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Sample records for 6b induces phosphorylation

  1. Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporters inhibitor, attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Yan, Lingdi; Yong, Zheng; Dong, Zhaoqi; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-02-15

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that glutamatergic system plays an important role in drug addiction. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviors in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to METH by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg METH once daily for 7 days and then challenged with 1mg/kg METH in 14th day. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (7.5μg) 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effects on METH -induced behavioral sensitization. Our results showed that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B 2.5h prior to METH either during the development period or before methamphetamine challenge in mice, while CSB6B itself had no effect on locomotor activity. Meanwhile, pretreatment of CSB6B also attenuated hyperactivity caused by a single injection of METH in mice. These results demonstrated that CSB6B, a VGLUTs inhibitor, attenuated acute METH-induced hyperactivity and chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization, which indicated that VGLUTs were involved in the effect of chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization and may be a new target against the addiction of METH.

  2. Alcohol-induced suppression of KDM6B dysregulates the mineralization potential in dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Michael; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kim, Yiyoung; Tong, Elizabeth; Trammell, Benjamin; Liu, Yao; Shi, Songtao; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu; Kim, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic changes, such as alteration of DNA methylation patterns, have been proposed as a molecular mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on the maintenance of adult stem cells. We have performed genome-wide gene expression microarray and DNA methylome analysis to identify molecular alterations via DNA methylation changes associated with exposure of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to ethanol (EtOH). By combined analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation, we have found a significant number of genes that are potentially regulated by EtOH-induced DNA methylation. As a focused approach, we have also performed a pathway-focused RT-PCR array analysis to examine potential molecular effects of EtOH on genes involved in epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes, fibroblastic markers, and stress and toxicity pathways in DPSCs. We have identified and verified that lysine specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) was significantly dysregulated in DPSCs upon EtOH exposure. EtOH treatment during odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs suppressed the induction of KDM6B with alterations in the expression of differentiation markers. Knockdown of KDM6B resulted in a marked decrease in mineralization from implanted DPSCs in vivo. Furthermore, an ectopic expression of KDM6B in EtOH-treated DPSCs restored the expression of differentiation-related genes. Our study has demonstrated that EtOH-induced inhibition of KDM6B plays a role in the dysregulation of odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation in the DPSC model. This suggests a potential molecular mechanism for cellular insults of heavy alcohol consumption that can lead to decreased mineral deposition potentially associated with abnormalities in dental development and also osteopenia/osteoporosis, hallmark features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  3. The DR6 protein from human herpesvirus-6B induces p53-independent cell cycle arrest in G{sub 2}/M

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimann, Mariane H.; Hoberg, Søren; Solhøj Hansen, Aida; Bundgaard, Bettina; Witt, Christoffer T.; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Höllsberg, Per

    2014-03-15

    HHV-6B infection inhibits cell proliferation in G{sub 2}/M, but no protein has so far been recognized to exert this function. Here we identify the protein product of direct repeat 6, DR6, as an inhibitor of G{sub 2}/M cell-cycle progression. Transfection of DR6 reduced the total number of cells compared with mock-transfected cells. Lentiviral transduction of DR6 inhibited host cell DNA synthesis in a p53-independent manner, and this inhibition was DR6 dose-dependent. A deletion of 66 amino acids from the N-terminal part of DR6 prevented efficient nuclear translocation and the ability to inhibit DNA synthesis. DR6-induced accumulation of cells in G{sub 2}/M was accompanied by an enhanced expression of cyclin B1 that accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Pull-down of cyclin B1 brought down pCdk1 with the inactivating phosphorylation at Tyr15. Together, DR6 delays cell cycle with an accumulation of cells in G{sub 2}/M and thus might be involved in HHV-6B-induced cell-cycle arrest. - Highlights: • HHV-6B-encoded DR6 protein inhibits cell proliferation. • DR6 inhibits host cell DNA synthesis independent of p53. • DR6 delays the cell cycle in G{sub 2}/M. • An N-terminal sequence is necessary for DR6 function. • DR6 induces cytoplasmic accumulation of cyclin B1.

  4. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2009-04-10

    Smad proteins transduce the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. Upon TGF-beta treatment, the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the SSXS motif in the C-terminal tail. Here we show that in addition to the C-tail, three (S/T)-P sites in the Smad3 linker region, Ser(208), Ser(204), and Thr(179) are phosphorylated in response to TGF-beta. The linker phosphorylation peaks at 1 h after TGF-beta treatment, behind the peak of the C-tail phosphorylation. We provide evidence suggesting that the C-tail phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation. Although the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the linker phosphorylation, the receptor itself does not phosphorylate these sites. We further show that ERK is not responsible for TGF-beta-dependent phosphorylation of these three sites. We show that GSK3 accounts for TGF-beta-inducible Ser(204) phosphorylation. Flavopiridol, a pan-CDK inhibitor, abolishes TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208), suggesting that the CDK family is responsible for phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208) in response to TGF-beta. Mutation of the linker phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues increases the ability of Smad3 to activate a TGF-beta/Smad-target gene as well as the growth-inhibitory function of Smad3. Thus, these observations suggest that TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 linker sites inhibits its antiproliferative activity.

  5. Cyanogen induced phosphorylation of D-fructose. [prebiotic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, CH.; Kawatsuji, M.; Halmann, M.

    1975-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a phosphorylated sugar, identified as alpha-D-fructopyranose, can be formed as the result of cyanogen-induced phosphorylation of D-fructose at pH 8.8. The product was isolated from barium and cyclohexylammonium salts and identified on the basis of its chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, its lability to hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase, the rate of its acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, and the results of periodate oxidation and optical rotatory measurements. These results support the suggestion that the cyanogen-induced phosphorylation of free sugars could be a possible process for formation of sugar phosphates under prebiotic conditions (Halman et al., 1969).

  6. Role of Phosphorylated HDAC4 in Stroke-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Qing; Zhou, Shu-Min; Hu, Bin; Hu, Guo-Wen; Niu, Xin; Guo, Shang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation or deacetylation of chromatin proteins and transcription factors is part of a complex signaling system that is involved in the control of neurological disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) exert protective effects in attenuating neuronal injury after ischemic insults. Class IIa HDAC4 is highly expressed in the brain, and neuronal activity depends on the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC4. However, little is known about HDAC4 and its roles in ischemic stroke. In this study, we report that phosphorylation of HDAC4 was remarkably upregulated after stroke and blockade of HDAC4 phosphorylation with GÖ6976 repressed stroke-induced angiogenesis. Phosphorylation of HDAC4 was also increased in endothelial cells hypoxia model and suppression of HDAC4 phosphorylation inhibited the tube formation and migration of endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, in addition to the inhibition of angiogenesis, blockade of HDAC4 phosphorylation suppressed the expression of genes downstream of HIF-VEGF signaling in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that phosphorylated HDAC4 may serve as an important regulator in stroke-induced angiogenesis. The protective mechanism of phosphorylated HDAC4 is associated with HIF-VEGF signaling, implicating a novel therapeutic target in stroke. PMID:28127553

  7. Different endothelin receptors involved in endothelin-1- and sarafotoxin S6B-induced contractions of the human isolated coronary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Bax, W A; Aghai, Z; van Tricht, C L; Wassenaar, C; Saxena, P R

    1994-01-01

    1. Endothelin receptors, that mediate contraction of the human isolated coronary artery, were characterized by use of a number of agonists and antagonists. Contraction induced by the non-selective agonists, endothelin (ET)-1 and sarafotoxin S6b, was compared in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded ring segments. The effects of ET-1 and BQ-123 (an ETA receptor antagonist) were investigated both in ring segments and in spirally cut strips. Lastly, the effect of phosphoramidon was studied on contraction induced by big-ET-1. 2. The order of agonist potency (pD2) in endothelium-intact coronary artery ring segments was: ET-1 (8.27) approximately sarafotoxin S6b (8.16) > big-ET-1 (< 7.1) approximately ET-3 (< 6.9). [Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1 (ETB receptor agonist) caused significant contraction only at 1 microM, whereas 0.3 microM big-ET-3 had no effect. Removal of the endothelium in ring segments did not affect the contractile response to ET-1 or to sarafotoxin S6b. 3. After a full concentration-response curve had been obtained to ET-1 or sarafotoxin S6b, further contractions of the endothelium-intact coronary artery segments could only be achieved by applying ET-1 in segments exposed to sarafotoxin S6b, and not the reverse. 4. BQ-123 (0.1 microM) antagonized contractions of endothelium-intact ring segments induced by sarafotoxin S6b (pKB 7.86). Only 10 microM BQ-123 antagonized contractions induced by ET-1 (pKB 5.75). FR139317 was also more potent against sarafotoxin S6b (pKB 8.24-8.47) than against ET-1 (pKB 6.11). [Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1 (1 microM) had no effect on the contractile response to ET-1 or to sarafotoxin S6b.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889304

  8. Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 Phosphorylates Beclin1 to Induce Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Li, Xinjian; Cai, Qingsong; Zhang, Chuanbao; Yu, Qiujing; Jiang, Yuhui; Lee, Jong-Ho; Hawke, David; Wang, Yugang; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Yanhua; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, David X; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-03-02

    Autophagy is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that glutamine deprivation and hypoxia result in inhibition of mTOR-mediated acetyl-transferase ARD1 S228 phosphorylation, leading to ARD1-dependent phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) K388 acetylation and subsequent PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation enhances ATG14L-associated class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 activity by increasing the binding of phosphatidylinositol to VPS34. ARD1-dependent PGK1 acetylation and PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation are required for glutamine deprivation- and hypoxia-induced autophagy and brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 K388 acetylation levels correlate with Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Our study unearths an important mechanism underlying cellular-stress-induced autophagy initiation in which the protein kinase activity of the metabolic enzyme PGK1 plays an instrumental role and reveals the significance of the mutual regulation of autophagy and cell metabolism in maintaining cell homeostasis.

