Y; Jiang, Y; Zhang, F; Wu, H; Wu, X

    2015-03-01

    Laminin-α2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscular dystrophy, which is typically associated with abnormal white matter. In this study, we assessed 43 CMD patients with typical white matter abnormality and laminin-α2 deficiency (complete or partial) diagnosed by immunohistochemistry to determine the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of laminin-α2 deficient CMD. LAMA2 gene mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNAs. Exonic deletion or duplication was identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and verified by high-density oligonucleotide-based CGH microarrays. Gene mutation analysis revealed 86 LAMA2 mutations (100%); 15 known and 37 novel. Among these mutations, 73.9% were nonsense, splice-site or frameshift and 18.8% were deletions of one or more exons. Genetic characterization of affected families will be valuable in prenatal diagnosis of CMD in the Chinese population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification of a bioactive core sequence from human laminin and its applicability to tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sung; Min, Seung-Ki; Kang, Hyun Ki; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Jung, Sung Youn; Min, Byung-Moo

    2015-12-01

    Finding bioactive short peptides derived from proteins is a critical step to the advancement of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, because the former maintains the functions of the latter without immunogenicity in biological systems. Here, we discovered a bioactive core nonapeptide sequence, PPFEGCIWN (residues 2678-2686; Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3), from the human laminin α2 chain, and investigated the role of this peptide in binding to transmembrane proteins to promote intracellular events leading to cell functions. This minimum bioactive sequence had neither secondary nor tertiary structures in a computational structure prediction. Nonetheless, Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 bound to various cell types as actively as laminin in cell adhesion assays. The in vivo healing tests using rats revealed that Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 promoted bone formation without any recognizable antigenic activity. Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3-treated titanium (Ti) discs and Ti implant surfaces caused the enhancement of bone cell functions in vitro and induced faster osseointegration in vivo, respectively. These findings established a minimum bioactive sequence within human laminin, and its potential application value for regenerative medicine, especially for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulated Synthesis and Functions of Laminin 5 in Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Buschmann, Mary M.; Stickley, Shaun M.; Koch, Manuel; Goss, Kathleen Heppner; Waechter, Holly; Zuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize laminin (LN)5 during regeneration of the epithelium after ischemic injury. LN5 is a truncated laminin isoform of particular importance in the epidermis, but it is also constitutively expressed in a number of other epithelia. To investigate the role of LN5 in morphogenesis of a simple renal epithelium, we examined the synthesis and function of LN5 in the spreading, proliferation, wound-edge migration, and apical–basal polarization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells synthesize LN5 only when subconfluent, and they degrade the existing LN5 matrix when confluent. Through the use of small-interfering RNA to knockdown the LN5 α3 subunit, we were able to demonstrate that LN5 is necessary for cell proliferation and efficient wound-edge migration, but not apical–basal polarization. Surprisingly, suppression of LN5 production caused cells to spread much more extensively than normal on uncoated surfaces, and exogenous keratinocyte LN5 was unable to rescue this phenotype. MDCK cells also synthesized laminin α5, a component of LN10, that independent studies suggest may form an assembled basal lamina important for polarization. Overall, our findings indicate that LN5 is likely to play an important role in regulating cell spreading, migration, and proliferation during reconstitution of a continuous epithelium. PMID:16775009

  6. A Laminin G-EGF-Laminin G module in Neurexin IV is essential for the apico-lateral localization of Contactin and organization of septate junctions.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swati; Paik, Raehum; Mino, Rosa E; Blauth, Kevin; Fisher, Elizabeth S; Madden, Victoria J; Fanning, Alan S; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2011-01-01

    Septate junctions (SJs) display a unique ultrastructural morphology with ladder-like electron densities that are conserved through evolution. Genetic and molecular analyses have identified a highly conserved core complex of SJ proteins consisting of three cell adhesion molecules Neurexin IV, Contactin, and Neuroglian, which interact with the cytoskeletal FERM domain protein Coracle. How these individual proteins interact to form the septal arrays that create the paracellular barrier is poorly understood. Here, we show that point mutations that map to specific domains of neurexin IV lead to formation of fewer septae and disorganization of SJs. Consistent with these observations, our in vivo domain deletion analyses identified the first Laminin G-EGF-Laminin G module in the extracellular region of Neurexin IV as necessary for the localization of and association with Contactin. Neurexin IV protein that is devoid of its cytoplasmic region is able to create septae, but fails to form a full complement of SJs. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that specific domains in Neurexin IV are required for protein-protein interactions and organization of SJs. Given the molecular conservation of SJ proteins across species, our studies may provide insights into how vertebrate axo-glial SJs are organized in myelinated axons.

  7. Laminin forms an independent network in basement membranes [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1992 Jun;118(2):493

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Laminin self-assembles in vitro into a polymer by a reversible, entropy- driven and calcium-facilitated process dependent upon the participation of the short arm globular domains. We now find that this polymer is required for the structural integrity of the collagen-free basement membrane of cultured embryonal carcinoma cells (ECC) and for the supramolecular organization and anchorage of laminin in the collagen- rich basement membrane of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS). First, low temperature and EDTA induced the dissolution of ECC basement membranes and released approximately 80% of total laminin from the EHS basement membrane. Second, laminin elastase fragments (E4 and E1') possessing the short arm globules of the B1, B2, and A chains selectively acted as competitive ligands that dissolved ECC basement membranes and displaced laminin from the EHS basement membrane into solution. The fraction of laminin released increased as a function of ligand concentration, approaching the level of the EDTA-reversible pool. The smaller (approximately 20%) residual pool of EHS laminin, in contrast, could only be effectively displaced by E1' and E4 if the collagenous network was first degraded with bacterial collagenase. The supramolecular architecture of freeze-etched and platinum/carbon replicated reconstituted laminin gel polymer, ECC, and collagenase- treated EHS basement membranes were compared and found to be similar, further supporting the biochemical data. We conclude that laminin forms a network independent of that of type IV collagen in basement membranes. Furthermore, in the EHS basement membrane four-fifths of laminin is anchored strictly through noncovalent bonds between laminin monomers while one-fifth is anchored through a combination of these bonds and laminin-collagen bridges. PMID:1577869

  8. Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs. Methods MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and expanded in an in vitro culture system. UC-MSCs were then cultured in the IPC induction and differentiation medium in the presence of laminin 411. Flow cytometry, Quantitative realtime PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, Western blotting and other techniques were applied to determine IPC generation, insulin expression and related mechanisms. To evaluate potential therapeutic efficacy of IPCs induced from UC-MSCs, a type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rat model was generated using streptozotocin. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and survival of rats were monitored periodically following intravenous injection of the tested cells. Results Laminin 411 markedly induced the expression of the genes Foxa2 and Sox17, markers for pancreatic precursor cells, efficiently induced IPC differentiation from MSCs, and up-regulated insulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression of the genes known to govern insulin expression including Pdx1 and Ngn3 was markedly induced by laminin 411, which suggests that Pdx1 and Ngn3 signaling pathways are involved in laminin 411 induced-insulin expression machinery. More importantly, administration of laminin 411-induced IPCs rapidly and significantly down-regulated fasting blood glucose levels, significantly reduced the HbA1c concentration and markedly improved the symptoms and survival of

