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Sample records for 6a figure 6b

  1. Complexities in human herpesvirus-6A and -6B binding to host cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Hoellsberg, Per . E-mail: ph@microbiology.au.dk

    2006-12-20

    Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B uses the cellular receptor CD46 for fusion and infection of the host cell. The viral glycoprotein complex gH-gL from HHV-6A binds to the short consensus repeat 2 and 3 in CD46. Although all the major isoforms of CD46 bind the virus, certain isoforms may have higher affinity than others for the virus. Within recent years, elucidation of the viral complex has identified additional HHV-6A and -6B specific glycoproteins. Thus, gH-gL associates with a gQ1-gQ2 dimer to form a heterotetrameric complex. In addition, a novel complex consisting of gH-gL-gO has been described that does not bind CD46. Accumulating evidence suggests that an additional HHV-6A and -6B receptor exists. The previous simple picture of HHV-6A/B-host cell contact therefore includes more layers of complexities on both the viral and the host cell side of the interaction.

  2. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  3. Serotype 6B from a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces cross-functional antibody responses in adults to serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Cross-reactivity of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides is a key element for formulating pneumococcal vaccines and evaluating vaccine efficacy. This study examined whether 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which only contains 6B, can elicit cross-functional immune responses against recently discovered serotypes (6C and 6D), as well as against 6A, in 2 adult age groups.Young adults (25-51 years; N = 28) and elderly subjects (over 65 years; N = 60) were immunized with PPSV23. Functional antibody responses were determined in pre- and postimmune sera via multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay against serotypes 6A/B/C/D.At postimmunization, the geometric mean opsonic indices (OIs) for 6B and nonvaccine serotypes (6A, 6C, and 6D) significantly increased in both age groups. The geometric fold increases of OIs for 6B/A/C/D significantly differed (18.2, 24.8, 3.1, and 7.1, respectively). Proportions of subjects with 4-fold increases in OIs for 6B/A/C/D were 73%, 70%, 31%, and 49%, respectively. Correlations of fold increases in OIs were highest between 6B and 6A, followed by 6B and 6D, then by 6B and 6C. Comparisons of young adults and the elderly revealed that most immunogenicity variables were higher in the former group.Our data demonstrated that 6B in PPSV23 induced cross-functional immune responses against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D, according to the degree of similarity in their capsular polysaccharide structures. In addition, we found significant age-related differences in PPSV23-induced cross-reactivity. PMID:27631247

  4. Pax6a and Pax6b are required at different points in neuronal progenitor cell proliferation during zebrafish photoreceptor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Thummel, Ryan; Enright, Jennifer M; Kassen, Sean C; Montgomery, Jacob E; Bailey, Travis J; Hyde, David R

    2010-05-01

    The light-damaged zebrafish retina results in the death of photoreceptor cells and the subsequent regeneration of the missing rod and cone cells. Photoreceptor regeneration initiates with asymmetric Müller glial cell division to produce neuronal progenitor cells, which amplify, migrate to the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and differentiate into both classes of photoreceptor cells. In this study, we examined the role of the Pax6 protein in regeneration. In zebrafish, there are two Pax6 proteins, one encoded by the pax6a gene and the other encoded by the pax6b gene. We intravitreally injected and electroporated morpholinos that were complementary to either the pax6a or pax6b mRNA to knockdown the translation of the corresponding protein. Loss of Pax6b expression did not affect Müller glial cell division, but blocked the subsequent first cell division of the neuronal progenitors. In contrast, the paralogous Pax6a protein was required for later neuronal progenitor cell divisions, which maximized the number of neuronal progenitors. Without neuronal progenitor cell amplification, proliferation of resident ONL rod precursor cells, which can only regenerate rods, increased inversely proportional to the number of INL neuronal progenitor cells. This confirmed that Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitor cells are necessary to regenerate cones and that distinct mechanisms selectively regenerate rod and cone photoreceptors. This work also defines distinct roles for Pax6a and Pax6b in regulating neuronal progenitor cell proliferation in the adult zebrafish retina and increases our understanding of the molecular pathways required for photoreceptor cell regeneration. PMID:20152834

  5. DWPF SB6 INITIAL CPC FLOWSHEET TESTING SB6-1 TO SB6-4L TESTS OF SB6-A AND SB6-B SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Best, D.

    2009-09-09

    two projections of the SB6 blend simulant composition (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). The more washed simulant (SB6-A) had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (90%, 100%, 120% and 150%) using the Koopman Acid Prediction Calculation. Two additional SRAT simulations were made using SB6-B blend simulant at 100% and 120% of acid stoichiometry. SME cycles were noted performed for the SB6B simulants to allow the SRAT products to be used for melt rate testing.

  6. Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B Alter E2F1/Rb Pathways and E2F1 Localization and Cause Cell Cycle Arrest in Infected T Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Mlechkovich, Guy; Frenkel, Niza

    2007-01-01

    E2F transcription factors play pivotal roles in controlling the expression of genes involved in cell viability as well as genes involved in cell death. E2F1 is an important constituent of this protein family, which thus far contains eight members. The interaction of E2F1 with its major regulator, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), has been studied extensively in the past two decades, concentrating on the role of E2F1 in transcriptional regulation and the role of Rb in cell replication and cancer formation. Additionally, the effect of viral infections on E2F1/Rb interactions has been analyzed for different viruses, concentrating on cell division, which is essential for viral replication. In the present study, we monitored E2F1-Rb interactions during human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B infections of SupT1 T cells. The results have shown the following dramatic alterations in E2F1-Rb pathways compared to the pathways of parallel mock-infected control cultures. (i) The E2F1 levels were elevated during viral infections. (ii) The cellular localization of E2F1 was dramatically altered, and it was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, as opposed to the strict nuclear localization seen in the mock-infected cells. (iii) Although E2F1 expression was elevated, two exemplary target genes, cyclin E and MCM5, were not upregulated. (iv) The Rb protein was dephosphorylated early postinfection, a trait that also occurred with UV-inactivated virus. (v) Infection was associated with significant reduction of E2F1/Rb complexing. (vi) HHV-6 infections were accompanied by cell cycle arrest. The altered E2F1-Rb interactions and functions might contribute to the observed cell cycle arrest. PMID:17913805

  7. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  8. Rapid decompression in the EA-6B.

    PubMed

    Hudson, S J; Todd, J S

    1998-08-01

    A Grumman EA-6B aircraft experienced a rapid pressurization failure at 27,000 feet. All four crew members had removed their oxygen masks and were breathing cabin air pressurized to 8,000 feet before the incident. Although none of the crew members developed signs or symptoms of decompression sickness, the potential for adversity was realized by all. Altitude decompression sickness (DCS) and pulmonary overinflation syndrome (POIS) represent potentially fatal complications of rapid decompression or uncontrolled ascent in aircraft. The signs and symptoms of DCS range from mild joint pain to eventual cardiopulmonary collapse and death. The symptoms of POIS are usually more abrupt and lethal. The medical management of DCS and POIS includes (1) maintenance of airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation if necessary: (2) administration of 100% oxygen; (3) descent as per Naval Aviation Training and Operating Procedures Standardization guidelines; (4) horizontal body position; (5) maintenance of fluid intake; and (6) early medical evaluation by a flight surgeon or other physician qualified in the management of DCS. Symptoms of DCS may appear up to 24 hours after decompression, and continued monitoring or grounding of exposed individuals during this time is essential. Many controllable factors may predispose to DCS/POIS, and preventive measures should be taken to ensure maximum reduction of risk.

  9. Biomedical Applications of Fermenticin HV6b Isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC10770

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Balgir, Praveen P.; Mittu, Bharti; Kumar, Balvir; Garg, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Fermenticin HV6b is a class IIa antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC 10770 isolated from human vaginal ecosystem. It shows growth inhibition of a wide range of opportunistic pathogens of humans, for example, Bacteroides, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Staphylococci, and Streptococci, associated with bacterial vaginosis in humans. It does possess an impressive sperm immobilization and spermicidal activity tested against human sperms which makes it an attractive proposition for formulating antibacterial vaginosis and contraceptive products. Apart from this, in vitro studies conducted against four different tissue models have indicated its potential to be used as a component of anticancerous drug therapy as it is reported to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. This information could be integrated in future studies focusing on in vivo assessment of anticancerous activity of lactic acid bacterial toxins or bacteriocins. PMID:23984320

  10. 29 CFR 1905.10 - Variances and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard or portion thereof from which the applicant seeks a variance; (4) A representation by the applicant, supported by representations from qualified persons having first-hand knowledge of the...

  11. PROCEEDINGS: 1993 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 3. SESSIONS 5B, 6A, AND 6B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents more than 100 presentations at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium in Boston, MA, August 24-27, 1993. The presentations covered a wide range of topics: industry's strategies for dealing with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, including Phase I strategies, the emiss...

  12. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  13. Novel mutations in PDE6B causing human retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lu-Lu; Han, Ru-Yi; Yang, Fa-Yu; Yu, Xin-Ping; Xu, Jin-Ling; Min, Qing-Jie; Tian, Jie; Ge, Xiang-Lian; Zheng, Si-Si; Lin, Ye-Wen; Zheng, Yi-Han; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify the genetic defects of a Chinese patient with sporadic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS Ophthalmologic examinations were performed on the sporadic RP patient, 144 genes associated with retinal diseases were scanned with capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) approach. Two heterozygous mutations in PDE6B were confirmed in the pedigree by Sanger sequencing subsequently. The carrier frequency of PDE6B mutations of reported PDE6B mutations based on the available two public exome databases (1000 Genomes Project and ESP6500 Genomes Project) and one in-house exome database was investigated. RESULTS We identified compound heterozygosity of two novel nonsense mutations c.1133G>A (p.W378X) and c.2395C>T (p.R799X) in PDE6B, one reported causative gene for RP. Neither of the two mutations in our study was presented in three exome databases. Two mutations (p.R74C and p.T604I) in PDE6B have relatively high frequencies in the ESP6500 and in-house databases, respectively, while no common dominant mutation in each of the database or across all databases. CONCLUSION We demonstrates that compound heterozygosity of two novel nonsense mutations in PDE6B could lead to RP. These results collectively point to enormous potential of next-generation sequencing in determining the genetic etiology of RP and how various mutations in PDE6B contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of RP. PMID:27588261

  14. Multiple splice isoforms of proteolipid M6B in neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Dimou, L; Klugmann, M; Pfeiffer, S; Nave, K A

    2001-12-01

    Proteolipids are abundant integral membrane proteins, initially described as structural proteins of CNS myelin. More recently, two neuronal proteins related to proteolipid protein (PLP), termed M6A and M6B, were identified, suggesting a common function of proteolipids in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We have analyzed the X-linked M6B gene and discovered an unexpected complexity of protein isoforms. Two promoters and alternative exons yield at least eight M6B proteins and polypeptides, differentially expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Six isoforms are tetraspan membrane proteins that differ by highly conserved amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, termed alpha, beta, psi, and omega. In MDCK cells, the beta-domain of M6B stabilizes tetraspan proteolipids at the cell surface, whereas non-beta isoforms are more abundant in intracellular compartments. Cotransfection experiments suggest a physical interaction of M6B and mutant PLP, when retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, that may also contribute to oligodendrocyte dysfunction in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. PMID:11749036

  15. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Determinants of Human CD134 Essential for Entry of Human Herpesvirus 6B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-10-01

    We identified two key amino acid residues within human CD134 (hCD134) that are required for its interaction with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and for HHV-6B entry into cells. One of the residues (K79) allows access of the HHV-6B ligand to hCD134. Murine CD134 (mCD134) functioned as an HHV-6B receptor when these two amino acid residues were replaced with homologous human residues. This study identifies both the HHV-6B receptor-ligand interaction and the species-specific determinants of hCD134 essential for HHV-6B entry. PMID:26202244

  17. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8) Public…

  18. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  19. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  20. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  1. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  2. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  3. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  4. Growth of breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Knobler, C. M.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements are reported of the growth of breath figures, the patterns that form when a vapor is condensed onto a cold surface. Water vapor was condensed on glass slides and the pattern was studied by direct observation and light scattering as a function of the contact angle theta, flux F, degree of supersaturation ΔT, and time t. When theta=0°, a uniform layer forms whose thickness grows as t at constant F and ΔT. For theta=90°, droplets are formed; at constant F and T, the radius of an isolated droplet grows as t0.23, but, as a result of coalescences, the average droplet radius grows as t0.75. The droplet growth process is self-similar-coalescences simply rescale the distances and leave the basic droplet pattern unaltered.

  5. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  6. Essential role of T-cell factor/beta-catenin in regulation of Rad6B: a potential mechanism for Rad6B overexpression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Malathy P V; Tait, Larry; Gerard, Brigitte

    2006-10-01

    We have previously shown that the postreplication DNA repair gene Rad6B plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity of human breast cells. Whereas normal breast cells express low levels of Rad6B, increases in Rad6B expression occur in hyperplasia with overexpression in breast carcinomas. Here, we show that the human Rad6B gene is a transcriptional target of T-cell factor (TCF)-4/beta-catenin/p300. Rad6B promoter activity is subject to negative regulation in normal human MCF10A breast cells whereas it is constitutively active in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Derepression and activation of Rad6B promoter in MCF10A cells require coexpression of beta-catenin and p300. Using electrophoresis mobility shift assay, Western blot analysis of electrophoresis mobility shift assay, UV cross-linking, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we show that Rad6B transcriptional repression in MCF10A cells is due to paucity of transcriptionally active beta-catenin assembled on the TCF binding sequence in the Rad6B promoter rather than to a deficit/decreased affinity of TCF-4 for the TCF binding element in Rad6B promoter. Three-dimensional epithelial acini generated in vitro from MCF10A cells cotransfected with beta-catenin and p300 showed beta-catenin expression on the membrane, cytoplasm, and/or nuclei with concomitant Rad6 overexpression, whereas control acini showed beta-catenin on the membranes and negligible Rad6 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of 12 breast carcinomas showed an approximately 80% correlation between Rad6 and beta-catenin expression, and combined nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of beta-catenin and Rad6 was detected in 25% of the breast carcinomas. In vivo implantation of MCF10A-Rad6B cells produced hyperplastic lesions. These data reveal a potentially important role for transcriptionally active beta-catenin in the regulation of Rad6B gene expression, and link aberrant beta-catenin signaling with transcriptional deregulation

  7. Morphology and physiology of excitatory neurons in layer 6b of the somatosensory rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Marx, Manuel; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, "apical"-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, "tangentially" oriented and "horizontally" oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons.

  8. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  9. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  10. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  11. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pantoea sp. OXWO6B1

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea sp. strain OXWO6B1 inhibits the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the 5.2-Mbp genome sequence of this strain, which featured at least 3 confirmed plasmids of up to 250 kbp. The genome sequence of OXWO6B1 is different from that of all previously sequenced strains of Pantoea. PMID:27340064

  12. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts & Figures 2014 This annual report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in ... and treatment. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and ...

  13. Rad6B is a positive regulator of beta-catenin stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Malathy P V; Gerard, Brigitte; Pauley, Robert J; Williams, Bart O; Tait, Larry

    2008-03-15

    Mutations in beta-catenin or other Wnt pathway components that cause beta-catenin accumulation occur rarely in breast cancer. However, there is some evidence of beta-catenin protein accumulation in a subset of breast tumors. We have recently shown that Rad6B, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, is a transcriptional target of beta-catenin/TCF. Here, we show that forced Rad6B overexpression in MCF10A breast cells induces beta-catenin accumulation, which despite being ubiquitinated is stable and transcriptionally active. A similar relationship between Rad6B, beta-catenin ubiquitination, and transcriptional activity was found in WS-15 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 mammary tumor-derived cells, implicating Rad6B in physiologic regulation of beta-catenin stability and activity. Ubiquitinated beta-catenin was detectable in chromatin immunoprecipitations performed with beta-catenin antibody in MDA-MB-231 but not MCF10A cells. Rad6B silencing caused suppression of beta-catenin monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination, and transcriptional activity. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in intracellular beta-catenin but with minimal effects on cell membrane-associated beta-catenin. Measurement of beta-catenin protein stability by cycloheximide treatment showed that Rad6B silencing specifically decreases the stability of high molecular beta-catenin with minimal effect upon the 90-kDa nascent form. In vitro ubiquitination assays confirmed that Rad6B mediates beta-catenin polyubiquitination, and ubiquitin chain extensions involve lysine 63 residues that are insensitive to 26S proteasome. These findings, combined with our previous data that Rad6B is a transcriptional target of beta-catenin, reveal a positive regulatory feedback loop between Rad6B and beta-catenin and a novel mechanism of beta-catenin stabilization/activation in breast cancer cells.

  14. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016. PMID:26892173

  15. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016.

  16. The Telomeric Repeats of Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Are Required for Efficient Virus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Wallaschek, Nina; Sanyal, Anirban; Pirzer, Fabian; Gravel, Annie; Mori, Yasuko; Flamand, Louis; Kaufer, Benedikt B.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are ubiquitous betaherpesviruses that infects humans within the first years of life and establishes latency in various cell types. Both viruses can integrate their genomes into telomeres of host chromosomes in latently infected cells. The molecular mechanism of viral integration remains elusive. Intriguingly, HHV-6A, HHV-6B and several other herpesviruses harbor arrays of telomeric repeats (TMR) identical to human telomere sequences at the ends of their genomes. The HHV-6A and HHV-6B genomes harbor two TMR arrays, the perfect TMR (pTMR) and the imperfect TMR (impTMR). To determine if the TMR are involved in virus integration, we deleted both pTMR and impTMR in the HHV-6A genome. Upon reconstitution, the TMR mutant virus replicated comparable to wild type (wt) virus, indicating that the TMR are not essential for HHV-6A replication. To assess the integration properties of the recombinant viruses, we established an in vitro integration system that allows assessment of integration efficiency and genome maintenance in latently infected cells. Integration of HHV-6A was severely impaired in the absence of the TMR and the virus genome was lost rapidly, suggesting that integration is crucial for the maintenance of the virus genome. Individual deletion of the pTMR and impTMR revealed that the pTMR play the major role in HHV-6A integration, whereas the impTMR only make a minor contribution, allowing us to establish a model for HHV-6A integration. Taken together, our data shows that the HHV-6A TMR are dispensable for virus replication, but are crucial for integration and maintenance of the virus genome in latently infected cells. PMID:27244446

  17. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  18. Injuries in Elite Figure Skaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Robert M.; Striowski, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to examine the number, nature, and etiology of injuries to 60 Canadian nationally ranked figure skaters over a one-year period. Twenty-eight of the respondents reported having a significant injury during the year. Forty-three percent of the injuries were overuse injuries. (MT)

  19. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  20. Haniwa Figure of a Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Tad

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses a "haniwa" figure of a horse to introduce K-3 students to Japanese ceramic sculpture. Includes student objectives and background information on the Kofun Period in Japan (250-552 A.D.). Presents instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and a photograph of the sculpture. (GEA)

  1. Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and central nervous HHV-6B reactivation: Causality or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Niehusmann, Pitt; Widman, Guido; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Greschus, Susanne; Robens, Barbara K; Grote, Alexander; Becker, Albert J

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibody-related encephalopathies represent an important differential diagnosis in adult onset epilepsy. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old patient with new-onset epilepsy and psychotic syndrome, who underwent biopsy resection for etiological classification. MRI analysis and neuropathological examination showed a T-lymphocytic dominated encephalitis with involvement of the limbic system. An indirect immunohistochemistry approach identified autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebral spinal fluid and serum, which were confirmed by affinity purification / mass spectrometry analysis. Further examinations revealed evidence of chromosomally integrated human herpes virus type 6B (HHV-6B). However, astrocytic expression of HHV-6 lytic protein was detected by double immunofluorescence analysis. The cerebral expression of HHV-6 antigen, a clinical improvement under antiviral therapy as well as an initial finding of HHV-6 IgM antibodies strongly argue for an additional active HHV-6B infection. Review of the literature reveals singular reports of patients with GAD antibody-positive limbic encephalitis and central nervous system infections with HHV-6B. Since herpes simplex virus encephalitis has been recently reported as a trigger of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, it is tempting to speculate that HHV-6B infections may trigger a non-paraneoplastic form of limbic encephalitis in a parallel cascade. PMID:27431532

  2. The estimate on lunar figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  3. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-12-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers, and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done.