  9. Cell entry of Lassa virus induces tyrosine phosphorylation of dystroglycan.

    PubMed

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Pythoud, Christelle; Turk, Rolf; Rothenberger, Sylvia; Pasquato, Antonella; Campbell, Kevin P; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor dystroglycan (DG) serves as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) that causes a haemorrhagic fever with high mortality in human. In the host cell, DG provides a molecular link between the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton via the adapter proteins utrophin or dystrophin. Here we investigated post-translational modifications of DG in the context of LASV cell entry. Using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, we found that tyrosine kinases are required for efficient internalization of virus particles, but not virus-receptor binding. Engagement of cellular DG by LASV envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP) in human epithelial cells induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of DG. LASV GP binding to DG further resulted in dissociation of the adapter protein utrophin from virus-bound DG. This virus-induced dissociation of utrophin was affected by genistein treatment, suggesting a role of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in the process.

  10. Cell entry of Lassa virus induces tyrosine phosphorylation of dystroglycan

    PubMed Central

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Pythoud, Christelle; Turk, Rolf; Rothenberger, Sylvia; Pasquato, Antonella; Campbell, Kevin P.; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor dystroglycan (DG) serves as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) that causes a hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in man. In the host cell, DG provides a molecular link between the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton via the adapter proteins utrophin or dystrophin. Here we investigated post-translational modifications of DG in the context of LASV cell entry. Using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, we found that tyrosine kinases are required for efficient internalization of virus particles, but not virus-receptor binding. Engagement of cellular DG by LASV envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP) in human epithelial cells induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of DG. LASV GP binding to DG further resulted in dissociation of the adapter protein utrophin from virus-bound DG. This virus-induced dissociation of utrophin was affected by genistein treatment, suggesting a role of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in the process. PMID:23279385

  11. GFAT1 phosphorylation by AMPK promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zibrova, Darya; Vandermoere, Franck; Göransson, Olga; Peggie, Mark; Mariño, Karina V; Knierim, Anne; Spengler, Katrin; Weigert, Cora; Viollet, Benoit; Morrice, Nicholas A; Sakamoto, Kei; Heller, Regine

    2017-03-07

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells regulates energy homeostasis, stress protection and angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a label-free phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) as an AMPK substrate. GFAT1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and as such controls the modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK controls O-GlcNAc levels and function of endothelial cells via GFAT1 phosphorylation using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and in vitro angiogenesis approaches. Activation of AMPK in primary human endothelial cells by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) led to GFAT1 phosphorylation at serine 243. This effect was not seen when AMPK was down-regulated by siRNA. Upon AMPK activation, diminished GFAT activity and reduced O-GlcNAc levels were observed in endothelial cells containing wild-type (WT)-GFAT1 but not in cells expressing non-phosphorylatable S243A-GFAT1. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated down-regulation of GFAT1 potentiated VEGF-induced sprouting, indicating that GFAT1 acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. In cells expressing S243A-GFAT1, VEGF-induced sprouting was reduced, suggesting that VEGF relieves the inhibitory action of GFAT1/HBP on angiogenesis via AMPK-mediated GFAT1 phosphorylation. Activation of GFAT1/HBP by high glucose led to impairment of vascular sprouting, whereas GFAT1 inhibition improved sprouting even if glucose level was high. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of HBP in angiogenesis. They suggest that targeting AMPK in endothelium might help to ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced vascular dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders.

  12. Cigarette sidestream smoke induces phosphorylated histone H2AX.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2009-05-31

    Cigarette sidestream smoke (CSS) is a widespread environmental pollutant having highly genotoxic potency. In spite of the overwhelming evidence that CSS induces a wide range of DNA damage such as oxidative base damage and DNA adducts, evidence that CSS can result in DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is little. In this study, we showed that CSS generated phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), recently considered as a sensitive marker of the generation of DSBs, in a human pulmonary epithelial cell model, A549. Treatment with CSS drastically induced discrete foci of gamma-H2AX within the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. CSS increased intracellular oxidation, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, significantly attenuated the formation of gamma-H2AX, suggesting that reactive oxygen species produced from CSS partially contributed to the phosphorylation. The generation of gamma-H2AX is considered to be accompanied the induction of DSBs. CSS in fact induced DSBs, which was also inhibited by NAC. DSBs are the worst type of DNA damage, related to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Our results would increase the evidence of the strong genotoxicity of passive smoking.

  13. Rapid changes in protein phosphorylation associated with light-induced gravity perception in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, J. J.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of light and calcium depletion on in vivo protein phosphorylation was tested using dark-grown roots of Merit corn. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of three polypeptides. Pretreatment of roots with ethylene glycol bis N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid and A23187 prevented light-induced changes in protein phosphorylation. We postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are involved in the light-induced gravity response.

  14. Phosphorylation induces distinct alpha-synuclein strain formation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Meng-Rong; Hu, Zhi-Wen; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Li, Yan-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases associated with alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated the existence of different structural characteristics or ‘strains’ of α-Syn, supporting the concept that synucleinopathies share several common features with prion diseases and possibly explaining how a single protein results in different clinical phenotypes within synucleinopathies. In earlier studies, the different strains were generated through the regulation of solution conditions, temperature, or repetitive seeded fibrillization in vitro. Here, we synthesize homogeneous α-Syn phosphorylated at serine 129 (pS129 α-Syn), which is highly associated with the pathological changes, and demonstrate that phosphorylation at Ser129 induces α-Syn to form a distinct strain with different structures, propagation properties, and higher cytotoxicity compared with the wild-type α-Syn. The results are the first demonstration that post-translational modification of α-Syn can induce different strain formation, offering a new mechanism for strain formation. PMID:27853185

  15. Oncogene 6b from Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces abaxial cell division at late stages of leaf development and modifies vascular development in petioles.

    PubMed

    Terakura, Shinji; Kitakura, Saeko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ueno, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Tomomichi; Machida, Chiyoko; Wabiko, Hiroetsu; Machida, Yasunori

    2006-05-01

    The 6b gene in the T-DNA region of the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis is able to generate shooty calli in phytohormone-free culture of leaf sections of tobacco transformed with 6b. In the present study, we report characteristic morphological abnormalities of the leaves of transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis that express 6b from pTiAKE10 (AK-6b), and altered expression of genes related to cell division and meristem formation in the transgenic plants. Cotyledons and leaves of both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis exhibited various abnormalities including upward curling of leaf blades, and transgenic tobacco leaves produced leaf-like outgrowths from the abaxial side. Transcripts of some class 1 KNOX homeobox genes, which are thought to be related to meristem functions, and cell cycle regulating genes were ectopically accumulated in mature leaves. M phase-specific genes were also ectopically expressed at the abaxial sides of mature leaves. These results suggest that the AK-6b gene stimulates the cellular potential for division and meristematic functions preferentially in the abaxial side of leaves and that the leaf phenotypes generated by AK-6b are at least in part due to such biased cell division during polar development of leaves. The results of the present experiments with a fusion gene between the AK-6b gene and the glucocorticoid receptor gene showed that nuclear import of the AK-6b protein was essential for upward curling of leaves and hormone-free callus formation, suggesting a role for AK-6b in nuclear events.

  16. EFA6B antagonizes breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zangari, Joséphine; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Bertucci, François; Milanini, Julie; Bidaut, Ghislain; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Finetti, Pascal; Long, Elodie; Brau, Frédéric; Cabaud, Olivier; Chetaille, Bruno; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc; Hofman, Paul; Franco, Michel; Luton, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    One of the earliest events in epithelial carcinogenesis is the dissolution of tight junctions and cell polarity signals that are essential for normal epithelial barrier function. Here, we report that EFA6B, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras superfamily protein Arf6 that helps assemble and stabilize tight junction, is required to maintain apico-basal cell polarity and mesenchymal phenotypes in mammary epithelial cells. In organotypic three-dimensional cell cultures, endogenous levels of EFA6B were critical to determine epithelial-mesenchymal status. EFA6B downregulation correlated with a mesenchymal phenotype and ectopic expression of EFA6B hampered TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses of human breast tumors revealed that the reduced expression of EFA6B was associated with loss of tight junction components and with increased signatures of EMT, cancer stemness, and poor prognosis. Accordingly, tumors with low levels of EFA6B were enriched in the aggressive triple-negative and claudin-low breast cancer subtypes. Our results identify EFA6B as a novel antagonist in breast cancer and they point to its regulatory and signaling pathways as rational therapeutic targets in aggressive forms of this disease.