  9. Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huiting; Liu, Xiaoli; Ni, Yihong; Jiang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoli; Xiao, Juan; Guo, Yanan; Kong, Dexiao; Li, Ai; Li, Xiaomei; Zhuang, Xianghua; Wang, Zhilun; Wang, Yongjing; Chang, Yali; Chen, Shihong; Kong, Feng; Zhang, Xuhua; Zhao, Shengtian; Sun, Yi; Xu, Dawei; Wang, Daoqing; Zheng, Chengyun

    2014-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and expanded in an in vitro culture system. UC-MSCs were then cultured in the IPC induction and differentiation medium in the presence of laminin 411. Flow cytometry, Quantitative realtime PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, Western blotting and other techniques were applied to determine IPC generation, insulin expression and related mechanisms. To evaluate potential therapeutic efficacy of IPCs induced from UC-MSCs, a type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rat model was generated using streptozotocin. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and survival of rats were monitored periodically following intravenous injection of the tested cells. Laminin 411 markedly induced the expression of the genes Foxa2 and Sox17, markers for pancreatic precursor cells, efficiently induced IPC differentiation from MSCs, and up-regulated insulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression of the genes known to govern insulin expression including Pdx1 and Ngn3 was markedly induced by laminin 411, which suggests that Pdx1 and Ngn3 signaling pathways are involved in laminin 411 induced-insulin expression machinery. More importantly, administration of laminin 411-induced IPCs rapidly and significantly down-regulated fasting blood glucose levels, significantly reduced the HbA1c concentration and markedly improved the symptoms and survival of T1DM rats. Our results

  10. Reductions in laminin beta2 mRNA translation are responsible for impaired IGFBP-5-mediated mesangial cell migration in the presence of high glucose.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Valerie; Hansen, Kim M; Morris, David R; Abrass, Christine K

    2010-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) mediates mesangial cell migration through activation of cdc42, and laminin421 binding to alpha(6)beta(1)-integrin (Berfield AK, Hansen KM, Abrass CK. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 291: C589-C599, 2006). Because glomerular expression of laminin beta(2) is reduced in diabetic rats (Abrass CK, Spicer D, Berfield AK, St. John PL, Abrahamson DR. Am J Pathol 151: 1131-1140, 1997), we directly examined the effect of hyperglycemia on mesangial cell migration and laminin beta2 expression. Migration mediated by IGFBP-5 is impaired in the presence of 25 mM glucose. This reduction in migration was found to result from a loss in mesangial cell synthesis of laminin421, and IGFBP-5-induced migration could be restored by replacing laminin421. Additional studies showed that there was selective reduction in mRNA translation of laminin beta2 in the presence of high glucose. Preserved synthesis of laminin beta1 indicates that not all proteins are reduced by high glucose and confirms prior data showing that laminin411 cannot substitute for laminin421 in IGFBP-5-mediated migration. Given the importance of mesangial migration in the reparative response to diabetes-associated mesangiolysis, these findings provide new insights into abnormalities associated with diabetic nephropathy and the potential importance of differential control of protein translation in determination of alterations of protein expression.

  11. Localization of the gene (LAMA4) to chromosome 6q21 and isolation of a partial cDNA encoding a variant laminin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, A.J.; Al-Imara, L.; Carter, N.P.

    1994-07-01

    Laminin is a basement membrane glycoprotein composed of three nonidentical chains, A, B1, and B2. Variant chains such as merosin and S-laminin have been found in different tissues. The authors have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel laminin A variant that hybridizes to a 6.45-kb mRNA. Using amplification of genomic DNA and flow-sorted chromosomes they have assigned the gene (LAMA4) for this new laminin A variant to chromosome 6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of a YAC clone further localized the gene to 6q21. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Increased expression of differentiation markers can accompany laminin-induced attachment of small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giaccone, G.; Broers, J.; Jensen, S.; Fridman, R. I.; Linnoila, R.; Gazdar, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between human lung cancer cells, laminin, and several differentiating agents. When grown on laminin coated substrate eight out of 11 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines exhibited attachment to laminin and three had extensive outgrowth of long neurite-like processes. Of seven non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, selected for their in vitro anchorage-independent growth, attachment was observed in only three cell lines, and process formation was far less extensive than in SCLC cell lines. Among several differentiating agents, only dcAMP, which alone induced attachment and some process formation, increased laminin-mediated attachment and process formation of two SCLC cell lines, NCI-N417 a variant cell line, and NCI-H345, a classic cell line. The expression of several neuroendocrine and neuronal markers was investigated in these two SCLC cell lines. The expression of the light subunit of neurofilaments increased in NCI-N417 within 3 to 4 days of seeding, while NCI-H345 exhibited approximately 5 fold increase in expression of the GRP gene and a 3 fold increase expression of the beta-actin gene. The expression of a number of other neuroendocrine and neuronal markers did not change following growth on laminin. The doubling times remained unchanged independent of the presence of and attachment to laminin while topoisomerase II gene expression levels in NCI-N417 cells decreased approximately 5 fold when cells were growing on laminin. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1325826

  13. Crystal Structures of the Network-Forming Short-Arm Tips of the Laminin β1 and γ1 Chains

    PubMed Central

    Carafoli, Federico; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of basement membranes and essential for tissue formation and function in all animals. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule are composed of one chain each and their tips mediate the formation of a polymeric network. The structural basis for laminin polymerisation is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the short-arm tips of the mouse laminin β1 and γ1 chains, which are grossly similar to the previously determined structure of the corresponding α5 chain region. The short-arm tips consist of a laminin N-terminal (LN) domain that is attached like the head of a flower to a rod-like stem formed by tandem laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains. The LN domain is a β-sandwich with elaborate loop regions that differ between chains. The γ1 LN domain uniquely contains a calcium binding site. The LE domains have little regular structure and are stabilised by cysteines that are disulphide-linked 1–3, 2–4, 5–6 and 7–8 in all chains. The LN surface is not conserved across the α, β and γ chains, but within each chain subfamily there is a striking concentration of conserved residues on one face of the β-sandwich, while the opposite face invariably is shielded by glycans. We propose that the extensive conserved patches on the β and γ LN domains mediate the binding of these two chains to each other, and that the α chain LN domain subsequently binds to the composite β-γ surface. Mutations in the laminin β2 LN domain causing Pierson syndrome are likely to impair the folding of the β2 chain or its ability to form network interactions. PMID:22860131

  14. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Chase D; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M

