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Sample records for 6700b rockledge drive

  1. 78 FR 11897 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...: Lynn Rust, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program, Division of Extramural..., 6700B Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Lynn Rust,...

  2. 75 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ..., Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program, NIAID/ NIH/DHHS, 6700B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7616... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  3. 76 FR 20360 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Panel; Abnormalities in B Cell Function. Date: May 11, 2011. Time: 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review..., Division of Extramural Activities, NIAID/ NIH/DHHS, 6700B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7616, Bethesda, MD...

  4. 75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Spring, MD 20910. Contact Person: Lynn Rust, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program..., 6700B Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Lynn Rust, PhD, Scientific Review...

  5. 77 FR 52041 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ..., Scientific Review Program, Division of Extramural Activities, DHHS/NIH/NIAID, 6700B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7616...:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Raymond R. Schleef,...

  6. 78 FR 26792 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Betty Poon, PHD, Scientific... (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Uday K. Shankar, PHD, MSC, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific..., PHD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program, DEA/NIAID/NIH/DHHS, 6700-B Rockledge...

  7. 77 FR 12605 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Review Officer, Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program, DHHS/ NIH/NIAID, 6700B Rockledge... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  8. 78 FR 26376 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Roberta Binder, Ph.D... Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Roberta Binder,...

  9. 75 FR 20852 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting..., 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Kristin Kramer,...

  10. 75 FR 61766 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    .... Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892. (Virtual Meeting... Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892. (Virtual Meeting) Contact Person: Michael...

  11. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  12. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  13. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  14. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  15. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  16. Dementia & Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

  17. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  18. 75 FR 6044 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Rockledge Drive, Room 6170, MSC 7892, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-435- 1044. David.Weinberg@nih.gov . Name of... Rockledge Drive, Room 6170, MSC 7892, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-435- 1044. David.Weinberg@nih.gov . Name...

  19. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  20. 75 FR 6040 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Telephone Conference Call... Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 3160, MSC 7770, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435- 0694, wellerr... evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD...

  1. 75 FR 32955 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Rockledge Drive, Room 2200, MSC 7890, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435- 2514, stassid@csr.nih.gov . Name of... Rockledge Drive, Room 1102, MSC 7760, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435-1747, rosenzweign@csr.nih.gov . Name of... Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 3108 MSC 7808, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435- 3562,...

  2. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  3. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

  4. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on this page, ... their independence is being taken away. Signs That Driving May No Longer be Safe People with signs ...

  5. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/25837240 . Simons-Morton B, Ouimet MC. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16788109 . Simons-Morton B. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: rationale, evidence of effects, ...

  6. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  7. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  8. Magnetic drive coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The driving and driven members of a magnetic drive are separated by en enlarged gap to provide clearance for a conduit or other member. Flux pins in the gap maintain the torque transmitting capability of the drive. The spacing between two of the flux pins is increased to provide space for the conduit.

  9. Grieving while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from 84 people in 2 interview studies shows that some bereaved people grieve actively while driving. The grief can be intense, even years after a death. Grief while driving may erupt spontaneously or be set off by a wide range of reminders. Some bereaved people seem to save their grieving for times when they drive,…

  10. Syncope and Driving.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of syncope while driving has obvious implications for personal and public safety. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type of syncope in general and, thereby, also while driving. The presence of structural heart disease (reduced ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction, significant congenital heart disease) potentially leads to high risk and should determine driving restrictions pending clarification of underlying heart disease and etiology of syncope. The clinical approach to syncope evaluation and recommendations for driving should not differ, whether or not the syncopal spell occurred while driving.

  11. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  12. Marihuana and driving.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, H

    1985-08-01

    A review was performed of the marihuana and driving literature, both epidemiological and experimental. It was noted that epidemiological studies face considerable difficulties in obtaining estimates of risks involved for drivers utilizing marihuana due to the rapid decline in blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, experimental studies examining the relationship between administered marihuana dose and performance have identified many driving-related areas as exhibiting impairment. Areas impaired include coordination, tracking, perception, vigilance and performance in both driving simulators and on the road. Other behavioral areas of lesser importance for driving also exhibited evidence of impairment by marihuana. Areas for further research are suggested.

  13. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  14. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  15. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  16. Driving and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437

  17. Drive System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms.

  18. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  19. The Test Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars.

  20. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  1. 77 FR 15783 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    .... Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting... Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Joanne T Fujii, Ph.D., Scientific...

  2. [Driving and Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Roche, Jean

    2005-09-01

    Although most aged people remain safe drivers, a greater risk for crashes due to medical conditions is observed in the elderly. Impairment of important functions for safe driving such as visuospatial skills, attention, memory and judgement are observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. The accident rate increases from 9.4 accidents per million vehicle kilometers traveled for 80 to 85 year-old drivers, but raises to 163.6 for drivers with moderate AD. Patients and their families should be informed that patients with mild dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (stage 1 on the Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR), have a substantially increased rate of traffic accidents and therefore should not drive. But subjects in the pre-dementia phase (stage 0.5 at the CDR, mild cognitive impairment) also pose significant driving safety problems. In most States of the USA, and many European countries, but not in France, law requires regular investigating of driving performance in the elderly.

  3. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  4. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  5. Assessment: A Driving Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR)

  6. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  7. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  8. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  9. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  10. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  11. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  12. Electric Drive Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC

  13. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels.

  14. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  15. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  16. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  17. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  19. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  20. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  1. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  2. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

  3. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  4. Teachers with Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate…

  5. DrivePy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan; Guo, Yi

    2014-08-30

    DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center.

  6. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  7. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  8. Flywheel sickle drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, R.K.

    1989-03-21

    A releasable, eccentric drive mechanism is described, comprising: a first shaft extending along a central axis and presenting a generally cylindrical portion; a second shaft extending along a reference axis substantially parallel to the central axis in offset relation to the latter and having a generally cylindrical portion; a drive member having structure defining an opening including a first, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the first shaft portion and a second, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the second shaft portion, the second region being in side-by-side relationship to the first region and in open communication with the latter, the first shaft portion and the second shaft portion each including a substantially flat wall section extending in a plane substantially perpendicular to a reference plane passing through the central axis and the reference axis, each of the wall sections being inclined relative to the central axis in complemental, flat engagement with each other; and means coupled to one of the drive member and the second shaft for urging the first shaft in a longitudinal direction generally toward the second shaft in order to bring the wall section of the first shaft into a position of flat, wedging contact with the wall section of the second shaft and in contact with the structure defining the opening in order to securely interconnect the first shaft, the second shaft and the drive member.

  9. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  10. The Drive to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the educational vocation is a drive to influence, to meaningfully affect the learning and development of others. For adult educators working in higher education, daily activities--from teaching classes to supervising student research to attending faculty meetings to sitting on advisory boards--are full of opportunities to…

  11. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  12. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  13. Sex Chromosome Drive

    PubMed Central

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in two clades, Rodentia and Diptera. Although very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of drive, epigenetic processes such as chromatin regulation could be involved in many instances. Yet, its evolutionary consequences are far-reaching, from the evolution of mating systems and sex determination to the emergence of new species. PMID:25524548

  14. [Cannabis affects driving skills].

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-03-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society.

  15. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  16. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  17. Driving on the Descartes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground.

  18. Gear Drive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity.

  19. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  20. Butalbital and driving impairment.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-07-01

    Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated.

  1. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  2. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  3. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  4. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  5. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  6. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  7. Engine valve driving apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Uesugi, T.; Oda, H.

    1989-01-03

    An engine valve driving apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a cam driven engine valve is described. It consists of a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of a crankshaft of an engine and a movable cam member supported by the camshaft for axial movement and prevented from turning relative to the camshaft. The movable cam member can be axially shifted between an operative position wherein the cam member is cooperative with a member of the engine valve so as to cause an operation of the engine valve and an inoperative position wherein the cam member is out of cooperation with the member.

  8. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  9. HLH Drive System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    M4 1" 4 C. C, 4 10 rYV .104 14144 \\- // S/ / " I 3.025 DPII 36 TEETH 2 n )r lj < ~( NEW ) _ _ _ 7986 RPM Figure 40. Combiner Configuration 6, Reference...based on testing of th le CH- 4 ` -7 •-• ’’• stage p lanet bearing , primarily from fa ilures in the • : , - gram of Reference 19. The test results are...USAAMRDL-TR-77-38 r, . . HLH DRIVE SYSTEM -I Boeing Vertol Company P.O. Box 16858 4 • Philadelphia, Pa. 19142 0 September 1977 4Q Final Report

  10. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  11. Advances in traction drive technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  12. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  13. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  14. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Closed...: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive,...

  15. 77 FR 43094 - Public Comment Period Extension for the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... should be sent to The National Institutes of Health, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Attn: NEIDL Risk... Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland,...

  16. 75 FR 55592 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... and Methodologies Integrated Review Group, Community Influences on Health Behavior. Date: October 20... Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Antonio Sastre, PhD,...

  17. 76 FR 24897 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting... and Health Behavior Integrated Review Group, Social Psychology, Personality and...

  18. 75 FR 1793 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Committee: Risk, Prevention and Health Behavior Integrated Review Group; Social Psychology, Personality and...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact:...

  19. 77 FR 53205 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting... Health Behavior Integrated Review Group, Social Psychology, Personality and Interpersonal Processes...

  20. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  1. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  2. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  3. What Drives Blend Miscibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2014-03-01

    With no mixture data available, can one predict phase behavior in polymeric systems based on pure component information only? Due to the very weak entropic drive for large molecules to mix, predicting and understanding miscibility behavior is indeed very difficult. However, while not perfect, some a priori insight is attainable when pure component properties are analyzed within the framework of a theoretical model. A theory provides a platform, allowing one to define quantities and other measures that may not always be directly measurable, but, are physically appealing and insightful none-the-less. Are there properties that can explain for example, why a polymer like polyisobutylene (PIB) exhibits such different phase behavior compared to other polyolefins? Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we have recently analyzed a large number of different polymers. In this talk we will present insights from trends and patterns we have observed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  4. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  5. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  6. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries.

  7. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  8. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves).

  9. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Driving for All Seasons and Reasons. Book Four. Project Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Doris; And Others

    This Project Drive booklet titled Driving for All Seasons and Reasons is one of eight booklets designed for intermediate-level English-as-a-second-language students and low-level adult basic education/basic reading students. The goal of the booklet is to aid the student in developing the oral and sight vocabulary necessary for a basic driver…

  11. VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. The "genetics" of driving behavior: parents' driving style predicts their children's driving style.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Alessandra; Summala, Heikki

    2004-07-01

    It can be hypothesized that children inherit their parents' driving habits both through genetic disposition and model learning. A few studies have shown indeed that parents' and their children's traffic convictions and accidents correlate which, however, may be due to life style and other exposure factors. This study aimed at investigating the relationships between parents' and their children's self-reported driving behavior. The subjects were 174 parent-child pairs who independently completed a questionnaire. Driving behavior-driving style-was evaluated by means of Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ), while data about driving exposure, life style, accidents, and traffic tickets were also collected. A series of regression models indicated that parents' self-reported driving behavior explains their children's respective self-reported behavior, even when exposure and demographic and life-style factors are controlled.

  13. 77 FR 40623 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting... Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Jose H. Guerrier, Ph.D., Scientific...

  14. 76 FR 65739 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Kathryn M Koeller, PhD, Scientific Review...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person..., 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Joseph Thomas Peterson,...

  15. Drive-By Pharming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Sid; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Jakobsson, Markus

    This paper describes an attack concept termed Drive-by Pharming where an attacker sets up a web page that, when simply viewed by the victim (on a JavaScript-enabled browser), attempts to change the DNS server settings on the victim's home broadband router. As a result, future DNS queries are resolved by a DNS server of the attacker's choice. The attacker can direct the victim's Internet traffic and point the victim to the attacker's own web sites regardless of what domain the victim thinks he is actually going to, potentially leading to the compromise of the victim's credentials. The same attack methodology can be used to make other changes to the router, like replacing its firmware. Routers could then host malicious web pages or engage in click fraud. Since the attack is mounted through viewing a web page, it does not require the attacker to have any physical proximity to the victim nor does it require the explicit download of traditional malicious software. The attack works under the reasonable assumption that the victim has not changed the default management password on their broadband router.

  16. Handbook for Driving Knowledge Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

    Materials intended for driving knowledge test development for use by operational licensing and education agencies are presented. A pool of 1,313 multiple choice test items is included, consisting of sets of specially developed and tested items covering principles of safe driving, legal regulations, and traffic control device knowledge pertinent to…

  17. Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

  18. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  19. Driving the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  20. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  1. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  2. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  3. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  4. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  5. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L. )

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  6. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    PubMed

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  7. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  8. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Proceedings & Actions Proceedings and Actions Overview Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Commission Documents (EDOCS) Most ... 000 drivers are using cell phones or manipulating electronic devices while driving, a number that has held ...

  9. Driving Speed vs Fuel Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical treatment of the relationship between driving speed and fuel efficiency is presented. The material involves applications of exponentials, logarithms, and elementary calculus, and is intended to be enrichment material for secondary and lower college mathematics classes. (MP)

  10. Quantum effects in warp drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  11. Power requirements for current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    1988-03-01

    General formulas for the efficiency of current drive in toroidal plasmas are derived using entropy arguments. The highest possible efficiency for current drive in which a high-energy electron tail is formed is shown to be p=Erj, with p and j the power and current densities and Er≊0.09n14 V/m with n14 the electron density in units of 1014/cm.3 The electric field required to maintain the current in a runaway discharge is also shown to equal Er. If the plasma current is carried by near-Maxwellian electrons, waves that have a low phase velocity, compared to the energy of the electrons with which they interact, can drive a current with Ohmic efficiency, p=ηj2. Such waves were first discussed in the context of current drive by Fisch [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 175 (1987)].

  12. Mechanical drive for blood pump

    DOEpatents

    Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D.

    1975-07-29

    This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth)

  13. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  14. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  15. Direct drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  16. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  17. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  18. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Silva, Rafael R C; Rubel, Oleg; Curiel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  19. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. PMID:26418550

  20. Driving performance and driver discomfort in an elevated and standard driving position during a driving simulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan; Mansfield, Neil; Gyi, Diane; Pagett, Mark; Bateman, Bob

    2015-07-01

    The primary purposes of a vehicle driver's seat, is to allow them to complete the driving task comfortably and safely. Within each class of vehicle (e.g. passenger, commercial, industrial, agricultural), there is an expected driving position to which a vehicle cabin is designed. This paper reports a study that compares two driving positions, in relation to Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs), in terms of driver performance and driver discomfort. In the 'elevated' driving position, the seat is higher than usually used in road vehicles; this is compared to a standard driving position replicating the layout for a commercially available vehicle. It is shown that for a sample of 12 drivers, the elevated position did not, in general, show more discomfort than the standard position over a 60 min driving simulation, although discomfort increased with duration. There were no adverse effects shown for emergency stop reaction time or for driver headway for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture. The only body part that showed greater discomfort for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture was the right ankle. A second experiment confirmed that for 12 subjects, a higher pedal stiffness eliminated the ankle discomfort problem.