  4. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-12-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers, and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done. PMID:26584768

  5. Cytochrome c{sub 6B} of Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 – Crystal structure and basic properties of novel c{sub 6}-like family representative

    SciTech Connect

    Zatwarnicki, Pawel; Barciszewski, Jakub; Krzywda, Szymon; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Kolesinski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of cytochrome c{sub 6B} from Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 was solved. • Basic biophysical properties of cytochrome c{sub 6B} were determined. • Cytochrome c{sub 6B} exhibits similar architecture to cytochrome c{sub 6}. • Organization of heme binding pocket of cytochrome c{sub 6B} differs from that of c{sub 6}. • Midpoint potential of cytochrome c{sub 6B} is significantly lower than of cytochrome c{sub 6}. - Abstract: Cytochromes c are soluble electron carriers of relatively low molecular weight, containing single heme moiety. In cyanobacteria cytochrome c{sub 6} participates in electron transfer from cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex to photosystem I. Recent phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a few families of proteins homologous to the previously mentioned. Cytochrome c{sub 6A} from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a protein responsible for disulfide bond formation in response to intracellular redox state changes and c{sub 550} is well known element of photosystem II. However, function of cytochromes marked as c{sub 6B}, c{sub 6C} and c{sub M} as well as the physiological process in which they take a part still remain unidentified. Here we present the first structural and biophysical analysis of cytochrome from the c{sub 6B} family from mesophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. WH 8102. Purified protein was crystallized and its structure was refined at 1.4 Å resolution. Overall architecture of this polypeptide resembles typical I-class cytochromes c. The main features, that distinguish described protein from cytochrome c{sub 6}, are slightly red-shifted α band of UV–Vis spectrum as well as relatively low midpoint potential (113.2 ± 2.2 mV). Although, physiological function of cytochrome c{sub 6B} has yet to be determined its properties probably exclude the participation of this protein in electron trafficking between b{sub 6}f complex and photosystem I.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of serum cytokines/chemokines in febrile children with primary human herpes virus-6B infection.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Miwako; Morioka, Ichiro; Kawabata, Akiko; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Iwatani, Sota; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Ishida, Akihito; Iijima, Kazumoto; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-09-01

    Cytokines and chemokines induced by primary human herpes virus (HHV)-6B infection may play a critical role in the clinical manifestations of infection. In this study, we analyzed 40 cytokines/chemokines in febrile children with primary HHV-6B infection. Blood samples from 233 febrile and 36 afebrile patients 0-3 years of age were used for this study. In febrile patients, primary HHV-6B infection was determined by detection of HHV-6B DNA without anti-HHV-6 immunoglobulin G in the blood (HHV-6B group). Infection by other pathogens was assumed when HHV-6B DNA was not detected in the blood (non-HHV-6B group). Of the 233 febrile patients, 30 patients (13%) were diagnosed with primary HHV-6B infection. To analyze serum cytokines/chemokines, patients were randomly chosen from the HHV-6B (n = 25) and non-HHV-6B groups (n = 8). Sera from 25 afebrile patients were used as a control. When comparing the levels of 40 cytokines/chemokines between the HHV-6B and control groups, we found that four chemokines (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand [CXCL] 11, CXCL10, CXCL16, and chemokine [C-C motif] ligand [CCL] 2) were significantly upregulated in the HHV-6B group compared with those in the control. Of these, only CXCL11 levels were significantly higher in the HHV-6B group than in the non-HHV-6B group. Because the induction of CCL2 was already reported in an early study, we found, for the first time, the induction of three new chemokines, i.e., CXCL11, CXCL10, and CXCL16 in patients with primary HHV-6B infection. Importantly, we demonstrated that serum CXCL11 levels increased specifically in patients with HHV-6B infection. PMID:27346377

  7. Further delineation of the KAT6B molecular and phenotypic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Tamsin; Perveen, Rahat; Schlecht, Hélene; Ramsden, Simon; Anderson, Beverley; Kerr, Bronwyn; Day, Ruth; Banka, Siddharth; Suri, Mohnish; Berland, Siren; Gabbett, Michael; Ma, Alan; Lyonnet, Stan; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Yilmaz, Rüstem; Borck, Guntram; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Smithson, Sarah; Vogt, Julie; Moore-Barton, Heather; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Ozlem; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Bucher, Jessica; Angle, Brad; Mohammed, Shehla; Wakeling, Emma; Price, Sue; Singer, Amihood; Sznajer, Yves; Toutain, Annick; Haye, Damien; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Fradin, Melanie; McGaughran, Julie; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Tein, Mark; Bouman, Katelijne; Dabir, Tabib; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Luk, Ho Ming; Pilz, Daniela T; Eason, Jacqueline; Davies, Sally; Reardon, Willie; Garavelli, Livia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Devriendt, Koen; Armstrong, Ruth; Johnson, Diana; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Bijlsma, Emilia; Unger, Sheila; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Lo, Ivan F M; Smith, Janine; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2015-09-01

    KAT6B sequence variants have been identified previously in both patients with the Say-Barber-Biesecker type of blepharophimosis mental retardation syndromes (SBBS) and in the more severe genitopatellar syndrome (GPS). We report on the findings in a previously unreported group of 57 individuals with suggestive features of SBBS or GPS. Likely causative variants have been identified in 34/57 patients and were commonly located in the terminal exons of KAT6B. Of those where parental samples could be tested, all occurred de novo. Thirty out of thirty-four had truncating variants, one had a missense variant and the remaining three had the same synonymous change predicted to affect splicing. Variants in GPS tended to occur more proximally to those in SBBS patients, and genotype/phenotype analysis demonstrated significant clinical overlap between SBBS and GPS. The de novo synonymous change seen in three patients with features of SBBS occurred more proximally in exon 16. Statistical analysis of clinical features demonstrated that KAT6B variant-positive patients were more likely to display hypotonia, feeding difficulties, long thumbs/great toes and dental, thyroid and patella abnormalities than KAT6B variant-negative patients. The few reported patients with KAT6B haploinsufficiency had a much milder phenotype, though with some features overlapping those of SBBS. We report the findings in a previously unreported patient with a deletion of the KAT6B gene to further delineate the haploinsufficiency phenotype. The molecular mechanisms giving rise to the SBBS and GPS phenotypes are discussed.

  8. Indolizino[5,6-b]quinoxaline Derivatives: Intramolecular Charge Transfer Characters and NIR Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Hironobu; Aotake, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Shinya; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Aratani, Naoki; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Yamada, Hiroko

    2015-11-01

    Indolizino[5,6-b]quinoxaline derivatives (1 a and 1 b) with a push-pull structure were prepared to show intramolecular charge-transfer properties. Compounds 1 a and 1 b are strongly fluorescent in aprotic solvents while symmetrical derivatives (2 a and 2 b) were non-fluorescent. The π-expanded α-α linked dimer (10) of indolizino[5,6-b]quinoxaline 1 b was serendipitously obtained to show NIR absorption over 800 nm and the fluorescence edge reached to 1400 nm.

  9. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  10. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, SIXROOM RESIDENCE TYPE 6B. ELEVATIONS, PLAN, SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, SIX-ROOM RESIDENCE TYPE 6B. ELEVATIONS, PLAN, SECTION, DETAILS. Drawing 50-308-4546, dated July 8, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 2 (House), 30611 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Crystal Structure of Human Herpesvirus 6B Tegument Protein U14

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Mahmoud, Nora F.; Khanlari, Zahra; Hamada, Daizo; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The tegument protein U14 of human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) constitutes the viral virion structure and is essential for viral growth. To define the characteristics and functions of U14, we determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HHV-6B U14 (U14-NTD) at 1.85 Å resolution. U14-NTD forms an elongated helix-rich fold with a protruding β hairpin. U14-NTD exists as a dimer exhibiting broad electrostatic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds. This is first report of the crystal structure and dimerization of HHV-6B U14. The surface of the U14-NTD dimer reveals multiple clusters of negatively- and positively-charged residues that coincide with potential functional sites of U14. Three successive residues, L424, E425 and V426, which relate to viral growth, reside on the β hairpin close to the dimer's two-fold axis. The hydrophobic side-chains of L424 and V426 that constitute a part of a hydrophobic patch are solvent-exposed, indicating the possibility that the β hairpin region is a key functional site of HHV-6 U14. Structure-based sequence comparison suggests that U14-NTD corresponds to the core fold conserved among U14 homologs, human herpesvirus 7 U14, and human cytomegalovirus UL25 and UL35, although dimerization appears to be a specific feature of the U14 group. PMID:27152739

  12. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  13. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

  14. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  15. Reprogramming of plant cells induced by 6b oncoproteins from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaki; Machida, Yasunori

    2015-05-01

    Reprogramming of plant cells is an event characterized by dedifferentiation, reacquisition of totipotency, and enhanced cell proliferation, and is typically observed during formation of the callus, which is dependent on plant hormones. The callus-like cell mass, called a crown gall tumor, is induced at the sites of infection by Agrobacterium species through the expression of hormone-synthesizing genes encoded in the T-DNA region, which probably involves a similar reprogramming process. One of the T-DNA genes, 6b, can also by itself induce reprogramming of differentiated cells to generate tumors and is therefore recognized as an oncogene acting in plant cells. The 6b genes belong to a group of Agrobacterium T-DNA genes, which include rolB, rolC, and orf13. These genes encode proteins with weakly conserved sequences and may be derived from a common evolutionary origin. Most of these members can modify plant growth and morphogenesis in various ways, in most cases without affecting the levels of plant hormones. Recent studies have suggested that the molecular function of 6b might be to modify the patterns of transcription in the host nuclei, particularly by directly targeting the host transcription factors or by changing the epigenetic status of the host chromatin through intrinsic histone chaperone activity. In light of the recent findings on zygotic resetting of nucleosomal histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana, one attractive idea is that acquisition of totipotency might be facilitated by global changes of epigenetic status, which might be induced by replacement of histone variants in the zygote after fertilization and in differentiated cells upon stimulation by plant hormones as well as by expression of the 6b gene. PMID:25694001

  16. Intensity of the hydrogen peroxide v6/b/ band around 1266 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Goorvitch, D.; Boese, R. W.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the V6(b) band of H2O2 at 1266/cm have been obtained at a resolution of 0.06/cm and at temperatures ranging from 278 to 294 K. A total band intensity of 375 + or - 17 per sq cm per amagat is determined from the spectra. Special techniques to handle the H2O2 samples in a way that minimizes abundance determination errors are discussed.

  17. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  18. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    SciTech Connect

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Sing, David K.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  19. Mutations in the PDE6B gene in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Danciger, M.; Blaney, J.; Gao, Y.Q.; Zhao, D.Y.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied 24 small families with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance of retinitis pigmentosa by a combination of haplotype analysis and exon screening. Initial analysis of the families was made with a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism adjacent to the gene for rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE6B). This was followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single-strand conformation polymorphism electrophoresis (SSCPE) of the 22 exons and a portion of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the PDE6B gene in the probands of each family in which the PDE6B locus could not be ruled out from segregating with disease. Two probands were found with compound heterozygous mutations: Gly576Asp and His620(1-bp del) mutations were present in one proband, and a Lys706X null mutation and an AG to AT splice acceptor site mutation in intron 2 were present in the other. Only the affecteds of each of the two families carried both corresponding mutations. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  4. 4-Hydroxy-4,6a,6b,9,9,12a,14b-heptamethylperhydropicen-3-one hemihydrate isolated from Adiantum incisum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Altaf; Siddiqui, Hamid Latif; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Elsegood, Mark R. J.; M. Khan, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C29H48O2·0.5H2O, is a triterpenoid isolated from the stems and rhizomes of Adiantum incisum. The basic skeleton of the mol­ecule contains five six-membered rings, all adopting chair conformations, bearing a total of seven methyl, one hydroxyl and a keto group. There are two mol­ecules of the triterpene and one water molecule of crystallization in the asymmetric unit. The two unique triterpenoid mol­ecules hydrogen-bond directly via an O—H⋯O=C inter­action, and are also bridged by the water mol­ecule. The water also bridges to another pair of hydrogen-bonded triterpenoid mol­ecules. PMID:21200829

  5. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  6. Brainhood, anthropological figure of modernity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    If personhood is the quality or condition of being an individual person, "brainhood" could name the quality or condition of being a brain. This ontological quality would define the "cerebral subject" that has, at least in industrialized and highly medicalized societies, gained numerous social inscriptions since the mid-20th century. This article explores the historical development of brainhood. It suggests that the brain is necessarily the location of the "modern self," and that, consequently, the cerebral subject is the anthropological figure inherent to modernity (at least insofar as modernity gives supreme value to the individual as autonomous agent of choice and initiative). It further argues that the ideology of brainhood impelled neuroscientific investigation much more than it resulted from it, and sketches how an expanding constellation of neurocultural discourses and practices embodies and sustains that ideology.

  7. Cytochrome c(6B) of Synechococcus sp. WH 8102--crystal structure and basic properties of novel c(6)-like family representative.

    PubMed

    Zatwarnicki, Pawel; Barciszewski, Jakub; Krzywda, Szymon; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Kolesinski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2014-01-24

    Cytochromes c are soluble electron carriers of relatively low molecular weight, containing single heme moiety. In cyanobacteria cytochrome c6 participates in electron transfer from cytochrome b6f complex to photosystem I. Recent phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a few families of proteins homologous to the previously mentioned. Cytochrome c6A from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a protein responsible for disulfide bond formation in response to intracellular redox state changes and c550 is well known element of photosystem II. However, function of cytochromes marked as c6B, c6C and cM as well as the physiological process in which they take a part still remain unidentified. Here we present the first structural and biophysical analysis of cytochrome from the c6B family from mesophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. WH 8102. Purified protein was crystallized and its structure was refined at 1.4 Å resolution. Overall architecture of this polypeptide resembles typical I-class cytochromes c. The main features, that distinguish described protein from cytochrome c6, are slightly red-shifted α band of UV-Vis spectrum as well as relatively low midpoint potential (113.2±2.2 mV). Although, physiological function of cytochrome c6B has yet to be determined its properties probably exclude the participation of this protein in electron trafficking between b6f complex and photosystem I.

  8. The metabolites of mangrove endophytic fungus Zh6-B1 from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-Kai; Lu, Yong-Jun; Song, Xiao-Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Xi-Wei; An, Lin-Kun; Ye, Chuang-Xing; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Two new metabolites, 3R,5R-Sonnerlactone (1) and 3R,5S-Sonnerlactone (2), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Zh6-B1 obtained from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis using Cu Kalpha radiation. The absolute configuration of compound 2 was determined by NOESY analysis and comparing circular dichroism spectroscopy with compound 1. The antiproliferative activity of compound 1 and 2 against the multi-drug resistant human oral floor carcinoma cells (KV) was evaluated.

  9. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  10. The Heat Stress Factor HSFA6b Connects ABA Signaling and ABA-Mediated Heat Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress response (HSR) is a conserved mechanism developed to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) via a heat shock factor (HSF)-dependent mechanism. Signaling by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquired thermotolerance as well. Analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray databases revealed that the expression of HSFA6b, a class A HSF, extensively increased with salinity, osmotic, and cold stresses, but not heat. Here, we show that HSFA6b plays a pivotal role in the response to ABA and in thermotolerance. Salt-inducible HSFA6b expression was down-regulated in ABA-insensitive and -deficient mutants; however, exogenous ABA application restored expression in ABA-deficient, but not -insensitive plants. Thus, ABA signaling is required for proper HSFA6b expression. A transcriptional activation assay of protoplasts revealed that ABA treatment and coexpression of an ABA signaling master effector, ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN1, could activate the HSFA6b promoter. In addition, HSFA6b directly bound to the promoter of DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2A and enhanced its expression. Analysis of ABA responses in seed germination, cotyledon greening, and root growth as well as salt and drought tolerance in HSFA6b-null, overexpression, and dominant negative mutants revealed that HSFA6b is a positive regulator participating in ABA-mediated salt and drought resistance. Thermoprotection tests showed that HSFA6b was required for thermotolerance acquisition. Our study reveals a network in which HSFA6b operates as a downstream regulator of the ABA-mediated stress response and is required for heat stress resistance. This new ABA-signaling pathway is integrated into the complex HSR network in planta. PMID:27493213

  11. HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: haze in the atmosphere of WASP-6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, N.; Sing, D. K.; Burrows, A. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Henry, G. W.; Pont, F.; Ballester, G. E.; Aigrain, S.; Wilson, P. A.; Huitson, C. M.; Gibson, N. P.; Désert, J.-M.; Etangs, A. Lecavelier des; Showman, A. P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Wakeford, H. R.; Zahnle, K.

    2015-02-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope optical to near-infrared transmission spectroscopy of the hot-Jupiter WASP-6b, measured with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Spitzer's InfraRed Array Camera. The resulting spectrum covers the range 0.29-4.5 μm. We find evidence for modest stellar activity of WASP-6 and take it into account in the transmission spectrum. The overall main characteristic of the spectrum is an increasing radius as a function of decreasing wavelength corresponding to a change of Δ (Rp / R*) = 0.0071 from 0.33 to 4.5 μm. The spectrum suggests an effective extinction cross-section with a power law of index consistent with Rayleigh scattering, with temperatures of 973 ± 144 K at the planetary terminator. We compare the transmission spectrum with hot-Jupiter atmospheric models including condensate-free and aerosol-dominated models incorporating Mie theory. While none of the clear-atmosphere models is found to be in good agreement with the data, we find that the complete spectrum can be described by models that include significant opacity from aerosols including Fe-poor Mg2SiO4, MgSiO3, KCl and Na2S dust condensates. WASP-6b is the second planet after HD 189733b which has equilibrium temperatures near ˜1200 K and shows prominent atmospheric scattering in the optical.

  12. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing and CRISPR RNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Hagen; Lange, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Randau, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic antiviral defense systems CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) employs short crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to target invading viral nucleic acids. A short spacer sequence of these crRNAs can be derived from a viral genome and recognizes a reoccurring attack of a virus via base complementarity. We analyzed the effect of spacer sequences on the maturation of crRNAs of the subtype I-B Methanococcus maripaludis C5 CRISPR cluster. The responsible endonuclease, termed Cas6b, bound non-hydrolyzable repeat RNA as a dimer and mature crRNA as a monomer. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing of individual spacer-repeat-spacer RNA substrates and crRNA stability revealed the potential influence of spacer sequence and length on these parameters. Correlation of these observations with the variable abundance of crRNAs visualized by deep-sequencing analyses is discussed. Finally, insertion of spacer and repeat sequences with archaeal poly-T termination signals is suggested to be prevented in archaeal CRISPR/Cas systems. PMID:23392318

  13. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  14. The dependency of tunnel magnetoresistance ratio on nanoscale thicknesses of Co2Fe6B2 free and pinned layers for Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Su; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Lee, Du-Yeong; Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-04-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of a cobalt-iron-boron (CoFeB)-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve is extremely sensitive to both nanoscale Co2Fe6B2 free- and pinned-layer thicknesses. The TMR ratio peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness of 1.05 nm, while it peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness of 1.59 nm, achieving 104%. The amount of tantalum diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier (originated from a tantalum seed) decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness, while the amount of palladium diffused from a [Co/Pd]n SyAF layer decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness, determining the crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier and the TMR ratio. In addition, the TMR ratio tended to decrease when the Co2Fe6B2 free layer and the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer switched characteristics from interface-perpendicular anisotropic to in-plane anisotropic.

  15. The dependency of tunnel magnetoresistance ratio on nanoscale thicknesses of Co2Fe6B2 free and pinned layers for Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junctions.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min-Su; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Lee, Du-Yeong; Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-05-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of a cobalt-iron-boron (CoFeB)-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve is extremely sensitive to both nanoscale Co2Fe6B2 free- and pinned-layer thicknesses. The TMR ratio peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness of 1.05 nm, while it peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness of 1.59 nm, achieving 104%. The amount of tantalum diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier (originated from a tantalum seed) decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness, while the amount of palladium diffused from a [Co/Pd]n SyAF layer decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness, determining the crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier and the TMR ratio. In addition, the TMR ratio tended to decrease when the Co2Fe6B2 free layer and the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer switched characteristics from interface-perpendicular anisotropic to in-plane anisotropic. PMID:25874844

  16. Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporters inhibitor, attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Yan, Lingdi; Yong, Zheng; Dong, Zhaoqi; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-02-15

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that glutamatergic system plays an important role in drug addiction. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviors in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to METH by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg METH once daily for 7 days and then challenged with 1mg/kg METH in 14th day. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (7.5μg) 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effects on METH -induced behavioral sensitization. Our results showed that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B 2.5h prior to METH either during the development period or before methamphetamine challenge in mice, while CSB6B itself had no effect on locomotor activity. Meanwhile, pretreatment of CSB6B also attenuated hyperactivity caused by a single injection of METH in mice. These results demonstrated that CSB6B, a VGLUTs inhibitor, attenuated acute METH-induced hyperactivity and chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization, which indicated that VGLUTs were involved in the effect of chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization and may be a new target against the addiction of METH.

  17. CO2 permeation through poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)-nanosilica membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovineh, Shirin Gh.; Asghari, Morteza; Khanbabaei, Ghader

    2014-11-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA) and silica utilizing aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursor was prepared via sol-gel process and was compared with neat PEBA. The nanodispersed inorganic network produced in the organic matrix was structurally characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) that revealed the existence of different chemical groups corresponding to the silica precursors. The single gas permeability was carried out for neat PEBA and PEBA-nano silica (10 wt.% precursor) membranes. CO2 permeability for the neat polymer membrane was higher than the nano-composite membrane and increased with pressure. Adding 10 wt.% of nanosilica filler into the polymeric matrix caused CO2 permeability to decrease.

  18. Magnetic properties of double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni or Co) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yuanbing; Parsons, Jason; McCloy, John S.

    2013-03-31

    Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally friendly, scalable molten-salt reaction at 700 °C in air. Their structural and morphological properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated using dc magnetic M-T and M-H, and ac magnetic susceptibility versus frequency, temperature, and field. The magnetization curve shows a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC ~275 and 220 K for La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) nanoparticles, respectively. ac susceptibility revealed that the LCMO had a single magnetic transition indicative of Co2+-O2--Mn4+ ordering, whereas the LNMO showed more complex magnetic behavior suggesting a re-entrant spin glass.

  19. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  20. KEPLER-6b: A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER ORBITING A METAL-RICH STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Edward W.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2010-04-20

    We announce the discovery of Kepler-6b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a star with unusually high metallicity, [Fe/H]= +0.34{+-}0.04. The planet's mass is about 2/3 that of Jupiter, M {sub P} = 0.67 M {sub J}, and the radius is 30% larger than that of Jupiter, R {sub P} = 1.32 R {sub J}, resulting in a density of {rho}{sub P} = 0.35 g cm{sup -3}, a fairly typical value for such a planet. The orbital period is P = 3.235 days. The host star is both more massive than the Sun, M {sub *} = 1.21 M {sub sun}, and larger than the Sun, R {sub *} = 1.39 R {sub sun}.

  1. 46 CFR 69.123 - Figures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures. 69.123 Section 69.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.123 Figures. EC01FE91.042 EC01FE91.043 EC01FE91.044...

  2. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  3. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  4. Teaching Significant Figures Using a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guymon, E. Park; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an instructional strategy based on the learning cycle for teaching the use of significant figures. Provides explanations of teaching activities for each phase of the learning cycle (exploration, invention, application). Compares this approach to teaching significant figures with the traditional textbook approach. (TW)

  5. Aero-space plane figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The design environment of the aerospace plane is variable rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. To achieve a viable design necessitates addressing three principal elements: knowledge of the 'figures of merit' and their relationships, the synthesis procedure, and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. This paper focuses on the 'figures of merit' that create the design of an aerospace plane.

  6. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  7. Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  8. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  9. Plasma surface figuring of large optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, R.; Castelli, M.; Morantz, P.; Shore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Fast figuring of large optical components is well known as a highly challenging manufacturing issue. Different manufacturing technologies including: magnetorheological finishing, loose abrasive polishing, ion beam figuring are presently employed. Yet, these technologies are slow and lead to expensive optics. This explains why plasma-based processes operating at atmospheric pressure have been researched as a cost effective means for figure correction of metre scale optical surfaces. In this paper, fast figure correction of a large optical surface is reported using the Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) process. Achievements are shown following the scaling-up of the RAP figuring process to a 400 mm diameter area of a substrate made of Corning ULE®. The pre-processing spherical surface is characterized by a 3 metres radius of curvature, 2.3 μm PVr (373nm RMS), and 1.2 nm Sq nanometre roughness. The nanometre scale correction figuring system used for this research work is named the HELIOS 1200, and it is equipped with a unique plasma torch which is driven by a dedicated tool path algorithm. Topography map measurements were carried out using a vertical work station instrumented by a Zygo DynaFiz interferometer. Figuring results, together with the processing times, convergence levels and number of iterations, are reported. The results illustrate the significant potential and advantage of plasma processing for figuring correction of large silicon based optical components.