  17. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  18. In cellulo phosphorylation of XRCC4 Ser320 by DNA-PK induced by DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Imamichi, Shoji; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Samarth, Ravindra Mahadeo; Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    XRCC4 is a protein associated with DNA Ligase IV, which is thought to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining. In response to treatment with ionizing radiation or DNA damaging agents, XRCC4 undergoes DNA-PK-dependent phosphorylation. Furthermore, Ser260 and Ser320 (or Ser318 in alternatively spliced form) of XRCC4 were identified as the major phosphorylation sites by purified DNA-PK in vitro through mass spectrometry. However, it has not been clear whether these sites are phosphorylated in vivo in response to DNA damage. In the present study, we generated an antibody that reacts with XRCC4 phosphorylated at Ser320 and examined in cellulo phosphorylation status of XRCC4 Ser320. The phosphorylation of XRCC4 Ser320 was induced by γ-ray irradiation and treatment with Zeocin. The phosphorylation of XRCC4 Ser320 was detected even after 1 Gy irradiation and increased in a manner dependent on radiation dose. The phosphorylation was observed immediately after irradiation and remained mostly unchanged for up to 4 h. The phosphorylation was inhibited by DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441 and was undetectable in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells, indicating that the phosphorylation was mainly mediated by DNA-PK. These results suggested potential usefulness of the phosphorylation status of XRCC4 Ser320 as an indicator of DNA-PK functionality in living cells. PMID:26666690

  19. Fyn is required for oxidative- and hyperosmotic-stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Amy R; Cao, Haiming; Corley Mastick, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is phosphorylated on Tyr(14) in response to both oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. In the present paper, we show that this phosphorylation requires activation of the Src family kinase Fyn. Stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation was abolished by three Src kinase inhibitors, SU6656, PP2 and PD180970, and was not observed in fibroblasts derived from a Src, Yes and Fyn triple-knockout mouse (SYF-/-). Using cell lines derived from single-kinase-knockout mice (Src-/-, Yes-/- and Fyn-/-), we show that expression of Fyn, but not Src or Yes, is required for stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation. Heterologous expression of Fyn in the SYF-/- and Fyn-/- cells was sufficient to reconstitute stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation, and overexpression of Fyn in wild-type cells induced hyperphosphorylation of caveolin. Fyn was autophosphorylated following oxidative stress, verifying activation of this kinase. Interestingly, there was a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation of Fyn on its Csk (C-terminal Src kinase) site, indicating feedback inhibition. Csk binds to phosphocaveolin [Cao, Courchesne and Mastick (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 8771-8774] and should phosphorylate any co-localized Src-family kinases. Oxidative-stress-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 also requires expression of Abl [Sanguinetti and Mastick (2003) Cell Signal. 15, 289-298]. Using inhibitors and cells derived from knockout mice, we verified a requirement for both Abl and Fyn in stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation in a single cell type. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for attenuation of Src-kinase activity by Abl: stable tyrosine phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, caveolin, and recruitment of Csk. Paxillin, a substrate of both Abl and Src, organizes a similar regulatory complex. PMID:12921535

  20. Stress-induced inhibition of translation independently of eIF2α phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Jon Halvor Jonsrud; Rødland, Gro Elise; Bøe, Cathrine Arnason; Håland, Tine Weise; Sunnerhagen, Per; Grallert, Beáta; Boye, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of fission yeast cells to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to inhibition of translation and phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This phosphorylation is a common response to stress in all eukaryotes. It leads to inhibition of translation at the initiation stage and is thought to be the main reason why stressed cells dramatically reduce protein synthesis. Phosphorylation of eIF2α has been taken as a readout for downregulation of translation, but the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the downregulation of general translation has not been much investigated. We show here that UV-induced global inhibition of translation in fission yeast cells is independent of eIF2α phosphorylation and the eIF2α kinase general control nonderepressible-2 protein (Gcn2). Also, in budding yeast and mammalian cells, the UV-induced translational depression is largely independent of GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure of fission yeast cells to oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide induced an inhibition of translation that is also independent of Gcn2 and of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our findings show that stress-induced translational inhibition occurs through an unknown mechanism that is likely to be conserved through evolution.

  1. Stress-induced inhibition of translation independently of eIF2α phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Jon Halvor Jonsrud; Rødland, Gro Elise; Bøe, Cathrine Arnason; Håland, Tine Weise; Sunnerhagen, Per; Grallert, Beáta; Boye, Erik

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure of fission yeast cells to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to inhibition of translation and phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This phosphorylation is a common response to stress in all eukaryotes. It leads to inhibition of translation at the initiation stage and is thought to be the main reason why stressed cells dramatically reduce protein synthesis. Phosphorylation of eIF2α has been taken as a readout for downregulation of translation, but the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the downregulation of general translation has not been much investigated. We show here that UV-induced global inhibition of translation in fission yeast cells is independent of eIF2α phosphorylation and the eIF2α kinase general control nonderepressible-2 protein (Gcn2). Also, in budding yeast and mammalian cells, the UV-induced translational depression is largely independent of GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure of fission yeast cells to oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide induced an inhibition of translation that is also independent of Gcn2 and of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our findings show that stress-induced translational inhibition occurs through an unknown mechanism that is likely to be conserved through evolution. PMID:26493332

  2. Desiccation of the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum induces dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Horst; Schmidt, Jürgen; Colby, Thomas; Bräutigam, Anne; Hufnagel, Peter; Bartels, Dorothea

    2006-08-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is an important mechanism by which organisms regulate their reactions to external stimuli. To investigate the involvement of phosphorylation during acquisition of desiccation tolerance, we have analysed dehydration-induced protein phosphorylation in the desiccation tolerant resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Several dehydration-induced proteins were shown to be transiently phosphorylated during a dehydration and rehydration (RH) cycle. Two abundantly expressed phosphoproteins are the dehydration- and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive protein CDeT11-24 and the group 2 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein CDeT6-19. Although both proteins accumulate in leaves and roots with similar kinetics in response to dehydration, their phosphorylation patterns differ. Several phosphorylation sites were identified on the CDeT11-24 protein using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The coincidence of phosphorylation sites with predicted coiled-coil regions leads to the hypothesis that CDeT11-24 phosphorylations influence the stability of coiled-coil interactions with itself and possibly other proteins.

  3. FAK and Src kinases are required for netrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of UNC5.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Aurandt, Jennifer; Jürgensen, Claudia; Jürgense, Claudia; Rao, Yi; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2006-01-01

    During neuronal development, netrin and its receptors UNC5 and DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) guide axonal growth cones in navigating to their targets. Netrin also plays important roles in the regulation of cell migration, tissue morphogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we show that netrin induces UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this effect of netrin is dependent on its co-receptor DCC. UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation is known to be important for netrin to induce cell migration and axonal repulsion. Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for netrin to stimulate UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation in neurons and transfected cells. The SH2 domain of Src kinase directly interacts with the cytosolic domain of UNC5 in a tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is also involved in netrin-induced UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Src and FAK can phosphorylate UNC5. Our data suggest a model in which netrin stimulates UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling in a manner dependent on the co-receptor DCC, through the recruitment of Src and FAK kinases.

  4. Acetylcholine-induced phosphorylation in isolated outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Szõnyi, M; Csermely, P; Sziklai, I

    1999-03-01

    Two groups of isolated, surviving outer hair cells (OHCs) of guinea pig cochleas (n = 20, for each group) were treated with 10 microM acetylcholine or acetylcholine plus strichnine (an alpha9 nAChR antagonist), respectively, under short-term tissue culture conditions. The protein content of the cell homogenates was separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotted and labelled with an antibody against phosphoserine residues. Signals were detected using the ECL system. Acetylcholine challenge of the OHCs resulted in a difference in the pattern of phosphorylated proteins from those of strichnine pretreated cells. A 220 kDa and a 120 kDa protein expressed a more intense phosphorylated state in the ACh group compared with the ACh plus strichnine group. The 220 kDa phosphoprotein is in the range of the cytoskeletal protein beta-fodrin, whereas the 120 kDa fraction is similar to alpha-fodrin or an ankyrin isoform. Phosphorylation of proteins due to activation of the AChR by agonist can play a role in the signalling mechanism between receptor activation and increase in the electromotile capability of isolated OHCs.

  5. Impact of oncogenic K-RAS on YB-1 phosphorylation induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance. Phosphorylation of YB-1 at serine residue 102 (S102) in response to growth factors is required for its transcriptional activity and is thought to be regulated by cytoplasmic signaling phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways. These pathways can be activated by growth factors and by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). So far, however, no studies have been conducted on IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation. Methods IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation in K-RAS wild-type (K-RASwt) and K-RAS-mutated (K-RASmt) breast cancer cell lines was investigated. Using pharmacological inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and plasmid-based overexpression approaches, we analyzed pathways involved in YB-1 phosphorylation by IR. Using γ-H2AX foci and standard colony formation assays, we investigated the function of YB-1 in repair of IR-induced DNA double-stranded breaks (DNA-DSB) and postirradiation survival was investigated. Results The average level of phosphorylation of YB-1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF-7, HBL100 and MDA-MB-231 was significantly higher than that in normal cells. Exposure to IR and stimulation with erbB1 ligands resulted in phosphorylation of YB-1 in K-RASwt SKBr3, MCF-7 and HBL100 cells, which was shown to be K-Ras-independent. In contrast, lack of YB-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with either IR or erbB1 ligands was observed in K-RASmt MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly to MDA-MB-231 cells, YB-1 became constitutively phosphorylated in K-RASwt cells following the overexpression of mutated K-RAS, and its phosphorylation was not further enhanced by IR. Phosphorylation of YB-1 as a result of irradiation or K-RAS mutation was dependent on erbB1 and its downstream pathways, PI3K and MAPK/ERK. In K-RASmt cells K-RAS siRNA as well as YB-1 siRNA blocked