    2016-08-15

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1(UW1)) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1(UW1) mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen and Laminin: An Overview of Their Biology and Value as Fibrosis Biomarkers of Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ki M; Mei, Rena

    2017-02-10

    Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells, and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors, and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina. The triple helical region, 7S domain and NCI domain of Col IV, laminin and laminin fragment P1 have been evaluated as noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers of alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Elevated serum Col IV and laminin are related to degrees of fibrosis and severity of hepatitis, and may reflect hepatic basement membrane metabolism. But the serum assays have not been linked to disclosing the anatomical sites and lobular distribution of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in the liver. Hepatic sinusoids normally lack a basement membrane, although Col IV is a normal matrix component of the space of Disse. In liver disease, laminin deposits in the space of Disse and codistributes with Col IV, forming a perisinusoidal basement membrane. Concomitantly, the sinusoidal endothelium loses its fenestrae and is transformed into vascular type endothelium. These changes lead to capillarization of hepatic sinusoids, a significant pathology that impairs hepatic function. Accordingly, codistribution of Col IV and laminin serves as histochemical marker of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in liver disease. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Substitution of a conserved cysteine-996 in a cysteine-rich motif of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in congenital muscular dystrophy with partial deficiency of the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nissinen, M.; Xu Zhang; Tryggvason, K.

    1996-06-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are autosomal recessive muscle disorders of early onset. Approximately half of CMD patients present laminin {alpha}2-chain (merosin) deficiency in muscle biopsies, and the disease locus has been mapped to the region of the LAMA2 gene (6q22-23) in several families. Recently, two nonsense mutations in the laminin {alpha}2-chain gene were identified in CMD patients exhibiting complete deficiency of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in muscle biopsies. However, a subset of CMD patients with linkage to LAMA2 show only partial absence of the laminin {alpha}2-chain around muscle fibers, by immunocytochemical analysis. In the present study we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in the {alpha}2-chain gene of a consanguineous Turkish family with partial laminin {alpha}2-chain deficiency. The T{r_arrow}C transition at position 3035 in the cDNA sequence results in a Cys996{r_arrow}Arg substitution. The mutation that affects one of the conserved cysteine-rich repeats in the short arm of the laminin {alpha}2-chain should result in normal synthesis of the chain and in formation and secretion of a heterotrimeric laminin molecule. Muscular dysfunction is possibly caused either by abnormal disulfide cross-links and folding of the laminin repeat, leading to the disturbance of an as yet unknown binding function of the laminin {alpha}2-chain and to shorter half-life of the muscle-specific laminin-2 and laminin-4 isoforms, or by increased proteolytic sensitivity, leading to truncation of the short arm. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Origin of the glomerular basement membrane visualized after in vivo labeling of laminin in newborn rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, D R

    1985-06-01

    To examine the origin and assembly of glomerular basement membranes (GBMs), affinity purified anti-laminin IgG was directly coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and intravenously injected into newborn rats. Kidneys were then processed for peroxidase histochemistry and microscopy. Within 1 h after injection, anti-laminin bound to basement membranes of nephrons in all developmental stages (vesicle, comma, S-shaped, developing capillary loop, and maturing glomeruli). In S-shaped and capillary loop glomeruli, anti-laminin-HRP labeled a double basal lamina between the endothelium and epithelium. Sections incubated with anti-laminin in vitro showed labeling within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of endothelium and epithelium, indicating that both cell types synthesized laminin for the double basement membrane. In maturing glomeruli, injected anti-laminin-HRP bound throughout the GBMs, and double basement membranes were rarely observed. At this stage, however, numerous knobs or outpockets of basement membrane material extending far into the epithelial side of the capillary wall were identified and these were also labeled throughout their full thickness. No such outpockets were found in the endothelial cell layer of newborn rats (and they normally are completely absent in fully mature, adult glomeruli). In contrast with these results, in kidneys fixed 4-6 d after anti-laminin IgG-HRP injection, basement membranes of vesicle, comma, and S-shaped nephrons were unlabeled, indicating that they were assembled after injection. GBM labeling was seen in maturing glomeruli, however. In addition, the outpockets of basement membrane extending into the epithelium were often completely unlabeled whereas GBMs lying immediately beneath them were labeled intensely, which indicates that the outpockets were probably assembled by the epithelium. Injections of sheep anti-laminin IgG followed 8 d later with injections of biotin-rabbit anti-laminin IgG and double-label immunofluorescence

  18. Presynaptic calcium channels and α3-integrins are complexed with synaptic cleft laminins, cytoskeletal elements and active zone components.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Steven S; Valdez, Gregorio; Sanes, Joshua R

    2010-11-01

    At chemical synapses, synaptic cleft components interact with elements of the nerve terminal membrane to promote differentiation and regulate function. Laminins containing the β2 subunit are key cleft components, and they act in part by binding the pore-forming subunit of a pre-synaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)α) (Nishimune et al. 2004). In this study, we identify Ca(v)α-associated intracellular proteins that may couple channel-anchoring to assembly or stabilization of neurotransmitter release sites called active zones. Using Ca(v)α-antibodies, we isolated a protein complex from Torpedo electric organ synapses, which resemble neuromuscular junctions but are easier to isolate in bulk. We identified 10 components of the complex: six cytoskeletal proteins (α2/β2 spectrins, plectin 1, AHNAK/desmoyokin, dystrophin, and myosin 1), two active zone components (bassoon and piccolo), synaptic laminin, and a calcium channel β subunit. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these proteins in electric organ synapses, and PCR analysis revealed their expression by developing mammalian motor neurons. Finally, we show that synaptic laminins also interact with pre-synaptic integrins containing the α3 subunit. Together with our previous finding that a distinct synaptic laminin interacts with SV2 on nerve terminals (Son et al. 2000), our results identify three paths by which synaptic cleft laminins can send developmentally important signals to nerve terminals.

  19. Regression of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats is accompanied by a changed laminin pattern.

    PubMed

    Khegay, Igor I; Ivanova, Ludmila N

    2015-04-01

    Walker 256 carcinosarcoma is a transplantable model of rat carcinoma that originally appeared spontaneously in mammary glands. The growth rate of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats is lower than in WAG rats and their congenic hybrids with normal vasopressin levels. Study of tumor proteins detected essential alterations. Tumor regression starting at the 14th day in Brattleboro rats was accompanied by changes in the laminin pattern. At the 21st day, the concentration of α-chains became twice as low, while β-chains of laminin showed a sixfold increase compared to the initial equimolar correlation of bands. Congenic hybrids having one active copy of the vasopressin gene to provide a physiological level of hormone against the genetic background of Brattleboro rats show the same laminin alterations as WAG rats. They demonstrated a similar moderate increase of γ-chains and threefold growth of α- and β-chains of laminin in tumor tissue. It is supposed that vasopressin may be involved in the regulation of relevant local stimuli to trigger renovation of the laminin composition in a course of growing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma.