  10. Ambiguous figures: living versus nonliving objects.

    PubMed

    Verstijnen, Ilse M; Wagemans, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Eleven series of figures were studied, each series ranging from one extreme interpretation via five ambiguous intermediates to a second extreme interpretation. Triplets consisting of an ambiguous exemplar in the middle flanked on the left and right by its two extreme interpretations were presented to large groups of subjects. The initial aim was to establish the levels of perceptual ambiguity of each exemplar in a series, and normative data on the ambiguous figures are provided for future reference and use. However, several biases were encountered and these were examined in more detail. In experiment 1 the subject's task was to compare the middle figure with the flankers and draw an arrow from the middle figure towards the flanking extreme they judged the most similar. Here, an overall preference for the left extreme was found. Therefore the instructions were reversed in experiment 2; flankers had to be compared with the middle figure. The preference for the left extreme remained for figures of living objects, but for nonliving objects the preference switched to the right extreme. To do away with any effect of the arrows, in experiment 3 subjects were divided into two groups each receiving different instructions and were asked to circle one of the extremes. However, the pattern of biases remained the same. The bias found with figures of living objects may be explained on the basis of top-down processes. For nonliving figures, an hypothesis based on bottom-up processes like neural fatigue was considered but rejected. PMID:15250659

  11. Na 6B 13O 22.5, a new noncentrosymmetric sodium borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penin, N.; Touboul, M.; Nowogrocki, G.

    2005-03-01

    Na 6B 13O 22.5 (B/Na=2.17) single crystals were obtained by heating, melting and appropriately cooling borax, Na 2[B 4O 5(OH) 4]·8H 2O. Its formula has been determined by the resolution of the structure from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic Iba2 space group, with the following unit cell parameters: a=33.359(11) Å, b=9.554(3) Å, c=10.644(4) Å; V=3392.4(19) Å 3; Z=8. The crystal structure was solved from 3226 reflections until R1=0.0385. It exhibits a three-dimensional framework built up from BO 3 triangles (Δ) and BO 4 tetrahedra (T). Two kinds of borate groups can be considered forming two different double B 3O 3 rings: two B 4O 9 (linkage by two boron atoms) and one B 5O 11 (linkage by one boron atom); the shorthand notation of the new fundamental building block (FBB) existing in this compound is: 13: ∞3 [(5: 3Δ+2T)+2(4: 2Δ+2T)]. The discovery of this new borate questions the real number of Na 2B 4O 7 varieties. The existence of Na 6B 13O 22.5 (B/Na=2.17) and of another recently discovered borate, Na 3B 7O 12 (B/Na=2.33; FBB 7: ∞3 [(3: 2Δ+T)+(3: Δ+2T)+(1: Δ)], with a composition close to the long-known borate α-Na 2B 4O 7 (B/Na=2; FBB 8: ∞3 [(5: 3Δ+2T)+(3: 2Δ+T)], may explain the very complex equilibria reported in the Na 2O-B 2O 3 phase diagram, especially in this range of composition.

  12. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  1. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  2. BET1L and TNRC6B associate with uterine fibroid risk among European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Michels, Kara A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroid (UFs) affect 77% of women by menopause and account for $9.4 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although UFs are heritable, genetic risk is poorly understood. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of UFs was recently performed in a Japanese population, with reported genome-wide significance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across three chromosomal regions. We tested these SNPs for association with UFs in U.S. cohorts. Women were enrolled in the Right from the Start (RFTS) cohort and the BioVU DNA repository. UF status in both cohorts was determined by pelvic imaging. We tested 65 candidate and haplotype-tagging SNPs for association with UFs presence using logistic regression in RFTS and the top three GWAS associated SNPs in BioVU. We also combined association results from both cohorts using meta-analysis. 1,086 European American (EA) cases and 1,549 controls were examined. Two SNP associations replicated (blocked early in transport 1 homolog[BET1L] rs2280543, RFTS-BioVU meta-odds ratio[OR]=0.67 95% confidence interval[CI] 0.38 to 0.96, Q=0.70, I=0, p=6.9×10-3; trinucleotide repeat containing 6B[TNRC6B] rs12484776, RFTS-BioVU meta-OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.35, Q=0.24, I=28.37, p=8.7×10-3). Meta-analyses combining evidence from RFTS, BioVU, and prior GWAS showed little heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies, with meta-p-values between 7.45×10-8 to 3.89×10-9, which were stronger than prior GWAS and supported associations observed for all previously identified loci. These data suggest common variants increase risk for UF in both EA and Japanese populations. However, further research is needed to assess the role of these genes across other racial groups. PMID:23604678

  3. BET1L and TNRC6B associate with uterine fibroid risk among European Americans.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Todd L; Michels, Kara A; Hartmann, Katherine E; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2013-08-01

    Uterine fibroid (UFs) affect 77 % of women by menopause and account for $9.4 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although UFs are heritable, genetic risk is poorly understood. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of UFs was recently performed in a Japanese population, with reported genome-wide significance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across three chromosomal regions. We tested these SNPs for association with UFs in US cohorts. Women were enrolled in the Right from the Start (RFTS) cohort and the BioVU DNA repository. UF status in both cohorts was determined by pelvic imaging. We tested 65 candidate and haplotype-tagging SNPs for association with UFs presence using logistic regression in RFTS and the top three GWAS-associated SNPs in BioVU. We also combined association results from both cohorts using meta-analysis. 1,086 European American (EA) cases and 1,549 controls were examined. Two SNP associations replicated [blocked early in transport 1 homolog (BET1L) rs2280543, RFTS-BioVU meta-odds ratio (OR) = 0.67 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.96, Q = 0.70, I = 0, p = 6.9 × 10⁻³; trinucleotide repeat containing 6B (TNRC6B) rs12484776, RFTS-BioVU meta-OR = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.07-1.35, Q = 0.24, I = 28.37, p = 8.7 × 10⁻³). Meta-analyses combining evidence from RFTS, BioVU, and prior GWAS showed little heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies, with meta-p values between 7.45 × 10⁻⁸ and 3.89 × 10⁻⁹, which were stronger than prior GWAS and supported associations observed for all previously identified loci. These data suggest common variants increase risk for UF in both EA and Japanese populations. However, further research is needed to assess the role of these genes across other racial groups.

  4. 4,4,6a,6b,11,12,14b-Heptamethyl-16-oxo-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,9,10,11,12,12a,14a,14b-octa­deca­hydro-12b,8a-(epoxy­methano)­picen-3-yl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Mohammad; Ali, Sajid; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Ahmad, Bashir; Hameed, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C32H48O4, which was extracted from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum, consists of five fused rings to which an acetate and seven methyl groups are attached. The A, D and E rings adopt chair conformations, the B ring is in a distorted chair and the C ring is in a half-chair conformation. The five-membered ring formed by the lactone group, which bridges from the A/B to the B/C ring junctions, is an approximate envelope with the C atom of the methyne group as the flap [displacement from the other four atoms = 0.753 (2) Å]. There are no identified directional inter­actions in the crystal structure. PMID:23634108

  5. Past to Present: Undergrowth with Two Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical, cultural, and artistic elements of Vincent van Gogh's oil on canvas "Undergrowth with Two Figures" of 1980. The article concludes with questions for students to consider in relation to these aspects of the painting.

  6. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  7. Development of quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of three classes of HHV-6B gene transcripts.

    PubMed

    Ihira, Masaru; Enomoto, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Nakai, Hidetaka; Sugata, Ken; Asano, Yoshizo; Tsuzuki, Motohiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Goto, Tatsunori; Miyamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of active human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) B infection is important for distinguishing between the reactivation and latent state of the virus. The aim of this present study is to develop a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for diagnosis of active viral infection. Primers and probes for in house quantitative RT-PCR methods were designed to detect the three kinetic classes of HHV-6B mRNAs (U90, U12, U100). Stored PBMCs samples collected from 10 patients with exanthem subitum (primary HHV-6B infection) and 15 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with HHV-6B reactivation were used to evaluate reliability for testing clinical samples. Excellent linearity was obtained with high correlation efficiency between the diluted RNA (1-100 ng/reaction) and C(t) value of each gene transcript. The U90 and U12 gene transcripts were detected in all of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) samples collected in acute period of primary HHV-6B infection. Only one convalescent PBMCs sample was positive for the U90 gene transcript. Additionally, the reliability of HHV-6B quantitative RT-PCRs for diagnosis of viral reactivation in hematopoietic transplant recipients was evaluated. Relative to virus culture, U90 quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the highest assay sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Thus, this method could be a rapid and lower cost alternative to virus culture, which is difficult to perform generally, for identifying active HHV-6B infection. PMID:22825817

  8. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for and against their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general "rules of thumb."

  9. Protein encoded by oncogene 6b from Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a reprogramming potential and histone chaperone-like activity.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Nanako; Kitakura, Saeko; Terakura, Shinji; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Crown gall tumors are formed mainly by actions of a group of genes in the T-DNA that is transferred from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and integrated into the nuclear DNA of host plants. These genes encode enzymes for biosynthesis of auxin and cytokinin in plant cells. Gene 6b in the T-DNA affects tumor morphology and this gene alone is able to induce small tumors on certain plant species. In addition, unorganized calli are induced from leaf disks of tobacco that are incubated on phytohormone-free media; shooty teratomas, and morphologically abnormal plants, which might be due to enhanced competence of cell division and meristematic states, are regenerated from the calli. Thus, the 6b gene appears to stimulate a reprogramming process in plants. To uncover mechanisms behind this process, various approaches including the yeast-two-hybrid system have been exploited and histone H3 was identified as one of the proteins that interact with 6b. It has been also demonstrated that 6b acts as a histone H3 chaperon in vitro and affects the expression of various genes related to cell division competence and the maintenance of meristematic states. We discuss current views on a role of 6b protein in tumorigenesis and reprogramming in plants. PMID:25389429

  10. Effects of Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal on Fast Spiking Neurons in Mouse Cortical Layer 6B

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Fast spiking (FS) GABAergic neurons are thought to be involved in the generation of high-frequency cortical rhythms during the waking state. We previously showed that cortical layer 6b (L6b) was a specific target for the wake-promoting transmitter, hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx). Here, we have investigated whether L6b FS cells were sensitive to hcrt/orx and other transmitters associated with cortical activation. Recordings were thus made from L6b FS cells in either wild-type mice or in transgenic mice in which GFP-positive GABAergic cells are parvalbumin positive. Whereas in a control condition hcrt/orx induced a strong increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous synaptic currents, in the presence of TTX, it had no effect at all on miniature synaptic currents. Hcrt/orx effect was thus presynaptic although not by an action on glutamatergic terminals but rather on neighboring cells. In contrast, noradrenaline and acetylcholine depolarized and excited these cells through a direct postsynaptic action. Neurotensin, which is colocalized in hcrt/orx neurons, also depolarized and excited these cells but the effect was indirect. Morphologically, these cells exhibited basket-like features. These results suggest that hcrt/orx, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and neurotensin could contribute to high-frequency cortical activity through an action on L6b GABAergic FS cells. PMID:27235100

  11. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  12. A 6-b 600 MS/s SAR ADC with a new switching procedure of 2-b/stage and self-locking comparators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jixuan, Xiang; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a 6-b successive approximation register (SAR) ADC at the sampling rate of 600 MHz in a 65 nm CMOS process. To pursue high speed, this design employs the idea of the 2-b/stage. Based on this, the proposed structure with a new switching procedure is presented. Compared with traditional structures, it optimizes problems cause by mismatches of DACs and saves power. In addition, this paper takes advantage of distributed comparator topology to improve the speed, while the proposed structure and self-locking technique lighten the kickback and offset caused by multiple comparators. The measurement results demonstrate that the signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) is 32.13 dB and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is 44.05 dB at 600 MS/s with 5.6 MHz input. By contrast, the SNDR/SFDR respectively drops to 28.46/39.20 dB with Nyquist input. Fabricated in a TSMC 65 nm process, the SAR ADC core occupies an area of 0.045 mm2 and consumes power of 5.01 mW on a supply voltage of 1.2 V resulting in a figure of merit of 252 fJ/conversion-step. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014101), and the National Science and Technology Program of China (No. 2012BAI13B07).

  13. On psychoanalytic figures as transference objects.

    PubMed

    Spurling, Laurence

    2003-02-01

    One of the tasks that analysts and therapists face at a certain stage in their career is how to develop a way of psychoanalytic thinking and practising of their own. To do this involves modifying or overcoming the transferences established during their training or early career. These transferences are to one's teachers or training analyst, investing them with authority and infallibility, and to received theory, which is treated as though it were dogma. The need to free oneself from such transferences has been discussed in the literature. There is, however, another kind of transference that the developing therapist also needs to resolve, which has received little attention. This is the transference made on to a key figure in the psychoanalytic tradition. Such a psychoanalytic figure will be seen as the originator of or embodiment of those theoretical ideas to which one becomes attached, and/or as standing behind one's training analyst or seminal teachers who become a representative of that figure. The value of an investigation of one's relationship to a psychoanalytic figure is that it is an excellent medium for revealing one's transference, as the figure in question is not a real person but only exists through his/her writings. The body of the paper consists of an extended example of such an analysis, that of my own transference on to the figure of Winnicott. In this example I illustrate how my evaluation of Winnicott's ideas changed from seeing them as providing answers to all my clinical questions to no longer satisfying me in some areas of my work. This change in my relationship to Winnicott's theory went hand in hand with a modification in my transference on to the figure of Winnicott, from seeing him as endowed with authority and goodness to an appreciation of him as a still sustaining figure but now with limits and flaws. In the final part of the paper several questions arising out of my analysis are posed. Can the pull of writing such an account in terms of

  14. Alcohol-induced suppression of KDM6B dysregulates the mineralization potential in dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Michael; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kim, Yiyoung; Tong, Elizabeth; Trammell, Benjamin; Liu, Yao; Shi, Songtao; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu; Kim, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic changes, such as alteration of DNA methylation patterns, have been proposed as a molecular mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on the maintenance of adult stem cells. We have performed genome-wide gene expression microarray and DNA methylome analysis to identify molecular alterations via DNA methylation changes associated with exposure of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to ethanol (EtOH). By combined analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation, we have found a significant number of genes that are potentially regulated by EtOH-induced DNA methylation. As a focused approach, we have also performed a pathway-focused RT-PCR array analysis to examine potential molecular effects of EtOH on genes involved in epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes, fibroblastic markers, and stress and toxicity pathways in DPSCs. We have identified and verified that lysine specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) was significantly dysregulated in DPSCs upon EtOH exposure. EtOH treatment during odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs suppressed the induction of KDM6B with alterations in the expression of differentiation markers. Knockdown of KDM6B resulted in a marked decrease in mineralization from implanted DPSCs in vivo. Furthermore, an ectopic expression of KDM6B in EtOH-treated DPSCs restored the expression of differentiation-related genes. Our study has demonstrated that EtOH-induced inhibition of KDM6B plays a role in the dysregulation of odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation in the DPSC model. This suggests a potential molecular mechanism for cellular insults of heavy alcohol consumption that can lead to decreased mineral deposition potentially associated with abnormalities in dental development and also osteopenia/osteoporosis, hallmark features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27286573

  15. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IX. The multi-planet system KELT-6: Detection of the planet KELT-6 c and measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for KELT-6 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasso, M.; Esposito, M.; Nascimbeni, V.; Desidera, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bieryla, A.; Malavolta, L.; Biazzo, K.; Sozzetti, A.; Covino, E.; Latham, D. W.; Gandolfi, D.; Rainer, M.; Petrovich, C.; Collins, K. A.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Smareglia, R.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Giacobbe, P.; Gomez-Jimenez, M.; Murabito, S.; Molinaro, M.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Benatti, S.; Borsa, F.; Maldonado, J.; Mancini, L.; Scandariato, G.; Southworth, J.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: For more than 1.5 years we spectroscopically monitored the star KELT-6 (BD+31 2447), which is known to host the transiting hot-Saturn KELT-6 b, because a previously observed long-term trend in radial velocity time series suggested that there is an outer companion. Methods: We collected a total of 93 new spectra with the HARPS-N and TRES spectrographs. A spectroscopic transit of KELT-6 b was observed with HARPS-N, and simultaneous photometry was obtained with the IAC-80 telescope. Results: We proved the existence of an outer planet with a mininum mass Mpsin i = 3.71 ± 0.21 MJup and a moderately eccentric orbit (e = 0.21-0.036+0.039) of period P ~ 3.5 years. We improved the orbital solution of KELT-6 b and obtained the first measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, showing that the planet has a likely circular, prograde, and slightly misaligned orbit with a projected spin-orbit angle of λ = -36 ± 11 degrees. We improved the KELT-6 b transit ephemeris from photometry and provide new measurements of the stellar parameters. KELT-6 appears as an interesting case for studying the formation and evolution of multi-planet systems. Based on observations made with (i) the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundacion Galileo Galilei (Spanish Observatory of Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC); (ii) the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast telescope, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona; (iii) the IAC-80 telescope at the Teide Observatory (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, IAC).Figure 4 and Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  17. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  18. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth.

  19. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth. PMID:25807734

  20. 78 FR 25577 - Safety Zone, Figure Eight Causeway Channel; Figure Eight Island, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Island, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Figure Eight Causeway Channel, Figure Eight Island, NC...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  2. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  3. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  4. mglur6b:EGFP Transgenic zebrafish suggest novel functions of metabotropic glutamate signaling in retina and other brain regions.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, Stella M K; Wäger, Robert; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2016-08-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells. The amacrine cells labeled in Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1 constitute a novel cholinergic, non-GABAergic, non-starburst amacrine cell type described for the first time in teleost fishes. Apart from the retina, we found transgene expression in subsets of periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, various cell types of the optic tectum, and mitral/ruffed cells of the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest novel functions of mGluR6 besides sign inversion at ON bipolar cell dendrites, opening up the possibility that inhibitory glutamatergic signaling may be more prevalent than currently thought. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2363-2378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...), 75 FR 9964 (March 4, 2010). \\10\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b) of... adjustment based on that estimate. The appendix includes the data used by the Commission in making...

  6. A recurrent synonymous KAT6B mutation causes Say-Barber-Biesecker/Young-Simpson syndrome by inducing aberrant splicing.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Rüstem; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Price, Susan; Oliveira, Renata; Kubisch, Christian; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Szakszon, Katalin; Borck, Guntram

    2015-12-01

    Mutations of the histone acetyltransferase-encoding KAT6B gene cause the Say-Barber-Biesecker/Young-Simpson (SBBYS) type of blepharophimosis-"mental retardation" syndromes and the more severe genitopatellar syndrome. The SBBYS syndrome-causing mutations are clustered in the large exon 18 of KAT6B and almost exclusively lead to predicted protein truncation. An atypical KAT6B mutation, a de novo synonymous variant located in exon 16 (c.3147G>A, p.(Pro1049Pro)) was previously identified in three unrelated patients. This exonic mutation was predicted in silico to cause protein truncation through aberrant splicing. Here, we report three additional unrelated children with typical SBBYS syndrome and the KAT6B c.3147G>A mutation. We show on RNA derived from patient blood that the mutation indeed induces aberrant splicing through the use of a cryptic exonic splice acceptor site created by the sequence variant. Our results thus identify the synonymous variant c.3147G>A as a splice site mutation and a mutational hot spot in SBBYS syndrome.

  7. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  8. Growth process of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Chengcai; Nai Xueying; Zhu Donghai; Guo Fengqin; Zhang Yongxing; Li Wu

    2013-01-15

    The reactions occurred and growth process in the preparation of copper aluminum borate (Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17}) whiskers based on flux method (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}/CuSO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as raw materials, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as flux) were investigated. The thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG-DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrum analysis (ICP-AES) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results of reactants mixture quenched at various temperatures and phase diagrams of K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} system and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system showed that the reaction process proceeds through three steps: the formation and decomposition of two different kinds of potassium aluminum sulfate (K{sub 3}Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}); the formation of aluminum borate (Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}) and decomposition of copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}); growth and formation of copper aluminum borate (Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17}) whiskers. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis results indicated that morphology in growth of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers develops through three stages: nanoparticles, fan-shaped whiskers and agminate-needlelike whiskers. - Graphical abstract: The morphology in growth of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers develops through three stages: nanoparticles, fan-shaped whiskers and agminate-needlelike whiskers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction process in the preparation of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers was researched systematically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal growth mechanism of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers was proposed by theory and experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} were analyzed by instruments, such as TG-DSC, ICP-AES, XRD and SEM.

  9. Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Marhic, Michel E

    2012-12-17

    Following a fiber optical parametric amplifier, used as a wavelength converter or in the phase-sensitive mode, by a phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA) can significantly reduce four-wave mixing between signals in broadband systems. We derive the quantum mechanical noise figures (NF) for these two hybrid configurations, and show that adding the PIA only leads to a moderate increase in NF.

  10. Data Behind the Figures in AAS Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of digital data are produced in the scientific enterprise, and much of it is carefully analyzed and processed. Often resulting from a good deal of intellectual effort, many of these highly-processed products are published in the scholarly literature. Many of these data - or more precisely, representations of these data - are committed to the scholarly record in the forms of figures and tables that appear within articles: the AAS journals publish more than 30,000 figures and nearly 10,000 tables each year. For more than a decade, the AAS journals have accepted machine-readable tables that provide the data behind (some of) the tables, and recently the journals have started to encourage the submission of the data behind figures. (See the related poster by Greg Schwarz.) During this time, the journals have been refining techniques for acquiring and managing the digital data that underlie figures and tables. In 2012 the AAS was awarded a grant by the US NSF so that the journals can extend the methods for providing access to these data objects, through a deeper collaboration with the VO and with organizations like DataCite, and by spearheading discussions about the formats and metadata that will best facilitate long-term data management and access. An important component of these activities is educating scientists about the importance and benefits of making such data sets available.

  11. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  12. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support...