  1. Relationships between driving simulator performance and driving test results.

    PubMed

    de Winter, J C F; de Groot, S; Mulder, M; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J; Mulder, J A

    2009-02-01

    This article is considered relevant because: 1) car driving is an everyday and safety-critical task; 2) simulators are used to an increasing extent for driver training (related topics: training, virtual reality, human-machine interaction); 3) the article addresses relationships between performance in the simulator and driving test results--a relevant topic for those involved in driver training and the virtual reality industries; 4) this article provides new insights about individual differences in young drivers' behaviour. Simulators are being used to an increasing extent for driver training, allowing for the possibility of collecting objective data on driver proficiency under standardised conditions. However, relatively little is known about how learner drivers' simulator measures relate to on-road driving. This study proposes a theoretical framework that quantifies driver proficiency in terms of speed of task execution, violations and errors. This study investigated the relationships between these three measures of learner drivers' (n=804) proficiency during initial simulation-based training and the result of the driving test on the road, occurring an average of 6 months later. A higher chance of passing the driving test the first time was associated with making fewer steering errors on the simulator and could be predicted in regression analysis with a correlation of 0.18. Additionally, in accordance with the theoretical framework, a shorter duration of on-road training corresponded with faster task execution, fewer violations and fewer steering errors (predictive correlation 0.45). It is recommended that researchers conduct more large-scale studies into the reliability and validity of simulator measures and on-road driving tests.

  2. 76 FR 71047 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892... Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 5218, MSC 7852, Bethesda, MD 20892... Panel; Member Conflict: Drug Addiction and Ion Channel Function. Date: December 5, 2011. Time: 12:30...

  3. 75 FR 61507 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

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  4. 75 FR 33626 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Roy L White, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room...

  5. 76 FR 12124 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  6. 76 FR 50743 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: James P. Harwood, PhD, Scientific Review Officer... Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Raya Mandler, Ph.D., Scientific...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact...

  7. 76 FR 28441 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  9. 77 FR 39500 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Wei-Qin Zhao, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific... of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: David...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

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  13. 77 FR 25486 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 4220, MSC 7818, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-0696, barnasg@csr.nih.gov..., (301) 806-3323, luethkel@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis..., 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 6210, MSC 7804, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-1211,...

  14. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  15. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  16. Multi-propeller drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenger, Robert V.

    1995-05-01

    A multipropeller drive system having a single input shaft for connection to an engine system, a differential gear assembly for dividing the driving force from the input drive shaft between a pair of output shafts, and a pair of laterally spaced propellers driven by the output shafts of the differential gear assembly is disclosed. The differential gear assembly operates in a manner wherein one output shaft, if required, is permitted to revolve at a different rate than the other output shaft. A pair of brake mechanisms acting on the output shafts of the differential gear assembly enable an operator to control the rotational speed of the respective propellers without modifying the engine speed or transmission settings.

  17. Future hard disk drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Roger

    2009-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews the evolution of today's hard disk drive with the additional intention of orienting the reader to the overall mechanical and electrical architecture. The modern hard disk drive is a miracle of storage capacity and function together with remarkable economy of design. This paper presents a personal view of future customer requirements and the anticipated design evolution of the components. There are critical decisions and great challenges ahead for the key technologies of heads, media, head-disk interface, mechanics, and electronics.

  18. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... intoxicating liquor (0.08% or greater on DOD installations; violation of civil law off post). C. Driving a... the same as the date of civil conviction, or the date that State or host-nation driving privileges...

  19. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  20. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  1. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  2. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  3. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  4. Basic principles of variable speed drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

  5. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  6. Roller/Gear Drives For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William

    1995-01-01

    Pitch/yaw roller/gear drive and wrist-roll roller/gear drive designed to incorporate several features desirable in robotic-joint actuators. Includes zero backlash, high efficiency, smooth motion (little ripple in torque and in speed ratio), and high degree of back-drivability. Pitch/yaw drive is novel two-axis drive containing combination of gears, rollers, and springs acting together eliminating backlash and cogging. Wrist-roll drive more-conventional single-axis drive offering advantages like those of pitch/yaw drive.

  7. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position.

  8. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  9. Test-Driving Their Passions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noah

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Watson fellowships give recipients an opportunity to test-drive their passions and see if they could lead to a career path. Over the last 40 years, the Thomas J. Watson Foundation has awarded $29 million in fellowships to seniors graduating from 50 mostly top-tier colleges with fewer than 3,000 students. In 2007, 50…

  10. Driving and working with syncope.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Franca; Casazza, Giovanni; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Costantino, Giorgio; Orlandi, Mauro; Dipaola, Franca; Capitanio, Chiara; Achenza, Sara; Sheldon, Robert; Furlan, Raffaello

    2014-09-01

    Syncope is usually addressed in the Emergency Department (ED) by the doctor in charge of the clinical picture, i.e. the patient's risk is stratified, a diagnostic work-up is done and a prognosis is set. Patients are ultimately admitted to hospital or discharged. However, other aspects related to syncope may deeply affect their daily lives. These include how and when to return to work and to driving, the feelings about a recent loss of consciousness, and the potential relapse of syncope. This is particularly significant if the work setting is intrinsically hazardous. These patients need adequate clinical and psychological support. For patients with syncope, two main parameters should be considered regarding returning to work and to driving. The first is to evaluate the risk of syncope recurrence and the second is to consider the expected harm if syncope does indeed occur during these activities. In the present paper we detail the problem of driving (including professional driving) and work after syncope. We propose a new quantitative model that will guide the physician in stratifying the risk for patients who have had a previous syncope event. The new model considers the syncope recurrence risk, the job task duration, and features that facilitate a syncope during work. On the basis of these variables, the global risk index for a worker is calculated. Following appropriate validation, this method might help ED and occupational physicians in their decision-making process with the goal of safely readmitting syncope patients to the workplace.

  11. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  12. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  13. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  14. Mechanical planetary compensating drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiger, R. J.; Gerdts, J. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Drive enables two concentric output shafts to be controlled independently or rotated as a unit. Possible uses are pointing and tracking devices, rotary camera shutters with variable light control, gimbal systems with yaw and pitch movement, spectrometer mirror scanning devices, etc.

  15. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  16. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  17. Stability and skill in driving.

    PubMed

    Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

  18. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

  19. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation.

    PubMed

    Maan, Martine E; Hofker, Kees D; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Seehausen, Ole

    2006-06-01

    The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism by which sexual selection becomes divergent: in two sibling species from Lake Victoria, female mating preferences for red and blue male nuptial coloration coincide with their context-independent sensitivities to red and blue light, which in turn correspond to a difference in ambient light in the natural habitat of the species. These results suggest that natural selection on visual performance, favoring different visual properties in different spectral environments, may lead to divergent sexual selection on male nuptial coloration. This interplay of ecological and sexual selection along a light gradient may provide a mechanism of rapid speciation through divergent sensory drive.

  20. Electric Drive Study. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-21

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP IElectric Drives, Motors, Homopolar Motors, Induction Motof’s, I-u I ’Propulsion Systems...E-I APPENDIX F. VEHICLE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS ..... .F-I APPENDIX G. HOMOPOLAR MACHINE DESCRIPTION ..... ............ G-1 APPENDIX H...System (19.5 Ton) ............... .. 62 5-22. Homopolar (DC) System (19.5 Ton).... . .. . 64 5-23. HF Induction AC System (19.5 Ton) (Split Power’Pack

  1. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  2. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  5. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  6. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  9. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  10. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  11. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  12. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  14. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  15. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  17. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get older, ... it can interfere with your daily activities, including driving safely. Early symptoms vary from person to person, ...

  18. Measuring the Propensity to Drink and Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducing drinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a…

  19. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  20. Driving trajectories in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Macau, Elbert E N; Caldas, Iberê L

    2002-02-01

    In this work we introduce a general approach for targeting in chaotic scattering that can be used to find a transfer trajectory between any two points located inside the scattering region. We show that this method can be used in association with a control of chaos strategy to drive around and keep a particle inside the scattering region. As an illustration of how powerful this approach is, we use it in a case of practical interest in celestial mechanics in which it is desired to control the evolution of two satellites that evolve around a large central body.

  1. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  2. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  4. Voight variable speed drive. [for windpowered generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkin, J.

    1973-01-01

    The variable speed drive transmission is mounted within the gondola and connected with the wind turbine blades and the hub. This unit is designed for the production of ac power. The turbine turns by means of the variable speed drive and a set of synchronous three phase generators. This motion is controlled automatically by two wind rosettes in such a way that the wind turbine always opposes the wind direction. The Voight variable speed drive is a mechanical variable positive drive gear transmission. It has an unlimited power and torque transmission, a constant ratio with high degree of accuracy, a speed variation over a wide range, and a nonslip drive.

  5. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  6. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  7. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  8. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  9. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  10. 75 FR 13769 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, Conflicted Applications. Date: May 26, 2010... Medicine, Rockledge 1, 6705 Rockledge Drive, 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. (Telephone Conference Call.)...

  11. Asymmetric relationship between driving and safety skills.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Nebi; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the combination of self reported high ratings of driving skills and low ratings of safety skills creates a serious risk for road accident involvement. This study was aimed at investigating the asymmetric interplay between driving and safety skills among Turkish drivers (N=785) using the Driving Skills Inventory [Lajunen, T., Summala, H., 1995. Driver experience, personality, and skill and safety motive dimensions in drivers' self-assessments. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 19, 307-318]. The assumed asymmetric interactions were tested on a number of outcome variables representing risky driving using moderated regression analyses. The results revealed that driving skills moderated the effects of safety skills on six out of the eight outcome variables including the number of accidents, tickets, overtaking tendencies, speed on motorways, and aggressive driving style. Results suggested that high levels of safety skills buffer the negative effect of overconfidence resulting from exaggerated ratings of self-reported driving skills.

  12. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Four-wheel drive car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.

    1986-03-25

    A drive train in a four-wheel drive vehicle is described having an engine mounted on one end with a crankshaft oriented transverse to the direction of vehicle travel which consists of: a transmission having an output gear driven by the crankshaft and rotatable around an axis parallel to the axis of the crankshaft; a reduction gear operatively engaged with the output gear; a first differential gear having a gear and being concentrically engaged with the reduction gear to transmit the output of the reduction gear in a divided manner; a second differential gear transmitting power from one output of the differential gear to left and right wheels of the one end of the vehicle; a transmission gear meshing with the gear of the first differential gear for transmitting power from another output of the first differential gear in a direction generally perpendicular to the crankshaft through a propeller shaft to the other end of the vehicle, opposite the one end; a third differential gear receiving power from the propeller shaft for transmitting power to left and right wheels on the other end; and wherein a mesh portion where the transmission gear meshes with the gear of the first differential gear is closer to the crankshaft axis of engine than is the axis of the reduction gear.

  14. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  15. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  16. Driving, brain injury and assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy K; Benoit, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury often present with cognitive, physical and emotional impairments which impact their ability to resume independence in activities of daily living. Of those activities, the resumption of driving privileges is cited as one of the greatest concerns by survivors of brain injury. The integration of driving fundamentals within the hierarchical model proposed by Keskinen represents the complexity of skills and behaviors necessary for driving. This paper provides a brief review of specific considerations concerning the driver with TBI and highlights current vehicle technology which has been developed by the automotive industry and by manufacturers of adaptive driving equipment that may facilitate the driving task. Adaptive equipment technology allows for compensation of a variety of operational deficits, whereas technological advances within the automotive industry provide drivers with improved safety and information systems. However, research has not yet supported the use of such intelligent transportation systems or advanced driving systems for drivers with brain injury. Although technologies are intended to improve the safety of drivers within the general population, the potential of negative consequences for drivers with brain injury must be considered. Ultimately, a comprehensive driving evaluation and training by a driving rehabilitation specialist is recommended for individuals with brain injury. An understanding of the potential impact of TBI on driving-related skills and knowledge of current adaptive equipment and technology is imperative to determine whether return-to-driving is a realistic and achievable goal for the individual with TBI.

  17. Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Evans, Ben Lewis; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various impairments of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, which can have considerable consequences for many areas of daily living. One of those areas is driving a vehicle. Driving is an important activity of everyday life and requires an efficient interplay between multiple cognitive, perceptual, and motor skills. In the present study, a selective review of the literature on driving-related difficulties associated with ADHD is performed, seeking to answer whether individuals with ADHD show increased levels of unsafe driving behaviours, which cognitive (dys)functions of individuals with ADHD are related to driving difficulty, and whether pharmacological treatment significantly improves the driving behaviour of individuals with ADHD. The available research provides convincing evidence that individuals with ADHD have different and more adverse driving outcomes than individuals without the condition. However, it appears that not all individuals with ADHD are affected uniformly. Despite various cognitive functions being related with driving difficulties, these functions do not appear helpful in detecting high risk drivers with ADHD, nor in predicting driving outcomes in individuals with ADHD, since impairments in these functions are defining criteria for the diagnoses of ADHD (e.g., inattention and impulsivity). Pharmacological treatment of ADHD, in particular stimulant drug treatment, appears to be beneficial to the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with ADHD. However, additional research is needed, in particular further studies that address the numerous methodological weaknesses of many of the previous studies.

  18. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  19. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  20. Driving Task: How Older Drivers' On-Road Driving Performance Relates to Abilities, Perceptions, and Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Langford, Jim; Di Stefano, Marilyn; MacDonald, Wendy; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Mazer, Barbara L; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Eliasz, Kinga; Myers, Anita; Tuokko, Holly A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants' driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants' perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time.

  1. Personal and situational influences on drink driving and sober driving among a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L; Begg, D; Langley, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare personal and situational influences on incidents involving drink driving with those involving sober driving. Methods: Information on a range of road safety practices was sought in face to face interviews conducted with 969 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort at age 26 years. A total of 750 study members reported an incident that involved the opportunity to consume alcohol and also travel by motor vehicle. Of these, 87 were classified as "drink drive incidents" and 663 as "sober drive incidents". Results: Study members who were male, of lower socioeconomic status, had no school qualifications, or were dependent on alcohol or marijuana at age 21 were significantly more likely to report a drink drive incident at age 26. Compared with the sober drive incidents, the drink drive incidents were more commonly associated with driving alone, drinking at bars, and no advanced planning. For drink drive incidents the amount of alcohol consumed was influenced by the conviviality of the occasion, whereas for sober drive incidents it was the need to drive. One quarter of those reporting drink drive incidents stated they had used marijuana and/or LSD at the event at which they drank. Conclusions: Drink drive and sober drive incidents differed, particularly with regard to decisions made before the event. Prevention efforts could usefully be targeted toward these decisions. PMID:12120828

  2. Application of traction drives as servo mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of traction drives for a wide class of aerospace control mechanisms is examined. Potential applications include antenna or solar array drive positioners, robotic joints, control moment gyro (CMG) actuators and propeller pitch change mechanisms. In these and similar applications the zero backlash, high torsional stiffness, low hysteresis and torque ripple characteristics of traction drives are of particular interest, as is the ability to run without liquid lubrication in certain cases. Wear and fatigue considerations for wet and dry operation are examined along with the tribological performance of several promising self lubricating polymers for traction contracts. The speed regulation capabilities of variable ratio traction drives are reviewed. A torsional stiffness analysis described suggests that traction contacts are relatively stiff compared to gears and are significantly stiffer than the other structural elements in the prototype CMG traction drive analyzed. Discussion is also given of an advanced turboprop propeller pitch change mechanism that incorporates a traction drive.

  3. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  4. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  5. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  6. Life Analysis of Multiroller Planetary Traction Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Nasvytis eUltirollcr Traction Drive. The analysis was based on the Lundberg- Palmgren method for rolling- element bearing life prediction. Life...a steel rail. There are dozens bearing life. The effect of stress, stressed volume, of traction drive designs, distinguished by the and depth to the...clene¶,t bearing materials, lubrication and traction drive concept. Cleaner steels (vacuum design were considered as well as the potentially induction

  7. Optimal Sector Sampling for Drive Triage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    known files, which we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift...we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift through drives...situations where the user is looking for known data.1 One example is a law enforcement officer searching for evidence of child pornography from a large num

  8. A new driving circuit for IGBT devices

    SciTech Connect

    Licitra, C.; Musumeci, S.; Raciti, A.; Galluzzo, A.U.; Letor, R.; Melito, M.