  20. One-Step Purification of Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Subsequent Expansion Using Laminin-Coated Surface.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; binti Ismail, Annis; Chee, Sia Chye; bin Laupa, Mohd Suffian; binti Jaffri, Fadhlun; Saberi, Salfarina Ezrina Mohmad; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal myoblasts have been extensively used to study muscle growth and differentiation, and were recently tested for their application as cell therapy and as a gene delivery system to treat muscle and nonmuscle diseases. However, contamination of fibroblasts in isolated cells from skeletal muscle is one of the long-standing problems for routine expansion. This study aimed to establish a simple one-step process to purify myoblasts and maintain their purity during expansion. Mixed cells were preplated serially on laminin- and collagen type I-coated surfaces in a different array for 5, 10, and 15 min. Immunocytochemical staining with antibodies specific to myoblasts was performed to evaluate myoblast attachment efficiency, purity, and yield. It was found that laminin-coated surface favors the attachment of myoblasts. Highest myoblast purity of 78.9% ± 6.8% was achieved by 5 min of preplating only on the laminin-coated surface with a yield of 56.9% ± 3.3%. Primary cells, isolated from skeletal muscle (n = 4), confirm the enhancement of purity through preplating on laminin-coated surface for 5 min. Subsequent expansion after preplating enhanced myoblast purity due to an increase in myoblast growth than fibroblasts. Myoblast purity of ∼ 98% was achieved when another preplating was performed during passaging. In conclusion, myoblasts can be purified and efficiently expanded in one step by preplating on laminin-coated surface, which is a simple and robust technique.

  1. Growth hormone in the presence of laminin modulates interaction of human thymic epithelial cells and thymocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lins, Marvin Paulo; de Araújo Vieira, Larissa Fernanda; Rosa, Alfredo Aurélio Marinho; Smaniotto, Salete

    2016-09-02

    Several evidences indicate that hormones and neuropeptides function as immunomodulators. Among these, growth hormone (GH) is known to act on the thymic microenvironment, supporting its role in thymocyte differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GH on human thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in the presence of laminin. GH increased thymocyte adhesion on BSA-coated and further on laminin-coated surfaces. The number of migrating cells in laminin-coated membrane was higher in GH-treated thymocyte group. In both results, VLA-6 expression on thymocytes was constant. Also, treatment with GH enhanced laminin production by TEC after 24 h in culture. However, VLA-6 integrin expression on TEC remained unchanged. Finally, TEC/thymocyte co-culture model demonstrated that GH elevated absolute number of double-negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)) and single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes. A decrease in cell number was noted in double-positive (CD4(+)CD8(+)) thymocytes. The results of this study demonstrate that GH is capable of enhancing the migratory capacity of human thymocytes in the presence of laminin and promotes modulation of thymocyte subsets after co-culture with TEC.

  2. [DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the laminin family genes in normal and breast carcinoma tissues].

    PubMed

    Simonova, O A; Kuznetsova, E B; Poddubskaya, E V; Kekeeva, T V; Kerimov, R A; Trotsenko, I D; Tanas, A S; Rudenko, V V; Alekseeva, E A; Zaletayev, D V; Strelnikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular glycoproteins of the laminin family are essential components of basement membranes involved in a number of biological processes, including tissue differentiation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. We present the first comprehensive study of promoter methylation status of the genes encoding laminin chains in normal tissues (peripheral blood leucocytes, buccal epithelial cells, autopsy breast tissue samples) and in breast carcinoma samples. Based on the results of this study, we divide laminin genes into three categories. Genes, constitutively methylated in breast tissues include LAMA3A, LAMB2, LAMB3, and LAMC2. Genes prone to abnormal methylation in breast carcinoma include LAMA1, LAMA2, LAMA3B, LAMA4, LAMB1, and LAMC3. Genes that are rarely if ever methylated in breast carcinoma include LAMA5 and LAMC1. The constitutively methylated group includes all of the genes that encode subunits of laminin-5 (the historical name of laminin 332), the promoters of which were previously considered unmethylated in normal tissues and prone to abnormal methylation in breast cancer.

  3. Cloning of the laminin {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, F.; Ortonne, J.P. |; Galliano, M.F.

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband`s keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin {alpha}3A and {alpha}3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the {alpha} chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 {alpha} chain mRNA. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A novel laminin β gene BmLanB1-w regulates wing-specific cell adhesion in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Chen, Jun; Hu, Hai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2015-07-27

    Laminins are important basement membrane (BM) components with crucial roles in development. The numbers of laminin isoforms in various organisms are determined by the composition of the different α, β, and γ chains, and their coding genes, which are variable across spieces. In insects, only two α, one β, and one γ chains have been identified thus far. Here, we isolated a novel laminin β gene, BmLanB1-w, by positional cloning of the mutant (crayfish, cf) with blistered wings in silkworm. Gene structure analysis showed that a 2 bp deletion of the BmLanB1-w gene in the cf mutant caused a frame-shift in the open reading frame (ORF) and generated a premature stop codon. Knockdown of the BmLanB1-w gene produced individuals exhibiting blistered wings, indicating that this laminin gene was required for cell adhesion during wing development. We also identified laminin homologs in different species and showed that two copies of β laminin likely originated in Lepidoptera during evolution. Furthermore, phylogenetic and gene expression analyses of silkworm laminin genes revealed that the BmLanB1-w gene is newly evolved, and is required for wing-specific cell adhesion. This is the first report showing the tissue specific distribution and functional differentiation of β laminin in insects.

  5. A case of subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminin subunits who developed later autoantibodies to alpha-5 chain of type IV collagen associated with membranous glomerulonephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Hirohiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Ohtoshi, Shinpei; Nakada, Tokio; Yoshimura, Ashio; Tateishi, Chiharu; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Fader, William; Ghohestani, Reza F; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Qian, Hua; Li, Xiaoguang; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We report a 68-year-old Japanese female patient with subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminins, who subsequently developed membranous glomerulonephropathy. At skin disease stage, immunofluorescence demonstrated IgG anti-basement membrane zone antibodies reactive with dermal side of NaCl-split skin. Immunoblotting of human dermal extract, purified laminin-332, hemidesmosome-rich fraction and laminin-521 trimer recombinant protein (RP) detected laminin γ-1 and α-3 and γ-2 subunits of laminin-332. Three years after skin lesions disappeared, nephrotic symptoms developed. Antibodies to α-3 chain of type IV collagen (COL4A3) were negative, thus excluding the diagnosis of Goodpasture syndrome. All anti-laminin antibodies disappeared. Additional IB and ELISA studies of RPs of various COL4 chains revealed reactivity with COL4A5, but not with COL4A6 or COL4A3. Although diagnosis of anti-laminin γ-1 (p200) pemphigoid or anti-laminin-332-type mucous membrane pemphigoid could not be made, this case was similar to previous cases with autoantibodies to COL4A5 and/or COL4A6.