  13. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  14. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  15. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  16. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  17. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  18. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  19. Precision segmented reflector figure control system architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-09-01

    This paper describes an advanced technology figure control system for a generic class of large space based segmented reflector telescopes. Major technology and design motivations for selection of sensing, actuation, and mechanism approaches result from the high precision and very low mass and power goals for the reflector system.

  20. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  1. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  2. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  3. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  4. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global level. Through participation,…

  5. T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selle, Penny

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

  6. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

  7. Facts & Figures about Education in Alaska, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This collection of tables presents selected facts and figures about education in Alaska. General and district school information about Alaska's 469 public schools in 54 districts and its 276 private and denominational schools is followed by tables of general student information, including average daily membership, enrollment, graduates, and…

  8. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  9. BCL6b mediates the enhanced magnitude of the secondary response of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Manders, Peter M.; Hunter, Patricia J.; Telaranta, Aino I.; Carr, James M.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Carrasco, Marlene; Murakami, Yusuke; Palmowski, Michael J.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Kaech, Susan M.; Ahmed, Rafi; Fearon, Douglas T.

    2005-01-01

    A characteristic of the secondary response of CD8+ T cells that distinguishes it from the primary response is the generation of greater numbers of effector cells. Because effector CD8+ T cells are derived from a pool of less differentiated, replicating cells in secondary lymphoid organs, and because IL-2 mediates effector differentiation, the enhanced secondary response may reflect the enlargement of this generative pool by the transient repression of IL-2-mediated differentiation. We have examined for this function the transcriptional repressor BCL6b, a homologue of BCL6 that represses IL-2-induced B cell differentiation. BCL6b is expressed in a small subset of antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells. Ectopic expression of BCL6b in CD8+ T cells diminishes their growth in response to IL-2 in vitro. Female mice in which the BCL6b gene has been interrupted have normal primary responses of CD8+ T cells to infection with vaccinia expressing the H-Y epitope, Uty, but Uty-specific, BCL6b–/–, memory CD8+ T cells have diminished recall proliferative responses to this epitope in vitro. BCL6b–/– mice also have normal primary CD8+ T cell responses to influenza infection, but nucleoprotein peptide-specific, BCL6b–/–, memory CD8+ T cells have a cell autonomous defect in the number of effector cells generated in response to reinfection. Therefore, BCL6b is required for the enhanced magnitude of the secondary response of memory CD8+ T cells. PMID:15833813

  10. Slow Bursting Neurons of Mouse Cortical Layer 6b Are Depolarized by Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons firing spontaneously in bursts in the absence of synaptic transmission have been previously recorded in different layers of cortical brain slices. It has been suggested that such neurons could contribute to the generation of alternating UP and DOWN states, a pattern of activity seen during slow-wave sleep. Here, we show that in layer 6b (L6b), known from our previous studies to contain neurons highly responsive to the wake-promoting transmitter hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx), there is a set of neurons, endowed with distinct intrinsic properties, which displayed a strong propensity to fire spontaneously in rhythmic bursts. In response to small depolarizing steps, they responded with a delayed firing of action potentials which, upon higher depolarizing steps, invariably inactivated and were followed by a depolarized plateau potential and a depolarizing afterpotential. These cells also displayed a strong hyperpolarization-activated rectification compatible with the presence of an Ih current. Most L6b neurons with such properties were able to fire spontaneously in bursts. Their bursting activity was of intrinsic origin as it persisted not only in presence of blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors but also in a condition of complete synaptic blockade. However, a small number of these neurons displayed a mix of intrinsic bursting and synaptically driven recurrent UP and DOWN states. Most of the bursting L6b neurons were depolarized and excited by hcrt/orx through a direct postsynaptic mechanism that led to tonic firing and eventually inactivation. Similarly, they were directly excited by noradrenaline, histamine, dopamine, and neurotensin. Finally, the intracellular injection of these cells with dye and their subsequent Neurolucida reconstruction indicated that they were spiny non-pyramidal neurons. These results lead us to suggest that the propensity for slow rhythmic bursting of this set of L6b neurons could be directly impeded by hcrt

  11. Apolipoprotein 4 may increase viral load and seizure frequency in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with positive human herpes virus 6B.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Yan, Bo; Lei, Ding; Si, Yang; Li, He; Chen, Ming-Wan; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Qiao; Zhou, Dong; Li, Jin-Mei

    2015-04-23

    This study investigated whether apolipoprotein 4 (ApoE4) was associated with the presence of human herpes virus (HHV)-6B in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine ApoE polymorphism in 46 patients with MTLE and 19 controls. Nested PCR and real-time PCR were applied to determine HHV-6B DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HHV-6B protein. Viral DNA load was significantly increased in MTLE patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 compared with those with HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.031). Semi-quantitative analysis of IHC showed significantly increased number of positive cells for HHV-6B proteins G116/64/54, P98 and U94 in patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 than HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.009, 0.035 and 0.009, respectively). Patients with HHV-6B(+)/ApoE4 showed higher seizure frequency than those with HHV-6B(+)/non-ApoE4 (p=0.005). There was no significant difference of ApoE alleles between MTLE with and without HHV-6B (p=0.115). ApoE4 was not associated with initial infection of HHV-6B in MTLE. However, ApoE4 may facilitate HHV-6B reactivation, DNA replication, virus protein expression and increase seizure frequency in MTLE. Further investigations are needed to understand the biomolecular mechanism underlying interaction between ApoE and HHV-6B.

  12. Molecular Evolution in a Multidrug-Resistant Lineage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Emergence of Strains Belonging to the Serotype 6B Icelandic Clone That Lost Antibiotic Resistance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsson, Sigurdur E.; Tomasz, Alexander; Kristinsson, Karl G.

    2000-01-01

    Since their first detection in 1988, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates have rapidly spread in Iceland to account for close to 20% of all pneumococcal disease in that country by 1993. The major component (70%) of the resistant pneumococci identified from 1989 to 1992 was the progeny of a single multidrug-resistant clone (Icelandic clone) with a homogeneous chromosomal macrorestriction profile and identical multilocus enzyme type expressing serotype 6B and resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The rest of the non-penicillin-susceptible isolates included bacteria with serotype 6A and serogroups 19 and 23. The unique geographic and epidemiological setting and the availability of a complete collection of all non-penicillin-susceptible isolates of S. pneumoniae in Iceland prompted us to carry out a molecular epidemiological study to monitor the fate of the Icelandic clone between 1989 and 1996; in addition, we wished to extend the characterization to representative groups of all non-penicillin-susceptible serotype 6B pneumococci which showed variations in antibiotype and which were recovered in Iceland between late 1989 and the end of 1996. Also included in the study were non-penicillin-susceptible isolates of serogroup 23. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-restricted chromosomal DNA and Southern hybridization with the lytA DNA probe and probes specific for antibiotic resistance genes were used to characterize pneumococcal isolates. The results show that (i) the Icelandic clone remained the predominant type among penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae through 1996; (ii) the emergence of variants of the Icelandic clone which had lost one or more of the antibiotic resistance phenotypes and/or resistant genes, singly or in combination, was documented during the surveillance period; and (iii) isolates belonging to the internationally spread multidrug-resistant serotype 23F clone were

  13. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  14. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  15. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  16. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall. William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  17. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  19. Functional cross-talk between Cdc42 and two downstream targets, Par6B and PAK4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Durgan, Joanne; Hall, Alan

    2015-04-15

    The establishment of polarity is an essential step in epithelial morphogenesis. Polarity proteins promote an apical/basal axis, which, together with the assembly of apical adherens and tight junctions, directed vesicle transport and the reorganization of the actomyosin filament network, generate a stable epithelium. The regulation of these cellular activities is complex, but the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) is known to play a key role in the establishment of polarity from yeast to humans. Two Cdc42 target proteins, the kinase PAK4 [p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4] and the scaffold partitioning defective (Par) 6B, are required to promote the assembly of apical junctions in human bronchial epithelial cells. We show in the present paper that PAK4 phosphorylates Par6B at Ser143 blocking its interaction with Cdc42. This provides a potential new mechanism for controlling the subcellular localization of Par6B and its interaction with other proteins.

  20. Paenimacrolidin, a novel macrolide antibiotic from Paenibacillus sp. F6-B70 active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Chang; Qian, Chao-Dong; Fang, Hai-Huan; Wen, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Zhan, Zha-Jun; Ding, Rui; Li, Ou; Gao, Haichun

    2011-07-01

    Paenibacillus sp. F6-B70 was selected from several dozens of isolates with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a 16S rDNA-based screening method. F6-B70 contained polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) clusters in its genome revealed by PCR amplification of conserved adenylation and ketosynthase (KS) domains. Phylogenetic data suggested that the strain hosts trans-AT PKSs and their product may be a branched molecule. An antibiotic was subsequently isolated from the methanol extract of F6-B70 cells. The molecular formula of the antibiotic was deduced to be C(33) H(50) NaO(6) ([M + Na](+) , m/z 565.3505) by analysis of electrospray ionization mass spectral data. Elucidation of the structure by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy revealed that the active compound, paenimacrolidin (PAM), was a novel 22-membered macrolide with side-chains. The new antibiotic, mainly as a bacteriostatic agent, inhibits a couple of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sp. strains. The antibiotic capacity of PAM was compromised by its instability, which can be overcome significantly with addition of an anti-oxidant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of an active macrolide from paenibacilli, which may be a promising source of novel antibiotics.

  1. A novel multiple joint dislocation syndrome associated with a homozygous nonsense variant in the EXOC6B gene.

    PubMed

    Girisha, Katta Mohan; Kortüm, Fanny; Shah, Hitesh; Alawi, Malik; Dalal, Ashwin; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    We report two brothers from a consanguineous couple with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD), multiple joint dislocations at birth, severe joint laxity, scoliosis, gracile metacarpals and metatarsals, delayed bone age and poorly ossified carpal and tarsal bones, probably representing a yet uncharacterized SEMD with laxity and dislocations. This condition has clinical overlap with autosomal dominantly inherited SEMD with joint laxity, leptodactylic type caused by recurrent missense variants in the kinesin family member 22 gene (KIF22). Single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis and whole-exome sequencing in the two affected siblings revealed a shared homozygous nonsense variant [c.906T>A/p.(Tyr302*)] in EXOC6B as the most likely cause. EXOC6B encodes a component of the exocyst complex required for tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. As transport of vesicles from the golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane occurs through kinesin motor proteins along microtubule tracks, the function of EXOC6B is linked to KIF22 suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism in skeletal dysplasias with joint laxity and dislocations. PMID:26669664

  2. Ion beam figuring of silicon aspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmler, Marcel; Zeuner, Michael; Luca, Alfonz; Dunger, Thoralf; Rost, Dirk; Kiontke, Sven; Krüger, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Silicon lenses are widely used for infrared applications. Especially for portable devices the size and weight of the optical system are very important factors. The use of aspherical silicon lenses instead of spherical silicon lenses results in a significant reduction of weight and size. The manufacture of silicon lenses is more challenging than the manufacture of standard glass lenses. Typically conventional methods like diamond turning, grinding and polishing are used. However, due to the high hardness of silicon, diamond turning is very difficult and requires a lot of experience. To achieve surfaces of a high quality a polishing step is mandatory within the manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the required surface form accuracy cannot be achieved through the use of conventional polishing methods because of the unpredictable behavior of the polishing tools, which leads to an unstable removal rate. To overcome these disadvantages a method called Ion Beam Figuring can be used to manufacture silicon lenses with high surface form accuracies. The general advantage of the Ion Beam Figuring technology is a contactless polishing process without any aging effects of the tool. Due to this an excellent stability of the removal rate without any mechanical surface damage is achieved. The related physical process - called sputtering - can be applied to any material and is therefore also applicable to materials of high hardness like Silicon (SiC, WC). The process is realized through the commercially available ion beam figuring system IonScan 3D. During the process, the substrate is moved in front of a focused broad ion beam. The local milling rate is controlled via a modulated velocity profile, which is calculated specifically for each surface topology in order to mill the material at the associated positions to the target geometry. The authors will present aspherical silicon lenses with very high surface form accuracies compared to conventionally manufactured lenses.

  3. Figures of merit for laser beam quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Walker, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown how full-width at half maximum (FWHM), full-width at 1/e(sup 2) (FW1/e(sup 2)), Strehl ratio, and encircled energy figures of merit vary with different types of aberration and measurement methods. The array sampling method and the slit-scan method are examined in detail. Our irradiance in the exit pupil of the optical system is a simple gaussian. It was found that in general the slit-scan method and the array method do not yield the same result. The width measurements for the central lobe of the diffraction pattern are very insensitive to aberration.

  4. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  5. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  6. Figures of Merit for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Frederick

    The collection and analysis of lunar samples from 1969 to present has yielded large amounts of data. Published analyses give some idea of the complex nature of the regolith at all scales, rocks, soils and the smaller particulates commonly referred to as dust. Data recently acquired in support of NASA's simulant effort has markedly increased our knowledge and quantitatively demonstrates that complexity. It is anticipated that future analyses will further add to the known complexity. In an effort to communicate among the diverse technical communities performing research on or research using regolith samples and simulants, a set of Figures of Merit (FoM) have been devised. The objective is to allow consistent and concise comparative communication between researchers from multiple organizations and nations engaged in lunar exploration. This paper describes Figures of Merit in a working draft of an international standard for Lunar Simulants. The FoM methodology uses scientific understanding of the lunar samples to formulate parameters which are reproducibly quantifiable. Advanced work at NASA has evolved this effort to the point that formal definitions, supporting mathematics and functioning code have implemented the concept for testing.

  7. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory “objects” (relatively punctate events, such as a dog's bark) and auditory “streams” (sounds involving a pattern over time, such as a galloping rhythm). In Experiments 1 and 2, on each trial two sounds -- an object (a vowel) and a stream (a series of tones) – were presented with one target feature that could be perceptually grouped with either source. In each block of these experiments, listeners were required to attend to one of the two sounds, and report its perceived category. Across several experimental manipulations, listeners were more likely to allocate the feature to an impoverished object if the result of the grouping was a good, identifiable object. Perception of objects was quite sensitive to feature variation (noise masking), whereas perception of streams was more robust to feature variation. In Experiment 3, the number of sound sources competing for the feature was increased to three. This produced a shift toward relying more on spatial cues than on the potential contribution of the feature to an object's perceptual quality. The results support a distinction between auditory objects and streams, and provide new information about the way that the auditory world is parsed. PMID:22288691

  8. Highly ionized stellar winds in Be stars. II - Winds in B6-B9.5e stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Sonneborn, George; Bjorkman, K. S.; Snow, T. P.; Shore, Steven N.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a UV survey of stellar winds and circumstellar shells in 40 B6-B9.5e stars covering luminosity classes V-III are presented. A graph is presented of the region from 1520-1560 A, which includes both the Si II UV multiplet 2 transitions and the C IV resonance transition for selected Be stars in the sample. The detection of shortward-shifted discrete component absorption features in nine of the program stars suggests that the material is produced in a stellar wind, which attains velocities of at least a few hundred km/s.

  9. Whatever Became of Significant Figures? The Trend Toward Numerical Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderlik, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problems associated with teaching uncertainties in measurements and significant figures. Appendices present an experiment on measurement that introduces uncertainty in measurement, and an exercise in significant figures. (CS)

  10. A genetic screen for mutants defective in IAA1-LUC degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals an important requirement for TOPOISOMERASE6B in auxin physiology

    PubMed Central

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Many plant growth and developmental processes are modulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin-modulated proteolysis of Aux/IAAs, a family of transcriptional repressors, represents a major mode of auxin action. Auxin facilitates the interaction of Aux/IAAs with TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, promoting their ubiquitination by the SCFTIR1/AFB ubiquitin E3 ligase leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To identify new genes regulating Aux/IAA proteolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took a genetic approach, identifying individuals with altered degradation of an IAA1-luciferase fusion protein (IAA1-LUC). A mutant with 2-fold slower IAA1-LUC degradation rate compared with wild-type was isolated. Positional cloning identified the mutant as an allele of TOPOISOMERASE6B, named top6b-7. TOP6B encodes a subunit of a plant and archea-specific enzyme regulating endoreduplication, DNA damage repair and transcription in plants. T-DNA insertion alleles (top6b-8 and top6b-9) were also analyzed. top6b-7 seedlings are less sensitive to exogenous auxin than wild-type siblings in primary root growth assays, and experiments with DR5:GUS. Additionally, top6b-7 seedlings have a 40% reduction in the amount of endogenous IAA. These data suggest that increased IAA1-LUC half-life in top6b-7 probably results from a combination of both lower endogenous IAA levels and reduced sensitivity to auxin. PMID:25482814

  11. Conserved promoter elements in the CYP6B gene family suggest common ancestry for cytochrome P450 monooxygenases mediating furanocoumarin detoxification.

    PubMed

    Hung, C F; Holzmacher, R; Connolly, E; Berenbaum, M R; Schuler, M A

    1996-10-29

    Despite the fact that Papilio glaucus and Papilio polyxenes share no single hostplant species, both species feed to varying extents on hostplants that contain furanocoumarins. P. glaucus contains two nearly identical genes, CYP6B4v2 and CYP6B5v1, and P. polyxenes contains two related genes, CYP6B1v3 and CYP6B3v2. Except for CYP6B3v2, the substrate specificity of which has not yet been defined, each of the encoded cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) metabolizes an array of linear furanocoumarins. All four genes are transcriptionally induced in larvae by exposure to the furanocoumarin xanthotoxin; several are also induced by other furanocoumarins. Comparisons of the organizational structures of these genes indicate that all have the same intron/exon arrangement. Sequences in the promoter regions of the P. glaucus CYP6B4v2/CYP6B5v1 genes and the P. polyxenes CYP6B3v2 gene are similar but not identical to the -146 to -97 region of CYP6B1v3 gene, which contains a xanthotoxin-responsive element (XRE-xan) important for basal and xanthotoxin-inducible transcription of CYP6B1v3. Complements of the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE-AhR) in the dioxin-inducible human and rat CYP1A1 genes also exist in all four promoters, suggesting that these genes may be regulated by dioxin. Antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs) in mouse and rat glutathione S-transferase genes and the Barbie box element (Bar) in the bacterial CYP102 gene exist in the CYP6B1v3, CYP6B4v2, and CYP6B5v1 promoters. Similarities in the protein sequences, intron positions, and xanthotoxin- and xenobiotic-responsive promoter elements indicate that these insect CYP6B genes are derived from a common ancestral gene. Evolutionary comparisons between these P450 genes are the first available for a group of insect genes transcriptionally regulated by hostplant allelochemicals and provide insights into the process by which insects evolve specialized feeding habits.

  12. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part 654—Figures Figure 1—Stone Crab Claw Figure 2—Southwest Florida Seasonal Trawl Closure Figure 3—Shrimp/Stone Crab Separation Zones EC03MR91.064 EC03MR91.065 EC03MR91.066...

  13. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part 654—Figures Figure 1—Stone Crab Claw Figure 2—Southwest Florida Seasonal Trawl Closure Figure 3—Shrimp/Stone Crab Separation Zones EC03MR91.064 EC03MR91.065 EC03MR91.066...

  14. Angular Figures Constrain the Perpendicular Bias in Children's Line Copying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, A.; Bruyn, B.D.; Boyles, S.

    2005-01-01

    When young children copy a vertical line that protrudes from the midpoint of a pre-drawn oblique baseline, they tend to perpendicularise this line. We measured this bias for standard figures and for symmetrical angular figures. The 5- and 6-year-old participants produced the expected bias for the standard figures. However, these same children…

  15. Poetry and the Teaching of Figurative Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    Many teachers note the importance of student ability to analyze and understand intricate uses of figurative language in reading. Research in recent years has focused on the prevalence of figures of speech in textbooks and other reading, suggesting that the fostering of figurative language skills should become a more common feature of language…

  16. New plant growth-modifying properties of the Agrobacterium T-6b oncogene revealed by the use of a dexamethasone-inducible promoter.

    PubMed

    Grémillon, Louis; Helfer, Anne; Clément, Bernadette; Otten, Léon

    2004-01-01

    Agrobacterium 6b oncogenes induce tumours on Nicotiana glauca and enations and associated modifications in transgenic N. tabacum plants. 2x35S-AB-6b tobacco rootstocks produced a graft-transmissible factor that induced enations in wild-type scions; the nature of this enation factor remains to be identified. Here, we report on the properties of tobacco plants carrying a dexamethasone-inducible T-6b gene (dex-T-6b). Induction with dex led to complex growth modifications, many of which have not been reported previously. Modifications were only found in growing tissues; mature tissues remained unaffected. Growth could be either stimulated or inhibited. Dex induction of young plants led to morphogenetic gradients that included enations, tubular leaves and fragmented leaf primordia. Root elongation was increased or slowed down, while radial root growth was strongly enhanced. Additional cell divisions were found in the root pericycle and vasculature. Enation factor import from mature tissues did not have the same effects on growing tissues as local T-6b synthesis: normal scions grafted on induced dex-T-6b rootstocks formed enations, whereas local dex-T-6b induction at the shoot apex led to numerous dark-green spots on the abaxial side of the leaves. In leaf patch assays, the 23-kDa T-6b protein was found to move through leaves and to enter the vascular system. This and the fact that rootstocks of spontaneous tobacco enation mutants did not modify wild-type scions contrary to 6b plants indicate that the 6b protein might be the enation factor. PMID:14690506

  17. Differential tropism of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) variants and induction of latency by HHV-6A in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, Jenny; Fotheringham, Julie; Akhyani, Nahid; Yao, Karen; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Jacobson, Steven

    2005-08-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous beta -herpesvirus associated with a number of clinical disorders. Two closely but biologically distinct variants have been described. HHV-6 variant B causes the common childhood disease exhanthem subitum, and although the pathologic characteristics for HHV-6 variant A are less well defined, HHV-6A has been suggested to be more neurotropic. We studied the effect of both HHV-6 variants in an oligodendrocyte cell line (MO3.13). Infection of M03.13 was monitored by cytopathic effect (CPE), quantitative TaqMan PCR for viral DNA in cells and supernatant, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect viral RNA, and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) to detect viral protein expression. HHV-6A infection induced significantly more CPE than infection with HHV-6B. HHV-6B induced an abortive infection associated with a decrease of the initial viral DNA load over time, early RNA expression, and no expression of viral antigen. In contrast, infection with HHV-6A DNA persisted in cells for at least 62 days. During the acute phase of infection with HHV-6A, intracellular and extracellular viral load increased and cells expressed the viral protein IE-2 and gp116/54/64. No HHV-6A RNA or protein was expressed after 30 days post infection, suggesting that HHV-6A formed a latent infection. These studies provide in vitro support to the hypothesis that HHV-6 can actively infect oligodendrocytes. Our results suggest that HHV-6A and HHV-6B have different tropism in MO3.13 cells and that an initially active HHV-6A infection can develop latency. Differences between HHV-6A and -6B infection in different neural cell types may be associated with different neurological diseases. PMID:16162481

  18. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and exopolysaccharides on Azotobacter chroococcum strain 6B utilizing simple and complex carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Quagliano, J C; Miyazaki, S S

    1999-12-01

    Coproduction of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) was investigated with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 6B isolated from soil samples. The bacterium was cultured using various carbon sources solely or with 0.1 g/L of ammonium sulfate. Ammonium addition resulted in reduced PHB and EPS production with glucose, fructose, and sucrose media, but cellular mass remained constant except for sucrose. Protein was nearly twofold higher in ammonium-grown cultures. Glucose and fructose alone biosynthesized high amounts of EPS (maximum 2.1 and 1.1 g/L, respectively, at 72 h), whereas PHB was accumulated only in glucose-grown cells. Sucrose almost did not produce EPS. Conversely, PHB content was the highest obtained from all experimented conditions (1.1 g/L at 48 h, 40% cell dry wt). When a complex carbon source such as sugar cane molasses was utilized, PHB was accumulated concomitant with EPS production from the initial time to 48 h (0.75 g/L, 37% cell dry wt and 0.6 g/L, respectively), and then PHB decayed at 72 h (0.2 g/L). On the other hand, EPS continued to be biosynthesized (1.1 g/L, 72 h). PHB fractions of total intra- and extracellular biopolymers were calculated. Sucrose-modified Burk's medium without ammonium addition is suggested as a medium capable of diverting the carbon source for the production of intracellular PHB rather than EPS with A. chroococcum 6B.