    1995-05-01

    IGBT devices are increasingly used in power electronic equipment due to their high power handling capability. This paper deals with the problems that concern the turn-on, turn-off, and short-circuit of these devices. An optimal new driving circuit is proposed which gives excellent device output performances. Experimental oscillogram traces of transient condition tests are given, which demonstrate the advantages of using the new driving circuit. The suitability of the driving circuit for integration is analyzed.

  9. Get the message: distracted driving and teens.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers.

  10. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  11. Women drive better if not stereotyped.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica; Cadinu, Mara; Maass, Anne

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held stereotype is that women are poor drivers. This stereotype is recognized and endorsed by women and girls very early on, long before taking their driving licence, nevertheless they are less involved in accidents and drive safer and less fast than men. In line with the stereotype threat theory, the present study tests the hypothesis that making the driving stereotype salient will lead women to underperform in a driving simulation task. In Experiment 1women in the stereotype threat condition were told that the aim of the study was to detect gender differences in driving whereas in a control condition no study aim was provided. In Experiment 2, two conditions were compared: stereotype threat (same instructions as in Experiment 1), and stereotype boost (the alleged goal was to compare driving ability of young vs. old people). As predicted, the results of both experiments showed that women under stereotype threat, as compared to either control or stereotype boost participants, doubled the number of mistakes. Nevertheless, they overall expected/self-reported to drive/have driven poorly. Importantly, their level of expectation was a significant predictor of their actual driving performance only in the stereotype threat condition. Implications of these effects of stereotype threat on women's driving performance and self-assessment are discussed.

  12. Camshaft driving device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ebesu, H.

    1988-06-14

    A camshaft driving device for use in a double overhead cam type internal combustion engine having a cylinder block, an upper deck formed at an upper portion of the cylinder block, a cylinder head disposed on the cylinder block, a driving shaft rotatably mounted at a lower portion of the cylinder block, and a pair of camshafts rotatably mounted at an upper portion of the cylinder head, is described comprising: driving force transmitting endless chain members engaging in the reduction gear means for transmitting a driving force from the driving shaft to the pair of camshaft through the reduction gear means. The camshaft driving device further including chain tensioners for tightening the chain, a nozzle means for supplying a lubricating oil to the driving force chain members on the side of the drive shaft and an oil guide wall formed immediately above the sprocket of the transmitting portion of the reduction gear means at a lower end portion of the journal boss and lapping thereover both in the radial direction and in the axial direction of the driving shaft. A mounting boss for mounting the reduction gear means thereon is formed on the upper deck of the cylinder block.

  13. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  14. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-01-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  15. Analysis of cache for streaming tape drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnaswamy, V.

    1993-01-01

    A tape subsystem consists of a controller and a tape drive. Tapes are used for backup, data interchange, and software distribution. The backup operation is addressed. During a backup operation, data is read from disk, processed in CPU, and then sent to tape. The processing speeds of a disk subsystem, CPU, and a tape subsystem are likely to be different. A powerful CPU can read data from a fast disk, process it, and supply the data to the tape subsystem at a faster rate than the tape subsystem can handle. On the other hand, a slow disk drive and a slow CPU may not be able to supply data fast enough to keep a tape drive busy all the time. The backup process may supply data to tape drive in bursts. Each burst may be followed by an idle period. Depending on the nature of the file distribution in the disk, the input stream to the tape subsystem may vary significantly during backup. To compensate for these differences and optimize the utilization of a tape subsystem, a cache or buffer is introduced in the tape controller. Most of the tape drives today are streaming tape drives. A streaming tape drive goes into reposition when there is no data from the controller. Once the drive goes into reposition, the controller can receive data, but it cannot supply data to the tape drive until the drive completes its reposition. A controller can also receive data from the host and send data to the tape drive at the same time. The relationship of cache size, host transfer rate, drive transfer rate, reposition, and ramp up times for optimal performance of the tape subsystem are investigated. Formulas developed will also show the advantages of cache watermarks to increase the streaming time of the tape drive, maximum loss due to insufficient cache, tradeoffs between cache and reposition times and the effectiveness of cache on a streaming tape drive due to idle times or interruptions due in host transfers. Several mathematical formulas are developed to predict the performance of the tape

  16. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    PubMed Central

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  17. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  18. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Fred; Roberts, Dave; Francfort, Jim; White, Sera

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  19. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  20. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  1. The Queerness of the Drive.

    PubMed

    de Lauretis, Teresa

    2017-02-16

    The view of sexuality Freud first proposed in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality contains a discrepancy between the sexuality perverse and polymorphous described in the first two essays, and the biologically directed, reproductive sexuality of the third essay. According to Jean Laplanche, the theorist of psychoanalysis who is Freud's closest reader and translator, the discrepancy is due to two contradictory opinions Freud apparently held at different moments of his writing: one, that sexuality is exogenous, an effect of seduction by adults; two, that sexuality is endogenous, innate in the human biological organism. This paper focuses on Laplanche's elucidation of two aspects of sexuality present in each adult: an instinctual, hormonally based and ultimately reproductive sexual impulse, which begins at puberty, and the drive-based sexual impulses first theorized by Freud as polymorphous-perverse infantile sexuality, which begin in infancy and continue to be active thoughout the individual's life. Laplanche's rereading of Freud leads to a more complex understanding of sexuality as always deviant, in one way or another and to a greater or lesser degree, from the established social norms. So-called sexual deviance, therefore, is not a problem within the sexual but an issue within the social field.

  2. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  3. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men.

  4. Gender invariance and correlates of the drive for leanness scale.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Hall, Gareth; Edwards, Christian

    2012-09-01

    We examined the drive for leanness scale's gender invariance and its relationships with health-related behavior and body image-related drives. Men (N=342) and women (N=309) attending British universities completed the drive for leanness scale, drive for thinness scale, drive for muscularity scale, and a demographic inventory. Support for configural and metric, but not scalar, invariance emerged. Drive for leanness was positively correlated with weight training frequency, supplement use, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity in both genders. Results provide guidance on comparing drive for leanness scale scores across gender and contribute to a coherent understanding of the drive for leanness and its correlates.

  5. Mental workload when driving in a simulator: effects of age and driving complexity.

    PubMed

    Cantin, Vincent; Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2009-07-01

    Driving errors for older drivers may result from a higher momentary mental workload resulting from complex driving situations, such as intersections. The present study examined if the mental workload of young and older active drivers vary with the difficulty of the driving context. We adopted the probe reaction time (RT) technique to measure the workload while driving in a simulator. The technique provided clear instructions about the primary (driving) and secondary (RT) tasks. To avoid structural interference, the secondary task consisted of responding as rapidly as possible with a vocal response ("top") to an auditory stimulus. Participants drove through a continuous 26.4-km scenario including rural and urban sections and probes (stimuli) were given in a baseline static condition and in three different driving contexts embedded into the overall driving scenario. Specifically, stimuli were given randomly when (a) driving on straight roads at a constant speed, (b) approaching intersections for which the driver had to stop the car, and (c) when overtaking a slower vehicle. Unless a driving error was made, drivers did not need any emergency responses. Reaction time was defined as the temporal interval between the auditory stimulus and the onset of the corresponding verbal response detected from the analog signal of a piezo-electric microphone fixed on a headset (ms accuracy). Baseline RTs were similar for both groups. Both groups showed longer RTs when driving and RTs increased as the complexity of the driving contexts increased (driving straights, intersections, overtaking maneuvers). Compared to younger drivers, however, older drivers showed longer RTs for all driving contexts and the most complex driving context (overtaking maneuvers) yielded a disproportionate increase. In conclusion, driving leads to a greater mental workload for the older drivers than for the younger drivers and this effect was exacerbated by the more complex driving context (overtaking

  6. 75 FR 47888 - IntelliDriveSM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... IntelliDrive\\SM\\ be used to support real-time performance-based management of roadways, transit systems...-time or near real-time performance-based management applications or tools be demonstrated? 5. There are... Management Demonstrations; Request for Information \\1\\ IntelliDrive is a service mark of the U.S....

  7. Epilepsy and driving: current status of research.

    PubMed

    L Devlin, Anna; Odell, Morris; L Charlton, Judith; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2012-12-01

    In many parts of the world, licensing guidelines state that drivers with medical conditions such as epilepsy are restricted or prohibited from driving. These guidelines are sometimes subjective and not strongly evidence-based, rendering the task of assessing fitness to drive a complex one. Determining fitness to drive is not only essential for maintaining the safety of individual drivers but has implications for the community at large. It is therefore important to review the current state of knowledge regarding epilepsy and driving in order to aid health professionals required to assess fitness to drive and to guide future research directions. This review outlines the functional impairments related to epilepsy and driving, treatment and management issues, motor vehicle crash risk for drivers with epilepsy, estimates of predicted seizure occurrence and concludes with a discussion of the international licensing guidelines and relevant legal issues. More comprehensive research, including investigation into the effects of antiepileptic medication on driving, could aid in the development of policies and guidelines for assessing fitness to drive.

  8. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  9. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  10. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  11. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  12. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August 24... Progress in the 21st Century Act'' (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141, which created a new distracted...

  13. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  14. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  15. Safety Education in Driving. 2nd Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Intended for driving instruction students, this publication contains instructional materials for safety education. It contains six sections on facts and figures; defensive driving; safety devices; restraints; emergency situations; and other highway users. Each section consists of reading material followed by an activity or activities. A total of…

  16. Older Drivers: How Health Affects Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of consciousness or a seizure. People with diabetes-related complications should consult their healthcare team for guidance on driving. (Watch the video to learn more about driving with diabetes.) Macular degeneration can distort a person’s central vision ...

  17. A Difficult Journey: Reflections on Driving and Driving Cessation From a Team of Clinical Researchers.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jacki; Gustafsson, Louise; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Pachana, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing the clinical importance and safety and well-being implications for the population, a multidisciplinary team has been researching older drivers and driving cessation issues for more than 15 years. Using empirical approaches, the team has explored quality of life and participation outcomes related to driving and nondriving for older people and has developed interventions to improve outcomes after driving cessation. The team members represent occupational therapists, medical practitioners, and clinical and neuropsychologists. While building the evidence base for driving- and driving cessation-related clinical practice, the researchers have also had first-hand experiences of interruptions to their own or parents' driving; involvement of older family members in road crashes; and provision of support during family members' driving assessment and cessation. This has led to reflection on their understandings and re-evaluation and refocusing of their perspectives in driving cessation research. This work will share the narratives of the authors and note their developing perspectives and foci within research as well as their clinical practice. Personal reflections have indicated the far-reaching implications for older drivers and family members of involvement in road crashes: the potential for interruptions to driving as a time for support and future planning and the conflicting and difficult roles of family members within the driving cessation process. Overall the lived, personal experience of the authors has reinforced the complex nature of driving and changes to driving status for the driver and their support team and the need for further research and support.

  18. DRIVE Analysis Tool Generates Custom Vehicle Drive Cycles Based on Real-World Data (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This fact sheet from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory describes the Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation (DRIVE) analysis tool, which uses GPS and controller area network data to characterize vehicle operation and produce custom vehicle drive cycles, analyzing thousands of hours of data in a matter of minutes.

  19. Educational Biofeedback Driving Simulator as a Drink-Driving Prevention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howat, Peter; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used experimental driving simulator as basis for strategy to encourage a reduction in drunk driving prevalence using adult male subjects (n=36) who participated in a study group and controls (n=36). Results indicated study group subjects significantly decreased their drunk driving compared to the control group. (ABL)

  20. Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

  1. DriveWise: An Interdisciplinary Hospital-Based Driving Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Margaret G.; Kapust, Lissa R.; Hollis, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals working with the elderly have opportunities through research and clinical practice to shape public policy affecting the older driver. This article describes DriveWise, an interdisciplinary hospital-based driving assessment program developed in response to clinical concerns about the driving safety of individuals with…

  2. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  3. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  4. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit.

  5. Constant four wheel drive vehicle transaxle

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.; Cameron, D.

    1986-04-15

    A dual differential four-wheel drive assembly is described adapted for a two-wheel drive front transaxle vehicle having an internal combustion engine with a transverse oriented crankshaft for driving the vehicle with front and rear pairs of road wheels, a transmission gear unit for the transaxle including transverse input and output shafts, and right and left laterally extending front axle drive shafts, each drive shaft having front wheel mounting means on its outboard end. The dual differential assembly consists of: housing means having a laterally extending passage therethrough aligned on a transverse axis, the housing means having first and second differential casings for associated first and second bevel gear differentials, the casings supported in laterally spaced alignment for rotation about the transverse axis, each first and second differential casing enclosing inboard and outboard side gears in meshing relation with planetary pinion gears, each casing having opposed inboard and outboard axial extensions thereon.

  6. B Chromosomes - A Matter of Chromosome Drive.

    PubMed

    Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are often preferentially inherited, deviating from usual Mendelian segregation. The balance between the so-called chromosome drive and the negative effects that the presence of Bs applies on the fitness of their host determines the frequency of Bs in a particular population. Drive is the key for understanding most B chromosomes. Drive occurs in many ways at pre-meiotic, meiotic or post-meiotic divisions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The cellular mechanism of drive is reviewed based on the findings obtained for the B chromosomes of rye, maize and other species. How novel analytical tools will expand our ability to uncover the biology of B chromosome drive is discussed.

  7. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The DC motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  9. Development of a paddle drive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hidekazu; Honda, Toshio; Ohhashi, Toshiro; Wachi, Shigeo; Kai, Kouji

    The paddle drive system is a key element in a three axis stabilized spacecraft, consisting of paddle drive mechanism (PDM) and paddle drive electronics (PDE). The PDM rotates the solar array paddle and transmits electrical power and signals to spacecraft. The PDE drives and controls the PDM. The investigation and design study were initiated in early 1979. The design goal of the PDM is to handle more than 3kW of electrical power with a ten year life. The hardware development was started in early 1983, as a five year program. This paper presents the results of environmental tests and a thermal vacuum life test for the various PDM elements, such as the slip ring assembly, the stepper motor, the harmonic drive, the ratchet clutch, the spur gears, the bearings and the position indicator.

  10. Bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A magnetic helicity conserving mean-field Ohm's law is used to study bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive. The Ohm's law leads to the conclusion that the tokamak bootstrap effect can convert the largely alternating current of oscillating field current drive into a direct toroidal plasma current. This plasma current rectification is due to the intrinsically nonlinear nature of the tokamak bootstrap effect, and suggests that it may be possible to maintain the toroidal current of a tokamak reactor by supplementing the bootstrap current with oscillating field current drive. Steady-state tokamak fusion reactors operating with oscillating field current drive could provide an alternative to tokamak reactors operating with external current drive.

  11. DriveID: safety innovation through individuation.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Ben; Teo, Grace; Mouloua, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    The driving task is highly complex and places considerable perceptual, physical and cognitive demands on the driver. As driving is fundamentally an information processing activity, distracted or impaired drivers have diminished safety margins compared with non- distracted drivers (Hancock and Parasuraman, 1992; TRB 1998 a & b). This competition for sensory and decision making capacities can lead to failures that cost lives. Some groups, teens and elderly drivers for example, have patterns of systematically poor perceptual, physical and cognitive performance while driving. Although there are technologies developed to aid these different drivers, these systems are often misused and underutilized. The DriveID project aims to design and develop a passive, automated face identification system capable of robustly identifying the driver of the vehicle, retrieve a stored profile, and intelligently prescribing specific accident prevention systems and driving environment customizations.

  12. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems.