  6. A novel laminin β gene BmLanB1-w regulates wing-specific cell adhesion in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Chen, Jun; Hu, Hai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are important basement membrane (BM) components with crucial roles in development. The numbers of laminin isoforms in various organisms are determined by the composition of the different α, β, and γ chains, and their coding genes, which are variable across spieces. In insects, only two α, one β, and one γ chains have been identified thus far. Here, we isolated a novel laminin β gene, BmLanB1-w, by positional cloning of the mutant (crayfish, cf) with blistered wings in silkworm. Gene structure analysis showed that a 2 bp deletion of the BmLanB1-w gene in the cf mutant caused a frame-shift in the open reading frame (ORF) and generated a premature stop codon. Knockdown of the BmLanB1-w gene produced individuals exhibiting blistered wings, indicating that this laminin gene was required for cell adhesion during wing development. We also identified laminin homologs in different species and showed that two copies of β laminin likely originated in Lepidoptera during evolution. Furthermore, phylogenetic and gene expression analyses of silkworm laminin genes revealed that the BmLanB1-w gene is newly evolved, and is required for wing-specific cell adhesion. This is the first report showing the tissue specific distribution and functional differentiation of β laminin in insects. PMID:26212529

  7. Laminin β2 Gene Missense Mutation Produces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying Maggie; Zhou, Yuefang; Go, Gloriosa; Marmerstein, Joseph T.; Kikkawa, Yamato

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the laminin β2 gene (LAMB2) cause Pierson syndrome, a severe congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurologic defects. LAMB2 is a component of the laminin-521 (α5β2γ1) trimer, an important constituent of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The C321R-LAMB2 missense mutation leads to congenital nephrotic syndrome but only mild extrarenal symptoms; the mechanisms underlying the development of proteinuria with this mutation are unclear. We generated three transgenic mouse lines, in which rat C321R-LAMB2 replaced mouse LAMB2 in the GBM. During the first postnatal month, expression of C321R-LAMB2 attenuated the severe proteinuria exhibited by Lamb2−/− mice in a dose-dependent fashion; proteinuria eventually increased, however, leading to renal failure. The C321R mutation caused defective secretion of laminin-521 from podocytes to the GBM accompanied by podocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, likely resulting from protein misfolding. Moreover, ER stress preceded the onset of significant proteinuria and was manifested by induction of the ER-initiated apoptotic signal C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), ER distention, and podocyte injury. Treatment of cells expressing C321R-LAMB2 with the chemical chaperone taurodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), which can facilitate protein folding and trafficking, greatly increased the secretion of the mutant LAMB2. Taken together, these results suggest that the mild variant of Pierson syndrome caused by the C321R-LAMB2 mutation may be a prototypical ER storage disease, which may benefit from treatment approaches that target the handling of misfolded proteins. PMID:23723427

  8. Laminin-Dependent Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia: A Role in Retinal Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saptarshi; Bachay, Galina; Chu, Julianne; Hunter, Dale D; Brunken, William J

    2017-09-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are among the leading causes of acquired blindness. In recent years, retinal microglia have been shown to influence vascular branching density and endothelial cell proliferation. However, how microglial recruitment and activation are regulated during development remains unclear. We hypothesized that microglial recruitment, activation, and down-stream signaling are modulated by components of the mural basement membrane. We used a reverse genetic approach to disrupt laminin expression in the vascular basement membrane and demonstrate that microglia respond to the mural basement membrane in an isoform-specific manner. Microglial density is significantly increased in the laminin γ3-null (Lamc3(-/-)) retinal superficial vascular plexus and consequently the vascular branching density is increased. Microglia also respond to astrocyte-derived matrices and become hyperactivated in the Lamc3(-/-) retina or when tested in vitro with cell-derived matrix. Pharmacological activation of microglia in the wild-type retina produced an Lamc3(-/-)-like vascular phenotype, whereas pharmacological blocking of microglial activation in the Lamc3(-/-) retina rescued the wild-type vascular phenotype. On the molecular level, microglial transforming growth factor-β1 expression is down-regulated in the Lamc3(-/-) retina, and SMAD signaling decreased in endothelial cells with a consequent increase in endothelial proliferation. The reverse effects were seen in the Lamb2(-/-) retina. Together, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which laminins modulate vascular branching and endothelial cell proliferation during retinal angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the {beta}3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMB3) in herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Pulkkinen, L.; Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J.

    1994-11-15

    Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by blister formation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane. Based on immunofluorescence analysis recognizing laminin 5 epitopes (previously known as nicein/kalinin), the genes for this lamina lucida protein have been proposed as candidate genes in H-JEB. Amplification of mRNA by RT-PCR, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing, revealed a homozygous C-to T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA{r_arrow}TGA) on both alleles. This mutation was verified at the genomic DNA level, and both parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. This is the first description of a mutation in the laminin {beta}3 chain gene (LAMB3) of laminin 5 in an H-JEB patient. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Loss of β2-laminin alters calcium sensitivity and voltage-gated calcium channel maturation of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Schenning, Mitja P; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular junctions from β2-laminin-deficient mice exhibit lower levels of calcium sensitivity. Loss of β2-laminin leads to a failure in switching from N- to P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC)-mediated transmitter release that normally occurs with neuromuscular junction maturation. The motor nerve terminals from β2-laminin-deficient mice fail to up-regulate the expression of P/Q-type VGCCs clusters and down-regulate N-type VGCCs clusters, as they mature. There is decreased co-localisation of presynaptic specialisations in β2-laminin-deficient neuromuscular junctions as a consequence of lesser P/Q-type VGCC expression. These findings support the idea that β2-laminin is critical in the organisation and maintenance of active zones at the neuromuscular junction via its interaction with P/Q-type VGCCs, which aid in stabilisation of the synapse. β2-laminin is a key mediator in the differentiation and formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Loss of β2-laminin results in significant structural and functional aberrations such as decreased number of active zones and reduced spontaneous release of transmitter. In vitro β2-laminin has been shown to bind directly to the pore forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Neurotransmission is initially mediated by N-type VGCCs, but by postnatal day 18 switches to P/Q-type VGCC dominance. The present study investigated the changes in neurotransmission during the switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated transmitter release at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Analysis of the relationship between quantal content and extracellular calcium concentrations demonstrated a decrease in the calcium sensitivity, but no change in calcium dependence at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Electrophysiological studies on VGCC sub-types involved in transmitter release indicate N-type VGCCs remain the primary mediator of transmitter release at matured β2-laminin-deficient junctions

  11. Polarity determination in breast tissue: Desmosomal adhesion, myoepit helial cells, and laminin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J.; Bilder, David

    2003-06-05

    In all epithelial organs, apicobasal polarity determines functional integrity and contributes to the maintenance of tissue and organ specificity. In the breast, the functional unit is a polar double-layered tube consisting of luminal epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells and a basement membrane. It is far from clear how this double-layered structure is established and how polarity is maintained. Two recent papers have shed some light onto this intriguing problem in mammary gland biology. The results point to desmosomes and laminin 1 as having crucial roles. However, some questions remain.