  6. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Contraction Involves CPI-17 Phosphorylation in Isolated Rat Aortas

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Baik, Jiseok; Hong, Jeong-Min; Oh, Jiah; Han, Jeong Yeol; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, produces vasoconstriction, which leads to transiently increased blood pressure. The goal of this study was to investigate specific protein kinases and the associated cellular signal pathways responsible for the increased calcium sensitization induced by dexmedetomidine in isolated rat aortas, with a particular focus on phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17). The effect of Y-27632 and chelerythrine on the dexmedetomidine-induced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension were assessed using fura-2-loaded aortic strips. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride on the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 or of the 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin (MLC20) were investigated in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, and chelerythrine on the membrane translocation of Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation induced by dexmedetomidine were assessed. Y-27632 and chelerythrine each reduced the slopes of the [Ca2+]i-tension curves of dexmedetomidine-induced contraction, and Y-27632 more strongly reduced these slopes than did chelerythrine. Rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MLC20. Taken together, these results suggest that dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves calcium sensitization, which appears to be mediated by CPI-17 phosphorylation via Rho-kinase or PKC. PMID:27706026

  7. Mitotic arrest-induced phosphorylation of Mcl-1 revisited using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoproteomics: nine phosphorylation sites identified

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Katherine; Kothari, Anisha; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Kovak, Matthew R.; Chambers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) characteristically promote phosphorylation and degradation of Mcl-1, and this represents a critical pro-apoptotic signal in mitotic death. While several phosphorylation sites and kinases have been implicated in mitotic arrest-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation, a comprehensive biochemical analysis has been lacking. Contrary to previous reports suggesting that T92 phosphorylation by Cdk1 regulates Mcl-1 degradation, a T92A Mcl-1 mutant expressed in HeLa cells was phosphorylated and degraded with the same kinetics as wild-type Mcl-1 following vinblastine treatment. Similarly, when Mcl-1 with alanine replacements of all five putative Cdk sites (S64, T92, S121, S159, T163) was expressed, it was also phosphorylated and degraded in response to vinblastine. To analyze Mcl-1 phosphorylation in more detail, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was performed. While untreated cells expressed mainly unphosphorylated Mcl-1 with two minor phosphorylated species, Mcl-1 from vinblastine treated cells migrated during 2D-PAGE as a train of acidic spots representing nine or more phosphorylated species. Immunopurification and mass spectrometry of phosphorylated Mcl-1 derived from mitotically arrested HeLa cells revealed nine distinct sites, including several previously unreported. Mcl-1 bearing substitutions of all nine sites had a longer half-life than wild-type Mcl-1 under basal conditions, but still underwent phosphorylation and degradation in response to vinblastine treatment, and, like wild-type Mcl-1, was unable to protect cells from MTA treatment. These results reveal an unexpected complexity in Mcl-1 phosphorylation in response to MTAs and indicate that previous work has severely underestimated the number of sites, and thus encourage major revisions to the current model. PMID:27738316

  8. Uncoupling Stress-Inducible Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Factor 1 from Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Marek A.; Puustinen, Mikael C.; Joutsen, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In mammals the stress-inducible expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins is under the control of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Activation of HSF1 is a multistep process, involving trimerization, acquisition of DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, which coincide with several posttranslational modifications. Stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1, or hyperphosphorylation, which occurs mainly within the regulatory domain (RD), has been proposed as a requirement for HSF-driven transcription and is widely used for assessing HSF1 activation. Nonetheless, the contribution of hyperphosphorylation to the activity of HSF1 remains unknown. In this study, we generated a phosphorylation-deficient HSF1 mutant (HSF1Δ∼PRD), where the 15 known phosphorylation sites within the RD were disrupted. Our results show that the phosphorylation status of the RD does not affect the subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of HSF1. Surprisingly, under stress conditions, HSF1Δ∼PRD is a potent transactivator of both endogenous targets and a reporter gene, and HSF1Δ∼PRD has a reduced activation threshold. Our results provide the first direct evidence for uncoupling stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1 from its activation, and we propose that the phosphorylation signature alone is not an appropriate marker for HSF1 activity. PMID:25963659

  9. Phosphorylated tau potentiates Aβ-induced mitochondrial damage in mature neurons.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Johnson, Gail V W

    2014-11-01

    Tau phosphorylated at the PHF-1 epitope (S396/S404) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylated at these sites negatively impacts neuronal functions are still under scrutiny. Previously, we showed that expression of tau truncated at D421 enhances mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Aβ in cortical neurons. To extend these findings, we expressed tau pseudo-phosphorylated at S396/404 (T42EC) in mature and young cortical neurons and evaluated different aspects of mitochondrial function in response to Aβ. Expression of T42EC did not induce significant changes in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial length, or mitochondrial transport, compared to GFP and full-length tau. However, T42EC expression enhanced Aβ-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and increased superoxide levels compared to what was observed in mature neurons expressing full-length tau. The same effect was observed in mature neurons that expressed both pseudo-phosphorylated and truncated tau when they were treated with Aβ. Interestingly, the mitochondrial failure induced by Aβ in mature neurons that expressed T42EC, was not observed in young neurons expressing T42EC. These novel findings suggest that phosphorylated tau (PHF-1 epitope) enhances Aβ-induced mitochondrial injury, which contributes to neuronal dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of AD.

  10. Rapamycin induces Bad phosphorylation in association with its resistance to human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sica, Gabriel L; Curran, Walter J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Deng, Xingming

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt in various types of cancer cells, which contributes to rapamycin resistance. However, the downstream effect of rapamycin-activated ERKs and Akt on survival or death substrate(s) remains unclear. We discovered that treatment of human lung cancer cells with rapamycin results in enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at serine (S) 112 and S136 but not S155 in association with activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. A higher level of Bad phosphorylation was observed in rapamycin-resistant cells compared with parental rapamycin-sensitive cells. Thus, Bad phosphorylation may contribute to rapamycin resistance. Mechanistically, rapamycin promotes Bad accumulation in the cytosol, enhances Bad/14-3-3 interaction, and reduces Bad/Bcl-XL binding. Rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, with a significant reduction of its half-life (i.e., from 53.3-37.5 hours). Inhibition of MEK/ERK by PD98059 or depletion of Akt by RNA interference blocks rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation at S112 or S136, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of S112 and S136 phosphorylation of Bad by PD98059 and silencing of Akt significantly enhances rapamycin-induced growth inhibition in vitro and synergistically increases the antitumor efficacy of rapamycin in lung cancer xenografts. Intriguingly, either suppression of Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 sites or expression of the nonphosphorylatable Bad mutant (S112A/S136A) can reverse rapamycin resistance. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of rapamycin resistance, which may promote the development of new strategies for overcoming rapamycin resistance by manipulating Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 in human lung cancer.

  11. Detection of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides via skimmer collision-induced dissociation/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zolodz, Melissa D; Wood, Karl V

    2003-03-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins is an important post-translational protein modification in cellular response to environmental change and occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identification of the amino acid on individual proteins that become phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimulus is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the intracellular signals that these modifications facilitate. Most protein kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine or tyrosine. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is often the least abundant of the three major phosphorylation sites, it is important owing to its role in signal pathways. Currently available methods for the identification of phosphorylation sites can often miss low levels of tyrosine phosphorylations. This paper describes a method for the identification of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides using electrospray ionization on an ion trap mass spectrometer. Skimmer-activated collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to generate the phosphotyrosine immonium ion at m/z 216. This method is gentle enough that the protonated molecule of the intact peptide is still observed. In-trap CID was employed for the verification of the phosphotyrosine immonium ion. Using this technique, low levels of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides can be identified from peptide mixtures separated by nanoflow micro liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  12. Ethacrynic Acid Inhibits Sphingosylphosphorylcholine-Induced Keratin 8 Phosphorylation and Reorganization via Transglutaminase-2 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hyun Jung; Kang, Kyung Jin; Park, Mi Kyung; Lee, Hye Ja; Kang, June Hee; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, You Ri; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Young Woo; Jung, Kyung Chae; Kim, Soo Youl; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2013-09-30

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is significantly increased in the malicious ascites of tumor patients and induces perinuclear reorganization of keratin 8 (K8) filaments in PANC-1 cells. The reorganization contributes to the viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells resulting in increased migration. Recently, we reported that transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2) is involved in SPC-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. However, effects of Tgase-2 inhibitors on SPC-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization were not clearly studied. We found that ethacrynic acid (ECA) concentration-dependently inhibited Tgase-2. Therefore, we examined the effects of ECA on SPC-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. ECA concentration-dependently suppressed the SPC-induced phosphorylation and perinuclear reorganization of K8. ECA also suppressed the SPC-induced migration and invasion. SPC induced JNK activation through Tgase-2 expression and ECA suppressed the activation and expression of JNK in PANC-1 cells. These results suggested that ECA might be useful to control Tgase-2 dependent metastasis of cancer cells such as pancreatic cancer and lung cancers.