  13. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  14. Driving under the influence of cannabis: links with dangerous driving, psychological predictors, and accident involvement.

    PubMed

    Richer, Isabelle; Bergeron, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) has become a growing concern. Studies investigating the impact of DUIC on traffic safety have shown evidence that, during the acute period of cannabis intoxication, cannabis diminishes driving faculties and is associated with an elevated risk of collision. However, DUIC drivers seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style that may contribute to an over-estimation of DUIC-related collisions among this group. In this study, we investigated DUIC drivers with respect to self-reported dangerous driving habits (e.g., risky driving, aggressive driving and negative emotional driving), behaviours observed in a driving simulator, psychological predictors and crash involvement. Results suggest that DUIC is associated with self-reported and observed risky driving and negative emotional driving. We also found that sensation seeking and impulsivity are independent psychological predictors of DUIC. Finally, a trend suggests that self-reported DUIC is associated with an increased risk of being involved in a car accident, after controlling for dangerous driving and demographic variables. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  15. Drive for thinness and drive for muscularity: opposite ends of the continuum or separate constructs?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Courtney C Galliger; Neufeld, Jennie M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the drive for thinness and the drive for muscularity occur concurrently among late adolescents and to understand the body attitudes associated with desiring a thinner and/or a more muscular physique. Participants included 235 college freshmen who participated in a larger study of body image and eating attitudes. The majority of individuals reported having both a high drive for thinness and a high drive for muscularity (65.4%). Additionally, the presence of both drives significantly predicted body compulsivity and body anxiety among females, and body-esteem among males. Results of the current study provide considerable evidence that a drive for thinness and a drive for muscularity are not mutually exclusive. Furthermore, the degree to which an individual strives for thinness and/or muscularity has differential effects on their body attitudes.

  16. High-powered vehicle drive train

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, C.E.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a vehicle comprising: an engine having an infinitely variable transmission operatively coupled for transmitting engine power to the transmission's input shaft with the transmission output shaft being operatively connected to the vehicle's drive wheels. The transmission comprising a planetary drive structure includes a drive ring gear carrying a first gear in engagement with a drive gear on the input shaft for rotation of the drive ring gear with the input shaft, a central sun gear and planetary gear members disposed in the annular space between, and in engagement with the drive ring gear and the sun gear and rotatably supported on a planetary carrier. The carrier is supported for rotation with the transmission output shaft and an infinitely variable toroidal traction roller transmission structure including two parallel toridal transmissions having a central input toric disc structure common to both toroidal transmissions and operatively connected to the input shaft. The output toric discs being mounted on a shaft associated with the sun gear of the planetary drive.

  17. [Car driving, cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Fabrigoule, Colette; Lafont, Sylviane

    2015-10-01

    Older drivers are more numerous on the roads. They are expert drivers, but with increasing age certain physiological changes can interfere with driving, which is a complex activity of daily living. Older drivers are involved in fewer accidents than younger drivers, but they have a higher accident rate per kilometer driven. The elderly are heavily represented in the balance sheet of road deaths, being motorists or pedestrians. This high mortality is largely explained by their physical frailty. In the presence of deficits, self-regulation of driving habits, changes/reductions or stopping in driving activity occur in the elderly. But cognitive deficits are associated with an increased risk of accidents. Among drivers with Alzheimer's disease, there is a heterogeneity of driving ability, making difficult the advisory role of a physician for driving. A protocol for physicians was developed to assess cognitive impairments that may affect driving in an elderly patient. The car plays an important role in the autonomy of the elderly and patient advice on stopping driving should take into account the risk/benefit ratio.

  18. Installation considerations for IGBT AC drives

    SciTech Connect

    Skibinski, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    In the last four years, Adjustable Speed ac Drive (ASD) manufacturers have migrated from Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) semiconductors to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) as the preferred Output switching device. The advantage of IGBTs over BJTs is that device rise and fall time switching capability is 5 - 10 times faster, resulting in lower device switching loss and a more efficient drive. However, for a similar motor cable length as the BJT drive, the faster output voltage risetime of the IGBT drive may increase the dielectric voltage stress on the motor and cable due to a phenomenon called reflected wave. Faster output dv/dt transitions of IGBT drives also increase the possibility for phenomenon such as increased Common Mode (CM) electrical noise, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems and increased capacitive cable charging current problems. Also, recent experience suggests any Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drive with a steep fronted output voltage wave form may increase motor shaft voltage and lead to a bearing current phenomenon known as fluting. This paper provides a basic understanding of these issues, as well as solutions, to insure a successful drive system installation.

  19. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  20. Fitness to Drive of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; Sanz, Emilio J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Driving a motor vehicle could be central to the functional autonomy of patients with psychiatric illnesses. For patients, a driver's license could mean independence, the ability to care for themselves, and the freedom to travel when they wish. However, both psychiatric disorders and psychiatric drug treatments can produce changes in perception, information processing and integration, and psychomotor activity that can disturb and/or interfere with the ability to drive safely. Objective: To assess the fitness to drive of psychiatric outpatients in a sample representative of current clinical practice. Method: Cognitive functioning and psychomotor performance of 208 consecutive psychiatric outpatients treated in a community mental health center in the Canary Islands (Spain) were assessed in different clinical situations. The LNDETER 100 battery, an electronic assessment unit–based measurement that consists of 5 screenbased tests, was used to assess concentrated attention and resistance to monotony, multiple discriminative reactions and their correctness, anticipation of speed, bimanual coordination, and the decision making process and tendency to assume risk. The study was conducted from July 2007 to September 2007. Results: Of 208 patients, only 33 had scores compatible with the requirements of a driver's license, and 84% failed at least 1 of the required tests. Of patients with a driver's license who drive almost every day, 79.5% registered scores that would not allow obtaining or renewal of the license. None of the driving patients studied notified the traffic authorities that they had a psychiatric condition that may affect safe driving. No patient stopped driving, although 10% of them recognized that their ability to drive was somehow damaged. Conclusion: Guidance on how best to formulate and deliver recommendations on driving fitness in stable psychiatric patients is lacking and much needed. PMID:19158977

  1. Driving gear interaxle differential assembly for all-wheel-drive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Friedrich, K.; Lanzer, H.

    1986-05-20

    A driving gear is described for all-wheel-drive vehicles, comprising a reduction gear meshed with an output gear in a transmission, a planetary gear type interaxle differential gear arranged concentrically with the reduction gear so as to output the driving force therefrom into front and rear interwheel differential gears in a divided manner, a driving shaft provided through and concentrically with the interaxle differential gear so as to transmit one output therefrom to one of the two interwheel differential gears, and a driving gear member mounted on the driving shaft so that the driving gear member can be rotated relatively thereto, so as to transmit the other output from the interaxle differential gear to the other interwheel differential gear. The interaxle differential gear consists of a planetary carrier mounted rotatably on the driving shaft on the side of the driving gear member so as to form a clearance between the planetary carrier and the driving shaft, a support member mounted rotatably on the driving shaft so as to be opposed to the planetary carrier, and a ring gear, pinions and a sun gear which are provided between the planetary carrier and the support member, a connecting member which joins the ring gear and the driving shaft together being provided between the pinions and the support member. The driving shaft is provided with a spline for joining the connecting member thereto, the driving gear member being provided with a hub formed integrally therewith, extending from the clearance into the interaxle differential gear and having a connecting portion joined to the sun gear. The reduction gear is formed unitarily with the planetary carrier and the support member.

  2. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P<0.05) but the score was not below the cut-off point for safe driving. There were no

  3. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  4. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  5. Microwave heating and current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Kerbel, G.D.; Logan, B.G.; Matsuda, Y.; McCoy, M.G.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.; Smith, G.R.; Harvey, R.W.; Kritz, A.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1988-08-23

    The use of powerful microwave sources provide unique opportunities for novel and efficient heating and current-drive schemes in the electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid ranges of frequencies. Free- electron lasers and relativistic klystrons are new sources that have a number of technical advantages over conventional, lower-intensity sources; their use can lead to improved current-drive efficiencies and better penetration into a reactor-grade plasma in specific cases. This paper reports on modeling of absorption and current drive, in intense-pulse and quasilinear regimes, and on analysis of parametric instabilities and self-focusing. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Bidirectional Drive-And-Brake Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle that crawls along monorail combines features of both bicycle and railroad handcar. Bidirectional drive-and-brake mechanism includes selectable-pawl-and-ratchet overrunning clutch (drive mechanism) and mating stationary and rotating conical surfaces pressing against each other (brake mechanism). Operates similarly to bicycle drive-and-brake mechanism except limits rotation of sprocket in both directions and brakes at both limits. Conceived for use by astronaut traveling along structure in outer space, concept also applied on Earth to make very small railraod handcars or crawling vehicles for use on large structures, in pipelines under construction, or underwater.

  7. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system

    DOEpatents

    Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-10-04

    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  8. Power transmission for four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, I.

    1987-03-17

    A power transmission is described for a vehicle having front and rear wheel drive and a prime mover, the transmission comprising: a change-speed gearing operatively disposed in a transmission casing secured to the prime mover, the gearing including an input shaft drivingly connected to the prime mover, and an output shaft drivingly connected to the input shaft; a first drive shaft drivingly connected to the front wheels; a second drive shaft coaxial with the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the rear wheels; and an intermediate differential unit drivingly interconnecting the output shaft and the first and second drive shafts, the differential unit comprising: an input gear coaxially surrounding the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the output shaft; coaxial planetary gear sets providing a plurality of drive power trains at different gear ratios, each of the gear set including sun, planet and ring gears. The gear sets are drivingly connected to one of the input gear and second drive shaft, and a portion of the other of the input gear and second drive shaft coaxially surround and define the ring gears of the gear sets; and means drivingly connected to the first drive shaft for selectively engaging one of the gear sets into driving connection with the first and second drive shafts.

  9. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.

  10. Drive of nuclear reactor's control element

    SciTech Connect

    Anikin, A.A.; But, V.G.; Nikolaev, V.P.; Silvanovich, A.A.

    1980-12-09

    According to the invention, the drive of a nuclear reactor's control element comprises an electromotor having a stator and a rotor composed lengthwise of two parts whose total length is equal to that of the active part of the stator. One part of the rotor is a solid cylinder-shaped member. The other part of the rotor comprises at least three double-arm rocking levers, the pivot axes of which are parallel to the axis of a drive screw. One arm of each of said levers is a rotor pole. The other arm of each of said levers carries a roller, the axis of rotation of which is parallel to the axis of the drive screw. Said rollers make up a detachable roller nut which interacts with the drive screw under the action of an electromagnetic field.

  11. Drive-Reinforcement Learning System Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-31

    evidence suggests that D-R would be effective in control system applications outside the robotics arena.... Drive- Reinforcement Learning , Neural Network Controllers, Robotics, Manipulator Kinematics, Dynamics and Control.

  12. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  13. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  14. Chain friction system gives positive, reversible drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, J. S.

    1964-01-01

    By cementing a strip of an elastomer to the smooth metal rim of the pulley and neoprene covered idlers providing suitable tension to the chain around the pulley, a positive reversible drive is accomplished more quietly and with less vibration.

  15. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  16. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  17. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars.

    The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel.

    The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  18. Power threshold for neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Politzer, P.A. ); Porter, G.D. )

    1989-10-02

    For fully noninductive current drive in tokamaks using neutral beams, there is a power and density threshold condition, setting a minimum value for P{sup 3/2}/n{sup 2}. If this condition is not met, stationary state cannot occur, and a tokamak discharge will collapse. This is a consequence of the coupling between current and electron temperature, or between current drive efficiency and energy confinement time. 4 figs.

  19. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  20. How to Drive CARS in Reverse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-07

    and ‘heats’ this plasma creating an electron avalanche , analogous to the electric discharge used in traditional nitrogen lasers. These schemes are all... pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a strong chemically specific signal propagating...generation of a backward propagating stimulated Raman pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a

  1. Camshaft driving system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshima, K.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes camshaft driving system for a double overhead camshaft engine cylinder rows extend parallel to the crankshaft of the engine. The second cylinder row is rearwardly displaced from the first cylinder row in the axial direction of the crankshaft so that vacant spaces are formed respectively behind the first cylinder row and in front of the second cylinder row. All the pistons in the cylinders of the first and second cylinder rows are connected to the crankshaft and a pair of camshafts for driving the intake and exhaust valves are provided in the cylinder head of each cylinder row to extend in the direction of the crankshaft. The camshaft driving system comprises a timing pulley provided on one of the intake and exhaust camshafts of each cylinder row to rotate together with the camshaft; A crank pulley is driven by the crankshaft; A first driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the crank pulley to the timing pulleys of the first and second cylinder rows; a second driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the first cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the first cylinder row; and a third driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the second cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the second cylinder row. The second driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space behind the first cylinder row and the third driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space in front of the second cylinder row.

  2. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500 to 700 keV are needed for this device.

  3. Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives

    SciTech Connect

    Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Barcelo, Carlos

    2009-06-15

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations in general relativity: At least theoretically, they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to exist as solutions of Einstein's equations. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to build them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries have been analyzed only for eternal warp-drive bubbles traveling at fixed superluminal speeds. Here, we investigate the more realistic case in which a superluminal warp drive is created out of an initially flat spacetime. First of all we analyze the causal structure of eternal and dynamical warp-drive spacetimes. Then we pass to the analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) of a quantum field in these geometries. While the behavior of the RSET in these geometries has close similarities to that in the geometries associated with gravitational collapse, it shows dramatic differences too. On one side, an observer located at the center of a superluminal warp-drive bubble would generically experience a thermal flux of Hawking particles. On the other side, such Hawking flux will be generically extremely high if the exotic matter supporting the warp drive has its origin in a quantum field satisfying some form of quantum inequalities. Most of all, we find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to, and on, the front wall of the superluminal bubble. Consequently, one is led to conclude that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical backreaction.

  4. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOEpatents

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  5. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  6. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1995-01-01

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  7. Cost of counterdiabatic driving and work output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Poletti, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Unitary processes allow for the transfer of work to and from Hamiltonian systems. However, to achieve nonzero power for the practical extraction of work, these processes must be performed within a finite time, which inevitably induces excitations in the system. We show that depending on the time scale of the process and the physical realization of the external driving employed, the use of counterdiabatic quantum driving to extract more work is not always effective. We also show that by virtue of the two-time energy measurement definition of quantum work, the cost of counterdiabatic driving can be significantly reduced by selecting a restricted form of the driving Hamiltonian that depends on the outcome of the first energy measurement. Lastly, we introduce a measure, the exigency, that quantifies the need for an external driving to preserve quantum adiabaticity which does not require knowledge of the explicit form of the counterdiabatic drivings, and can thus always be computed. We apply our analysis to systems ranging from a two-level Landau-Zener problem to many-body problems, namely, the quantum Ising and Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models.

  8. 24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR OF MAIN BUILDING. NOTE CABLE DRIVE DRUM AND FLY WHEELS OF CARRIAGE DRIVE STEAM ENGINE IN FOREGROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  9. Study Sheds Light on Safety of Driving with Epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Study Sheds Light on Safety of Driving With Epilepsy Those who had longer seizures during driving tests ... SUNDAY, Dec. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with epilepsy who experienced longer seizures during a simulated driving ...

  10. 78 FR 16272 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ...: Samuel C. Edwards, Ph.D., IRG CHIEF, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 5210, MSC 7846, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435-1246, edwardss@csr.nih.gov . This...

  11. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, (301)...

  12. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  13. 76 FR 28793 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  14. 77 FR 24968 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Scholarly Works G13. Date: July 11, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Zoe H. Huang, MD,...