  12. [Effect of laminin on numerical karyotype variability of kangaroo rat kidney cell lines].

    PubMed

    Polianskaia, G G; Goriachaia, T S; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Pinaev, G P

    2003-01-01

    The numerical karyotypic variability has been investigated in "markerless" epithelial-like Rat kangaroo kidney cell lines NBL-3-11 and NBL-3-17 on cultivation on a laminin-2/4 coated surface. In cell line NBL-3-17, cultivated on the laminin-coated surface for 2, 4 and 12 days, the character of numerical karyotypic variability has changed. In 2 days the general character of cell distribution for the chromosome number did not change, but the frequency of cells with modal number of chromosomes decreases significantly, while that of cells with lower chromosome number show a tendency to increase. At a prolongation of cultivation time to 4 and 12 days, the numerical karyotypic heterogeneity in cell population increases due to a significant change in the general character of cell distribution for the chromosome number, which is caused by a significant decrease in the frequency of cells with the modal number of chromosomes, and by an increase in the frequency of cells with lower chromosome number. The analysis of distribution of individual chromosomes showed that the number of types of additional structural variants of the karyotype (SVK) increases significantly on cultivation on laminin for 2-12 days. In cell line NBL-3-11, cultivated on the laminin-coated surface for 2 and 4 days, the character of numerical karyotypic variability did not change compared to control variants. Possible reasons of the observed changes of numerical karyotypic variability in cell line NBL-3-17 is discussed. The reason of differences in the character of numerical karyotypic variability between cell lines NBL-3-11 and NBL-3-17 possibly consists in the change of gene expression, namely in a dose of certain functioning genes. The polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primers revealed no differences between DNA patterns of cell lines NBL-3-17 and NBL-3-11. This can reflect a similarity in the primary DNA structure of both cell lines. Hence, these lines differ only in the number of homologous

  13. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cação-Benedini, L.O.; Ribeiro, P.G.; Prado, C.M.; Chesca, D.L.; Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  14. Quantitative image analysis of laminin immunoreactivity in skin basement membrane irradiated with 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, S.; Streuli, C. H.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that laminin immunoreactivity in mouse mammary epithelium is altered shortly after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy from 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions but is unaffected after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. This observation led us to propose that the effect could be due to protein damage from the high ionization density of the ion tracks. If so, we predicted that it would be evident soon after radiation exposure in basement membranes of other tissues and would depend on ion fluence. To test this hypothesis, we used immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image segmentation techniques to quantify changes in the basement membrane of mouse skin epidermis. At 1 h after exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions with doses from 0.03 to 1.6 Gy, neither the visual appearance nor the mean pixel intensity of laminin in the basement membrane of mouse dorsal skin epidermis was altered compared to sham-irradiated tissue. This result does not support the hypothesis that particle traversal directly affects laminin protein integrity. However, the mean pixel intensity of laminin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in epidermal basement membrane at 48 and 96 h after exposure to 0.8 Gy 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. We confirmed this effect with two additional antibodies raised against affinity-purified laminin 1 and the E3 fragment of the long-arm of laminin 1. In contrast, collagen type IV, another component of the basement membrane, was unaffected. Our studies demonstrate quantitatively that densely ionizing radiation elicits changes in skin microenvironments distinct from those induced by sparsely ionizing radiation. Such effects may might contribute to the carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation by altering cellular signaling cascades mediated by cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  15. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cação-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

  16. Human {beta}2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wewer, U.M.; Durkin, M.E.; Albrechtsen, R.

    1994-11-15

    Overlapping cDNA clones that encode the full-length human laminin {beta}2 chain, formerly called the S chain, were isolated. The cDNA of 5680 nt contains a 5391-nt open reading frame encoding 1797 amino acids. At the amino terminus is a 32-amino-acid signal peptide that is followed by the mature {beta}2 chain polypeptide of 1765 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 192,389 Da. The human {beta}2 chain is predicted to have all of the seven structural domains typical of the {beta} chains of laminin, including the short cysteine-rich {alpha} region. The amino acid sequence of human {beta}2 chain showed 86.1% sequence identity to the rat {beta}2 chain, 50.0% to human {beta}1 chain, and 36.3% to the human {beta}3 chain. The greatest sequence identity was in domains VI, V, and III. The sequence of a 24-amino-acid peptide fragment isolated from the {beta}2 chain of laminin purified from human amniotic basement membrane matched the sequence predicted from the cDNA, confirming that the cDNA encodes human {beta}2 laminin. The cDNA was used to assign the gene (LAMB2) to human chromosome 3p21 by in situ hybridization. It is not linked to genes for human laminin chains {alpha}1, {beta}1, and {gamma}1 or other known laminin genes. Immunostaining showed that the {beta}2 chain is localized to the smooth muscle basement membranes of the arteries, while the homologous {beta}1 chain is confined to the subendothelial basement membranes. The {beta}2 chain was found in the basement membranes of ovarian carcinomas but not colon carcinomas. These results indicate that the expression of the {beta}2 chain gene is tightly regulated in normal human tissues and in disease. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Quantitative image analysis of laminin immunoreactivity in skin basement membrane irradiated with 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, S.; Streuli, C. H.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that laminin immunoreactivity in mouse mammary epithelium is altered shortly after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy from 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions but is unaffected after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. This observation led us to propose that the effect could be due to protein damage from the high ionization density of the ion tracks. If so, we predicted that it would be evident soon after radiation exposure in basement membranes of other tissues and would depend on ion fluence. To test this hypothesis, we used immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image segmentation techniques to quantify changes in the basement membrane of mouse skin epidermis. At 1 h after exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions with doses from 0.03 to 1.6 Gy, neither the visual appearance nor the mean pixel intensity of laminin in the basement membrane of mouse dorsal skin epidermis was altered compared to sham-irradiated tissue. This result does not support the hypothesis that particle traversal directly affects laminin protein integrity. However, the mean pixel intensity of laminin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in epidermal basement membrane at 48 and 96 h after exposure to 0.8 Gy 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. We confirmed this effect with two additional antibodies raised against affinity-purified laminin 1 and the E3 fragment of the long-arm of laminin 1. In contrast, collagen type IV, another component of the basement membrane, was unaffected. Our studies demonstrate quantitatively that densely ionizing radiation elicits changes in skin microenvironments distinct from those induced by sparsely ionizing radiation. Such effects may might contribute to the carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation by altering cellular signaling cascades mediated by cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  18. [Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin-a2 deficiency in early infancy: diagnosis and long-term follow-up].