  19. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  20. Internal Structure and Figures of Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposal is to obtain very important information on the internal structure of a number of asteroids, and insight on the gravitational reaccumulation-process after a catastrophic disruptive collision. High resolutions observations with the HST/FGS interferometer are proposed to obtain high precision data for the topographic shape and size of a number of selected asteroids. Here we focus on objects with satellites, hence with known masses, so that the bulk density and porosity will be derived in the most accurate manner. This will yield plausible estimates on the internal properties of the objects, test wether they are close or not to figures of equilibrium {in terms of shape and adimensional rotational frequency}, and provide estimates of their relative density. The HST/FGS in interferometric mode is an ideal facility to carry out this program.

  1. Literal and figurative interpretations are computed in equal time.

    PubMed

    McElree, B; Nordlie, J

    1999-09-01

    The time courses for constructing literal and figurative interpretations of simple propositions were measured with the response signal, speed-accuracy tradeoff procedure. No differences were found in comprehension speed for literal and figurative strings in a task that required judging whether a string of words was meaningful. Likewise, no differences were found in processing speed for nonsense and figurative strings in a task that required judging whether a string of words was literally true. Figurative strings were less likely to be judged meaningful than were literal strings and less likely to be rejected as literally true than were nonsense strings. The absence of time-course differences is inconsistent with approaches to figurative processing that contend that a figurative interpretation is computed after an anomalous literal interpretation. The time-course profiles suggest that literal and figurative interpretations are computed in equal time but that the meaning of the latter is less constrained than that of the former. PMID:12198788

  2. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  3. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  4. Tetraspanin18 is a FoxD3-responsive antagonist of cranial neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that maintains cadherin-6B protein

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Corinne L.; Gammill, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary During epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tightly associated, polarized epithelial cells become individual mesenchymal cells capable of migrating. Here, we investigate the role of the transmembrane protein tetraspanin18 (Tspan18) in chick cranial neural crest EMT. Tspan18 mRNA is expressed in premigratory cranial neural crest cells, but is absent from actively migrating neural crest cells. Tspan18 knockdown leads to a concomitant loss of cadherin-6B (Cad6B) protein, whereas Cad6B protein persists when Tspan18 expression is extended. The temporal profile of Cad6B mRNA downregulation is unaffected in these embryos, which indicates that Tspan18 maintains Cad6B protein levels and reveals that Cad6B is regulated by post-translational mechanisms. Although downregulation of Tspan18 is necessary, it is not sufficient for neural crest migration: the timing of neural crest emigration, basal lamina breakdown and Cad7 upregulation proceed normally in Tspan18-deficient cells. This emphasizes the need for coordinated transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Cad6B during EMT and illustrates that Tspan18-antagonized remodeling of cell–cell adhesions is only one step in preparation for cranial neural crest migration. Unlike Cad6B, which is transcriptionally repressed by Snail2, Tspan18 expression is downstream of the winged-helix transcription factor FoxD3, providing a new transcriptional input into cranial neural crest EMT. Together, our data reveal post-translational regulation of Cad6B protein levels by Tspan18 that must be relieved by a FoxD3-dependent mechanism in order for cranial neural crest cells to migrate. These results offer new insight into the molecular mechanisms of cranial neural crest EMT and expand our understanding of tetraspanin function relevant to metastasis. PMID:23418345

  5. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S.; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46’s function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  6. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46's role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-28

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46's function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B using titanium dioxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul K; McKenzie, Katrina T

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of azo dyes undergo degradation to form harmless intermediates and colorless products following irradiation by visible light in the presence of titanium dioxide thin films. The dyes that were studied in this work are: Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B. Results obtained indicated that complete mineralization of the dyes took place under the experimental conditions. There was an increase in conductivity after the complete mineralization experiments possibly indicating the formation of ions such as NO3- and SO4(2-). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements show a decrease in organic matter for both dyes following complete degradation. The effect of how changing experimental conditions such as pH, temperature and starting concentrations of dyes affected the rate of dye degradation was measured. There was an increase in the rate of disappearance of the dye color at lower pH. High concentrations of dye solutions required long degradation time.

  8. Three bianthraquinone derivatives from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cai-Huan; Pan, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bin; Yu, Miao; Huang, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Xun; Lu, Yong-Jun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Three new bianthraquinone derivatives, alterporriol K (1), L (2) and M (3), along with six known compounds were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B, isolated from the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, MS data analysis and circular dichroism measurements. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were first isolated alterporriols with a C-2-C-2' linkage. The crystallographic data of tetrahydroaltersolanol B (7) was reported for the first time. In the primary bioassays, alterporriol K and L exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity towards MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells with IC₅₀ values ranging from 13.1 to 29.1 μM.

  9. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  10. Variants in BET1L and TNRC6B associate with increasing fibroid volume and fibroid type among European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroid (UFs) affect 77% of women by menopause and account for $9.4 billion in yearly healthcare costs. We recently replicated findings from the first UF genome-wide association study (GWAS), conducted in the Japanese. Here we tested these GWAS-discovered SNPs for association with UF characteristics to further assess whether risk varies by sub-phenotypes of UFs. Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (RFTS) and the BioVU DNA Repository (BioVU). UF status was determined by pelvic imaging. We tested the top GWAS-associated SNPs for association with UF characteristics (RFTS: type, number, volume; BioVU: type) using covariate adjusted logistic and linear regression. We also combined association results of UF type using meta-analysis. 456 European American (EA) cases and 1,549 controls were examined. Trinucleotide repeat containing 6B (TNRC6B) rs12484776 associated with volume in RFTS (Beta = 0.40, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.75, p = 0.024). RFTS analyses evaluating stratified quartiles of volume showed the strongest OR at rs12484776 for the largest volume (16.6 to 179.1 cc, odds ratio [OR]=2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 4.46, p = 0.031). Meta-analysis showed a strong association at blocked early in transport 1 homolog (BET1L) rs2280543 for intramural UFs (meta-OR = 0.51, standard error [SE] = 0.14, Q = 0.590, I = 0, p = 2.48×10−6), which is stronger than the overall association with UF risk. This study is the first to evaluate these SNPs for association with UF characteristics and suggests these genes associate with increasing UF volume and protection from intramural UF in EAs. PMID:23892540

  11. Variants in BET1L and TNRC6B associate with increasing fibroid volume and fibroid type among European Americans.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Todd L; Hartmann, Katherine E; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2013-12-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) affect 77 % of women by menopause and account for $9.4 billion in yearly healthcare costs. We recently replicated findings from the first UF genome-wide association study (GWAS), conducted in the Japanese. Here we tested these GWAS-discovered SNPs for association with UF characteristics to further assess whether risk varies by sub-phenotypes of UFs. Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (RFTS) and the BioVU DNA repository (BioVU). UF status was determined by pelvic imaging. We tested the top GWAS-associated SNPs for association with UF characteristics (RFTS: type, number, volume; BioVU: type) using covariate adjusted logistic and linear regression. We also combined association results of UF type using meta-analysis. 456 European American (EA) cases and 1,549 controls were examined. Trinucleotide repeat containing 6B (TNRC6B) rs12484776 associated with volume in RFTS (β = 0.40, 95 % CI 0.05-0.75, p = 0.024). RFTS analyses evaluating stratified quartiles of volume showed the strongest OR at rs12484776 for the largest volume (16.6-179.1 cc, odds ratio (OR) = 2.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.46, p = 0.031). Meta-analysis showed a strong association at blocked early in transport 1 homolog (BET1L) rs2280543 for intramural UFs (meta-OR = 0.51, standard error (SE) = 0.14, Q = 0.590, I = 0, p = 2.48 × 10(-6)), which is stronger than the overall association with UF risk. This study is the first to evaluate these SNPs for association with UF characteristics and suggests these genes associate with increasing UF volume and protection from intramural UF in EAs.

  12. Sequence determination of human papillomavirus type 6a and assembly of virus-like particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, K J; Cook, J C; Joyce, J G; Brown, D R; Schultz, L D; George, H A; Rosolowsky, M; Fife, K H; Jansen, K U

    1995-06-01

    Human papillomavirus 6a (HPV6a), the most abundant HPV6 subtype, was detected in a vulvar condyloma acuminatum. The complete genome of HPV6a was cloned, and its DNA sequence was shown to be over 97% identical to the HPV6b sequence. Of the eight open reading frames (ORFs) of HPV6a, only the imputed amino acid sequence of the major capsid protein L1 was identical to the corresponding HPV6b sequence; all other HPV6a ORFs showed amino acid changes compared to the HPV6b ORFs. The HPV6a L1 or the L1 + L2 ORFs were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Self-assembly of the L1 capsid protein into virus-like particles (VLPs) was demonstrated both in the L1 as well as L1 + L2 coexpressing yeast strains. Copurification of the L1 and L2 proteins showed complex formation of the L1 and L2 proteins in the yeast-derived VLPs of coexpressing strains. PMID:7778283

  13. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  14. Figure skater level moderates balance training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Koutakis, P; Chaudhari, A M; Devor, S T

    2013-04-01

    It was suggested that baseline levels of postural control in figure skaters might influence the effectiveness of neuromuscular training. The aims of the present study were to investigate the baseline association of skater skill level with standard center of pressure metrics and time to stabilization, and to determine if skill level influenced the effectiveness of a 6-week neuromuscular training program. There was no main effect of skill level for any baseline center of pressure metric for either test. There was no main effect of skill level on the percent change in any metric for the single leg stance following training. However, skill level did influence landing test outcome measures. The difference in percent change of root mean squared was evident for the mediolateral (low: 24.5±16.50% vs. high: 2.42±14.99%) and anterior-posterior (low: 6.66±9.21% vs. high: - 4.03±5.91%) axes. Percent change in anterior-posterior time to stabilization also differed by skill level (low: - 0.73%±4.74 vs. high: - 5.61%±2.76). Note that this study was underpowered with 26 subjects and 14 subjects contributing to baseline and post-training assessments, respectively. Though no baseline differences in postural control were observed, compared with low skill levels, high skill levels benefitted more from training. PMID:23184479

  15. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  16. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes.

  17. An Individual with Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) and Additional Features Expands the Phenotype Associated with Mutations in KAT6B

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H.; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2 bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and Genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject’s phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes. PMID:24458743

  18. The comparison of the effect of LTR72 and MF59 adjuvants on mouse humoral response to intranasal immunisation with human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Greer, C E; Petracca, R; Buonamassa, D T; Di Tommaso, A; Gervase, B; Reeve, R L; Ugozzoli, M; Van Nest, G; De Magistris, M T; Bensi, G

    2000-12-01

    Infections with genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) are likely to be neutralised more efficiently if a mucosal immune response can be elicited at the viral entry site. Local IgA antibodies are highly induced when antigens are co-administered with mucosal adjuvants, such as cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) which, however, are not expected to have wide application because of their pronounced toxicity. We have immunised mice intranasally with HPV-6b virus-like particles (VLPs) and a genetically modified LT-derived molecule with only residual toxicity, LTR72, and compared the humoral responses with those obtained following systemic immunisation with VLPs and the MF59 adjuvant. Titration of anti-HPV antibodies in sera and vaginal secretions established that LTR72 was able to elicit higher serum and mucosal IgA titers, in addition to IgG serum levels, comparable to those obtained by parenteral immunisation. These results confirm the potential of toxin-derived adjuvants and extend their use in combination with HPV antigens.

  19. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  20. Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5}, a new noncentrosymmetric sodium borate

    SciTech Connect

    Penin, N.; Touboul, M. . E-mail: marcel.touboul@sc.u-picardie.fr; Nowogrocki, G.

    2005-03-15

    Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) single crystals were obtained by heating, melting and appropriately cooling borax, Na{sub 2}[B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}].8H{sub 2}O. Its formula has been determined by the resolution of the structure from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic Iba2 space group, with the following unit cell parameters: a=33.359(11)A, b=9.554(3)A, c=10.644(4)A; V=3392.4(19)A{sup 3}; Z=8. The crystal structure was solved from 3226 reflections until R{sub 1}=0.0385. It exhibits a three-dimensional framework built up from BO{sub 3} triangles ({delta}) and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra (T). Two kinds of borate groups can be considered forming two different double B{sub 3}O{sub 3} rings: two B{sub 4}O{sub 9} (linkage by two boron atoms) and one B{sub 5}O{sub 11} (linkage by one boron atom); the shorthand notation of the new fundamental building block (FBB) existing in this compound is: 13: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+2(4: 2{delta}+2T)]. The discovery of this new borate questions the real number of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} varieties. The existence of Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) and of another recently discovered borate, Na{sub 3}B{sub 7}O{sub 12} (B/Na=2.33; FBB 7: {infinity}{sup 3} [(3: 2{delta}+T)+(3: {delta}+2T)+(1: {delta})], with a composition close to the long-known borate {alpha}-Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (B/Na=2; FBB 8: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+(3: 2{delta}+T)], may explain the very complex equilibria reported in the Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase diagram, especially in this range of composition.

  1. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  3. Airfoil modification effects on subsonic and transonic pressure distributions and performance for the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.

  4. Influence of face-centered-cubic texturing of Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer on tunneling magnetoresistance ratio decrease in Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Shim, Tae-Hun; Lian, Guoda; Kim, moon; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-05-01

    The TMR ratio of Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF layer decreased rapidly when the ex situ magnetic annealing temperature (Tex) was increased from 275 to 325 °C, and this decrease was associated with degradation of the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer rather than the Co2Fe6B2 free layer. At a Tex above 325 °C the amorphous Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer was transformed into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline layer textured from [Co/Pd]n-SyAF, abruptly reducing the Δ1 coherence tunneling of perpendicular-spin-torque electrons between the (100) MgO tunneling barrier and the fcc Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer.

  5. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1. SESSIONS P, 0, 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 6A, 6B, 9C, AND 10B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  6. Yeast one-hybrid screening the potential regulator of CYP6B6 overexpression of Helicoverpa armigera under 2-tridecanone stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Liu, X N; Li, F; Zhuang, S Z; Huang, L N; Ma, J; Gao, X W

    2016-04-01

    In insect, the cytochrome P450 plays a pivotal role in detoxification to toxic allelochemicals. Helicoverpa armigera can tolerate and survive in 2-tridecanone treatment owing to the CYP6B6 responsive expression, which is controlled by some regulatory DNA sequences and transcription regulators. Therefore, the 2-tridecanone responsive region and transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 are responsible for detoxification of cotton bollworm. In this study, we used yeast one-hybrid to screen two potential transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 from H. armigera that respond to the plant secondary toxicant 2-tridecanone, which were named Prey1 and Prey2, respectively. According to the NCBI database blast, Prey1 is the homology with FK506 binding protein (FKBP) of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori that belongs to the FKBP-C superfamily, while Prey2 may be a homology of an unknown protein of Papilio or the fcaL24 protein homology of B. mori. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the FKBP of prokaryotic expression could specifically bind to the active region of the CYP6B6 promoter. After the 6th instar larvae of H. armigera reared on 2-tridecanone artificial diet, we found there were similar patterns of CYP6B6 and FKBP expression of the cotton bollworm treated with 10 mg g-1 2-tridecanone for 48 h, which correlation coefficient was the highest (0.923). Thus, the FKBP is identified as a strong candidate for regulation of the CYP6B6 expression, when the cotton bollworm is treated with 2-tridecanone. This may lead us to a better understanding of transcriptional mechanism of CYP6B6 and provide very useful information for the pest control. PMID:26696496

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  2. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  8. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  9. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  12. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  16. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  20. Protocol Analysis of Aptitude Differences in Figural Analogy Problem Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiano, Diane J.

    Individual differences in performance on figural analogy tests are usually attributed to quantitative differences in processing parameters rather than to qualitative differences in the formation and use of representations. Yet aptitude-related differences in categorizing standardized figural analogy problems between high and low scorers have been…

  1. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  2. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  3. Activation of Conventional Meaning during the Processing of Figurative Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nigel; Katz, Albert

    Two studies investigated the processing of familiar and unfamiliar figurative language. Subjects read paragraphs containing figurative sentences (proverbs in study 1 and metaphors in study 2) or literal controls; later subjects were given a cued recall test designed to test their memory for contextually inappropriate meanings (a literal cue for a…

  4. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  5. 47 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart N of... - Measurement Site

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement Site 1 Figure 1 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Pt. 2, Subpt. N, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart N of Part...

  6. Determination of Visual Figure and Ground in Dynamically Deforming Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenholtz, Elan; Feldman, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Figure/ground assignment--determining which part of the visual image is foreground and which background--is a critical step in early visual analysis, upon which much later processing depends. Previous research on the assignment of figure and ground to opposing sides of a contour has almost exclusively involved static geometric factors--such as…

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  15. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  5. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  14. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  15. CGH Figure Testing of Aspherical Mirrors in Cold Vacuums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor John; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Arnold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    An established method of room-temperature interferometric null testing of mirrors having simple shapes (e.g., flat, spherical, or spheroidal) has been augmented to enable measurement of errors in the surface figures of off-axis, non-axisymmetric, aspherical mirrors when the mirrors are located inside cryogenic vacuum chambers. The established method involves the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), functionally equivalent to a traditional null lens, to modify the laser beam of an imaging interferometer to obtain a reference wavefront that matches the ideal surface figure of a mirror under test. The CGH is inserted at the appropriate position and orientation in the optical path of the imaging interferometer, which, in turn, is appropriately positioned and oriented with respect to the mirror under test. Deviations of the surface figure of the mirror from the ideal surface figure manifest themselves as interference fringes. Interferograms are recorded and analyzed to deduce figure errors.

  16. Figures of merit of nonlinear optical chromophores in photorefractive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzoukas, Marguerite; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Wortmann, Ruediger W.

    1999-05-01

    A pre-requisite to obtain polymers with a large photorefractive response is to design non-linear optical chromophores with a large figure of merit. This figure depends on the glass transition temperature of the material. We present a theoretical investigation that shows which are the important molecular parameters that control the magnitude of the figure of merit either in a low-Tg or in a high-Tg polymer. Derivation of the figures of merit for various push-pull molecules show a molecular engineering strategy can be successfully implemented to yield very large figures of merit. This approach is supported by an experimental investigation based on electro-optical absorption measurements.

  17. IQCB1 and PDE6B Mutations Cause Similar Early Onset Retinal Degenerations in Two Closely Related Terrier Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Schweitzer, Peter A.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify the causative mutations in two early-onset canine retinal degenerations, crd1 and crd2, segregating in the American Staffordshire terrier and the Pit Bull Terrier breeds, respectively. Methods. Retinal morphology of crd1- and crd2-affected dogs was evaluated by light microscopy. DNA was extracted from affected and related unaffected controls. Association analysis was undertaken using the Illumina Canine SNP array and PLINK (crd1 study), or the Affymetrix Version 2 Canine array, the “MAGIC” genotype algorithm, and Fisher's Exact test for association (crd2 study). Positional candidate genes were evaluated for each disease. Results. Structural photoreceptor abnormalities were observed in crd1-affected dogs as young as 11-weeks old. Rod and cone inner segment (IS) and outer segments (OS) were abnormal in size, shape, and number. In crd2-affected dogs, rod and cone IS and OS were abnormal as early as 3 weeks of age, progressing with age to severe loss of the OS, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by 12 weeks of age. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association at the telomeric end of CFA3 in crd1-affected dogs and on CFA33 in crd2-affected dogs. Candidate gene evaluation identified a three bases deletion in exon 21 of PDE6B in crd1-affected dogs, and a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of IQCB1 in crd2-affected dogs. Conclusions. Identification of the mutations responsible for these two early-onset retinal degenerations provides new large animal models for comparative disease studies and evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches for the homologous human diseases. PMID:24045995

  18. Hydrodynamic assessment data associated with the July 2010 line 6B spill into the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2012–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reneau, Paul C.; Soong, David T.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2015-12-07

    Hydrodynamic-assessment data for the Kalamazoo River were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2012–14 to augment other hydrodynamic data-collection efforts by Enbridge Energy L.P. and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency associated with the 2010 Enbridge Line 6B oil spill. Specifically, the USGS data-collection efforts were focused on additional background data needed for 2013–14 updates to Enbridge’s 2012 hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models for simulating resuspension and deposition of submerged oil. The main data-collection activities consisted of the following along the Kalamazoo River: (1) a survey done by use of a Real-Time Network Global Navigation Satellite System, (2) water-level measurements in impounded sections, (3) velocity, discharge, and bathymetry measurements at transects and stationary points along the oil-affected reach of the river and in Morrow Delta and Lake, (4) estimates of tributary inflows, and (5) suspended-sediment concentrations and particle-size data at USGS streamgages along the Kalamazoo River. The method used to estimate bed shear stress from stationary velocity data is described. Averaged transect-based velocity data that were processed to match model grids also are included. In addition to model inputs and checks, these hydrodynamic-related data were used in submerged oil containment and recovery operations focused in impoundments and designated sediment traps. This report contains a description of the scope and methods associated with the hydrodynamic data collection and supplementary files of the USGS data that were used in modeling activities.