  15. 76 FR 1622 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...; Social Psychology, Personality and Interpersonal Processes Study Section. Date: February 10-11, 2011... Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Michael K Schmidt, PhD,...

  16. 76 FR 5592 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Director, NIH, Office of Science Policy, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call) Contact Person: Lyric Jorgenson, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, NIH... Policy. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  17. 75 FR 17416 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD...

  18. 77 FR 37911 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Maqsood A..., Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Dianne Camp, Ph.D., Scientific Review...

  19. 77 FR 16246 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Daniel F McDonald, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for... Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person:...

  20. 76 FR 74802 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to... policy for Extramural Research Administration, 6705 Rockledge Drive Suite 350, Bethesda, MD...

  1. 75 FR 45647 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, Conflicted Applications. Date: September 22... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. (Telephone Conference...

  2. A drive through Web 2.0: an exploration of driving safety promotion on Facebook™.

    PubMed

    Apatu, Emma J I; Alperin, Melissa; Miner, Kathleen R; Wiljer, David

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Facebook™ to capture the prevalence of driving safety promotion user groups, obtain user demographic information, to understand if Facebook™ user groups influence reported driving behaviors, and to gather a sense of perceived effectiveness of Facebook™ for driving safety promotion targeted to young adults. In total, 96 driving safety Facebook™ groups (DSFGs) were identified with a total of 33,368 members, 168 administrators, 156 officers, 1,598 wall posts representing 12 countries. A total of 85 individuals participated in the survey. Demographic findings of this study suggest that driving safety promotion can be targeted to young and older adults. Respondents' ages ranged from 18 to 66 years. A total of 62% of respondents aged ≤ 24 years and 57.8% of respondents aged ≥ 25 years reported changing their driving-related behaviors as a result of reading information on the DSFGs to which they belonged. A higher proportion of respondents ≥ 25 years were significantly more likely to report Facebook™ and YouTube™ as an effective technology for driving safety promotion. This preliminary study indicates that DSFGs may be effective tools for driving safety promotion among young adults. More research is needed to understand the cognition of Facebook™ users as it relates to adopting safe driving behavior. The findings from this study present descriptive data to guide public health practitioners for future health promotion activities on Facebook™.

  3. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... laws and enforcement, changing attitudes and behaviors through education and outreach, and technology...: Distracted Driving Laws and Enforcement Panel 3: Attentive Driving: Changing Attitudes and Behaviors Panel...

  4. 75 FR 75845 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... active role in preventing debilitated driving. Individuals, families, businesses, community organizations... employees from texting while driving on Government business or when using a Government device. This...

  5. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  6. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  7. Organic magnetoresistance under resonant ac drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, R. C.; Raikh, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment, we develop a theory of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in the presence of a resonant ac drive. To this end, we perform a thorough analysis of the dynamics of ac-driven electron-hole polaron pair in magnetic field, which is a sum of external and random hyperfine fields. Resonant ac drive affects the OMAR by modifying the singlet content of the eigenmodes. This, in turn, leads to the change of recombination rate, and ultimately, to the change of the spin-blocking that controls the current. Our analysis demonstrates that, upon increasing the drive amplitude, the blocking eigenmodes of the triplet type acquire a singlet admixture and become unblocking. Most surprisingly, the opposite process goes in parallel: new blocking modes emerge from nonblocking precursors as the drive increases. These emergent blocking modes are similar to subradiant modes in the Dicke effect. A nontrivial evolution of eigenmodes translates into a nontrivial behavior of OMAR with the amplitude of the ac drive: it is initially linear, then passes through a maximum, drops, and finally saturates.

  8. Energy Considerations of Hypothetical Space Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    The energy requirements of hypothetical, propellant-less space drives are compared to rockets. This serves to provide introductory estimates for potential benefits and to suggest analytical approaches for further study. A "space drive" is defined as an idealized form of propulsion that converts stored potential energy directly into kinetic energy using only the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space. For Earth-to-orbit, the space drive uses 3.7 times less energy. For deep space travel, energy is proportional to the square of delta-v, whereas rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-s Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 ly in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket, could conceivably require 62 MJ/kg for a space drive. Assumption sensitivities and further analysis options are offered to guide further inquires.

  9. Continued Driving and Time to Transition to Nondriver Status through Error-Specific Driving Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Barbara; Petrakos, Davithoula

    2008-01-01

    We developed driving restrictions that are linked to specific driving errors, allowing cognitively impaired individuals to continue to independently meet mobility needs while minimizing risk to themselves and others. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the efficacy and duration expectancy of these restrictions in promoting safe continued…

  10. Dialling and driving: factors influencing intentions to use a mobile phone while driving.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry

    2008-11-01

    Despite being identified as an unsafe (and, in some jurisdictions, illegal) driving practice, the psychological factors underlying people's decision to use their mobile phone while driving have received little attention. The present study utilised the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to examine the role of attitudes, norms, control factors, and risk perceptions, in predicting people's intentions to use their mobile phone while driving. We examined the predictors of intentions to use a mobile phone while driving in general, and for calling and text messaging in 4 scenarios differing in descriptions of vehicle speed and time pressure. There was some support for the TPB given that attitudes consistently predicted intentions to drive while using a mobile phone and that pressure from significant others (norms) determined some phone use while driving intentions, although less support was found for the role of perceptions of control. Risk was not generally predictive of safer driving intentions. These findings indicate that different factors influence each form of mobile phone use while driving and, hence, a multi-strategy approach is likely to be required to address the issue.

  11. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    PubMed

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities.

  12. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity.

  13. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  14. Automated Driving System Architecture to Ensure Safe Delegation of Driving Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YUN, Sunkil; NISHIMURA, Hidekazu

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the architecture of an automated driving system (ADS) is proposed to ensure safe delegation of driving authority between the ADS and a driver. Limitations of the ADS functions may activate delegation of driving authority to a driver. However, it leads to severe consequences in emergency situations where a driver may be drowsy or distracted. To address these issues, first, the concept model for the ADS in the situation for delegation of driving authority is described taking the driver's behaviour and state into account. Second, the behaviour / state of a driver and functional flow / state of ADS and the interactions between them are modelled to understand the context where the ADS requests to delegate the driving authority to a driver. Finally, the proposed architecture of the ADS is verified under the simulations based on the emergency braking scenarios. In the verification process using simulation, we have derived the necessary condition for safe delegation of driving authority is that the ADS should assist s driver even after delegating driving authority to a driver who has not enough capability to regain control of the driving task.

  15. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  16. Ion drive - A step toward 'Star Trek'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.; Terwilliger, C.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a solar-powered electric propulsion system is seen as the first step in the ultimate development of an ion drive system which might incorporate many features of a spacecraft propulsion system described in a science fiction novel written by Anderson (1970). The considered ion propulsion systems would make it possible to augment significantly the operational capabilities of space transportation systems utilizing the Shuttle orbiter in combination with a solid-propellant interim upper stage. The use of the ion drive in a number of applications is discussed, giving attention to the resulting enhancement of national space capabilities, the role of the ion drive in the space transportation system, the development and the operation of a manned space station, satellite positioning and service, the elimination of space debris objects, the study of Halley's comet, interplanetary or lunar shuttle services, and space missions involving the outer planets.

  17. After Opportunity's First Drive in Six Weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to obtain this image at the end of a drive on the rover's 1,271st sol, or Martian day (Aug. 21, 2007).

    Due to sun-obscuring dust storms limiting the rover's supply of solar energy, Opportunity had not driven since sol 1,232 (July 12, 2007). On sol 1,271, after the sky above Opportunity had been gradually clearing for more than two weeks, the rover rolled 13.38 meters (44 feet). Wheel tracks are visible in front of the rover because the drive ended with a short test of driving backwards.

    Opportunity's turret of four tools at the end of the robotic arm fills the center of the image. Victoria Crater, site of the rover's next science targets, lies ahead.

  18. Development of drive mechanisms for communicaton satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, A. C.; Mclay, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    A distinguished pedigree is an important asset in the development of Aerospace mechanisms. Four drives recently developed for communication satellites are outgrowths of a previously-proven drive configuration. Pedigree by itself, however is not enough to generate success. Inevitably, design changes which are thought to be minor, are generally introduced to fine tune the pedigreed hardware to meet particular requirements of a specific new application. Such design changes are often viewed too casually and are not thoroughly tested in the early development stages of the program. Two areas of design change are described on the solar array drive applied to the Japanese Broadcast Satellite which led to subsequent problems during the development phase of the program. The methods applied to establish the cause and the solution of these problems are described as well as the testing approach adapted to prevent similar occurrences on the current Communication Satellite Program, The Defense System Communications Satellite III.

  19. Driving with diabetes: the automatism defence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-02-01

    The tragic case of a district nurse killed when a car driven by a man in a hypoglycaemic state struck her while she took her regular evening walk highlights the dangers that can occur when a person with diabetes drives without regard to their condition. The man was later jailed for four and a half years for causing death by dangerous driving having been found criminally responsible for his actions because he failed to control his blood sugar levels during the journey. In this article the authors set out the likely consequences for people with diabetes who fail in their duty to ensure that they are able to drive safely and are unlikely to be affected by the adverse effects of their illness or the medication taken to control it.

  20. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  1. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  2. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  3. Modulating brain oscillations to drive brain function.

    PubMed

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-12-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions.

  4. [Hypoglycaemia unawareness: judge driving ability prudently].

    PubMed

    Stork, Alexander D M

    2011-01-01

    Several factors can influence the ability to drive by patients with diabetes mellitus. The most important factor would be hypoglycaemia. It seems logical that hypoglycaemia unawareness would be an important risk factor for accidents. However, in everyday practice, hypoglycaemia-related accidents are rare. Moreover, it seems that only a small subset of people with diabetes is responsible for the overall slightly elevated risk of car accidents. It appears that not hypoglycaemia unawareness itself is a risk factor, but primarily a history of previous hypoglycaemia-related accidents. Although ascertaining hypoglycaemia awareness currently seems the most suitable method for the assessment of driving ability, this may not be fair. In the future, we hope to have better methods of assessing the risk of accidents. Until that time, we should apply current law prudently, and mainly preclude from driving those diabetic patients who have experienced loss of consciousness or have needed outside help due to hypoglycaemia.

  5. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  6. Effects of advertising billboards during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Edquist, Jessica; Horberry, Tim; Hosking, Simon; Johnston, Ian

    2011-05-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the problem of driver distraction. Most research focuses on distractions from inside the vehicle, but drivers can also be distracted by objects outside the vehicle. Major roads are increasingly becoming sites for advertising billboards, and there is little research on the potential effects of this advertising on driving performance. The driving simulator experiment presented here examines the effects of billboards on drivers, including older and inexperienced drivers who may be more vulnerable to distractions. The presence of billboards changed drivers' patterns of visual attention, increased the amount of time needed for drivers to respond to road signs, and increased the number of errors in this driving task.

  7. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  8. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise.

  9. [Issues regarding alcoholic intoxication and driving].

    PubMed

    Lanzetta, B M

    2006-01-01

    After recalling the risks deriving from alcohol abuse at work, the paper discusses the complex problems (medical, social, juridical) related to drinking and driving. Acute intoxication may be adequately identified (also in the medico-legal setting) through direct or indirect measurement of blood ethanol concentration, whereas the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and binge drinking (useful to assess fitness to work and/or driving) is complicated by the scarce efficiency of the currently available biomarkers. Alcohol abuse control and prevention among Italian Police Forces are ruled by the Ministerial Decree 30 June 2003, n. 198.

  10. PRIMUS: autonomous driving robot for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ingo

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the government experimental program PRIMUS (PRogram of Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) and the achieved results of phase C demonstrated in summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. In this program there shall be shown the autonomous driving on an unmanned robot in open terrain. The most possible degree of autonomy shall be reached with today's technology to get a platform for different missions. The goal is to release the soldier from high dangerous tasks, to increase the performance and to come to a reduction of personnel and costs with unmanned systems. In phase C of the program two small tracked vehicles (Digitized Wiesel 2, airtransportable by CH53) are used. One as a robot vehicle the other as a command & control system. The Wiesel 2 is configured as a drive by wire-system and therefore well suited for the adaption of control computers. The autonomous detection and avoidance of obstacles in unknown, not cooperative environment is the main task. For navigation and orientation a sensor package is integrated. To detect obstacles the scene in the driving corridor of the robot is scanned 4 times per second by a 3D- Range image camera (LADAR). The measured 3D-range image is converted into a 2D-obstacle map and used as input for calculation of an obstacle free path. The combination of local navigation (obstacle avoidance) and global navigation leads to a collission free driving in open terrain to a predefined goal point with a velocity of up to 25km/h. A contour tracker with a TV-camera as sensor is also implemented which allows to follow contours (e.g. edge of a meadow) or to drive on paved or unpaved roads with a velocity up to 50km/h. In addition to these autonomous driving modes the operator in the command & control station can drive the robot by remote control. All the functions were successfully demonstrated in the summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. During a mission example the robot vehicle covered a distance of several

  11. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    PubMed

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  12. Warning system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Causes of locomotive relaxation are discussed. Alarm system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity is designed by means of techniques of infrared temperature measurement and Hall sensor measurement. The design scheme of the system, the principle of detecting locomotive driving wheel flaccidity with temperature and Hall sensor is introduced, threshold temperature of infrared alarm is determined. The circuit system is designed by microcontroller technology and the software is designed with the assembly language. The experiment of measuring the flaccid displacement with Hall sensor measurement is simulated. The results show that the system runs well with high reliability and low cost, which has a wide prospect of application and popularization.

  13. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.

  14. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  15. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  16. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  17. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  19. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  20. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  1. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  2. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  4. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  5. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  7. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  8. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  9. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  10. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  11. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  12. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  13. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  14. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  15. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  16. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  19. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  20. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  1. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  2. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  3. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  5. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  6. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  7. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  8. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  9. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  10. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF SECOND STREET AND DEDRICK DRIVE - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Forgiveness and Consideration of Future Consequences in Aggressive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention. PMID:18760093

  12. Valve driving means for V-type engine of vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a camshaft drive for an internal combustion engine comprising at least one cylinder, first and second camshafts supported for rotation about parallel and offset axes, an output shaft, and first timing drive means for driving the first camshaft directly from the output shaft on one side of the one cylinder. It also has a second timing drive means for driving the second camshaft from the first camshaft on the other side of the one cylinder.

  13. Transfer case for multiple drive axle vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, R.B.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a transfer case for a vehicle drive train having a transmission comprising: a housing; input means for receiving the torque output from the vehicle transmission; a first output shaft and first means for rotatably supporting the first output shaft in the housing; a second output shaft and second means for rotatably supporting the second output shaft in the housing; and means for selectively driving the first and second output shafts in response to actuation of the input means. The means for selectively driving comprises a planetary gear set having an annulus, a first set of first planet gears a second set of second planet gears, engaged with one of the first planet gear. A sun gear engages with the second planet gears, third means for rotatably mounting the sun gear in the housing and a planet carrier having means for rotatably supporting the first and second planet gears and co-axially secured to the first output shaft for rotation. A clutch means for selectively engages the sun gear with the planet carrier and the second output shaft, and the input means comprises means for rotatably driving the annulus.

  14. Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

  15. Funding Drives Service Decisions: A Moral Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, K. M.; Luxton, L.

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Josephine L. Taylor Leadership Institute addressed the theme "Funding Drives Service Decisions: A Moral Dilemma." Institute participants identified specific dilemmas related to legislation, funding, and placement issues in education and rehabilitation of visually handicapped individuals. Participants subsequently generated solutions in…

  16. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends.

    Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction.