  13. Neuroinflammation is not a Prerequisite for Diabetes-induced Tau Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    van der Harg, Judith M; Eggels, Leslie; Ruigrok, Silvie R; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; la Fleur, Susanne E; Scheper, Wiep

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a risk factor. In animal models for DM, the phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is induced or exacerbated, however the underlying mechanism is unknown. In addition to the metabolic dysfunction, DM is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. This was reported to be associated with a neuroinflammatory response in the hypothalamus of DM animal models. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in the development and progression of AD. It is unknown whether DM also induces neuroinflammation in brain areas affected in AD, the cortex and hippocampus. Here we investigated whether neuroinflammation could be the mechanistic trigger to induce tau phosphorylation in the brain of DM animals. Two distinct diabetic animal models were used; rats on free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet that are insulin resistant and streptozotocin-treated rats that are insulin deficient. The streptozotocin-treated animals demonstrated increased tau phosphorylation in the brain as expected, whereas the fcHFHS diet fed animals did not. Remarkably, neither of the diabetic animal models showed reactive microglia or increased GFAP and COX-2 levels in the cortex or hippocampus. From this, we conclude: 1. DM does not induce neuroinflammation in brain regions affected in AD, and 2. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation is therefore not the mechanism that explains the close connection between DM and AD.

  14. Localized α4 Integrin Phosphorylation Directs Shear Stress-Induced Endothelial Cell Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Tzima, Eleni; Stockton, Rebecca; Kiosses, William B.; Kinbara, Kayoko; Tkachenko, Eugene; Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex; Nguyen, Phu; Chien, Shu; Ginsberg1, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells respond to laminar shear stress by aligning in the direction of flow, a process which may contribute to athero-protection. Here we report that localized α4 integrin phosphorylation is a mechanism for establishing the directionality of shear stress-induced alignment in microvascular endothelial cells. Within 5 minutes of exposure to a physiological level of shear stress, endothelial α4 integrins became phosphorylated on Ser988. In wounded monolayers, phosphorylation was enhanced at the downstream edges of cells relative to the source of flow. The shear-induced α4 integrin phosphorylation was blocked by inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), an enzyme involved in the alignment of endothelial cells under prolonged shear. Moreover, shear-induced localized activation of the small GTPase Rac1, which specifies the directionality of endothelial alignment, was similarly blocked by PKA inhibitors. Furthermore, endothelial cells bearing a non-phosphorylatable α4(S988A) mutation failed to align in response to shear stress, thus establishing α4 as a relevant PKA substrate. We thereby show that shear-induced PKA-dependent α4 integrin phosphorylation at the downstream edge of endothelial cells promotes localized Rac1 activation, which in turn directs cytoskeletal alignment in response to shear stress. PMID:18583710

  15. Leptin signaling plays a critical role in the geniposide-induced decrease of tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhui; Liu, Zixuan; Zhang, Yonglan; Yin, Fei

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that geniposide attenuates the production of Aβ1-42 both in vitro and in vivo via enhancing leptin receptor signaling. But the role played by geniposide in the phosphorylation of tau and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of geniposide on the phosphorylation of tau and the role of leptin signaling in this process. Our data suggested that, accompanied by the up-regulation of leptin receptor expression, geniposide significantly decreased the phosphorylation of tau in rat primary cultured cortical neurons and in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and this geniposide-induced decrease of tau phosphorylation could be prevented by leptin antagonist (LA). Furthermore, LA also prevented the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473 site and GSK-3β at Ser-9 site induced by geniposide. All these results indicate that geniposide may regulate tau phosphorylation through leptin signaling, and geniposide may be a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the future.

  16. Phosphodiesterases Regulate BAY 41-2272-Induced VASP Phosphorylation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Joshi, Chintamani N.; Martin, Danielle N.; Tulis, David Anthony

    2012-01-01

    BAY 41-2272 (BAY), a stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, increases cyclic nucleotides and inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we elucidated mechanisms of action of BAY in its regulation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) with an emphasis on VSMC phosphodiesterases (PDEs). BAY alone increased phosphorylation of VASPSer239 and VASPSer157, respective indicators of PKG and PKA signaling. IBMX, a non-selective inhibitor of PDEs, had no effect on BAY-induced phosphorylation at VASPSer239 but inhibited phosphorylation at VASPSer157. Selective inhibitors of PDE3 or PDE4 attenuated BAY-mediated increases at VASPSer239 and VASPSer157, whereas PDE5 inhibition potentiated BAY-mediated increases only at VASPSer157. In comparison, 8Br-cGMP increased phosphorylation at VASPSer239 and VASPSer157 which were not affected by selective PDE inhibitors. In the presence of 8Br-cAMP, inhibition of either PDE4 or PDE5 decreased VASPSer239 phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE3 increased phosphorylation at VASPSer239, while inhibition of PDE3 or PDE4 increased and PDE5 inhibition had no effect on VASPSer157 phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that BAY operates via cAMP and cGMP along with regulation by PDEs to phosphorylate VASP in VSMCs and that the mechanism of action of BAY in VSMCs is different from that of direct cyclic nucleotide analogs with respect to VASP phosphorylation and the involvement of PDEs. Given a role for VASP as a critical cytoskeletal protein, these findings provide evidence for BAY as a regulator of VSMC growth and a potential therapeutic agent against vasculoproliferative disorders. PMID:22347188

  17. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  18. Advanced glycation end products induce moesin phosphorylation in murine brain endothelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoqin; Liu, Hongxia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bo; Li, Qiang; Guo, Xiaohua; Huang, Xuliang; Huang, Qiaobing

    2011-02-10

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been found to play an important role in the development of diabetes, and AGE levels are correlated with the severity of diabetic complications. We have demonstrated that moesin, a protein linker between actin filaments and the plasma membrane, undergoes phosphorylation of its threonine 558 residue by AGE stimulation in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells through activation of p38 and Rho kinase (ROCK) pathways. In this study, we observed in situ whether AGEs caused phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cells in the brains of AGE-stimulated mice. The animals were injected with AGE-modified mouse serum albumin (AGE-MSA) for 7 consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to assess the phosphorylation of moesin in brain vessels. The level of moesin protein phosphorylation was also assessed in cerebral microvessels by western blotting. The effects of p38 and ROCK activation were determined by application of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) at 30 min before each AGE administration. The results showed specific expression of moesin in murine brain vascular endothelial cells. AGE treatment induced a significant increase of threonine 558 phosphorylation in moesin, while inhibition of p38 and ROCK remarkably attenuated the phosphorylation of moesin. The level of moesin protein phosphorylation was also increased in cerebral microvessels, along with an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, while inhibition of the p38 and ROCK attenuated these responses. These results demonstrate that AGEs cause the phosphorylation of moesin in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells, with p38 and ROCK being involved in this process.

  19. Platelet-derived growth factor induces phosphorylation of a 64-kDa nuclear protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, L.K.; Pierce, G.F.; Kawahara, R.S.; Deuel, T.F.

    1989-01-15

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated the phosphorylation of a nuclear protein of 64 kDa (pp64) in nuclei of nontransformed normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. Low levels of phosphorylation of pp64 were observed in nuclei of serum-starved NRK cells. Fetal calf serum (FCS), PDGF, and homodimeric v-sis and PDGF A-chain protein enhanced the incorporation of 32P into pp64 over 4-fold within 30 min and over 8-fold within 2 h of exposure of NRK cells to the growth factors. In contrast, constitutive phosphorylation of 32P-labeled pp64 in nuclei of NRK cells transformed by the simian sarcoma virus (SSV) was high and only minimally stimulated by PDGF and FCS. 32P-Labeled pp64 was isolated from nuclei of PDGF-stimulated nontransformed NRK cells; the 32P of pp64 was labile in 1 M KOH, and pp64 was not significantly recognized by anti-phosphotyrosine antisera, suggesting that the PDGF-induced phosphorylation of pp64 occurred on serine or on threonine residues. However, pp64 from SSV-transformed NRK cell nuclei was significantly stable to base hydrolysis and was immunoprecipitated with anti-phosphotyrosine antisera, suggesting that pp64 from SSV-transformed cell nuclei is phosphorylated also on tyrosine. FCS, PDGF, and PDGF A- and B-chain homodimers thus stimulate the rapid time-dependent phosphorylation of a 64-kDa nuclear protein shortly after stimulation of responsive cells. The growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of pp64 and the constitutive high levels of pp64 phosphorylation in cells transformed by SSV suggest important roles for pp64 and perhaps regulated nuclear protein kinases and phosphatases in cell division and proliferation.

  20. Blue Light-Induced Phosphorylation of a Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J. M.; Short, T. W.; Gallagher, S.; Briggs, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Blue light induces a variety of photomorphogenic responses in higher plants, among them phototropic curvature, the bending of seedlings toward a unidirectional light source. In dark-grown coleoptiles of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, blue light induces rapid phosphorylation of a 114-kD protein at fluence levels that are sufficient to stimulate phototropic curvature. Phosphorylation in response to blue light can be detected in vivo in coleoptile tips preincubated in 32Pi or in vitro in isolated membranes supplemented with [[gamma]-32P]ATP. Phosphorylation reaches a maximum level in vitro within 2 min following an inductive light pulse, but substantial labeling occurs within the first 15 s. Isolated membranes remain activated for several minutes following an in vitro blue light stimulus, even in the absence of exogenous ATP. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the 114-kD protein detected phosphoserine and a trace of phosphothreonine. The kinase involved in phosphorylating the protein in vitro is not dependent on calcium. The 114-kD protein itself has an apparent binding site for ATP, detected by incubating with the nonhydrolyzable analog, 5[prime]-p-fluorosulfonyl-benzoyladenosine. This result suggests that the 114-kD protein, which becomes phosphorylated in response to blue light, may also be capable of kinase activity. PMID:12231896

  1. Phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM Contributes to DNA Damage-Induced p53 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Qu, Like; Brewer, Michael D.; Chen, Jiandong; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. It does so by inducing anti-proliferative processes as a response to various tumor-promoting stresses. p53 is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. The optimal function of Mdm2 requires Daxx, which stabilizes Mdm2 through the deubiquitinase Hausp/USP7 and also directly promotes Mdm2’s ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53. The Daxx-Mdm2 interaction is disrupted upon DNA damage. However, both the mechanisms and the consequence of the Daxx-Mdm2 dissociation are not understood. Here we show that upon DNA damage Daxx is phosphorylated in a manner that is dependent on ATM, a member of the PI 3-kinase family that orchestrates the DNA damage response. The main phosphorylation site of Daxx is identified to be Ser564, which is a direct target of ATM. Phosphorylation of endogenous Daxx at Ser564 occurs rapidly during the DNA damage response and precedes p53 activation. Blockage of this phosphorylation event prevents the separation of Daxx from Mdm2, stabilizes Mdm2, and inhibits DNA damage-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM upon DNA damage disrupts the Daxx-Mdm2 interaction and facilitates p53 activation. PMID:23405218

  2. Phorbol ester induced phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knabbe, C.; Lippman, M.E.; Greene, G.L.; Dickson, R.B.