    PubMed

    Panteliadis, C; Karatza, E; Xinias, I; Flaris, N; Tzitiridou, M; Ramantani, G

    2005-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness and hypotonia at birth or within the first few months of life. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. About half of the patients have a deficiency of the alpha-2-chain of laminin (merosin). We describe a case of congenital muscular dystrophy in an infant with laminin-a2-chain deficiency, which appeared hypotonia in early infancy. Diagnosis was made by clinical features and the histological and immunohistochemical studies on muscle biopsy.

  19. The apolipoprotein(a) component of lipoprotein(a) mediates binding to laminin: contribution to selective retention of lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Angela; Geroldi, Diego; Hancock, Mark A; Valtulina, Viviana; Cornaglia, Antonia I; Spencer, Craig A; Emanuele, Enzo; Calligaro, Alberto; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Speziale, Pietro; Visai, Livia

    2005-02-21

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] entrapment by vascular extracellular matrix may be important in atherogenesis. We sought to determine whether laminin, a major component of the basal membrane, may contribute to Lp(a) retention in the arterial wall. First, immunohistochemistry experiments were performed to examine the relative distribution of Lp(a) and laminin in human carotid artery specimens. There was a high degree of co-localization of Lp(a) and laminin in atherosclerotic specimens, but not in non-atherosclerotic sections. We then studied the binding interaction between Lp(a) and laminin in vitro. ELISA experiments showed that native Lp(a) particles and 17K and 12K recombinant apolipoprotein(a) [r-apo(a)] variants interacted strongly with laminin whereas LDL, apoB-100, and the truncated KIV(6-P), KIV(8-P), and KIV(9-P) r-apo(a) variants did not. Overall, the ELISA data demonstrated that Lp(a) binding to laminin is mediated by apo(a) and a combination of the lysine analogue epsilon-aminocaproic acid and salt effectively decreases apo(a) binding to laminin. Secondary binding analyses with 125I-labeled r-apo(a) revealed equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)) of 180 and 360 nM for the 17K and 12K variants binding to laminin, respectively. Such similar K(d) values between these two r-apo(a) variants suggest that isoform size does not appear to influence apo(a) binding to laminin. In summary, our data suggest that laminin may bind to apo(a) in the atherosclerotic intima, thus contributing to the selective retention of Lp(a) in this milieu.

  20. Analysis of Nidogen-1/Laminin γ1 Interaction by Cross-Linking, Mass Spectrometry, and Computational Modeling Reveals Multiple Binding Modes

    PubMed Central

    Lössl, Philip; Kölbel, Knut; Tänzler, Dirk; Nannemann, David; Ihling, Christian H.; Keller, Manuel V.; Schneider, Marian; Zaucke, Frank; Meiler, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detailed structural investigation of nidogen-1/laminin γ1 complexes using full-length nidogen-1 and a number of laminin γ1 variants. The interactions of nidogen-1 with laminin variants γ1 LEb2–4, γ1 LEb2–4 N836D, γ1 short arm, and γ1 short arm N836D were investigated by applying a combination of (photo-)chemical cross-linking, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and computational modeling. In addition, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA studies were used to determine kinetic constants of the nidogen-1/laminin γ1 interaction. Two complementary cross-linking strategies were pursued to analyze solution structures of laminin γ1 variants and nidogen-1. The majority of distance information was obtained with the homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)glutarate. In a second approach, UV-induced cross-linking was performed after incorporation of the diazirine-containing unnatural amino acids photo-leucine and photo-methionine into laminin γ1 LEb2–4, laminin γ1 short arm, and nidogen-1. Our results indicate that Asn-836 within laminin γ1 LEb3 domain is not essential for complex formation. Cross-links between laminin γ1 short arm and nidogen-1 were found in all protein regions, evidencing several additional contact regions apart from the known interaction site. Computational modeling based on the cross-linking constraints indicates the existence of a conformational ensemble of both the individual proteins and the nidogen-1/laminin γ1 complex. This finding implies different modes of interaction resulting in several distinct protein-protein interfaces. PMID:25387007

  1. Analysis of nidogen-1/laminin γ1 interaction by cross-linking, mass spectrometry, and computational modeling reveals multiple binding modes.

    PubMed

    Lössl, Philip; Kölbel, Knut; Tänzler, Dirk; Nannemann, David; Ihling, Christian H; Keller, Manuel V; Schneider, Marian; Zaucke, Frank; Meiler, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detailed structural investigation of nidogen-1/laminin γ1 complexes using full-length nidogen-1 and a number of laminin γ1 variants. The interactions of nidogen-1 with laminin variants γ1 LEb2-4, γ1 LEb2-4 N836D, γ1 short arm, and γ1 short arm N836D were investigated by applying a combination of (photo-)chemical cross-linking, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and computational modeling. In addition, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA studies were used to determine kinetic constants of the nidogen-1/laminin γ1 interaction. Two complementary cross-linking strategies were pursued to analyze solution structures of laminin γ1 variants and nidogen-1. The majority of distance information was obtained with the homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)glutarate. In a second approach, UV-induced cross-linking was performed after incorporation of the diazirine-containing unnatural amino acids photo-leucine and photo-methionine into laminin γ1 LEb2-4, laminin γ1 short arm, and nidogen-1. Our results indicate that Asn-836 within laminin γ1 LEb3 domain is not essential for complex formation. Cross-links between laminin γ1 short arm and nidogen-1 were found in all protein regions, evidencing several additional contact regions apart from the known interaction site. Computational modeling based on the cross-linking constraints indicates the existence of a conformational ensemble of both the individual proteins and the nidogen-1/laminin γ1 complex. This finding implies different modes of interaction resulting in several distinct protein-protein interfaces.

  2. Novel receptors for bacterial protein toxins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gudula; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    While bacterial effectors are often directly introduced into eukaryotic target cells by various types of injection machines, toxins enter the cytosol of host cells from endosomal compartments or after retrograde transport via Golgi from the ER. A first crucial step of toxin-host interaction is receptor binding. Using optimized protocols and new methods novel toxin receptors have been identified, including metalloprotease ADAM 10 for Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, laminin receptor Lu/BCAM for Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor CNF1, lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) for Clostridium difficile transferase CDT and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells on human recombinant laminin-511.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna; Ström, Susanne; Hansson, Emil M; Chien, Kenneth R; Inzunza, José; Hovatta, Outi; Tryggvason, Karl

    2010-06-01

    We describe a system for culturing human embryonic stem (hES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells on a recombinant form of human laminin-511, a component of the natural hES cell niche. The system is devoid of animal products and feeder cells and contains only one undefined component, human albumin. The hES cells self-renewed with normal karyotype for at least 4 months (20 passages), after which the cells could produce teratomas containing cell lineages of all three germ layers. When plated on laminin-511 in small clumps, hES cells spread out in a monolayer, maintaining cellular homogeneity with approximately 97% OCT4-positive cells. Adhesion of hES cells was dependent on alpha6beta1 integrin. The use of homogeneous monolayer hES or iPS cell cultures provides more controllable conditions for the design of differentiation methods. This xeno-free and feeder-free system may be useful for the development of cell lineages for therapeutic purposes.