    The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Finding Our Drive: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In his most recent book, "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us," Daniel Pink argues that people are essentially motivated by three key drivers: (1) Autonomy: The desire to direct their own lives; (2) Mastery: The urge to get better at something that matters; and (3) Purpose: The yearning to do what they do in service of…

  18. Does the transition to parenthood influence driving?

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Noy, Adi

    2011-05-01

    Most parents remember the first time they drove with a newborn child in the car. Feeling the need to protect the infant, they avoided sharp turns and drove more slowly and carefully than normal. But how long do these behaviors persist? Do parents ultimately revert to their previous driving patterns, or does some of the early protectiveness and caution continue to characterize their driving as their infant grows into a toddler and preschooler? In an attempt to answer these questions, two studies were conducted on parents of young children: a qualitative study consisting of personal interviews (16 parents); and a quantitative study in the form of a national telephone survey (165 parents). The results show that the most dominant reported effect of the transition to parenthood on driving is increased apprehension of traffic crashes and a stronger sense of responsibility. However, these changes were found to influence the reported actual driving behavior of only a portion of the parents. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed.

  19. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  20. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  1. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  2. Brief Report: Driving Hazard Perception in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Underwood, Geoffrey; van Loon, Editha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether individuals with ASD (autistic spectrum disorders) are able to identify driving hazards, given their difficulties processing social information, Klin et al. ("Archives of General Psychiatry" 59: 809-816, 2002). Twenty-three adult males with ASD and 21 comparison participants viewed 10 video clips containing driving…

  3. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  4. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  5. Effects of Lasers on Driving (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    primary finding of the work was the importance of ambient light in determining effectiveness of green laser distractor in suppressing driver approach. While...effectiveness metrics, driving, lasers, green laser distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human...second experiment assessed the relative effectiveness of optical suppression . Subjects drove a straight course which dead ended, forcing the subject

  6. [Diabetes and driving: evidence and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Senra Moniz, Catarina; Alves Serra, Filipa; Costa Ferreira, Rute; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Machado Saraiva, António

    2013-01-01

    In the last years there was an increasing concern about driving and some medical conditions. Diabetes is one of the diseases associated with road traffic accidents. This increased risk is associated with hypoglycemia and diabetes complications such as: retinopathy, cataracts and neuropathy. In order to avoid car crashes patients must follow some rules like carrying some sugar source in their vehicle, always measure blood glycemia before start driving, never begin an extended drive with blood glucose less than 90 mg/dl without prophylactic carbohydrate consumption, stop the vehicle as soon any of the symptoms of low blood glucose are experienced and measure and treat the blood glucose level. In Portugal there are new rules for diabetic drivers since January 2013. Group 1 drivers are considerer unfit to drive if they have severe or recurrent hypoglycemia. Group 2 drivers need to present a medical report certificating they have good diabetes control, have not had any severe or recurrent hypoglycemia in the last twelve months and there aren't any other diabetes complications.

  7. English for Driving--Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. Bryan

    Intended for use in conjunction with an accompanying teacher's guide and set of visuals, this workbook is in large part a picture dictionary of driving vocabulary with practice exercises to help prepare non-native speakers of English for driver training class. Topics covered in the workbook are automobiles, directions in an automobile, signals,…

  8. Deterring Drinking and Driving: The Australian Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Dale E.; Berger, Peggy M.

    This paper begins by noting that recent efforts in the United States to reduce the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving have not been very effective and suggests that for efforts to be effective, they must raise the actual risk of punishment to a level that cannot be ignored by potential offenders. It then describes an effective system of…

  9. Sleepiness and ethanol effects on simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, T; Beare, D; Zorick, F; Roth, T

    1994-02-01

    Twelve healthy young men were assessed in each of four experimental conditions presented in a Latin Square design: 8-hr time in bed (TIB) and placebo, 4-hr TIB and placebo, 8-hr TIB and ethanol, and 4-hr TIB and ethanol. After consuming ethanol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo (0900-0930 hr) with 20% supplements at 1030 and 1100 hr, subjects were tested for sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test at 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 hr) and divided attention (1030 hr) performance on day 1, and for simulated driving and divided attention (1000-1200 and 1400-1600 hr) performance on day 2. In the morning testing, with breath ethanol concentrations (BECs) averaging 0.049%, sleepiness was increased, divided attention reaction times increased (on both days), and simulated driving performance was disturbed in the ethanol and 4-hr TIB relative to placebo. Similarly in the afternoon, with BECs averaging 0.013%, the ethanol and 4-hr TIB condition increased sleepiness and disrupted divided attention and simulated driving performance. The results show that sleepiness and low-dose ethanol combine to impair simulated automobile driving, an impairment that extends beyond the point at which BEC reaches zero. They provide a possible explanation for the incidence of alcohol-related automobile accidents at low BECs.

  10. Current European developments in solar paddle drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is sponsoring the development of a number of critical spacecraft hardware items. The hardware under development includes two competing solar paddle drives which are being produced to similar specifications. Three mechanisms of each type are being produced and will undergo thermal vacuum testing. All mechanisms have lead lubricated bearings.

  11. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  12. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  13. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  14. Assessment Drives Learning: An Unavoidable Truth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Benjamin W.; Schoeman, Scarpa; Somasunderam, Arnold; Penn, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The debate around which factors drive medical students' learning is ongoing and controversial. What is the influence of an assessment's weighting on the motivation of students to study the particular subject? One medical school in London is in a unique position to investigate this question. At our institution, the weighting of Anatomy within the…

  15. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  16. Shared services centers can drive significant savings.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2011-06-01

    A study of more than 30 U.S. integrated delivery systems (IDSs) found that implementing effective shared services centers can drive significant cost savings in human resources, accounts payable, and procurement. Many IDSs have not adopted effective shared services strategies. Implementing administrative shared services involves low risk and a relatively low start-up investment.

  17. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    PubMed

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  18. Multilevel converters for large electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-11-01

    Traditional two-level high frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high frequency switching which produces common-mode voltage and high voltage change (dV/dt) rates to the motor windings. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices can switch at a much lower frequency. Two different multilevel topologies are identified for use as a converter for electric drives, a cascade inverter with separate dc sources and a back-to-back diode clamped converter. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all electric drives because of the high VA ratings possible and because it uses several levels of dc voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back to back diode damped converter is ideal where a source of ac voltage is available such as a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over PWM based drives.

  19. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... the statute; and (ii) increased fines for repeat violations. (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use... the grant funds (1) to educate the public through advertising containing information about the dangers of texting or using a cell phone while driving; (2) for traffic signs that notify drivers about...

  20. Dynamic modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.; Valeo, E.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field is described and some results are given. Details of geometry, plasma profiles and circuit equations are treated carefully. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment.

  1. Program assists steam drive design project

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A.A.

    1984-08-27

    A new program for the HP-41CV programmable calculator will compute all parameters required for a steam drive project design. The Marx and Langenheim model assumptions are used to solve a more advanced version of the Myhill and Stegemeier model. Also, the Mandl and Volek model assuptions are used to compute the size of the steam zone.

  2. Driving Discovery | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Progress against cancer depends on many types of research—including basic, translational, and clinical—across different research areas, from the biology of cancer cells to studies of large populations. Regardless of the research type or area, supporting the best science and the best scientists is of paramount importance to NCI. Learn more about driving progress against cancer. |

  3. The Illogic of Youth Driving Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.

    2004-01-01

    Most adolescent deaths are caused by injury sustained in traffic crashes, and driver education does not necessarily reduce the problem. This multi-method, ethnographic study describes the logic and regulation of youth driving culture in a northern Ontario community. This included 40 hours of participant observation and a survey of 88 novice…

  4. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  5. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  6. Adolescent exposure to drink driving as a predictor of young adults' drink driving.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Toumbourou, John W; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12-17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18-24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68-2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted.

  7. Split axle drive mechanism for part-time four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, T.

    1986-12-02

    A split axle drive mechanism is described for a part-time four-wheel drive vehicle equipped with a transfer device adapted to change the operating mode of the vehicle drive system to a two wheel drive mode and a four wheel drive mode, comprising: a differential housing; a differential case rotatably mounted within the housing. The differential case is provided thereon with a ring gear for rotation about a first axis and provided therein with pinion gears for rotation about a second axis perpendicular to the first axis and a pair of side gear for rotation about the first axis and in meshing engagement with each of the pinion gears; a first axle shaft disposed along the first axis and connected to one of the side gears for rotation therewith; a second axle shaft disposed along the first axis and axially slidably connected to the other side gear for rotation therewith; a first output member disposed along the first axis to be connected to the first axle shaft and having an outer end adapted for attachment to one split axle part for driving one of a pair of vehicle road wheels; and a second output member disposed along the first axis to be connected to the second axle shaft and having an outer end adapted for attachment to the other split axle part for driving the other road wheel.

  8. Driving a better driving experience: a questionnaire survey of older compared with younger drivers.

    PubMed

    Karali, Sukru; Gyi, Diane E; Mansfield, Neil J

    2017-04-01

    A questionnaire survey of drivers (n = 903) was conducted covering musculoskeletal symptoms, the vehicle seat, access to specific vehicle features, ingress/egress, driving performance and driving behaviours. Significantly, more discomfort was reported by older drivers (aged 65+) in the hips/thighs/buttocks and knees. Older drivers reported more difficulty parallel parking (p ≤ 0.01), driving on a foggy day (p ≤ 0.01), and turning their head and body to reverse (p ≤ 0.001). They also reported that their reactions were slower than they used to be (p ≤ 0.01). Dissatisfaction was found by all drivers with adjusting the headrest (height and distance), seat belt height and opening/closing the boot. There is a growing population of older people globally, and the number of older drivers is showing a parallel increase. Clearly, efforts are needed to ensure car design of the future is more inclusive of older drivers. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes a questionnaire survey of drivers on their driving experience - the vehicle seat, access to specific vehicle features, ingress/egress, driving performance and driving behaviours. Comparisons are made by age and gender. Issues with driving and vehicle design particularly for older drivers in the UK are identified.

  9. Older adults' safety perceptions of driving situations: towards a new driving self-regulation scale.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S; Lurie-Beck, Janine K

    2011-05-01

    The term 'driving self-restriction' is used in the road safety literature to describe the behaviour of some older drivers. It includes the notion that older drivers will avoid driving in specific, usually self-identified situations, such as those in which safety is compromised. We sought to identify the situations that older drivers report avoiding; and, to determine the adequacy of a key measure of such behaviour. A sample of 75 drivers aged 65 years and older completed Baldock et al.'s modification of the Driving Habits Questionnaire avoidance items (Baldock et al., 2006), the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire, and open-ended items that elicited written descriptions of the most and least safe driving situation. Consistent with previous results, we found a relatively low level of driving self-restriction and infrequent episodes of aggressive violations. However, when combined with the situation descriptions, these data suggest that Driving Habits Questionnaire did not cover all of the situations that older drivers might choose avoid. We suggest that a new avoidance scale is needed and we present a new item pool that may be used for this purpose.

  10. Direct Drive Hall Thruster System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power

  11. Drunk driving among novice drivers, possible prevention with additional psychological module in driving school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.

  12. Cannabis and its effects on driving skills.

    PubMed

    Bondallaz, Percy; Favrat, Bernard; Chtioui, Haïthem; Fornari, Eleonora; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging. Results presented in this review show a cannabis-induced impairment of actual driving performance by increasing lane weaving and mean distance headway to the preceding vehicle. Acute and long-term dose-dependent impairments of specific cognitive functions and psychomotor abilities were also noted, extending beyond a few weeks after the cessation of use. Some discrepancies found between these studies could be explained by factors such as history of cannabis use, routes of administration, dose ranges, or study designs (e.g. treatment blinding). Moreover, use of both alcohol and cannabis has been shown to lead to greater odds of making an error than use of either alcohol or cannabis alone. Although the correlation between blood or oral fluid concentrations and psychoactive effects of THC needs a better understanding, blood sampling has been shown to be the most effective way to evaluate the level of impairment of drivers under the influence of cannabis. The blood tests have also shown to be useful to highlight a chronic use of cannabis that suggests an addiction and therefore a long-term unfitness to drive. Besides blood, hair and repeated urine analyses are useful to confirm abstinence.

  13. Guidelines for research on drugged driving

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. Michael; Verstraete, Alain G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-01-01

    Aim A major problem in assessing the true public health impact of drug-use on driving and overall traffic safety is that the variables being measured across studies vary significantly. In studies reported in a growing global literature, basic parameters assessed, analytical techniques and drugs tested are simply not comparable due to lack of standardization in the field. These shortcomings severely limit the value of this research to add knowledge to the field. A set of standards to harmonize research findings is sorely needed. This project was initiated by several international organizations to develop guidelines for research on drugged driving. Methods A September 2006 meeting of international experts discussed the harmonization of protocols for future research on drugged driving. The principal objective of the meeting was to develop a consensus report setting guidelines, standards, core data variables and other controls that would form the basis for future international research. A modified Delphi method was utilized to develop draft guidelines. Subsequently, these draft guidelines were posted on the internet for global review, and comments received were integrated into the final document. Results The Guidelines Document is divided into three major sections, each focusing upon different aspects of drugged driving research (e.g. roadside surveys, prevalence studies, hospital studies, fatality and crash investigations, etc.) within the critical issue areas of ‘behavior’, ‘epidemiology’ and ‘toxicology’. The behavioral section contains 32 specific recommendations; (2) epidemiology 40 recommendations; and (3) toxicology 64 recommendations. Conclusions It is anticipated that these guidelines will improve significantly the overall quality of drugged driving research and facilitate future cross-study comparisons nationally and globally. PMID:18855814

  14. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  15. Substorm occurrence during quiet solar wind driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Partamies, N.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

    2014-04-01

    We examine the OMNI database and International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometer chain records to study the substorm occurrence and characteristics during quiet solar driving periods, especially during the solar minimum period in 2009. We define substorm-like activations as periods where the hourly average AL is below -200 nT. Using the OMNI data set, we demonstrate that there are limiting solar wind speed, interplanetary magnetic field magnitude, and driving electric field values below which substorm-like activations (AL < 200 nT, intensification and decay of the electrojet) do not occur. These minimum parameter values are V < 266 km/s, B < 1.4 nT, and E < 0.025 mV/m such low values are observed less than 1% of the time. We also show that for the same level of driving solar wind electric field, the electrojet intensity is smaller (by few tens of nT), and the electrojet resides farther poleward (by over 1°) during extended quiet solar driving in 2009 than during average solar activity conditions. During the solar minimum period in 2009, we demonstrate that substorm-like activations can be identified from the IMAGE magnetometer chain observations during periods when the hourly average IL index is below -100 nT. When the hourly IL activity is smaller than that, which covers 87% of the nighttime observations, the electrojet does not show coherent behavior. We thus conclude that substorm recurrence time during very quiet solar wind driving conditions is about 5-8 h, which is almost double that of the average solar activity conditions.

  16. Sex drives intracellular conflict in yeast.

    PubMed

    Harrison, E; MacLean, R C; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction, genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction, this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic progeny have a transmission advantage over the rest of the genome and are able to spread, even where they reduce the fitness of the individual as a whole. Sexual reproduction is therefore expected to drive the evolution of selfish genetic elements (SGEs). Here, we directly test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of two independent SGEs, the 2-μm plasmid and selfish mitochondria, in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following 22 rounds of sexual reproduction, 2-μm copy number increased by approximately 13.2 (±5.6) copies per cell, whereas in asexual populations copy number decreased by approximately 5.1 (±1.5) copies per cell. Given that the burden imposed by this parasite increases with copy number, these results support the idea that sex drives the evolution of increased SGE virulence. Moreover, we found that mitochondria that are respiratory-deficient rapidly invaded sexual but not asexual populations, demonstrating that frequent outcrossed sex can drive the de novo evolution of genetic parasites. Our study highlights the genomic perils of sex and suggests that SGEs may play a key role in driving major evolutionary transitions, such as uniparental inheritance.