    1986-05-01

    Recent studies with a variety of cellular receptors have shown that phorbol ester induced phosphorylation modulates ligand binding and function. In this study the authors present direct evidence that the estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state can be enhanced specifically by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Cells were cultured to 6h in the presence of (/sup 32/P)-orthophosphate. Whole cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody (D58) against the estrogen receptor and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Autoradiography showed a specific band in the region of 60-62 kDa which was significantly increased in preparations from PMA treated cells. Phospho-amino acid analysis demonstrated specific phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. Cholera toxin or forskolin did not change the phosphorylation state of this protein. In a parallel binding analysis PMA led to a rapid decrease of estrogen binding sites. The estrogen induction of both progesterone receptors and growth in semisolid medium was blocked by PMA, whereas the estrogen induction of the 8kDa protein corresponding to the ps2 gene product and of the 52 kDa protein was not affected. In conclusion, phorbol esters can induce phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. This process may be associated with the inactivation of certain receptor functions.

  3. Tau phosphorylation and cleavage in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mariko; Chakraborty, Goutam; Mao, Rui-Fen; Paik, Sun-Mee; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mitsuo

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice, widely used as a model for the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, was accompanied by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and caspase-3 activation. Presently, we examined whether tau, a microtubule associated protein, is modified by GSK-3beta and caspase-3 in ethanol-treated P7 mouse forebrains. We found that ethanol increased phosphorylated tau recognized by the paired helical filament (PHF)-1 antibody and by the antibody against tau phosphorylated at Ser199. Ethanol also generated tau fragments recognized by an antibody against caspase-cleaved tau (C-tau). C-tau was localized in neurons bearing activated caspase-3 and fragmented nuclei. Over time, cell debris and degenerated projections containing C-tau appeared to be engulfed by activated microglia. A caspase-3 inhibitor partially blocked C-tau formation. Lithium, a GSK-3beta inhibitor, blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation, phosphorylated tau elevation, C-tau formation, and microglial activation. These results indicate that tau is phosphorylated by GSK-3beta and cleaved by caspase-3 during ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain.

  4. Oxidative stress–dependent phosphorylation activates ZNRF1 to induce neuronal/axonal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Shuji; Furuno, Akiko; Ohshima, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B activation. We now demonstrate that oxidative stress serves as an activator of the ubiquitin ligase activity of ZNRF1 by inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mediated phosphorylation at the 103rd tyrosine residue and that the up-regulation of ZNRF1 activity by oxidative stress leads to neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. We also show that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced oxidase activity is required for the EGFR-dependent phosphorylation-induced activation of ZNRF1 and resultant AKT degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system to induce Wallerian degeneration. These results indicate the pathophysiological significance of the EGFR–ZNRF1 pathway induced by oxidative stress in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. A deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanism for ZNRF1 catalytic activity via phosphorylation will provide a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegeneration. PMID:26572622

  5. Extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-induced tau overexpression mediates neuronal death through suppressing survival signaling ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu-Ying; Tuo, Qing-Zhang; Liuyang, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Ao-Ji; Feng, Xiao-Long; Yan, Xiong; Qiu, Mei; Li, Shen; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Cao, Fu-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau is a pathological hallmark in the brain of Alzheimer disease. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (E-NMDARs) induces excitatory toxicity that is involved in Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. However, the intrinsic link between E-NMDARs and the tau-induced neuronal damage remains elusive. In the present study, we showed in cultured primary cortical neurons that activation of E-NMDA receptors but not synaptic NMDA receptors dramatically increased tau mRNA and protein levels, with a simultaneous neuronal degeneration and decreased neuronal survival. Memantine, a selective antagonist of E-NMDARs, reversed E-NMDARs-induced tau overexpression. Activation of E-NMDARs in wild-type mouse brains resulted in neuron loss in hippocampus, whereas tau deletion in neuronal cultures and in the mouse brains rescued the E-NMDARs-induced neuronal death and degeneration. The E-NMDARs-induced tau overexpression was correlated with a reduced ERK phosphorylation, whereas the increased MEK activity, decreased binding and activity of ERK phosphatase to ERK, and increased ERK phosphorylation were observed in tau knockout mice. On the contrary, addition of tau proteins promoted ERK dephosphorylation in vitro. Taking together, these results indicate that tau overexpression mediates the excitatory toxicity induced by E-NMDAR activation through inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. PMID:27809304

  6. Microglia activation regulates GluR1 phosphorylation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Li, Juan; Dai, Peng; Zhao, Fang; Zheng, Gang; Jing, Jinfei; Wang, Jiye; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered to be a major risk factor in the development of psychopathological syndromes in humans. Cognitive impairments and long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments are increasingly recognized as major components of depression, anxiety disorders and other stress-related chronic psychological illnesses. It seems timely to systematically study the potentially underlying neurobiological mechanisms of altered cognitive and synaptic plasticity in the course of chronic stress. In the present study, a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced a cognitive impairment in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and a hippocampal LTP impairment. CUS also induced hippocampal microglial activation and attenuated phosphorylation of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1 or GluA1). Moreover, chronic treatment with the selective microglial activation blocker, minocycline (120 mg/kg per day), beginning 3 d before CUS treatment and continuing through the behavioral testing period, prevented the CUS-induced impairments of spatial memory and LTP induction. Additional studies showed that minocycline-induced inhibition of microglia activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of GluR1. These results suggest that hippocampal microglial activation modulates the level of GluR1 phosphorylation and might play a causal role in CUS-induced cognitive and LTP disturbances.

  7. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  8. Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is required for sensory deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubhuti; Xu, Linda W; Snyder, Kevin P; Song, Lihua; Goenaga-Vazquez, Yamila; Megill, Andrea; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2011-03-31

    Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism.

  10. Regulatory light chain phosphorylation increases eccentric contraction-induced injury in skinned fast-twitch fibers.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; McDonald, Kerry S

    2004-02-01

    During contraction, activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) results in phosphorylation of myosin's regulatory light chain (RLC), which potentiates force and increases speed of force development over a wide range of [Ca(2+)]. We tested the hypothesis that RLC phosphorylation by MLCK mediates the extent of eccentric contraction-induced injury as measured by force deficit in skinned fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. Results indicated that RLC phosphorylation in single skinned rat psoas fibers significantly increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric force; isometric force from 50 +/- 16 to 59 +/- 18 kN/m(2) during maximal Ca(2+) activation; peak absolute power output from 38 +/- 15 to 48 +/- 14 nW during maximal Ca(2+) activation; and the magnitude of contraction-induced force deficit during maximal (pCa 4.5) activation from 26 +/- 9.8 to 35 +/- 9.6%. We conclude that RLC phosphorylation increases force deficits following eccentric contractions, perhaps by increasing the number of force-generating cross-bridges.

  11. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  12. Herpes simplex virus 2 VP22 phosphorylation induced by cellular and viral kinases does not influence intracellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiss, Brian J.; Cano, Gina L.; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A. . E-mail: morrisla@slu.edu

    2004-12-05

    Phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP22 protein is regulated by cellular kinases and the UL13 viral kinase, but the sites at which these enzymes induce phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 are not known. Using serine-to-alanine mutants to map phosphorylation sites on HSV-2 VP22 in cells, we made three major observations. First, phosphorylation by a cellular kinase mapped to serines 70, 71, and/or 72 within CKII consensus sites analogous to previously identified phosphorylation sites in HSV-1 VP22. Second, we mapped UL13-mediated phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 to serines 28 and 34, describing for the first time UL13-dependent phosphorylation sites on VP22. Third, previously identified VP22-associated cellular kinase sites in HSV-1 VP22 (serines 292 and 294) were not phosphorylated in HSV-2 VP22 (serines 291 and 293). VP22 expressed alone accumulated in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus. Phosphorylation by endogenous cellular kinase(s) did not alter the localization of VP22. Co-expression of HSV-2 VP22 with active UL13, but not with enzymatically inactive UL13, resulted in nuclear accumulation of VP22 and altered nuclear morphology. Surprisingly, redistribution of VP22 to the nucleus occurred independently of UL13-induced phosphorylation of VP22. The altered nuclear morphology of UL13-expressing cells was not due to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 at multiple serine residues is induced by UL13 and cellular kinase(s), and that the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of VP22 is independent of its phosphorylation status but is controlled indirectly by UL13 kinase activity.