  19. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  20. Conjugation of Polysaccharide 6B from Streptococcus pneumoniae with Pneumococcal Surface Protein A: PspA Conformation and Its Effect on the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Perciani, Catia T.; Barazzone, Giovana C.; Goulart, Cibelly; Carvalho, Eneas; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Gonçalves, Viviane M.; Leite, Luciana C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial beneficial effects of incorporating the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into immunization programs, serotype replacement has been observed after its widespread use. As there are many serotypes currently documented, the use of a conjugate vaccine relying on protective pneumococcal proteins as active carriers is a promising alternative to expand PCV coverage. In this study, capsular polysaccharide serotype 6B (PS6B) and recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (rPspA), a well-known protective antigen from Streptococcus pneumoniae, were covalently attached by two conjugation methods. The conjugation methodology developed by our laboratory, employing 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) as an activating agent through carboxamide formation, was compared with reductive amination, a classical methodology. DMT-MM-mediated conjugation was shown to be more efficient in coupling PS6B to rPspA clade 1 (rPspA1): 55.0% of PS6B was in the conjugate fraction, whereas 24% was observed in the conjugate fraction with reductive amination. The influence of the conjugation process on the rPspA1 structure was assessed by circular dichroism. According to our results, both conjugation processes reduced the alpha-helical content of rPspA; reduction was more pronounced when the reaction between the polysaccharide capsule and rPspA1 was promoted between the carboxyl groups than the amine groups (46% and 13%, respectively). Regarding the immune response, both conjugates induced functional anti-rPspA1 and anti-PS6B antibodies. These results suggest that the secondary structure of PspA1, as well as its reactive groups (amine or carboxyl) involved in the linkage to PS6B, may not play an important role in eliciting a protective immune response to the antigens. PMID:23554468

  1. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  3. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  4. Thermoelectric figure of merit of strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, W.; Bedell, K.S.

    1999-06-01

    The Anderson lattice Hamiltonian was solved using the slave-boson mean-field approximation to get the energy bands of a strongly correlated semiconductor. The transport properties were calculated in the relaxation-time approximation, and the thermoelectric figure of merit was obtained for the strongly correlated semiconductor and a variety of superlattice structures. We found that at room temperature the dimensionless quantity ZT, thermoelectric figure of merit multiplied by temperature, can reach nearly 1.4 for a quantum wire lattice structure. We believe that it may be possible to find high values of the figure of merit for strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Figuration of the real as an intersubjective process.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Lewis A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, I make use of the term figuration, which relates to the process of giving shape to unconscious contents in the form of meaningful presentations. My interest is in how traumatic experience succeeds or fails to become psychically figured and thereby susceptible to elaboration and absorption through intersubjective process. I argue that the process of figuration always occurs in an actual or implied intersubjective context and involves, thereby, a central feature of an exchange between subject and Other. These concepts are discussed and applied to a case report of an analytic psychotherapy involving a traumatic dream and its sequellae.

  6. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  7. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  11. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  12. [Effective English writing for tables and figures in andrological papers].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong-He; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Tables and figures play a critical role in enhancing the quality of an andrological paper. As visual elements, well-presented tables and figures can reduce the length of the manuscript and meanwhile efficiently capture a large amount of information by clear and concise display of detailed results and complex relationships, patterns and trends, offer explicit statistical or graphical support to important ideas, and add to the value of the whole paper. The effectiveness of a table or figure lies not only in its well-crafted structural design, but even more in its language presentation. This article presents some essential and practical guidelines to effective English writing of the title, body and footnotes of tables and figures in andrological papers.

  13. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  15. Support Of The Lunar Fossil Figure By The Elastic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu

    2010-10-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  16. Support of the lunar fossil figure by the elastic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.

    2010-12-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  17. Noise figure characterization of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies.

    PubMed

    Nordmeyer-Massner, J A; De Zanche, N; Pruessmann, K P

    2011-05-01

    A method for characterizing the noise figure of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies is presented. The noise figure of preamplifiers as used for NMR and MRI detection varies with source impedance and with the operating frequency. Therefore, to characterize a preamplifier's noise behavior, it is necessary to perform noise measurements at the targeted frequency while varying the source impedance with high accuracy. At high radiofrequencies, such impedance variation is typically achieved with transmission-line tuners, which however are not available for the relatively low range of typical NMR frequencies. To solve this issue, this work describes an alternative approach that relies on lumped-element circuits for impedance manipulation. It is shown that, using a fixed-impedance noise source and suitable ENR correction, this approach permits noise figure characterization for NMR and MRI purposes. The method is demonstrated for two preamplifiers, a generic BF998 MOSFET module and an MRI-dedicated, integrated preamplifier, which were both studied at 128MHz, i.e., at the Larmor frequency of protons at 3 Tesla. Variations in noise figure of 0.01dB or less over repeated measurements reflect high precision even for small noise figures in the order of 0.4dB. For validation, large sets of measured noise figure values are shown to be consistent with the general noise-parameter model of linear two-ports. Finally, the measured noise characteristics of the superior preamplifier are illustrated by SNR measurements in MRI data. PMID:21439871

  18. Syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lingyun; Pan, Shilie; Wu, Hongping; Su, Xin; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhenjun; Yang, Zhihua

    2013-08-15

    A series of lead-containing halogen oxyborates, Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br), have been grown by high-temperature solution method and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They are isostructural and crystallize in the space group Pbcm of the orthorhombic crystal system. The crystal structures are dominated by one-dimensional {sub ∞}[(Pb{sub 4}O)(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}] “Zig-Zag”-chains, while the remaining Pb atoms and X (X=F, Cl, Br) atoms are filled to balance the charge. Compared with the previously reported compound Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (the molecular formula Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} can be regarded as Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10.5}) with the space group Aba2, the structures of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br) are completely different from that of Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. IR spectroscopy, UV–vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and theoretical calculations were also performed on the reported materials. Highlights: • A new family of lead-containing halogen oxyborates, Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br), have been grown by high-temperature solution method. • Owing to the introduction of X atoms into Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, the structures of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X are completely different. • The crystal structures are dominated by one-dimensional {sub ∞}[(Pb{sub 4}O)(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}] “Zig-Zag”-chains.

  19. Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A.; Hearst, Marti A.

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine [1], a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  20. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object.

  1. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  2. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  3. Figure of Merit for Carbon Nanotube Photothermoelectric Detectors.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Kristopher J; He, Xiaowei; Talin, A Alec; Mills, Bernice; Hauge, Robert H; Iguchi, Takashi; Fujimura, Naoki; Kawano, Yukio; Kono, Junichiro; Léonard, François

    2015-12-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as promising materials for visible, infrared, and terahertz photodetectors. Further development of these photodetectors requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern their behavior as well as the establishment of figures of merit for technology applications. Recently, a number of CNT detectors have been shown to operate based on the photothermoelectric effect. Here we present a figure of merit for these detectors, which includes the properties of the material and the device. In addition, we use a suite of experimental characterization methods for the thorough analysis of the electrical, thermoelectric, electrothermal, and photothermal properties of the CNT thin-film devices. Our measurements determine the quantities that enter the figure of merit and allow us to establish a path toward future performance improvements. PMID:26512738

  4. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  5. Stochastic correlative firing for figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe

    2005-03-01

    Segregation of sensory inputs into separate objects is a central aspect of perception and arises in all sensory modalities. The figure-ground segregation problem requires identifying an object of interest in a complex scene, in many cases given binaural auditory or binocular visual observations. The computations required for visual and auditory figure-ground segregation share many common features and can be cast within a unified framework. Sensory perception can be viewed as a problem of optimizing information transmission. Here we suggest a stochastic correlative firing mechanism and an associative learning rule for figure-ground segregation in several classic sensory perception tasks, including the cocktail party problem in binaural hearing, binocular fusion of stereo images, and Gestalt grouping in motion perception. PMID:15750867

  6. Sound and sight: acoustic figures and visual phenomena.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2005-01-01

    The impact that the analysis of sound waves has made on theories of light is well known, and is touched upon here. However, the acoustic figures described initially by Robert Hooke in 1665 and in more detail by Ernst Chladni in 1787 (often referred to as Chladni figures) were instrumental in vision in two specific respects. First, their representation by Tyndall [1867 Sound. A Course of Eight Lectures Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London: Longmans, Green)] in a book on sound resulted in the description of a visual illusion, the Hermann grid. Secondly, attempts to render the acoustic figures visible (on the basis of briefly persisting images) led to the discovery of instruments that could synthesise movement. These two developments are discussed in their historical contexts. PMID:16309120

  7. Development of a deflectometer for accurate surface figure metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; Atkins, Carolyn; Eberhardt, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a direct fabrication technique in which high resolution x-ray optics are fabricated through surface polishing and figuring of a full-shell substrate. The use of a computer controlled polishing machine leads to quick convergence to high resolution mirrors. The vailability of an in situ surface figure metrology technique would permit even higher convergence rates and reduce the surface profile errors associated with installation and re-alignment of the x-ray mirror shell between the metrology and polishing processes. A surface-figure-metrology instrument based on an optical deflectometer scheme is under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The current status of the deflectometer instrument development is presented here.

  8. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination. PMID:25842563

  9. Design, test, and evaluation of an electrostatically figured membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James D., Jr.; Patrick, Brian; Gierow, Paul A.; Troy, Edward

    2004-02-01

    Significant advances have been achieved in manufacturing optical quality membrane materials with surface quality suitable for use as first surface mirrors. These materials have been used to fabricate test articles demonstrating diffraction limited performance in the laboratory environment. These mirrors are supported using heavy rigid fixtures and pressure forces to tension the membrane. A lighter weight system is required to transition the membrane mirror technology to space hardware applications. Using electrostatic forces to tension and figure the membrane is one promising approach to developing a flight weight membrane mirror system. This paper discusses the design and testing of an experimental membrane mirror system that was developed to evaluate the potential areal density, figure accuracy and stability of a lightweight electrostatically figured mirror manufactured from precision cast optical quality membrane material.

  10. Death, attractiveness, moral conduct, and attitudes to public figures.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Sheridan, Lorraine P

    In this study, 2,894 participants rated attitudes toward their favorite public figure on the Celebrity Attitude Scale. It was noted whether each figure was alive or dead, and a panel of four independent judges assessed each in terms of their moral conduct and physical attractiveness. Dead figures appealed less and were subject to lower "intense personal" celebrity worship, and death was unrelated to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Physical attractiveness was positively related to overall celebrity worship and "intense personal" celebrity worship, but negatively related to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Moral conduct was associated negatively with "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Results are discussed briefly in terms of their implications for research on physical attractiveness and "copycat suicide". PMID:20397615

  11. Correlation applied to the recognition of regular geometric figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasso, William; Morales, Yaileth; Vega, Fabio; Díaz, Leonardo; Flórez, Daniel; Torres, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    It developed a system capable of recognizing of regular geometric figures, the images are taken by the software automatically through a process of validating the presence of figure to the camera lens, the digitized image is compared with a database that contains previously images captured, to subsequently be recognized and finally identified using sonorous words referring to the name of the figure identified. The contribution of system set out is the fact that the acquisition of data is done in real time and using a spy smart glasses with usb interface offering an system equally optimal but much more economical. This tool may be useful as a possible application for visually impaired people can get information of surrounding environment.

  12. Sound and sight: acoustic figures and visual phenomena.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2005-01-01

    The impact that the analysis of sound waves has made on theories of light is well known, and is touched upon here. However, the acoustic figures described initially by Robert Hooke in 1665 and in more detail by Ernst Chladni in 1787 (often referred to as Chladni figures) were instrumental in vision in two specific respects. First, their representation by Tyndall [1867 Sound. A Course of Eight Lectures Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London: Longmans, Green)] in a book on sound resulted in the description of a visual illusion, the Hermann grid. Secondly, attempts to render the acoustic figures visible (on the basis of briefly persisting images) led to the discovery of instruments that could synthesise movement. These two developments are discussed in their historical contexts.

  13. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-10-01

    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R = [rs ], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  14. Death, attractiveness, moral conduct, and attitudes to public figures.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Sheridan, Lorraine P

    In this study, 2,894 participants rated attitudes toward their favorite public figure on the Celebrity Attitude Scale. It was noted whether each figure was alive or dead, and a panel of four independent judges assessed each in terms of their moral conduct and physical attractiveness. Dead figures appealed less and were subject to lower "intense personal" celebrity worship, and death was unrelated to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Physical attractiveness was positively related to overall celebrity worship and "intense personal" celebrity worship, but negatively related to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Moral conduct was associated negatively with "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Results are discussed briefly in terms of their implications for research on physical attractiveness and "copycat suicide".

  15. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination.

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Sr2MoBO6 (B=W, RE, Os): Investigation of possible half metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ningning; Li, Rui; Li, Qinan; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic ordering temperatures of Sr2CrBO6 (B=W, Re, Os) are the top three in the class of double perovskites so far, whereas among them only Sr2CrWO6 is a half metal. In this study, by substituting Cr with Mo, Sr2MoBO6 is investigated by using the density functional theory. The calculated results indicate that all the three Mo-based compounds exhibit the half metallic nature, in particular Sr2MoOsO6 is a compensated half metal. On the other hand, Sr2MoBO6 is estimated to have at least a comparable magnetic ordering temperature with that of Sr2CrOsO6 (experimental value of 725 K). Therefore, we expect that Sr2MoBO6 (B=W, Re, Os) would be promising candidates as spintronic materials.

  17. Learning to Rank Figures within a Biomedical Article

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the “bag of figures” assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as “figure ranking”. Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  18. Polarization Preservation and Control in a Figure-8 Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, Ya. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Lin, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab’s proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider’s experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  19. A Simple Proteomics-Based Approach to Identification of Immunodominant Antigens from a Complex Pathogen: Application to the CD4 T Cell Response against Human Herpesvirus 6B.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Artiles, Aniuska; Dominguez-Amorocho, Omar; Stern, Lawrence J; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Most of humanity is chronically infected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), with viral replication controlled at least in part by a poorly characterized CD4 T cell response. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD4 T cells is complicated by the large size of the herpesvirus genome and a low frequency of circulating T cells responding to the virus. Here, we present an alternative to classical epitope mapping approaches used to identify major targets of the T cell response to a complex pathogen like HHV-6B. In the approach presented here, extracellular virus preparations or virus-infected cells are fractionated by SDS-PAGE, and eluted fractions are used as source of antigens to study cytokine responses in direct ex vivo T cell activation studies. Fractions inducing significant cytokine responses are analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify viral proteins, and a subset of peptides from these proteins corresponding to predicted HLA-DR binders is tested for IFN-γ production in seropositive donors with diverse HLA haplotypes. Ten HHV-6B viral proteins were identified as immunodominant antigens. The epitope-specific response to HHV-6B virus was complex and variable between individuals. We identified 107 peptides, each recognized by at least one donor, with each donor having a distinctive footprint. Fourteen peptides showed responses in the majority of donors. Responses to these epitopes were validated using in vitro expanded cells and naturally expressed viral proteins. Predicted peptide binding affinities for the eight HLA-DRB1 alleles investigated here correlated only modestly with the observed CD4 T cell responses. Overall, the response to the virus was dominated by peptides from the major capsid protein U57 and major antigenic protein U11, but responses to other proteins including glycoprotein H (U48) and tegument proteins U54 and U14 also were observed. These results provide a means to follow and potentially modulate the CD4 T-cell immune response to HHV-6

  20. Characterization of a Disease-associated Mutation Affecting a Putative Splicing Regulatory Element in Intron 6b of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Faà, Valeria; Incani, Federica; Meloni, Alessandra; Corda, Denise; Masala, Maddalena; Baffico, A. Maria; Seia, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, M. Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common recessive disorder caused by >1600 mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. About 13% of CFTR mutations are classified as “splicing mutations,” but for almost 40% of these, their role in affecting the pre-mRNA splicing of the gene is not yet defined. In this work, we describe a new splicing mutation detected in three unrelated Italian CF patients. By DNA analyses and mRNA studies, we identified the c.1002–1110_1113delTAAG mutation localized in intron 6b of the CFTR gene. At the mRNA level, this mutation creates an aberrant inclusion of a sequence of 101 nucleotides between exons 6b and 7. This sequence corresponds to a portion of intron 6b and resembles a cryptic exon because it is characterized by an upstream ag and a downstream gt sequence, which are most probably recognized as 5′- and 3′-splice sites by the spliceosome. Through functional analysis of this splicing defect, we show that this mutation abolishes the interaction of the splicing regulatory protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 with an intronic splicing regulatory element and creates a new recognition motif for the SRp75 splicing factor, causing activation of the cryptic exon. Our results show that the c.1002–1110_1113delTAAG mutation creates a new intronic splicing regulatory element in intron 6b of the CFTR gene exclusively recognized by SRp75. PMID:19759008

  1. Comparison of the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figures and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure tests in a normal sample of Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari; Yasugi, Mina

    2008-08-01

    Comparability of copy and recall performance on the four figures of the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figures and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure were examined using an incidental learning paradigm with 60 men and 60 women, healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 24 years (M = 21.5 yr., SD = 1.5) at a Japanese university. A between-subjects design was used in which each group of participants (n = 24) responded to five figures. The interrater reliability of each Georgia figure was excellent. While the five figures yielded equivalent copy scores, the Rey-Osterrieth figure had significantly lower scores than the Georgia figures at recall after 3 min. There were no significant differences between the four Georgia figures. These results are consistent with the findings of the original studies in the USA.

  2. Warm Spitzer Observations of Three Hot Exoplanets: XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, and HAT-P-8b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Sada, Pedro V.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Charbonneau, David; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze Warm Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera observations of the secondary eclipses of three planets, XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, and HAT-P-8b. We measure secondary eclipse amplitudes at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm for each target. XO-4b exhibits a stronger eclipse depth at 4.5 μm than at 3.6 μm, which is consistent with the presence of a temperature inversion. HAT-P-8b shows a stronger eclipse amplitude at 3.6 μm and is best described by models without a temperature inversion. The eclipse depths of HAT-P-6b can be fitted with models with a small or no temperature inversion. We consider our results in the context of a postulated relationship between stellar activity and temperature inversion and a relationship between irradiation level and planet dayside temperature, as discussed by Knutson et al. and Cowan & Agol, respectively. Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, but do not significantly strengthen them. To measure accurate secondary eclipse central phases, we require accurate ephemerides. We obtain primary transit observations and supplement them with publicly available observations to update the orbital ephemerides of the three planets. Based on the secondary eclipse timing, we set upper boundaries for ecos (ω) for HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b, and XO-4b and find that the values are consistent with circular orbits.

  3. WARM SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THREE HOT EXOPLANETS: XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, AND HAT-P-8b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Sada, Pedro V.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2012-02-10

    We analyze Warm Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera observations of the secondary eclipses of three planets, XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, and HAT-P-8b. We measure secondary eclipse amplitudes at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m for each target. XO-4b exhibits a stronger eclipse depth at 4.5 {mu}m than at 3.6 {mu}m, which is consistent with the presence of a temperature inversion. HAT-P-8b shows a stronger eclipse amplitude at 3.6 {mu}m and is best described by models without a temperature inversion. The eclipse depths of HAT-P-6b can be fitted with models with a small or no temperature inversion. We consider our results in the context of a postulated relationship between stellar activity and temperature inversion and a relationship between irradiation level and planet dayside temperature, as discussed by Knutson et al. and Cowan and Agol, respectively. Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, but do not significantly strengthen them. To measure accurate secondary eclipse central phases, we require accurate ephemerides. We obtain primary transit observations and supplement them with publicly available observations to update the orbital ephemerides of the three planets. Based on the secondary eclipse timing, we set upper boundaries for ecos ({omega}) for HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b, and XO-4b and find that the values are consistent with circular orbits.

  4. THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE HOT-JUPITERS KEPLER-5b AND KEPLER-6b OBSERVED DURING OCCULTATIONS WITH WARM-SPITZER AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Knutson, Heather A.; Deming, Drake; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Seager, Sara

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the detection and the measurements of occultations of the two transiting hot giant exoplanets Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b by their parent stars. The observations are obtained in the near-infrared with Warm-Spitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of constraining the eccentricities of these systems and of obtaining broadband emergent photometric data for individual planets. For both targets, the occultations are detected at the 3{sigma} level at each wavelength with mid-occultation times consistent with circular orbits. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations and reach T{sub Spitzer} = 1930 {+-} 100 K and T{sub Spitzer} = 1660 {+-} 120 K for Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b, respectively. We measure optical geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass and find A{sub g} = 0.12 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-5b and A{sub g} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-6b, leading to upper an limit for the Bond albedo of A{sub B} {<=} 0.17 in both cases. The observations for both planets are best described by models for which most of the incident energy is redistributed on the dayside, with only less than 10% of the absorbed stellar flux redistributed to the nightside of these planets.