  17. Decreased driving ability in people with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Heikkila, V; Turkka, J; Korpelainen, J; Kallanranta, T; Summala, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Driving is a complex form of activity involving especially cognitive and psychomotor functions. These functions may be impaired by Parkinson's disease. The relation between Parkinson's disease and driving ability is still obscure and clinicians have to make decisions concerning the driving ability of their patients based on insufficent information. Until now no studies have compared different methods for evaluating the driving ability of patients with Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—The driving ability of 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 20 age and sex matched healthy control subjects was evaluated by a neurologist, psychologist, vocational rehabilitation counsellor, and driving instructor using a standard 10 point scale. The patients and controls also evaluated their own driving ability. Cognitive and psychomotor laboratory tests and a structured on road driving test were used for evaluating the subjects' driving ability.
RESULTS—The patients with Parkinson's disease performed worse than the controls both in the laboratory tests and in the driving test. There was a high correlation between the laboratory tests and driving test both in the patient group and in the control group. Disease indices were not associated with the driving test. The neurologist overestimated the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease to drive compared with the driving ability evaluated by the structured on road driving test and with the driving related laboratory tests. Patients themselves were not capable of evaluating their own ability reliably.
CONCLUSION—Driving ability is greatly decreased in patients with even mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. The evaluation of patients' driving ability is very difficult to carry out without psychological and psychomotor tests and/or a driving test.

 PMID:9527142

  18. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  19. Motivations for dieting: Drive for Thinness is different from Drive for Objective Thinness.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Yelena; Lowe, Michael R

    2010-05-01

    Drive for thinness is a cardinal feature of bulimia nervosa. However, the widely used Drive for Thinness (DFT) subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (Garner, 2004; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) appears to measure a desire to be thinner, not a desire to be objectively thin. We developed the Drive for Objective Thinness (DFOT) Scale and compared unrestrained and restrained eaters and those with bulimia nervosa on the DFT subscale, Goldfarb's Fear of Fat Scale (GFFS; Goldfarb, Dykens, & Gerrard, 1983), and the DFOT Scale. Restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters on the DFT subscale and the GFFS, but both groups had low scores on the DFOT Scale. Only the group with bulimia nervosa showed elevated scores on the DFOT Scale. We conclude that restrained eaters diet mostly to avoid weight gain, that individuals with bulimia nervosa diet to achieve thinness and avoid fatness, and that the drive for objective thinness is a unique feature of bulimia nervosa.

  20. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01) and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01). Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also

  1. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving.

  2. Driving after Concussion: Is It Safe To Drive after Symptoms Resolve?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Hoffman, Nicole L; Ranchet, Maud; Miller, L Stephen; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes

    2017-01-24

    Post-concussion impairments may result in unsafe driving performance, but little research is available to guide consensus on when concussed individuals should return to driving. The purpose of this study was to compare driving performance between individuals with and without a concussion and to explore relationships between neuropsychological and driving performance. Fourteen participants with concussion (age 20.2 ± 0.9 years old) and 14 non-concussed age- and driving experience-matched controls (age 20.4 ± 1.1 years old) completed a graded symptom checklist, a brief neuropsychological exam, and a 20.5 km driving simulation task. Participants with a concussion completed driving simulation within 48 h of becoming asymptomatic (15.9 ± 9.0 days post-concussion). One-way analyses of variance were used to compare total number of crashes, tickets, and lane excursions, as well as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and standard deviation of speed. Pearson's correlations were conducted to explore the relationship between the neuropsychological and driving performance separately by group (α = 0.05). Participants with a concussion committed more frequent lane excursions (concussed 10.9 ± 4.5; controls 7.4 ± 2.4; p = 0.017) and exhibited greater SDLP, compared with controls, during the first curve (concussed 45.7 ± 21.3 cm, controls 27.4 ± 6.1 cm; p = 0.030) and final curve (concussed 39.6 ± 24.4 cm; controls 33.5 ± 21.3 cm; p = 0.036). Poorer performance on symbol digit modalities (r = -0.54), Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (r = -0.53), verbal memory (r = -0.77), and motor speed (r = -0.54) were correlated with more frequent lane excursions in the concussed group, but not in the control group. Despite being asymptomatic, concussed participants exhibited poorer vehicle control, especially when navigating curves. Driving impairments may persist beyond when individuals with a

  3. Relationship of Impaired Driving Enforcement Intensity to Drinking and Driving on the Roads

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Waehrer, Geetha; Voas, Robert B.; Auld-Owens, Amy; Carr, Katherine; Pell, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background It is principally the area of enforcement that offers the greatest opportunity for reducing alcohol-impaired driving in the near future. How much of a reduction in drinking and driving would be achieved by how much improvement in enforcement intensity? Methods We developed logistic regression models to explore how enforcement intensity (six different measures) related to the prevalence of weekend, nighttime drivers in the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) who had been drinking (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]>.00 g/dL), who had BACs>.05 g/dL, and who were driving with an illegal BAC>.08 g/dL. Results Drivers on the roads in our sample of 30 communities who were exposed to fewer than 228 traffic stops per 10,000 population aged 18 and older had 2.4 times the odds of being BAC positive, 3.6 times the odds of driving with a BAC>0.05, and 3.8 times the odds of driving with a BAC>0.08 compared to those drivers on the roads in communities with more than 1,275 traffic stops per 10,000 population. Drivers on the roads in communities with fewer than 3.7 driving-under-the-influence (DUI) arrests per 10,000 population had 2.7 times the odds of BAC-positive drivers on the roads compared to communities with the highest intensity of DUI arrest activity (>38 DUI arrests per 10,000 population). Conclusion The number of traffic stops and DUI arrests per capita were significantly associated with the odds of drinking and driving on the roads in these communities. This might reflect traffic enforcement visibility. The findings in this study may help law enforcement agencies around the country adjust their traffic enforcement intensity to reduce impaired driving in their community. PMID:25515820

  4. Metrics for comparing drive on the capsule for indirect drive implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra; Hurricane, Omar; Moody, John; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Divol, Laurent; Doeppner, Tilo; Dewald, Eduard; Hinkel, Denise; Khan, Shahab; Kritcher, Andrea; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Meezan, Nathan; Ralph, Joseph; Ross, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Radiation drive on the capsule is an important parameter in ICF because it determines the implosion velocity. For indirect drive, the effective capsule drive is a combination of hohlraum and capsule physics. The hohlraum converts the laser energy into xrays - both flux and spectrum. The xray drive is a function of the hohlraum size, material, and hohlraum fill in addition to being a function of the laser power and energy. The timing of the drive with respect to the capsule implosion trajectory plays a role in the way in the way the capsule absorbs the energy as does the choice of ablator material and capsule dopant. In this presentation, we will look at trends in the data from both hohlraum (Dante, SXI) and capsule diagnostics (bangtime, capsule xray yield) as a method for comparing the drive on the capsule for a variety of designs. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  5. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    PubMed

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  6. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Performance: An Examination of Attentional Resources and Control Using a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    McManus, Benjamin; Heaton, Karen; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-04-03

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often multitask when driving to increase travel efficiency and to increase alertness. Secondary tasks have been shown to impact CMV driving differentially, and attentional resources have been posited as a key factor. However, underlying mechanisms of secondary task engagement on attention and task performance have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is unknown if attentional control moderates these differential effects of secondary tasks and task performance. The current study aimed to examine decrements in driving performance from a resource-control theory by determining the specific relation between attentional resources and attentional control. To achieve this goal, 2 objectives were determined. Objective 1 considered the differential impact of secondary tasks on attentional resources in CMV driving performance. Objective 2 investigated individual differences in attentional control in the sample of CMV drivers. Fifty CMV drivers (Mage = 39.8 years, SD = 8.36) completed the 10-min psychomotor vigilance task providing measures of attentional control and also drove in a CMV driving simulator 4 times while presented with 1 of 4 secondary tasks. Findings linked secondary tasks to attentional resources, which, consequently affected CMV driving performance. The mediating effect of attentional resources significantly differed among varying levels of attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. [Medicolegal aspects of driving ability and discussion of study methods].

    PubMed

    Berghaus, G

    2008-06-01

    Medicolegal aspects of driving ability primarily concern patients themselves, because they are responsible when driving in traffic while under drug treatment. Pain patients taking analgesic medication prescribed by a doctor do not commit an offence, insofar as they are able to drive. A doctor's main duty consists of informing the patient about the way a given disease or drug intake affects driving ability. Patients have the duty to inform themselves about the drug they are taking and to assess their driving ability each time before they drive a car.

  8. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  9. Lynch Canyon combination thermal drive project. [Termination

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, J. R.

    1980-11-01

    The following report provides a summary of the Lynch Canyon Thermal Drive Project. This demonstration project was begun in 1978 and terminated in 1980. The project originally was divided into four phases; Geologic Evaluation, Injectivity Test, Field Development Combined with Air-Water Injection, and a Project Review. Following the First Phase operations, which included drilling of four wells for geologic evaluation, a joint decision to cancel the project was made. The conditions which were thought to exist at the initiation of the project, would have provided an excellent opportunity to conduct a Pilot Combination Thermal Drive. However, potential problems which were discovered in the Phase One Operations significantly altered the economics of the project and removed the favorable conditions under which the project was begun.

  10. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  11. [Epilepsy And Driving Ability: The New Guideline].

    PubMed

    Kurthen, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The Swiss Guideline concerning epilepsy and driving has recently been revised. Recommendations have changed significantly in several respects. Some modifications arise indirectly from a change in the overall concept of epilepsy. As a consequence of the application of the new ILAE definition and diagnostic criteria for epilepsy, there are now cases in which the diagnosis of epilepsy is established even after one single seizure. Furthermore, a concept of imminent epilepsy was introduced to identify patients without seizures, but with a high risk of a first seizure within twelve months. On the other hand, the concept of a "resolved epilepsy" was established to loosen driving regulations for longterm seizure-free patients. In addition, the new guideline provides differential recommendations for provoked vs. unprovoked seizures in several clinical constellations.

  12. AVIRIS scan drive design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) images the ground with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 1 mrad. The IFOV is scanned 30 deg from left to right to provide the cross-track dimension of the image, while the aircraft's motion provides the along-track dimension. The scanning frequency is 12 Hz, with a scan efficiency of 70 percent. The scan mirror has an effective diameter of 5.7 in, and its positional accuracy is a small fraction of a milliradian of the nominal position-time profile. Described are the design and performance of the scan drive mechanism. Tradeoffs among various approaches are discussed, and the reasons given for the selection of the cam drive.

  13. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of the safe driving behavior measure and the driving habits questionnaire for older self-drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kweon-Young; Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five older participated in this study, to measure the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated along with cut-off values and overall accuracy of each measure as determined by the participants operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify predictors of driving abilities. [Results] The sensitivities were 0.538 for Safe Driving Behavior Measure, and 0.577, 0.423, and 0.615 for the difficulty, crash and citations, and driving space on domains of the Driving Habits Questionnaire, respectively. The specificities of the person-vehicle domain, person-environment domain, and person-vehicle-environment domain of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure were 0.474, 0.526, and 0.421, respectively, while the Driving Habits Questionnaire domains, the specificities of difficulty, crash and citations, and driving space were 0.526, 0.211, and 0.421, respectively. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that factors related to the accident history of older self-drivers were not well-explained, although the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and Driving Habits Questionnaire domains have the potential to determine driving-related accident history. PMID:27821942

  15. Co-variability in Three Dimensions of Teenage Driving Risk Behavior: Impaired Driving, Risky and Unsafe Driving Behavior, and Secondary Task Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Li, Kaigang; Ehsani, Johnathon; Vaca, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research examined the extent to which teenagers who engaged in one form of risky driving also engaged in other forms and if risky driving measures were reciprocally associated over time. METHODS The data were from waves 1, 2 and 3 (W1, W2 and W3) of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample starting with 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Three measures of risky driving were assessed in autoregressive and cross-lagged analyses: driving while alcohol/drug impaired, Checkpoints Risky Driving Scale (risky and unsafe driving), and secondary task engagement while driving. RESULTS In adjusted auto-regression models the risk variables, demonstrated high levels of stability, with significant associations observed across the three waves. However, associations between variables were inconsistent. DWI at W2 was associated with risky and unsafe driving at W3 (β = 0.21, p < 0.01); risky and unsafe driving at W1 was associated with DWI at W2 (β = 0.20, p <.01); and risky and unsafe driving at W2 is associated with secondary task engagement at W3 (β = 0.19, p <.01). Overtime associations between DWI and secondary task engagement were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide modest evidence for the co-variability of risky driving, with prospective associations between the Risky Driving Scale and the other measures, and reciprocal associations between all three variables at some time points. Secondary task engagement, however, appears largely to be an independent measure of risky driving. The findings suggest the importance of implementing interventions that addresses each of these driving risks. PMID:26514232

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  17. Base drive for paralleled inverter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    In a paralleled inverter system, a positive feedback current derived from the total current from all of the modules of the inverter system is applied to the base drive of each of the power transistors of all modules, thereby to provide all modules protection against open or short circuit faults occurring in any of the modules, and force equal current sharing among the modules during turn on of the power transistors.

  18. Specifying Rotating Polygons And Their Drive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Randy J.

    1986-07-01

    Specifying a rotating polygonal mirror and drive system involves a careful analysis of the complete optical scanning system it is used in and the specific effects of each characteristic of the beam deflector on system performance. This would appear on the surface to be straightforward, however there are subtleties that may evade the most conscientious and diligent specifier. The intent here is to identify same pitfalls the specifier should be alert to.

  19. Heating and current drive systems for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.; Goranson, P.; Halle, A. von; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1994-05-24

    The heating and current drive (H and CD) system proposed for the TPX tokamak will consist of ion cyclotron, neutral beam, and lower hybrid systems. It will have 17.5 MW of installed H and CD power initially, and can be upgraded to 45 MW. It will be used to explore advanced confinement and fully current-driven plasma regimes with pulse lengths of up to 1,000 s.

  20. Seventy Years of Magnetic Disk Drive Technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    2007-03-01

    The first hard disk drive, the IBM RAMAC, was shipped in September 1956. It was the size of a couple of refrigerators, contained fifty 24-inch diameter disks and stored information at an areal density of 2000 bits per square inch. Although ten years ago, the industry was widely perceived as facing a fundamental limit at 36 Gbit per square inch (Gbpsi) in the form of superparamagnetism, current disk drives provide areal densities in excess of 130 Gbpsi and capacities of 750 Gbytes. Although the original projections of superparamagnetism were correct, by changing the way the devices were scaled and, ultimately by changing from longitudinal to perpendicular recording, it has been possible to circumvent superparamagnetic effects. Our current understanding indicates that it may be possible to extend the areal density by yet another factor of 400 from present densities, if advanced technologies such as heat assisted magnetic recording and bit patterned media are implemented. Assuming this proceeds at the recent rate of 40 percent increase in areal density per year, we would reach roughly 50 Terabit per square inch (Tbpsi) in about 2026, 70 years after the development of the first disk drive. To achieve this, however, the industry will need higher sensitivity giant magnetoresistive sensors, high efficiency near-field transducers powered with surface plasmons and self-assembled or nano-imprinted magnetic particle arrays for media. In this presentation, the author will briefly describe the history of recording on magnetic disk drives, then describe the potential for future growth and some of the physics and materials problems that need solution in order to realize this full potential.