  13. EP2 Induces p38 Phosphorylation via the Activation of Src in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Minsub

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase, binds to four different prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) which are G-protein coupled transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). Although GPCRs including EP receptors have been shown to be associated with their specific G proteins, recent evidences suggest that GPCRs can regulate MAPK signaling via non-G protein coupled pathways including Src. EP2 is differentially expressed in various tissues and the expression of EP2 is induced by extracellular stimuli. We hypothesized that an increased level of EP2 expression may affect MAPK signaling. The overexpression of EP2 in HEK 293 cells resulted in significant increase in intracellular cAMP levels response to treatment with butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, while overexpression of EP2 alone did not increase intracellular cAMP levels. However, EP2 overexpression in the absence of PGE2 induced an increase in the level of p38 phosphorylation as well as the kinase activity of p38, suggesting that up-regulation of EP2 may promote p38 activation via non-G protein coupled pathway. Inhibition of Src completely blocked EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation and overexpression of Src increased the level of p38 phosphorylation, indicating that Src is upstream kinase for EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation. EP2 overexpression also increased the Src activity and EP2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with Src. Furthermore, sequential co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that EP2, Src, and β-arrestin can form a complex. Our study found a novel pathway in which EP2 is associated with Src, regulating p38 pathway. PMID:26535079

  14. Regulation of BRCA1 Function by DNA Damage-Induced Site-Specific Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Rad51p proteins, the lat - end-joining. BRCA-2 complexed with machinery. ter a member of the RAD-52 epi- RAD-51 is active in strand exchange BRCA- 1 has...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02- 1 -0584 TITLE: Regulation of BRCAl Function by DNA Damage-Induced Site- Specific Phosphorylation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...ApprovedREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of Information Is estimated to average 1 hour per

  15. Advanced glycation end products induce moesin phosphorylation in murine retinal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingjun; Li, Qiaoqin; Du, Jing; Chen, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuliang; Guo, Xiaohua; Huang, Qiaobing

    2012-02-01

    Increase in vascular permeability is the most important pathological event during the development of diabetic retinopathy. Deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays a crucial role in the process of diabetes. This study was to investigate the role of moesin and its underlying signal transduction in retinal vascular hyper-permeability induced by AGE-modified mouse serum albumin (AGE-MSA). Female C57BL/6 mice were used to produce an AGE-treated model by intraperitoneal administration of AGE-MSA for seven consecutive days. The inner blood-retinal barrier was quantified by Evans blue leakage assay. Endothelial F-actin cytoskeleton in retinal vasculature was visualized by fluorescence probe staining. The expression and phosphorylation of moesin in retinal vessels were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. Further studies were performed to explore the effects of Rho kinase (ROCK) and p38 MAPK pathway on the involvement of moesin in AGE-induced retinal vascular hyper-permeability response. Treatment with AGE-MSA significantly increased the permeability of the retinal microvessels and induced the disorganization of F-actin in retinal vascular endothelial cells. The threonine (T558) phosphorylation of moesin in retinal vessels was enhanced remarkably after AGE administration. The phosphorylation of moesin was attenuated by inhibitions of ROCK and p38 MAPK, while this treatment also prevented the dysfunction of inner blood-retinal barrier and the reorganization of F-actin in retinal vascular endothelial cells. These results demonstrate that moesin is involved in AGE-induced retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the phosphorylation of moesin is triggered via ROCK and p38 MAPK activation.

  16. Biomedical Applications of Fermenticin HV6b Isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC10770

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Balgir, Praveen P.; Mittu, Bharti; Kumar, Balvir; Garg, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Fermenticin HV6b is a class IIa antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC 10770 isolated from human vaginal ecosystem. It shows growth inhibition of a wide range of opportunistic pathogens of humans, for example, Bacteroides, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Staphylococci, and Streptococci, associated with bacterial vaginosis in humans. It does possess an impressive sperm immobilization and spermicidal activity tested against human sperms which makes it an attractive proposition for formulating antibacterial vaginosis and contraceptive products. Apart from this, in vitro studies conducted against four different tissue models have indicated its potential to be used as a component of anticancerous drug therapy as it is reported to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. This information could be integrated in future studies focusing on in vivo assessment of anticancerous activity of lactic acid bacterial toxins or bacteriocins. PMID:23984320

  17. Nutrient-regulated Phosphorylation of ATG13 Inhibits Starvation-induced Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Cindy; Hendrickson, Ronald C.; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that utilizes a defined series of membrane trafficking events to generate a de novo double-membrane vesicle termed the autophagosome, which matures by fusing to the lysosome. Subsequently, the lysosome facilitates the degradation and recycling of the cytoplasmic cargo. In yeast, the upstream signals that regulate the induction of starvation-induced autophagy are clearly defined. The nutrient-sensing kinase Tor inhibits the activation of autophagy by regulating the formation of the Atg1-Atg13-Atg17 complex, through hyperphosphorylation of Atg13. However, in mammals, the ortholog complex ULK1-ATG13-FIP200 is constitutively formed. As such, the molecular mechanism by which mTOR regulates mammalian autophagy is unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of novel nutrient-regulated phosphorylation sites on ATG13: Ser-224 and Ser-258. mTOR directly phosphorylates ATG13 on Ser-258 while Ser-224 is modulated by the AMPK pathway. In ATG13 knock-out cells reconstituted with an unphosphorylatable mutant of ATG13, ULK1 kinase activity is more potent, and amino acid starvation induced more rapid ATG13 and ULK1 translocation. These events culminated in a more rapid starvation-induced autophagy response. Therefore, ATG13 phosphorylation plays a crucial role in autophagy regulation. PMID:26801615

  18. AKAP12 mediates PKA-induced phosphorylation of ATR to enhance nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Stuart G.; Wolf Horrell, Erin M.; D'Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS protein-coupled receptor that regulates signal transduction through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in melanocytes, is a major inherited melanoma risk factor. Herein, we report a novel cAMP-mediated response for sensing and responding to UV-induced DNA damage regulated by A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). AKAP12 is identified as a necessary participant in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) at S435, a post-translational event required for cAMP-enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER). Moreover, UV exposure promotes ATR-directed phosphorylation of AKAP12 at S732, which promotes nuclear translocation of AKAP12–ATR-pS435. This complex subsequently recruits XPA to UV DNA damage and enhances 5′ strand incision. Preventing AKAP12's interaction with PKA or with ATR abrogates ATR-pS435 accumulation, delays recruitment of XPA to UV-damaged DNA, impairs NER and increases UV-induced mutagenesis. Our results define a critical role for AKAP12 as an UV-inducible scaffold for PKA-mediated ATR phosphorylation, and identify a repair complex consisting of AKAP12–ATR-pS435-XPA at photodamage, which is essential for cAMP-enhanced NER. PMID:27683220

  19. Engagement of CD81 induces ezrin tyrosine phosphorylation and its cellular redistribution with filamentous actin

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Greg P.; Rajapaksa, Ranjani; Liu, Raymond; Sharpe, Orr; Kuo, Chiung-Chi; Wald Krauss, Sharon; Sagi, Yael; Davis, R. Eric; Staudt, Louis M.; Sharman, Jeff P.; Robinson, William H.; Levy, Shoshana

    2009-06-09

    CD81 is a tetraspanin family member involved in diverse cellular interactions in the immune and nervous systems and in cell fusion events. However, the mechanism of action of CD81 and of other tetraspanins has not been defined. We reasoned that identifying signaling molecules downstream of CD81 would provide mechanistic clues. We engaged CD81 on the surface of Blymphocytes and identified the induced tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins by mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that the most prominent tyrosine phosphorylated protein was ezrin, an actin binding protein and a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family. We also found that CD81 engagement induces spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and that Syk was involved in tyrosine phosphorylation of ezrin. Ezrin colocalized with CD81 and F-actin upon stimulation and this association was disrupted when Syk activation was blocked. Taken together, these studies suggest a model in which CD81 interfaces between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton by activating Syk, mobilizing ezrin, and recruiting F-actin to facilitate cytoskeletal reorganization and cell signaling. This may be a mechanism explaining the pleiotropic effects induced in response to stimulating cells by anti-CD81 antibodies or by the hepatitis C virus, which uses this molecule as its key receptor.

  20. Nutrient-regulated Phosphorylation of ATG13 Inhibits Starvation-induced Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Puente, Cindy; Hendrickson, Ronald C; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-03-11

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that utilizes a defined series of membrane trafficking events to generate a de novo double-membrane vesicle termed the autophagosome, which matures by fusing to the lysosome. Subsequently, the lysosome facilitates the degradation and recycling of the cytoplasmic cargo. In yeast, the upstream signals that regulate the induction of starvation-induced autophagy are clearly defined. The nutrient-sensing kinase Tor inhibits the activation of autophagy by regulating the formation of the Atg1-Atg13-Atg17 complex, through hyperphosphorylation of Atg13. However, in mammals, the ortholog complex ULK1-ATG13-FIP200 is constitutively formed. As such, the molecular mechanism by which mTOR regulates mammalian autophagy is unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of novel nutrient-regulated phosphorylation sites on ATG13: Ser-224 and Ser-258. mTOR directly phosphorylates ATG13 on Ser-258 while Ser-224 is modulated by the AMPK pathway. In ATG13 knock-out cells reconstituted with an unphosphorylatable mutant of ATG13, ULK1 kinase activity is more potent, and amino acid starvation induced more rapid ATG13 and ULK1 translocation. These events culminated in a more rapid starvation-induced autophagy response. Therefore, ATG13 phosphorylation plays a crucial role in autophagy regulation.