  5. Gradient of integrin alpha 6A distribution in the myocardium during early heart development.

    PubMed

    Collo, G; Domanico, S Z; Klier, G; Quaranta, V

    1995-05-01

    The interactions of cells with extracellular matrices (ECM)1 are likely to be key determinants of embryonic development. Integrin adhesion receptors are ideally positioned to mediate some of these interactions since, in addition to mechanical adhesion, they transduce signals affecting cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated expression of the integrin alpha 6 beta 1, a receptor for the ECM component, laminin in the early mouse embryo. An intriguing feature of this integrin is the existence of alpha 6 subunit isoforms. The A and B isoforms, which differ in the cytoplasmic tails, are expressed in cell-type specific fashion, and are likely to implement distinct cellular interactions with laminin. By RT-PCR, alpha 6B but not alpha 6A mRNA was detectable in embryo extracts from fertilized oocytes to 6.5 d.p.c. In subsequent stages, up to 11.5 d.p.c., alpha 6A mRNA was observed in mRNA extracts from whole embryos, but still in significantly lower amounts than alpha 6B. However, in extracts from isolated heart (9.5 to 11.5 d.p.c.), alpha 6A was the predominant alpha 6 isoform, while in extracts from other embryo parts no alpha 6A mRNA was detectable. At the protein level, immunostaining with specific antibodies showed alpha 6A protein in myocardial cells, at the early stage of heart tube development (8.5 d.p.c.). Localization to the myocardium was tightly restricted, since other structures of the embryonic heart, e.g., endocardium, or of the remaining embryo did not stain with anti-alpha 6A antibody. In the ventricular myocardium, expression of alpha 6A appeared more intense than in the subendocardial layer. Quantitation by confocal microscopy unveiled a gradient of expression of alpha 6A, increasing from the outer to the inner layers of the myocardium. This is the first demonstration of a gradient distribution of integrin molecules in a tissue, which appears to be directly connected with the process of organogenesis. The mechanism underlying our

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Austin P.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species. PMID:25428968

  7. Relationships of the Piagetian Cognitive Development to Human Figure Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisto, Fermino Fernandes

    2000-01-01

    Examined validity of use of human figure drawing to evaluate cognitive development status using Piagetian tasks with 7- to 11-year-olds. Found that scores for children's drawings of a man and a woman correlated significantly with mental imaging, conservation of mass, and conservation of length, suggesting the possibility of finding patterns to…

  8. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-year-Old Child Crash Test...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-year-Old Child Crash Test...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-year-Old Child Crash Test...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-year-Old Child Crash Test...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash...

  2. Kimura's Recurring-Figures-Test: A Normative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rixecker, H.; Hartje, W.

    1980-01-01

    Administered Kimura's Recurring-Figures-Test to 427 normal subjects from Germany. A Kuder-Richardson test reliability was obtained. T-scale norms are given for two subgroups of different educational levels. Results indicated that the RFT is a valid instrument for the assessment of nonverbal memory function, and has a high test reliability. (Author)

  3. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  4. The Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Figure Skater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei R.; Troelstra, Arne A.

    1998-01-01

    When a rotating figure skater's fully extended arms are pulled back toward the torso, the angular velocity is noticeably increased and the kinetic energy of the skater can also be shown to increase. Discusses the change of the kinetic energy during such a process, and the work necessary for such an increase is derived using a dynamic equilibrium…

  5. Frustrated Returns: Biography, Parental Figures, and the Apprenticeship of Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwalt, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the past experiences of undergraduate teacher candidates with their parental figures return in the present, thereby shaping both the nature and the meaning of the experiences offered to them in their initial field placement. Using phenomenological and psychoanalytic lenses, I analyze findings from an…

  6. Trinocular stereovision using figural continuity, dealing with curved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaillant, R.; Faugeras, O. D.

    1989-01-01

    A method to build a dense and reliable 3-D description of a scene from three digital images by means of passive stereovision is presented. This method uses figural continuity to improve the results of a previously developed algorithm. In particular, it copes much better with curved objects and produces results which are organized as 3-D chains of segments.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant,...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  9. 47 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart N of... - Measurement Site

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement Site 1 Figure 1 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO...—Measurement Site EC03JN91.005...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  11. Higher Education in Facts & Figures: Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This edition of Higher education in facts and figures focusses on Research and innovation. Research and innovation are crucial to the future of the UK's competitiveness. Universities are the prime drivers for this, both through producing, and acting as a magnet for, the best knowledge and talent. The UK's research performance is exceptionally…

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  15. Turkish Children's Human Figure Drawings: Can We Borrow Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Serap

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data on norms for the Human Drawings test for children ages 5-11, in Turkey. Four hundred and thirty children from two different schools, in two different socio-economic levels, were given the Human Figure Drawings. One was a private school in an affluent part of the city, and the other one…

  16. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating scale…

  17. Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

  18. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  19. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix - Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment Automated monitoring. Pt. 238, Subpt, C,...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment Automated monitoring. Pt. 238, Subpt, C,...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  4. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. PMID:24846790

  5. 50 CFR Figure 14 to Part 679 - Sablefish Regulatory Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  6. 50 CFR Figure 24 to Part 679 - Arctic Management Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arctic Management Area 24 Figure 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Frame EC03OC91.005...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix - Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment Automated monitoring. Pt. 238, Subpt, C,...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy Test conditions...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix - Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment Automated monitoring. Pt. 238, Subpt, C,...

  12. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart T of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Subpart T of Part 572 Appendix Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III...

  14. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  15. Figure Drawing as an Expression of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopersmith, Stanley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study show that several features of figure drawing identify the children who differ in self esteem. These differentiating features are associated with behavioral expressions of esteem rather than with self-appraisals of personal worth. (Author/DEP)

  16. Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M. ); Rossing, T.D. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-01-01

    For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays.

  17. Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Rossing, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays.

  18. International Higher Education in Facts and Figures. Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents facts and figures of the international higher education. Facts reveal that the UK sells more brainpower per capita than anywhere else in the world. The UK has 1% of the world's population but undertakes 5% of the world's scientific research and produces 14% of the world's most highly cited papers (Universities UK 2010). More…

  19. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  4. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  7. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  8. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  9. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  10. Identifying Sexually Abused Children Using Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper presents a summary of the research literature concerning the psychological and behavioral impact of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. It examines the dynamics involved in the process of making such determinations and examines the utility of using Human Figure Drawings as part of an assessment battery to determine the probability…

  11. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-year-Old Child Crash Test Dummy, Alpha Version Test conditions...

  13. Cultivating Writers: Figurative Language in the Developmental Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Some teaching strategies grow out of the curricula educators inherit or develop through professional reading; others originate in the aromatic humus of their autobiographies. This article presents a proposal that has its origins in the latter. The author recognized that what delights her in prose or poetry is the figurative language a writer uses…

  14. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Six-year-old Child Test Dummy,...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Six-year-old Child Test Dummy,...

  16. A patient showing features of both SBBYSS and GPS supports the concept of a KAT6B-related disease spectrum, with mutations in mid-exon 18 possibly leading to combined phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vlckova, Marketa; Simandlova, Martina; Zimmermann, Pavel; Stranecky, Viktor; Hartmannova, Hana; Hodanova, Katerina; Havlovicova, Marketa; Hancarova, Miroslava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) are two distinct clinically overlapping syndromes caused by de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in the KAT6B gene encoding lysine acetyltransferase 6B, a part of the histone H3 acetyltransferase complex. We describe an 8-year-old girl with a KAT6B mutation and a combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotype. The comparison of this patient with 61 previously published cases with KAT6B mutations and GPS, SBBYSS or combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotypes allowed us to separate the KAT6B mutations into four groups according to their position in the gene (reflecting nonsense mediated RNA decay and protein domains) and their clinical outcome. We suggest that mutations in mid-exon 18 corresponding to the C-terminal end of the acidic (Asp/Glu-rich) domain of KAT6B may have more variable expressivity leading to GPS, SBBYSS or combined phenotypes, in contrast to defects in other regions of the gene which contribute more specifically to either GPS or SBBYSS. Notwithstanding the clinical overlap, our cluster analysis of phenotypes of all known patients with KAT6B mutations supports the existence of two clinical entities, GPS and SBBYSS, as poles within the KAT6B-related disease spectrum. The awareness of these phenomena is important for qualified genetic counselling of patients with KAT6B mutations.

  17. A patient showing features of both SBBYSS and GPS supports the concept of a KAT6B-related disease spectrum, with mutations in mid-exon 18 possibly leading to combined phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vlckova, Marketa; Simandlova, Martina; Zimmermann, Pavel; Stranecky, Viktor; Hartmannova, Hana; Hodanova, Katerina; Havlovicova, Marketa; Hancarova, Miroslava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) are two distinct clinically overlapping syndromes caused by de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in the KAT6B gene encoding lysine acetyltransferase 6B, a part of the histone H3 acetyltransferase complex. We describe an 8-year-old girl with a KAT6B mutation and a combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotype. The comparison of this patient with 61 previously published cases with KAT6B mutations and GPS, SBBYSS or combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotypes allowed us to separate the KAT6B mutations into four groups according to their position in the gene (reflecting nonsense mediated RNA decay and protein domains) and their clinical outcome. We suggest that mutations in mid-exon 18 corresponding to the C-terminal end of the acidic (Asp/Glu-rich) domain of KAT6B may have more variable expressivity leading to GPS, SBBYSS or combined phenotypes, in contrast to defects in other regions of the gene which contribute more specifically to either GPS or SBBYSS. Notwithstanding the clinical overlap, our cluster analysis of phenotypes of all known patients with KAT6B mutations supports the existence of two clinical entities, GPS and SBBYSS, as poles within the KAT6B-related disease spectrum. The awareness of these phenomena is important for qualified genetic counselling of patients with KAT6B mutations. PMID:26370006

  18. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  19. The homogeneity effect on figure/ground perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Shiina, Ken

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether the homogeneity of the two profiles of Rubin's goblet affects figure/ground perception in infants. We modified the two profiles of Rubin's goblet in order to compare figure/ground perception under four test patterns: (1) two profiles painted with horizontal lines (horizontal-line condition), (2) two profiles painted middle gray (uni-color condition), (3) one profile painted light gray and the other dark gray (two-color condition), and (4) a goblet painted with concentric circles (concentric-circles condition). In the horizontal-line condition the homogeneity of the profile was strengthened, and in the two-color condition the homogeneity of the profile was weakened compared to the uni-color condition, which was an original Rubin's goblet. In the concentric-circles condition the homogeneity of the reversed areas of the horizontal-line were strengthened. After infants were familiarized with each Rubin's goblet, the infants were tested on their discrimination between the two profiles and the goblet in the post-familiarization test. In horizontal-line condition, uni-color condition and concentric-circles condition infants showed a novelty preference for the two profiles in the post-familiarization test. On the other hand, in the two-color condition no preference was observed in the post-familiarization test. This means that infants perceived the goblet as figure and the two profiles as ground in the horizontal-line condition, the uni-color condition and the concentric-circles condition. We found that infants could not perceive the goblet area as figure when the homogeneity of the two profiles was weakened. It can be said that figure/ground perception in infancy is not affected by strengthened homogeneity, but is affected by weakened homogeneity. PMID:24463038

  20. Presence of HHV-6A in Endometrial Epithelial Cells from Women with Primary Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Daria; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Caselli, Elisabetta; Bolzani, Silvia; Rotola, Antonella; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 primary unexplained infertile women, a prospective randomized study was conducted on a cohort of primary unexplained infertile women and a cohort of control women, with at least one successful pregnancy. HHV-6 DNA was analyzed and the percentage and immune-phenotype of resident endometrial Natural Killer (NK) cells, as the first line of defense towards viral infections, was evaluated in endometrial biopsies. Cytokine levels in uterine flushing samples were analyzed. HHV-6A DNA was found in 43% of endometrial biopsies from primary unexplained infertile women, but not in control women. On the contrary, HHV-6B DNA was absent in endometrial biopsies, but present in PBMCs of both cohorts. Endometrial NK cells presented a different distribution in infertile women with HHV6-A infection compared with infertile women without HHV6-A infection. Notably, we observed a lower percentage of endometrial specific CD56brightCD16- NK cells. We observed an enhanced HHV-6A-specific endometrial NK cell response in HHV-6A positive infertile women, with a marked increase in the number of endometrial NK cells activating towards HHV-6A infected cells. The analysis of uterine flushing samples showed an increase in IL-10 levels and a decrease of IFN-gamma concentrations in infertile women with HHV6-A infection. Our study indicates, for the first time, that HHV-6A infection might be an important factor in female unexplained infertility development, with a possible role in modifying endometrial NK cells immune profile and ability to sustain a successful pregnancy. PMID:27367597

  1. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R.; Blachon, Stephanie; Lienhard, Gustav E.

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. - Highlights: • Insulin stimulates the fusion of vesicles containing GLUT4 with the plasma membrane. • This requires vesicular Rab10-GTP and the exocyst plasma membrane tethering complex. • We find that Rab10-GTP associates with the Exoc6 subunit of the exocyst. • We find that knockdown of Exoc6 inhibits fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the membrane. • The interaction of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6 potentially links signaling to exocytosis.

  2. The DR6 protein from human herpesvirus-6B induces p53-independent cell cycle arrest in G{sub 2}/M

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimann, Mariane H.; Hoberg, Søren; Solhøj Hansen, Aida; Bundgaard, Bettina; Witt, Christoffer T.; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Höllsberg, Per

    2014-03-15

    HHV-6B infection inhibits cell proliferation in G{sub 2}/M, but no protein has so far been recognized to exert this function. Here we identify the protein product of direct repeat 6, DR6, as an inhibitor of G{sub 2}/M cell-cycle progression. Transfection of DR6 reduced the total number of cells compared with mock-transfected cells. Lentiviral transduction of DR6 inhibited host cell DNA synthesis in a p53-independent manner, and this inhibition was DR6 dose-dependent. A deletion of 66 amino acids from the N-terminal part of DR6 prevented efficient nuclear translocation and the ability to inhibit DNA synthesis. DR6-induced accumulation of cells in G{sub 2}/M was accompanied by an enhanced expression of cyclin B1 that accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Pull-down of cyclin B1 brought down pCdk1 with the inactivating phosphorylation at Tyr15. Together, DR6 delays cell cycle with an accumulation of cells in G{sub 2}/M and thus might be involved in HHV-6B-induced cell-cycle arrest. - Highlights: • HHV-6B-encoded DR6 protein inhibits cell proliferation. • DR6 inhibits host cell DNA synthesis independent of p53. • DR6 delays the cell cycle in G{sub 2}/M. • An N-terminal sequence is necessary for DR6 function. • DR6 induces cytoplasmic accumulation of cyclin B1.

  3. Emergence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 genogroup 6B and drug resistant virus, India, January to May 2015.

    PubMed

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban Kumar; Kumar, Jyoti S; Joshi, Gaurav; Tandel, Kundan; Sharma, Shashi; Srivastava, Ambuj; Agarwal, Ankita; Saha, Amrita; Saraswat, Shweta; Karothia, Divyanshi; Malviya, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aetiology of the 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in India, 1,083 nasopharyngeal swabs from suspect patients were screened for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Of 412 positive specimens, six were further characterised by phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences revealing that they belonged to genogroup 6B. A new mutation (E164G) was observed in HA2 of two sequences. Neuraminidase genes in two of 12 isolates from fatal cases on prior oseltamivir treatment harboured the H275Y mutation. PMID:26876980

  4. Emergence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 genogroup 6B and drug resistant virus, India, January to May 2015.

    PubMed

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban Kumar; Kumar, Jyoti S; Joshi, Gaurav; Tandel, Kundan; Sharma, Shashi; Srivastava, Ambuj; Agarwal, Ankita; Saha, Amrita; Saraswat, Shweta; Karothia, Divyanshi; Malviya, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aetiology of the 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in India, 1,083 nasopharyngeal swabs from suspect patients were screened for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Of 412 positive specimens, six were further characterised by phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences revealing that they belonged to genogroup 6B. A new mutation (E164G) was observed in HA2 of two sequences. Neuraminidase genes in two of 12 isolates from fatal cases on prior oseltamivir treatment harboured the H275Y mutation.

  5. Structural analysis of the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide from Azospirillum brasilense Jm6B2 containing 3-O-methyl-D-rhamnose (D-acofriose).

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Knirel, Yuriy A; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2012-07-01

    Two types of neutral O-polysaccharides were obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide isolated by phenol-water extraction from the asymbiotic diazotrophic rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Jm6B2. The following structure of the major O-polysaccharide was established by composition and methylation (ethylation) analyses, Smith degradation, and 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: [structure: see text] where a non-stoichiometric (~60%) 3-O-methylation of D-rhamnose is indicated by italics.

  6. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  7. Figures of grief: metaphors from a bereavement writing group.

    PubMed

    Young, Elizabeth

    In a community-based bereavement writing group, patterns of metaphor emerged and helped the group members identify and deal with particularly challenging aspects of death and grief, including taboo subjects such as abuse and suicide. The metaphors show how a bereavement writing group functioned to address the needs of people coping with different kinds of grief effectively and efficiently. Analysis of the specific metaphors suggests why figurative language enabled the group to bond quickly and strongly, delve into the complex emotions death elicits, and integrate experiences of loss and grief safely and productively. The patterns of metaphors the group produced in their writing about death and grief are discussed in terms of bereavement processes, and the topics the group used to elicit the figures of speech are presented for further refinement and use.

  8. Relationships between visual figure discrimination, verbal abilities, and gender.

    PubMed

    Tammik, Valdar; Toomela, Aaro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between verbal thinking and performance on visual figure discrimination tasks from a Vygotskian perspective in a large varied adult sample (N = 428). A test designed to assess the structure of word meanings (ie tendency to think in 'everyday' or 'scientific' concepts as distinguished by Vygotsky) together with two contour picture tasks was presented. Visual tasks were a modified version of Poppelreuter's overlapping figures and a picture depicting a meaningful scene. On both tasks concrete objects and abstract meaningless shapes had to be identified. In addition to relationships between visual task performance and word meaning structure, the effects of the meaningful scene and relations with gender were examined. The results confirmed the expected relation between word meaning structure and visual performance. Furthermore, they suggested a specific effect of the meaningful whole and a male advantage, especially for the first task in which women seemed to benefit less from advanced word meaning structure. PMID:24386716

  9. Discriminating the structure of rotated three-dimensional figures.

    PubMed

    Barfield, W; Salvendy, G

    1987-10-01

    Visualizing the structure of transformed (by rotation) three-dimensional (3-D) figures is an important aspect of information processing for computer-graphics tasks. However, little research exists to establish the speed and accuracy in which subjects perform discrimination tasks for transformed images and the effects of rotation variables on perceiving transformed images. This research tests the effects of figural complexity, angles and axes of rotation on the speed and accuracy in which subjects discriminate the structure of rotated 3-D wireframe images. Results show that response times are affected more by angles than axes of rotation, the specific form of the image affects error rates, and the number of 90 degrees bends which determine the structure of an image may be an inadequate measure of form complexity for the task described here.

  10. Polarized Ion Beams in Figure-8 Rings of JLab's MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yury

    2014-07-01

    The Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is designed to provide high polarization of both colliding beams. One of the unique features of JLab's MEIC is figure-8 shape of its rings. It allows preservation and control of polarization of all ion species including small-anomalous-magnetic-moment deuterons during their acceleration and storage. The figure-8 design conceptually expands the capability of obtaining polarized high-energy beams in comparison to conventional designs because of its property of having no preferred periodic spin direction. This allows one to control effectively the beam polarization by means of magnetic insertions with small field integrals. We present a complete scheme for preserving the ion polarization during all stages of acceleration and its control in the collider's experimental straights.

  11. NOvA (Fermilab E929) Official Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer

    The NOvA collaboration, consisting of 180 researchers across 28 institutions and managed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), is developing instruments for a neutrino-focused experiment that will attempt to answer three fundamental questions in neutrino physics: 1) Can we observe the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos; 2) What is the ordering of the neutrino masses; and 3) What is the symmetry between matter and antimatter? The collaboration makes various data plots and figures available. These are grouped under five headings, with brief descriptions included for each individual figure: Neutrino Spectra, Detector Overview, Theta12 Mass Hierarchy CP phase, Theta 23 Delta Msqr23, and NuSterile.

  12. Relationship between thermoelectric figure of merit and energy conversion efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Weishu; Chen, Gang; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    The formula for maximum efficiency (ηmax) of heat conversion into electricity by a thermoelectric device in terms of the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) has been widely used to assess the desirability of thermoelectric materials for devices. Unfortunately, the ηmax values vary greatly depending on how the average ZT values are used, raising questions about the applicability of ZT in the case of a large temperature difference between the hot and cold sides due to the neglect of the temperature dependences of the material properties that affect ZT. To avoid the complex numerical simulation that gives accurate efficiency, we have defined an engineering dimensionless figure of merit (ZT)eng and an engineering power factor (PF)eng as functions of the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides to predict reliably and accurately the practical conversion efficiency and output power, respectively, overcoming the reporting of unrealistic efficiency using average ZT values. PMID:26100905

  13. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  14. Relationship between thermoelectric figure of merit and energy conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Weishu; Chen, Gang; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-01

    The formula for maximum efficiency (ηmax) of heat conversion into electricity by a thermoelectric device in terms of the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) has been widely used to assess the desirability of thermoelectric materials for devices. Unfortunately, the ηmax values vary greatly depending on how the average ZT values are used, raising questions about the applicability of ZT in the case of a large temperature difference between the hot and cold sides due to the neglect of the temperature dependences of the material properties that affect ZT. To avoid the complex numerical simulation that gives accurate efficiency, we have defined an engineering dimensionless figure of merit (ZT)eng and an engineering power factor (PF)eng as functions of the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides to predict reliably and accurately the practical conversion efficiency and output power, respectively, overcoming the reporting of unrealistic efficiency using average ZT values.

  15. Preliminary software development for optical mirror figure control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, D.

    1970-01-01

    The maintenance of accurate primary mirror figure in the face of environmental disturbances is the key to the achievement of diffraction-limited performance in a large space telescope. In order to develop the concepts of optical mirror figure control, an experimental program was initiated. A major component in this experiment will be an XDS Sigma 5.7 digital computer which will realize the control algorithm. A software package is described which realizes linear optimal, simplified linear, and iterative optimal control algorithms. The software, in addition, provides for interactive communication between the operator and the computer, and interaction between the computer and the experimental hardware elements. A brief description of a small hybrid computer system is also presented.

  16. History of mirror casting, figuring, segmentation and active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noethe, Lothar

    2009-08-01

    Since the invention of the telescope the mirrors in reflecting telescopes have evolved from small pieces of polished speculum to sophisticated, computer-controlled systems. This review describes the major problems with the casting, figuring and support of these mirrors, and how fundamental inventions like depositing a silver layer on glass or electronic devices like computers opened the path to new solutions for fabricating larger mirrors with improved performance.

  17. Testing the figure of parabolic reflectors for solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, J S; Eisenberg, N P; Gur, J

    1982-12-15

    A novel method for testing the optical quality of large parabolic solar concentrators is presented, based on autocollimation. An optical system continuously scans the reflector along a fixed reference axis. At each position along the axis, the spread function is obtained. Analysis of the location, width, and intensity changes of this function gives quantitative information about the reflector's defects. A figure of merit describing the performance of parabolic trough reflectors is proposed.