  1. The Cohesive Population Genetics of Molecular Drive

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Tomoko; Dover, Gabriel A.

    1984-01-01

    The long-term population genetics of multigene families is influenced by several biased and unbiased mechanisms of nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversion, unequal exchanges, transposition) between member genes, often distributed on several chromosomes. These mechanisms cause fluctuations in the copy number of variant genes in an individual and lead to a gradual replacement of an original family of n genes (A) in N number of individuals by a variant gene (a). The process for spreading a variant gene through a family and through a population is called molecular drive. Consideration of the known slow rates of nonreciprocal exchanges predicts that the population variance in the copy number of gene a per individual is small at any given generation during molecular drive. Genotypes at a given generation are expected only to range over a small section of all possible genotypes from one extreme (n number of A) to the other (n number of a). A theory is developed for estimating the size of the population variance by using the concept of identity coefficients. In particular, the variance in the course of spreading of a single mutant gene of a multigene family was investigated in detail, and the theory of identity coefficients at the state of steady decay of genetic variability proved to be useful. Monte Carlo simulations and numerical analysis based on realistic rates of exchange in families of known size reveal the correctness of the theoretical prediction and also assess the effect of bias in turnover. The population dynamics of molecular drive in gradually increasing the mean copy number of a variant gene without the generation of a large variance (population cohesion) is of significance regarding potential interactions between natural selection and molecular drive. PMID:6500260

  2. What's driving Gigabit/sec channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, P.R.

    1991-09-01

    This paper summarizes the rationale for the drive towards Gigabit/sec communications for individual users. A description is given of a resulting prototype LAN which will deliver this capability to each user. The prototype is being built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It will be delivered this winter and should be available for users by the end of the first quarter of next year. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Scapulothoracic kinematics during tennis forehand drive.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-06-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is recognized as an abnormality in the kinetic chain; yet, there has been little research quantifying scapular motion during sport tasks. Tennis forehand drives of eight highly skilled tennis players were studied to assess the scapulothoracic kinematics and evaluate repeatability using video-based motion analysis. Scapulothoracic downward/upward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and internal/external rotation were computed using an acromial marker cluster. On average, the upward rotation, anterior tilt, and internal rotation varied from 1 degrees to 26 degrees, from 7 degrees to 32 degrees, and from 42 degrees to 100 degrees, respectively, during the tennis forehand drive. During the backswing and forward swing phases of the forehand stroke, small changes were observed for the three scapular angle values, while all angles increased rapidly during the follow-through phase. This suggests that the tennis forehand drive may contribute to scapula dyskinesis, mainly due to the great amplitude in scapulothoracic anterior tilt and internal rotation observed during the follow-through phase. Knowledge of normal scapula motion during sport tasks performed at high velocity could improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and pathologies.

  4. Fast wave current drive in DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, E.; Van Eestera, D.; Messiaen, A.; Collaboration: EFDA-PPPT Contributors

    2014-02-12

    The ability to non-inductively drive a large fraction of the toroidal plasma current in magnetically confined plasmas is an essential requirement for steady state fusion reactors such as DEMO. Besides neutral beam injection (NBI), electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and lower hybrid wave heating (LH), ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a promising candidate to drive current, in particular at the high temperatures expected in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the current drive (CD) efficiencies calculated with coupled ICRF wave / CD numerical codes for the DEMO-1 design case (R{sub 0}=9m, B{sub 0}=6.8T, a{sub p}=2.25m) [1] are presented. It will be shown that although promising CD efficiencies can be obtained in the usual ICRF frequency domain (20-100MHz) by shifting the dominant ion-cyclotron absorption layers to the high-field side, operation at higher frequencies (100-300MHz) has a stronger CD potential, provided the parasitic RF power absorption of the alpha particles can be minimized.

  5. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications.

  6. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009).

    On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image.

    In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  7. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  8. Trajectories of Kinematic Risky Driving Among Novice Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Elevated gravitational force event rates are associated with the likelihood of a crash or near crash and provide an objective measure of risky driving. The purpose of this research is to examine the patterns over time of kinematic measures of risky driving among novice teenage drivers. Methods Driving data were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers during the first 18 months of licensure. Data recording systems installed in participants’ vehicles provided information on driving performance and driver characteristics. Latent class and logistic regression models were used to analyze trajectories of elevated gravitational-force (g-force) event rates, called kinematic risky driving, with respect to risk groups and associated factors. Results Kinematic risky driving over the 18-month study period was best characterized as two classes, a higher-risk and a lower-risk class. The rate of kinematic risky driving during the first 6 months generally maintained over 18 months. Indeed, of those classified by latent class analysis as higher risk, 88.9%, 94.4% and 94.4% had average event rates above the median in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 6-month periods, respectively, indicating substantial tracking over time. Friends’ risky driving, friends’ risky behavior, self-reported risky driving, and perceptions about risky driving and driving privileges were associated with trip-level rates of kinematic risky driving. However, none of these factors was associated with trip-level rates after stratifying by overall risk in a latent class model, although friend’s risky driving was marginally significant. Conclusion Kinematic risky driving tended to track over time within the lower and higher risky driving groups. Self-reported risky driving and having risky friends were predictors of kinematic risky driving rates, but these variables did not explain the heterogeneity within higher and lower classes of risky drivers. PMID:23182780

  9. Prediction of Fitness to Drive in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Dafne; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; de Waard, Dick; Davidse, Ragnhild J; de Groot, Jolieke; Doumen, Michelle J A; Bredewoud, Ruud A; Claesen, René; Lemstra, Afina W; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ponds, Rudolf; Verhey, Frans; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing and so is the number of patients driving a car. To enable patients to retain their mobility while at the same time not endangering public safety, each patient should be assessed for fitness to drive. The aim of this study is to develop a method to assess fitness to drive in a clinical setting, using three types of assessments, i.e. clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator rides. The goals are (1) to determine for each type of assessment which combination of measures is most predictive for on-road driving performance, (2) to compare the predictive value of clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator evaluation and (3) to determine which combination of these assessments provides the best prediction of fitness to drive. Eighty-one patients with AD and 45 healthy individuals participated. All participated in a clinical interview, and were administered a neuropsychological test battery and a driving simulator ride (predictors). The criterion fitness to drive was determined in an on-road driving assessment by experts of the CBR Dutch driving test organisation according to their official protocol. The validity of the predictors to determine fitness to drive was explored by means of logistic regression analyses, discriminant function analyses, as well as receiver operating curve analyses. We found that all three types of assessments are predictive of on-road driving performance. Neuropsychological assessment had the highest classification accuracy followed by driving simulator rides and clinical interviews. However, combining all three types of assessments yielded the best prediction for fitness to drive in patients with AD with an overall accuracy of 92.7%, which makes this method highly valid for assessing fitness to drive in AD. This method may be used to advise patients with AD and their family members about fitness to drive.

  10. Prediction of Fitness to Drive in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Dafne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; de Waard, Dick; Davidse, Ragnhild J.; de Groot, Jolieke; Doumen, Michelle J. A.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Claesen, René; Lemstra, Afina W.; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ponds, Rudolf; Verhey, Frans; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is increasing and so is the number of patients driving a car. To enable patients to retain their mobility while at the same time not endangering public safety, each patient should be assessed for fitness to drive. The aim of this study is to develop a method to assess fitness to drive in a clinical setting, using three types of assessments, i.e. clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator rides. The goals are (1) to determine for each type of assessment which combination of measures is most predictive for on-road driving performance, (2) to compare the predictive value of clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator evaluation and (3) to determine which combination of these assessments provides the best prediction of fitness to drive. Eighty-one patients with AD and 45 healthy individuals participated. All participated in a clinical interview, and were administered a neuropsychological test battery and a driving simulator ride (predictors). The criterion fitness to drive was determined in an on-road driving assessment by experts of the CBR Dutch driving test organisation according to their official protocol. The validity of the predictors to determine fitness to drive was explored by means of logistic regression analyses, discriminant function analyses, as well as receiver operating curve analyses. We found that all three types of assessments are predictive of on-road driving performance. Neuropsychological assessment had the highest classification accuracy followed by driving simulator rides and clinical interviews. However, combining all three types of assessments yielded the best prediction for fitness to drive in patients with AD with an overall accuracy of 92.7%, which makes this method highly valid for assessing fitness to drive in AD. This method may be used to advise patients with AD and their family members about fitness to drive. PMID:26910535

  11. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  12. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation. PMID:20308102

  13. Optimization of Driving Styles for Fuel Economy Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Aguilar, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.

  14. 13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN WATERWHEEL SHAFT TO VERTICAL SHAFT DRIVING COFFEE HUSKING MILL ON SECOND FLOOR - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  15. 77 FR 72677 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... for safe and responsible driving. Distractions like using mobile phones and other electronics behind... communities strong. To learn more about impaired driving and how all of us can work to prevent it, visit...

  16. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full building at center; camera facing southeast. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  18. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. 48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF STONY MAN MOUNTAIN (EL. 4,011). LOOKING NORTHEAST. STONY MAN OVERLOOK VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  20. Mars Exploration Rover surface operations: driving opportunity at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey J.; Baumgartner, E.; Bonitz, R.; Cooper, B.; Hartman, F.; Leger, C.; Maimone, M.; Maxwell, S.; Trebi-Ollenu, A.; Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will detail the experience of driving Opportunity through this alien landscape from the point of view of the Rover Planners, the people who tell the rover where to drive and how to use its robotic arm.

  1. 78 FR 73373 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... distracted driving, including texting and cell phone use. To keep the American people safe this holiday.... My Administration is committed to raising awareness about the dangers of impaired driving,...

  2. 9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF CRENELATED LAVA STONE GUARD WALL AND ROCK CUT OPPOSITE. NOTE CATTLE GUARD ACROSS ROAD PARTIALLY PAVED OVER. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  3. 8. VIEW FROM TECHWOOD DRIVE LOOKING NORTH TOWARD GEORGIA TECH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW FROM TECHWOOD DRIVE LOOKING NORTH TOWARD GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. The association between driving anger and driving outcomes: A meta-analysis of evidence from the past twenty years.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S

    2016-05-01

    Through the use of meta-analysis, this study investigated the relationships between driving anger and five types of driving outcomes (aggressive driving, risky driving, driving errors, near misses and accidents). The moderating effects of three variables (age, study publication year, and participants' country of origin) on these relationships were also examined. A total of 51 studies published over the past two decades met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The results showed that driving anger significantly predicted all three types of aberrant driving, with zero-order correlations of 0.312, 0.243, and 0.179 with aggressive driving, risky driving and driving errors, respectively. The correlations between driving anger and accident-related conditions, though at relatively weaker levels, were still statistically significant. Tests for effects of the moderating variables suggested that driving anger was a stronger predictor of risky driving among young drivers than among old drivers. Also, the anger-aggression association was found to decrease over time and vary across countries. The implications of the results and the directions for future research are discussed.

  5. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) current drive and heating physics

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M.; Lindquist, W. ); Fujisawa, N.; Kimura, H. ); Hopman, H.; Rebuffi, L.; Wegrowe, J.G. . NET Design Team); Parail, V.; Vdovin, V. . Inst. Atomnoj Ehn

    1990-01-01

    The ITER Current Drive and Heating (CD H) systems are required for: Ionization and current initiation; Non-inductive current ramp-up assist; Heating of the plasma; Steady-state operation with full non-inductive current drive; Current profile control; and Burn control by modulation of the auxiliary power. Steady-state current drive is the most demanding requirement, so this has driven the choice of the ITER current drive and heating systems.

  6. Lifetimes and Reliabilities of Bevel-Gear Drive Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D.; Cox, J.; Savage, M.; Brikmanis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods used to predict system lifetimes from component lifetimes. Report shows how to use information to determine system life of drive train, using methods of probability and statistics. Presents life and reliability model for bevel-gear drive trains. Bevel-gear and support-bearing lives analyzed for each gear and bearing in drive train, with results statistically combined to produce system life for entire drive train. Numerical example included.

  7. Enhancing Emotion Regulation during Driving in OEF/OIF Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    retraining/heart rate variability biofeedback and cognitive reappraisal. Both components are compatible with onroad driving assessments currently...variability biofeedback and cognitive reappraisal. Both components are compatible with on-road driving assessments currently performed by certified driving...Currently, the driving behavior subsystem (minus gaze tracking, ECG, and biofeedback ) can be installed in five minutes and costs less than $3,000. Dr

  8. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  9. Effect of drive mechanisms on dynamic characteristics of spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shi-yao; Lei, Yong-jun; Wu, Xin-feng; Zhang, Da-peng

    2015-05-01

    Spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems (STFS) consist of drive mechanisms and flexible structures, including solar array and a variety of large-scale antennas. The electromechanical interaction inside drive mechanisms makes it quite complicated to directly analyze the dynamic characteristics of an STFS. In this paper, an indirect dynamic characteristic analysis method for operating-state STFS is presented. The proposed method utilizes the structure dynamics approximation of drive mechanisms that converts the electromechanical model of an STFS into a structure dynamic model with elastic boundary conditions. The structure dynamics approximation and the dynamic characteristic analysis method are validated by experimental and analytical results, respectively. The analysis results indicate that the gear transmission ratio and viscous friction coefficient are the primary factors in approximating boundary stiffness and damping. Dynamic characteristics of an STFS with a large gear transmission ratio are close to that of a flexible structure with a cantilever boundary. Otherwise, torsion-mode natural frequencies of the STFS become smaller and corresponding modal damping ratios become larger, as a result of the local stiffness and damping features of drive mechanisms.

  10. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  11. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  13. Driving simulators for occupational therapy screening, assessment, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Classen, Sherrilene; Brooks, Johnell

    2014-04-01

    Simulation technology provides safe, objective, and repeatable performance measures pertaining to operational (e.g., avoiding a collision) or tactical (e.g., lane maintenance) driver behaviors. Many occupational therapy researchers and others are using driving simulators to test a variety of applications across diverse populations. A growing body of literature provides support for associations between simulated driving and actual on-road driving. One limitation of simulator technology is the occurrence of simulator sickness, but management strategies exist to curtail or mitigate its onset. Based on the literature review and a consensus process, five consensus statements are presented to support the use of driving simulation technology among occupational therapy practitioners. The evidence suggests that by using driving simulators occupational therapy practitioners may detect underlying impairments in driving performance, identify driving errors in at-risk drivers; differentiate between driving performance of impaired and healthy controls groups; show driving errors with absolute and relative validity compared to on-road studies; and mitigate the onset of simulator sickness. Much progress has been made among occupational therapy researchers and practitioners in the use of driving simulation technology; however, empirical support is needed to further justify the use of driving simulators in clinical practice settings as a valid, reliable, clinical useful, and cost effective tool for driving assessment and intervention.

  14. DC drive system for cine/pulse cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, R. H.; Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Camera-drive functions are separated mechanically into two groups which are driven by two separate dc brushless motors. First motor, a 90 deg stepper, drives rotating shutter; second electronically commutated motor drives claw and film transport. Shutter is made of one piece but has two openings for slow and fast exposures.

  15. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  16. Portrait of a Contemporary Drive-In Movie Theater Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Personal interviews were conducted with drive-in theatre patrons in an attempt to paint an empirical portrait of a contemporary drive-in movie theatre audience. A total of 607 patrons of one Rochester, New York, drive-in were interviewed by trained college undergraduates using a prepared 33-item questionnaire consisting of open- and close-ended…

  17. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests. 383.77... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  19. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  20. 30 CFR 57.19003 - Driving mechanism connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving mechanism connections. 57.19003 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19003 Driving mechanism connections. Belt, rope, or chains shall not be used to connect driving mechanisms to man hoists....