  4. PS Integrins and Laminins: Key Regulators of Cell Migration during Drosophila Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jose M.; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  5. Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Kawase, Eihachiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2008-10-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first determined the major integrins expressed on the hESCs to reveal the preference of the hESCs for rhLMs, and found that the hESCs mainly expressed integrin {alpha}6{beta}1, which binds predominantly to laminin-111, -332 and -511/-521. When the hESCs were seeded onto rhLMs, the cells indeed adhered markedly to rhLM-332, and to rhLM-511 and rhLM-111 to a lesser extent. The hESCs proliferated on these three rhLMs for several passages while preserving their pluripotency. These results show that rhLM-111, -332, and -511 are good substrates to expand undifferentiated hESCs due to their high affinity to integrin {alpha}6{beta}1 expressed on hESCs.

  6. Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiyi; Brewer, Molly A.; Zou, Changping; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer, which may arise in part due to the concurrent invasion and metastasis of high grade tumors. It is thus crucial to gain insight into the adhesion and migration mechanisms in vivo, as this may ultimately lead to new treatment/detection options. To explore this possibility, we have used multiphoton excited photochemistry (MPE) to synthesize models of the ovarian basal lamina consisting of crosslinked laminin nanofibers to quantify the adhesion/migration dynamics. The nanostructured laminin patterns permit the systematic comparison of total migration, directed migration, adhesion, and morphology of “normal” immortalized human ovarian epithelial cells (IOSE) and three lines of varying metastatic potential (OVCA433, SKOV-3.ip1, and HEY-1 cells). We find that the migration of all the cell lines is directed by the crosslinked fibers, and that the contact guidance enhances the total migration rates relative to monolayers. These rates increase with increasing metastatic potential, and the more invasive cells are less rigid and more weakly adhered to the nanofibers. The extent of directed migration also depends on the cell polarity and focal adhesion expression. For the invasive cells, these findings are similar to the integrin-independent ameboid-like migration seen for polar cells in collagen gels. Collectively, the results suggest that contact mediated migration as well as decreased adhesion may be operative in metastasis of ovarian cancer in vivo. PMID:20023757

  7. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  8. Effects of laminin-coated carbon nanotube/chitosan fibers on guided neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Sung-Hao; Kuo, Wen-Chun; Chang-Chien, Cheng-Lun; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Yi-You

    2011-10-01

    This study assesses the ability and potential of carbon nanotube (CNT)/chitosan to guide axon re-growth after nerve injuries. The CNT/chitosan fibers were produced via the coagulation and hydrodynamic focusing method. Fiber width and morphology were adjusted using such parameters as syringe pumping rate and the coagulant used. The CNT/chitosan fiber diameters were 50-300 μm for syringe pumping rates of 6-48 mL/h. Polyethylene glycol/NaOH (25%, w/w) solution was a suitable coagulant for forming fibers with small diameters. Physical property tests demonstrate that the CNT/chitosan composites had superior tensile strength and electrical conductivity compared with those of chitosan alone. The MTT and LDH tests reveal that CNT/chitosan composites were not cytotoxic. To improve the neural cell affinity of CNT/chitosan fibers, laminin was incorporated onto fiber surfaces via the oxygen plasma technique; cell adhesion ratio increased significantly from 3.5% to 72.2% with this surface modification. Immunofluorescence staining and SEM imaging indicate that PC12 cells adhered successfully and grew on the laminin (LN)-coated CNT/chitosan films and fibers. Experimental results show that PC12 grown on LN-coated CNT/chitosan fibers in vitro extend longitudinally oriented neurites in a manner similar to that of native peripheral nerves. With the inherent electrical properties of CNTs, oriented CNT/chitosan fibers have a potential for use as nerve conduits in nerve tissue engineering.

  9. Laminin-guided highly efficient endothelial commitment from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Ryo; Niwa, Akira; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Suzuki, Naoya M.; Toga, Junko; Yagi, Emiko; Saiki, Norikazu; Nishinaka-Arai, Yoko; Okada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Akira; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saito, Megumu K.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining highly purified differentiated cells via directed differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is an essential step for their clinical application. Among the various conditions that should be optimized, the precise role and contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during differentiation are relatively unclear. Here, using a short fragment of laminin 411 (LM411-E8), an ECM predominantly expressed in the vascular endothelial basement membrane, we demonstrate that the directed switching of defined ECMs robustly yields highly-purified (>95%) endothelial progenitor cells (PSC-EPCs) without cell sorting from hPSCs in an integrin-laminin axis-dependent manner. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis revealed that LM411-E8 resolved intercellular transcriptional heterogeneity and escorted the progenitor cells to the appropriate differentiation pathway. The PSC-EPCs gave rise to functional endothelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. We therefore propose that sequential switching of defined matrices is an important concept for guiding cells towards desired fate. PMID:27804979

  10. Laminin, fibronectin, and Goodpasture antigen detection in patients with Alport's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basta-Jovanovic, G; Savin, M; Jovanovic, A Z; Veljovic, R; Sindjic, M

    1993-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence study with laminin and fibronectin monoclonal antibodies on paraffin sections, as well as with serum from a patient with Goodpasture's syndrome with high titer of autoantibodies that recognize the antigenic determinants in human glomerular and tubular basement membrane, was performed on 14 patients with Alport's syndrome and 5 specimens of normal renal tissue obtained from donors in cases of renal transplantation (control group). We found no binding of Goodpasture antigen to glomerular and distal tubular basement membranes in renal biopsy tissue from all 14 patients with Alport's syndrome. In contrast, there was bright linear fluorescence of Goodpasture antigen on glomerular and tubular basement membranes of normal renal material. There was no difference in laminin and fibronectin binding in patients with Alport's syndrome and controls. In all the cases binding was strongly positive. These results suggest an abnormality or absence of immunoreactive autoantigen in the glomerular and distal tubular basement membrane in patients with Alport's syndrome. Therefore, Goodpasture antigen detection could be an important diagnostic method in early stages of Alport's syndrome when characteristic morphological changes are not yet developed.

  11. Laminin and integrin expression in the ventral ectodermal ridge of the mouse embryo: implications for regulation of BMP signalling.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Escobar, Beatriz; De Felipe, Beatriz; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio; Sasaki, Takako; Copp, Andrew J; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) is an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. BMP regulation is essential for VER function, but how these signals are transmitted between adjacent tissues is unclear. We investigated the idea that extracellular matrix components might be involved, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect all known α, β, and γ laminin chains and their mRNAs in the early tail bud. We identified an apparently novel laminin variant, comprising α5, β3 and γ2 chains, as a maj