  18. Numerical simulation of deformation and figure quality of precise mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vit, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Sandri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper shows results and a comparison of FEM numerical simulations and optical tests of the assembly of a precise Zerodur mirror with a mounting structure for space applications. It also shows how the curing of adhesive film can impact the optical surface, especially as regards deformations. Finally, the paper shows the results of the figure quality analysis, which are based on data from FEM simulation of optical surface deformations.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  6. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dummy, Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. 01 Figures to Subpart O of Part 572 ER15JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O2 ER15JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O3 ER15JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O4 ER15jy02.003 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O5 ER15JY02.004...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dummy, Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. 01 Figures to Subpart O of Part 572 ER15JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O2 ER15JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O3 ER15JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O4 ER15jy02.003 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O5 ER15JY02.004...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dummy, Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. 01 Figures to Subpart O of Part 572 ER15JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O2 ER15JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O3 ER15JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O4 ER15jy02.003 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O5 ER15JY02.004...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  13. Lateralized processing of novel metaphors: disentangling figurativeness and novelty.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Lukács, Agnes; Pléh, Csaba

    2014-04-01

    One of the intriguing and sometimes controversial findings in figurative language research is a right-hemisphere processing advantage for novel metaphors. The current divided visual field study introduced novel literal expressions as a control condition to assess processing novelty independent of figurativeness. Participants evaluated word pairs belonging to one of the five categories: (1) conventional metaphorical, (2) conventional literal, (3) novel metaphorical, (4) novel literal, and (5) unrelated expressions in a semantic decision task. We presented expressions without sentence context and controlled for additional factors including emotional valence, arousal, and imageability that could potentially influence hemispheric processing. We also utilized an eye-tracker to ensure lateralized presentation. We did not find the previously reported right-hemispherical processing advantage for novel metaphors. Processing was faster in the left hemisphere for all types of word pairs, and accuracy was also higher in the right visual field - left hemisphere. Novel metaphors were processed just as fast as novel literal expressions, suggesting that the primary challenge during the comprehension of novel expressions is not a serial processing of salience, but perhaps a more left hemisphere weighted semantic integration. Our results cast doubt on the right-hemisphere theory of metaphors, and raise the possibility that other uncontrolled variables were responsible for previous results. The lateralization of processing of two word expressions seems to be more contingent on the specific task at hand than their figurativeness or saliency. PMID:24418155

  14. Oculomotor Exploration of Impossible Figures in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Shuwairi, Sarah M; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies with young infants revealed that young infants can distinguish between displays of possible or impossible figures, which may require detection of inconsistent depth relations among local line junctions that disrupt global object configurations. Here, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to record eye movements in young infants during an object discrimination task with matched pairs of possible and impossible figures. Our goal was to identify differential patterns of oculomotor activity as infants viewed pictures of possible and impossible objects. We predicted that infants would actively attend to specific pictorial depth cues that denote shape (e.g., T-junctions), and in the context of an impossible figure that they would fixate to a greater extent in anomalous regions of the display relative to other parts. By the age of 4 months, infants fixated reliably longer overall on displays of impossible vs. possible cubes, specifically within the critical region where the incompatible lines and irreconcilable depth relations were located, implying an early capacity for selective attention to critical line junction information and integration of local depth cues necessary to perceive object coherence.

  15. Superpixel Cut for Figure-Ground Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    Figure-ground image segmentation has been a challenging problem in computer vision. Apart from the difficulties in establishing an effective framework to divide the image pixels into meaningful groups, the notions of figure and ground often need to be properly defined by providing either user inputs or object models. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based segmentation framework, called superpixel cut. The key idea is to formulate foreground segmentation as finding a subset of superpixels that partitions a graph over superpixels. The problem is formulated as Min-Cut. Therefore, we propose a novel cost function that simultaneously minimizes the inter-class similarity while maximizing the intra-class similarity. This cost function is optimized using parametric programming. After a small learning step, our approach is fully automatic and fully bottom-up, which requires no high-level knowledge such as shape priors and scene content. It recovers coherent components of images, providing a set of multiscale hypotheses for high-level reasoning. We evaluate our proposed framework by comparing it to other generic figure-ground segmentation approaches. Our method achieves improved performance on state-of-the-art benchmark databases.

  16. Figure content analysis for improved biomedical article retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Daekeun; Apostolova, Emilia; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical images are invaluable in medical education and establishing clinical diagnosis. Clinical decision support (CDS) can be improved by combining biomedical text with automatically annotated images extracted from relevant biomedical publications. In a previous study we reported 76.6% accuracy using supervised machine learning on the feasibility of automatically classifying images by combining figure captions and image content for usefulness in finding clinical evidence. Image content extraction is traditionally applied on entire images or on pre-determined image regions. Figure images articles vary greatly limiting benefit of whole image extraction beyond gross categorization for CDS due to the large variety. However, text annotations and pointers on them indicate regions of interest (ROI) that are then referenced in the caption or discussion in the article text. We have previously reported 72.02% accuracy in text and symbols localization but we failed to take advantage of the referenced image locality. In this work we combine article text analysis and figure image analysis for localizing pointer (arrows, symbols) to extract ROI pointed that can then be used to measure meaningful image content and associate it with the identified biomedical concepts for improved (text and image) content-based retrieval of biomedical articles. Biomedical concepts are identified using National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. Our methods report an average precision and recall of 92.3% and 75.3%, respectively on identifying pointing symbols in images from a randomly selected image subset made available through the ImageCLEF 2008 campaign.

  17. Lateralized processing of novel metaphors: disentangling figurativeness and novelty.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Lukács, Agnes; Pléh, Csaba

    2014-04-01

    One of the intriguing and sometimes controversial findings in figurative language research is a right-hemisphere processing advantage for novel metaphors. The current divided visual field study introduced novel literal expressions as a control condition to assess processing novelty independent of figurativeness. Participants evaluated word pairs belonging to one of the five categories: (1) conventional metaphorical, (2) conventional literal, (3) novel metaphorical, (4) novel literal, and (5) unrelated expressions in a semantic decision task. We presented expressions without sentence context and controlled for additional factors including emotional valence, arousal, and imageability that could potentially influence hemispheric processing. We also utilized an eye-tracker to ensure lateralized presentation. We did not find the previously reported right-hemispherical processing advantage for novel metaphors. Processing was faster in the left hemisphere for all types of word pairs, and accuracy was also higher in the right visual field - left hemisphere. Novel metaphors were processed just as fast as novel literal expressions, suggesting that the primary challenge during the comprehension of novel expressions is not a serial processing of salience, but perhaps a more left hemisphere weighted semantic integration. Our results cast doubt on the right-hemisphere theory of metaphors, and raise the possibility that other uncontrolled variables were responsible for previous results. The lateralization of processing of two word expressions seems to be more contingent on the specific task at hand than their figurativeness or saliency.

  18. Motion sequence analysis in the presence of figural cues

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pawan; Vaina, Lucia M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of 3D structure in dynamic sequences is believed to be subserved primarily through the use of motion cues. However, real-world sequences contain many figural shape cues besides the dynamic ones. We hypothesize that if figural cues are perceptually significant during sequence analysis, then inconsistencies in these cues over time would lead to percepts of non-rigidity in sequences showing physically rigid objects in motion. We develop an experimental paradigm to test this hypothesis and present results with two patients with impairments in motion perception due to focal neurological damage, as well as two control subjects. Consistent with our hypothesis, the data suggest that figural cues strongly influence the perception of structure in motion sequences, even to the extent of inducing non-rigid percepts in sequences where motion information alone would yield rigid structures. Beyond helping to probe the issue of shape perception, our experimental paradigm might also serve as a possible perceptual assessment tool in a clinical setting. PMID:26028822

  19. Warm Spitzer Secondary Transit Photometry of Hot Jupiters HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b and XO-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen 0.; Deming, D.; Knutson, H.; Burrows, A.; Sada, P.; Agol, E.; Desert, J.; Fortney, J. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Cowan, N. B.; Laughlin, G.; Langton, J.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of transiting exoplanets have been observed at secondary eclipse. By measuring the depth of these eclipses at different wavelengths it is possible to distinguish between planets that have a temperature inversion in the upper layers of their atmospheres and ones that do not. We observed XO-4b, HAT-P-6b and HAT-P-8b during secondary eclipse with the IRAC instrument on Warm Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We compare the resulting eclipse depths to atmospheric models with and without temperature inversions, and thereby place constraints on the properties of their day-side atmospheres and heat redistribution efficiencies. The XO-4b and HAT-P-6b eclipse depths agree best with inverted models, while HAT-P-8b exhibits no temperature inversion. Knutson et al. (2010) hypothesized a correlation between lack of a temperature inversion and host star activity. Also, Cowan & Agol (2011), investigated the dependence between planetary effective temperatures, assuming no redistribution, and heat redistribution efficiency, finding that the hottest planets re-distribute heat inefficiently. We compare our planets with the Knutson and Cowan-Agol relations, and we find that they are consistent with the Knutson et al. activity hypothesis, but they are not hot enough to test the Cowan & Agol hypothesis.

  20. The coding of uniform colour figures in monkey visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Howard S; Zhou, Hong; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    Psychophysical studies indicate that perception of the colour and brightness of a surface depends on neural signals evoked by the borders of the surface rather than its interior. The visual cortex emphasizes contrast borders, but it is unclear whether colour surface signals also exist, whether colour border signals are orientation selective or mainly non-oriented, and whether cortical processing tends to separate colour and form information. To address these questions we examined the representation of uniform colour figures by recording single neuron activity from areas V1 and V2 in alert macaque monkeys during behaviourally induced fixation. Three aspects of coding were quantified: colour, orientation and edge selectivity. The occurrence of colour selectivity was not correlated with orientation or edge selectivity. The fraction of colour-selective cells was the same (64 % in layers 2 and 3 of V1, 45 % in V2) for oriented and non-oriented cells, and for edge-selective and surface-responsive cells. Oriented cells were often highly selective in colour space, and about 40 % of them were selective for edge polarity or border ownership. Thus, contrary to the idea of feature maps, colour, orientation and edge polarity are multiplexed in cortical signals. The results from V2 were similar to those from upper-layer V1, indicating that cortical processing does not strive to separate form and colour information. Oriented cells were five times more frequent than non-oriented cells. Thus, the vast majority of colour-coded cells are orientation tuned. Based on response profiles across a 4 deg square figure, and the relative frequency of oriented and non-oriented cells, we estimate that the cortical colour signal is 5–6 times stronger for the edges than for the surface of the figure. The frequency of oriented colour cells and their ability to code edge polarity indicate that these cells play a major role in the representation of surface colour. PMID:12611925

  1. Dissection of Drosophila Visual Circuits Implicative in Figure Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Ross G.

    The Drosophila visual system offers a model to study the foundations of how motion signals are computed from raw visual input and transformed into behavioral output. My studies focus on how specific cells in the Drosophila nervous system implement this input-output transformation. The individual cell types are known from classical studies using Golgi impregnations, but the assembly of motion processing circuits and the behavioral outputs remain poorly understood. Using an electronic flight simulator for flies and a white-noise analysis developed by Aptekar et al., I screen specific neurons in the optic lobes for behavioral ramifications. This approach produces wing responses to both the spatial and temporal dynamics of motion signals. The results of these experiments give Spatiotemporal Action Fields (STAFs) across the entire visual panorama. Genetically inactivating a distinct grouping of cells in the third optic ganglion, the Lobula Plate, the Horizontal System (HS) cell group, produced a robust phenotype through STAF analysis. Using the Gal4-UAS transgene expression system, we selectively inactivated the HS cells by expressing in their membrane inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1) to hyperpolarize these cells, preventing their role in synaptic signaling. The results of the experiments show mutants lose steering responses to several distinct categories of figure motion and reduced behavioral responses to figure motion set against a contrasting moving background, highlighting their role in figure tracking behavior. Finally, a synapse inactivating protein, tetanus toxin (TNT), expressed in the HS cell group, produces a different behavioral phenotype than overexpressing inward rectifier. TNT, a bacterial neurotoxin, cleaves SNARE proteins resulting in loss of synaptic output of the cell, but the dendrites are intact and signal normally, preserving dendro-dendritic interactions known to sculpt the visual receptive fields of these cells. The two distinct

  2. Enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit in engineered graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Sangtarash, Sara; Lambert, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate that thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons can be dramatically improved by introducing nanopores. In monolayer graphene, this increases the electronic thermoelectric figure of merit ZT e from 0.01 to 0.5. The largest values of ZT e are found when a nanopore is introduced into bilayer graphene, such that the current flows from one layer to the other via the inner surface of the pore, for which values as high as ZT e = 2.45 are obtained. All thermoelectric properties can be further enhanced by tuning the Fermi energy of the leads. PMID:26171293

  3. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; González-Viñas, W

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  4. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  5. Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q'. 21Jul94 Last Look at the Q-nuclei First image - March 30, 1994. Two Q-nuclei and a split nucleus, P. Second image - July 20, 1994. at T - 10 hours. Both nuclei still show no sign of further fragmentation, although the coma near each is being stretched out along the direction of motion. Both images were taken with the WFPC2 Planetary Camera using a red filter. Credit: H. A. Weaver and T. E. Smith

  6. Materials figure of merit for achromatic gradient index (GRIN) optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beadie, G.; Mait, J. N.; Flynn, R. A.; Milojkovic, P.

    2016-05-01

    A new figure of merit is developed for ranking pairs of materials as candidates for gradient index (GRIN) optics capable of good color correction. The approach leverages recent work which derives a connection in GRIN lenses between the optical properties of constituent materials and the wavelength dependence of the lens power. We extend the analysis here, the effectiveness of which is evidenced by a simulated f/3 GRIN lens with diffraction-limited performance over the visible spectrum, using the top material pair selected out of a database of >60,000 possible candidates.

  7. Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer.

    PubMed

    Serabyn, E; Phillips, T G; Masson, C R

    1991-04-01

    A new technique for determining the surface figure of large submillimeter wavelength telescopes is presented, which is based on measuring the telescope's focal plane diffraction pattern with a shearing interferometer. In addition to the instrumental theory, results obtained using such an interferometer on the 10.4-m diam telescope of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory are discussed. Using wavelengths near 1 mm, a measurement accuracy of 9 microm, or lambda/115, has been achieved, and the rms surface accuracy has been determined to be just under 30 microm. The distortions of the primary reflector with changing elevation angle have also been measured and agree well with theoretical predictions of the dish deformation.

  8. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X. K. Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K.

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  9. Correlations among ambiguous figures, curiosity, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Beer, J

    1990-12-01

    For 29 college students (6 men, 23 women) who passively viewed in each of 6 blocks both the Schroeder stair and the Necker cube for 3 min. apiece with one 3-min. rest between viewings, their frequency of reversals, sex, GPA, scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Information subtest, the two-dimensional Test 8, and the three-dimensional Test 9 of the Multiple Aptitude Test, measuring spatial ability, and three curiosity measures--the Which-to-Discuss Test, the Maze test, and the Ontario Test of Intrinsic Motivation--were not significantly correlated by Pearson's method with the number of ambiguous figure reversals.

  10. Wavefront control of optical components by laser-ablative figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsuno, Takahisa; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakai, Sadao; Tokumura, Keiu

    1997-12-01

    A new method for figuring the surface profile of optical plastics and optical glass have been proposed and demonstrated. An ArF excimer laser is used to ablate very thin layer of the surface of the substrates. The shape of the ablated surface is monitored by an interferometer in site condition. The ablation rate of PMMA is 0.08 micrometers per pulse at the energy density of 50 mJ/cm2. The optical glass (BK-7) can be ablated 0.15 micrometers per pulse at the fluence of 1.5 J/cm2.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N1 Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 ER18JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N2 ER18JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N3 ER18JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N4 ER13JA00.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N5 ER19SE02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N6...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N1 Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 ER18JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N2 ER18JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N3 ER18JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N4 ER13JA00.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N5 ER19SE02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N6...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N1 Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 ER18JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N2 ER18JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N3 ER18JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N4 ER13JA00.005 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N5 ER19SE02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N6...

  14. Anisotropy of inter-band transitions and band structure of Cs3Zn6B9O21 nonlinear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovgyra, O. V.; Kurlak, V. Y.; Chrunik, M.; Majchrowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Ozga, K.

    2016-06-01

    Polarized optical functions near the fundamental absorption edge of novel Cs3Zn6B9O21 nonlinear optical crystals possessing a wide UV transparency down to 190 nm were investigated. The anisotropy of optical functions is not well studied yet which restrains the further strategy of the formation on its base of solid state compounds with desirable properties. The studies were performed using a band structure calculations as well as the experimental measurements of fundamental polarized UV absorption edge and X-ray photoelectron spectra of the studied crystals. The experimental data were used for evaluation of scissor factors of the band structure. The results of the calculations were compared with the XPS and polarized absorption optical spectra of the investigated crystals. The introduction of the scissor factor was performed in order to obtain a sufficient agreement with experiment. The observed anisotropy of absorption may be explained by the anisotropy of carrier effective masses.

  15. Wind-tunnel static and free-flight investigation of high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a model of the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Hahne, David E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel and the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to identify factors contributing to a directional divergence at high angles of attack for the EA-6B airplane. The study consisted of static wind-tunnel tests, smoke and tuft flow-visualization tests, and free-flight tests of a 1/8.5-scale model of the airplane. The results of the investigation indicate that the directional divergence of the airplane is brought about by a loss of directional stability and effective dihedral at high angles of attack. Several modifications were tested that significantly alleviate the stability problem. The results of the free-flight study show that the modified configuration exhibits good dynamic stability characteristics and could be flown at angles of attack significantly higher than those of the unmodified configuration.

  16. Extraction of functionally active photosystem 2 pigment-protein complexes from pea thylakoids and their purification on Sepharose DEAE 6B.

    PubMed

    Khristin, M S; Nikitishena, O V; Smolova, T N; Zastrizhnaya, O M

    1997-01-01

    A method for selective extraction of photosystem 2 (PS 2) pigment-protein complexes (PPC) from pea thylakoids and their purification from Sepharose DEAE 6B was developed. It was shown that extraction of thylakoids (3 mg chlorophyll/ml) with Triton X-100 (Triton X-100:chlorophyll = 15-20:1 w/w) in the presence of 1 M sucrose, 1 M NaCl, 50 mM MES in the solubilization medium (pH 5.0), tenfold dilution with 50 mM MES buffer (pH 5.0), and centrifugation at 16,000 g for 10 min provided selective extraction of PS 2 PPC. Spectral, electrophoretic and functional properties of the isolated PPC were determined. This method allowed us to isolate native pigment-protein oxygen-evolving complexes (core complexes) and D1-D2-cytochrome b559 complexes of the reaction centre (RC). The core complex immobilized on a Sepharose DEAE 6B column was treated with 2 mM hydroxylamine or 1 M CaCl2. In the former case, modification by hydroxylamine led to the removal of 4 atoms of Mn, but not of the 33-kDa protein; in the latter case, modification by CaCl2 led to the removal of the 33 kDa protein. The modified core complexes were unstable upon native electrophoresis in the presence of n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside and deriphat-160. We suggest that the structural organization of the Mn cluster and 33 kDa protein stabilized the core complex and increased its stability upon the action of the detergents. PMID:9354396

  17. Demethylation of IGFBP5 by Histone Demethylase KDM6B Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Periodontal Tissue Regeneration by Enhancing Osteogenic Differentiation and Anti-Inflammation Potentials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dayong; Wang, Yuejun; Jia, Zhi; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinsong; Yang, Dongmei; Song, Jianqiu; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration is considered a promising method for periodontitis treatment. The molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation and anti-inflammatory actions remains unclear, thus limiting potential MSC application. We previously found that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) is highly expressed in dental tissue-derived MSCs compared with in non-dental tissue-derived MSCs. IGFBP5 is mainly involved in regulating biological activity of insulin-like growth factors, and its functions in human MSCs and tissue regeneration are unclear. In this study, we performed gain- and loss-of-function assays to test whether IGFBP5 could regulate the osteogenic differentiation and anti-inflammatory potential in MSCs. We found that IGFBP5 expression was upregulated upon osteogenic induction, and that IGFBP5 enhanced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. We further showed that IGFBP5 prompted the anti-inflammation effect of MSCs via negative regulation of NFκB signaling. Depletion of the histone demethylase lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) downregulated IGFBP5 expression by increasing histone K27 methylation in the IGFBP5 promoter. Moreover, IGFBP5 expression in periodontal tissues was downregulated in individuals with periodontitis compared with in healthy people, and IGFBP5 enhanced MSC-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration and alleviated local inflammation in a swine model of periodontitis. In conclusion, our present results reveal a new function for IGFBP5, provide insight into the mechanism underlying the directed differentiation and anti-inflammation capacities of MSCs, and identify a potential target mediator for improving tissue regeneration.

  18. Pet dogs as attachment figures for adult owners.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, Lawrence A

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the extent to which, and under what conditions, owners turn to their pet dogs in times of emotional distress. This feature of an attachment figure-safe haven-is a key characteristic of an attachment bond. Participants (N = 975, mean age = 47.95 years, 789 women and 186 men) were relatively dedicated dog owners who completed an online survey. Relative to other features of an attachment figure, safe haven was the least salient. Nonetheless, participants were more likely to turn to their dogs than they were to turn to their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, best friends, and children but less likely to turn to their dogs than to their romantic partners. Characteristics of both owners (being male, widowed, highly involved in the care of the dog, and uncomfortable with self-disclosure) and dogs (strongly meeting owner's needs regarding relatedness) heightened the likelihood that dogs were turned to rather than some humans. It is concluded that some owners develop attachment bonds with their pet dogs. PMID:19685978

  19. Fermilab E866 (NuSea) Figures and Data Plots

    DOE Data Explorer

    None

    The NuSea Experiment at Fermilab studied the internal structure of protons, in particular the difference between up quarks and down quarks. This experiment also addressed at least two other physics questions: nuclear effects on the production of charmonia states (bound states of charm and anti-charm quarks) and energy loss of quarks in nuclei from Drell-Yan measurements on nuclei. While much of the NuSea data are available only to the collaboration, figures, data plots, and tables are presented as stand-alone items for viewing or download. They are listed in conjunction with the published papers, theses, or presentations in which they first appeared. The date range is 1998 to 2008. To see these figures and plots, click on E866 publications or go directly to http://p25ext.lanl.gov/e866/papers/papers.html. Theses are at http://p25ext.lanl.gov/e866/papers/e866theses/e866theses.html and the presentations are found at http://p25ext.lanl.gov/e866/papers/e866talks/e866talks.html. Many of the items are postscript files.

  20. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy. PMID:24944050