  1. Non-canonical Smads phosphorylation induced by the glutamate release inhibitor, riluzole, through GSK3 activation in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Abushahba, Walid; Olabisi, Oyenike O; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Boregowda, Rajeev K; Wen, Yu; Liu, Fang; Goydos, James S; Lasfar, Ahmed; Cohen-Solal, Karine A

    2012-01-01

    Riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamate release, has shown the ability to inhibit melanoma cell xenograft growth. A phase 0 clinical trial of riluzole as a single agent in patients with melanoma resulted in involution of tumors associated with inhibition of both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phophoinositide-3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) pathways in 34% of patients. In the present study, we demonstrate that riluzole inhibits AKT-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation in melanoma cell lines. Because we have demonstrated that GSK3 is involved in the phosphorylation of two downstream effectors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), Smad2 and Smad3, at their linker domain, our aim was to determine whether riluzole could induce GSK3β-mediated linker phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. We present evidence that riluzole increases Smad2 and Smad3 linker phosphorylation at the cluster of serines 245/250/255 and serine 204 respectively. Using GSK3 inhibitors and siRNA knock-down, we demonstrate that the mechanism of riluzole-induced Smad phosphorylation involved GSK3β. In addition, GSK3β could phosphorylate the same linker sites in vitro. The riluzole-induced Smad linker phosphorylation is mechanistically different from the Smad linker phosphorylation induced by TGFβ. We also demonstrate that riluzole-induced Smad linker phosphorylation is independent of the expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), which is one of the glutamate receptors whose involvement in human melanoma has been documented. We further show that riluzole upregulates the expression of INHBB and PLAU, two genes associated with the TGFβ signaling pathway. The non-canonical increase in Smad linker phosphorylation induced by riluzole could contribute to the modulation of the pro-oncogenic functions of Smads in late stage melanomas.

  2. The effects of in vitro phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on the thrombin-induced gelation and plasmin degradation of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Martin, S C; Forsberg, P O; Eriksson, S D

    1991-02-01

    The alpha-chain of human fibrinogen was found to be phosphorylated in EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood when trace amounts of (gamma-32P)ATP and 7.5 mM Mg2+ ions were added. Fibrinogen was not phosphorylated if only the ATP was added. The thrombin-induced gelation of fibrinogen phosphorylated by protein kinase A, casein kinase I or II was studied spectrophotomerically. It was found that phosphorylation by protein kinase A caused the formation of thinner fibrin fibres, whereas phosphorylation by casein kinase II resulted in fibres slightly thicker than those of the control fibrinogen (equivalent to a 20% increase in the control fibrinogen concentration). Phosphorylation with casein kinase I did not significantly affect the fibrin fibre thickness. Dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase removed 50% of the 32P-labelled phosphate from protein kinase A-phosphorylated fibrinogen and over 90% from the casein kinase I or II-phosphorylated fibrinogens. This dephosphorylation resulted in a general increase in fibre thickness in the gelation assay in all samples, although the fibres of the phosphorylated fibrinogens remained substantially thinner than the dephosphorylated control fibrinogen. Plasmin digestion of the phosphorylated fibrinogens showed that they were more resistant to cleavage, being cleaved at only 30% to 70% of the rate of control fibrinogen and that this resistance was unaltered by dephosphorylation, in contrast to the thrombin gelation experiments.

  3. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7.

  4. Ligand-induced IFN gamma receptor tyrosine phosphorylation couples the receptor to its signal transduction system (p91).

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, A C; Farrar, M A; Viviano, B L; Schreiber, R D

    1994-01-01

    Herein we report that interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) induces the rapid and reversible tyrosine phosphorylation of the IFN gamma receptor. Using a panel of receptor intracellular domain mutants, we show that a membrane-proximal LPKS sequence (residues 266-269) is required for ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activation and/or kinase-receptor association and biological responsiveness, and a functionally critical membrane-distal tyrosine residue (Y440) is a target of the activated enzyme. The biological significance of Y440 phosphorylation was demonstrated by showing that a receptor-derived nonapeptide corresponding to receptor residues 436-444 and containing phosphorylated Y440 bound specifically to p91, blocked p91 phosphorylation and inhibited the generation of an active p91-containing transcription factor complex. In contrast, nonphosphorylated wild-type, phosphorylated mutant, or phosphorylated irrelevant peptides did not. Moreover, the phosphorylated Y440-containing peptide did not interact with a related but distinct latent transcription factor (p113) which is activatible by IFN alpha but not IFN gamma. These results thus document the specific and inducible association of p91 with the phosphorylated IFN gamma receptor and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which ligand couples the IFN gamma receptor to its signal transduction system. Images PMID:8156998

  5. p38 MAPK downregulates phosphorylation of Bad in doxorubicin-induced endothelial apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Grethe, Simone; Coltella, Nadia; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia; Poern-Ares, M. Isabella . E-mail: isabella.ares@helsinki.fi

    2006-09-01

    Doxorubicin is the anthracycline with the widest spectrum of antitumor activity, and it has been shown that the antitumor activity is mediated in vivo by selective triggering of apoptosis in proliferating endothelial cells. We studied cultured human endothelial cells and observed that doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Doxorubicin-provoked apoptosis was significantly inhibited by expression of dominant negative p38 MAPK or pharmacological inhibition with SB203580. Furthermore, blocking phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling significantly increased doxorubicin-induced caspase-3 activity and cell death, indicating that Akt is a survival factor in this system. Notably, we also found that doxorubicin-provoked apoptosis included p38 MAPK-mediated inhibition of Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Furthermore, doxorubicin-stimulated phosphorylation of Bad in cells expressing dominant negative p38 MAPK was impeded by the inhibition of PI3-K. In addition to the impact on Bad phosphorylation, doxorubicin-treatment caused p38 MAPK-dependent downregulation of Bcl-xL protein.

  6. Inhibition of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase attenuates ethanol-induced hyperactivity in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Magda; Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish have been successfully employed in the study of the behavioural and biological effects of ethanol. Like in mammals, low to moderate doses of ethanol induce motor hyperactivity in zebrafish, an effect that has been attributed to the activation of the dopaminergic system. Acute ethanol exposure increases dopamine (DA) in the zebrafish brain, and it has been suggested that tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis, may be activated in response to ethanol via phosphorylation. The current study employed tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), a selective inhibitor of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, for the first time, in zebrafish. We treated zebrafish with a THP dose that did not alter baseline motor responses to examine whether it can attenuate or abolish the effects of acute exposure to alcohol (ethanol) on motor activity, on levels of DA, and on levels of dopamine’s metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). We found that 60-minute exposure to 1% alcohol induced motor hyperactivity and an increase in brain DA. Both of these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with THP. However, no differences in DOPAC levels were found among the treatment groups. These findings suggest that tyrosine hydroxylase is activated via phosphorylation to increase DA synthesis during alcohol exposure in zebrafish, and this partially mediates alcohol’s locomotor stimulant effects. Future studies will investigate other potential candidates in the molecular pathway to further decipher the neurobiological mechanism that underlies the stimulatory properties of this popular psychoactive drug. PMID:26366782

  7. Inhibition of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase attenuates ethanol-induced hyperactivity in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Magda; Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish have been successfully employed in the study of the behavioural and biological effects of ethanol. Like in mammals, low to moderate doses of ethanol induce motor hyperactivity in zebrafish, an effect that has been attributed to the activation of the dopaminergic system. Acute ethanol exposure increases dopamine (DA) in the zebrafish brain, and it has been suggested that tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis, may be activated in response to ethanol via phosphorylation. The current study employed tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), a selective inhibitor of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, for the first time, in zebrafish. We treated zebrafish with a THP dose that did not alter baseline motor responses to examine whether it can attenuate or abolish the effects of acute exposure to alcohol (ethanol) on motor activity, on levels of DA, and on levels of dopamine's metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). We found that 60-minute exposure to 1% alcohol induced motor hyperactivity and an increase in brain DA. Both of these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with THP. However, no differences in DOPAC levels were found among the treatment groups. These findings suggest that tyrosine hydroxylase is activated via phosphorylation to increase DA synthesis during alcohol exposure in zebrafish, and this partially mediates alcohol's locomotor stimulant effects. Future studies will investigate other potential candidates in the molecular pathway to further decipher the neurobiological mechanism that underlies the stimulatory properties of this popular psychoactive drug.

  8. Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Max C.; Madiraju, Anila K.; Gassaway, Brandon M.; Marcel, Michael; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Marcucci, Melissa J.; Zhang, Dongyan; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Zhang, Xian-Man; Philbrick, William; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Samuel, Varman T.; Rinehart, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop. We hypothesized that Thr1160 phosphorylation impairs INSR kinase activity by destabilizing the active configuration of the INSR kinase, and our results confirmed this prediction by demonstrating severely impaired INSR kinase activity in phosphomimetic T1160E mutants. Conversely, the INSR T1160A mutant was not inhibited by PKCε in vitro. Furthermore, mice with a threonine-to-alanine mutation at the homologous residue Thr1150 (InsrT1150A mice) were protected from high fat diet–induced hepatic insulin resistance. InsrT1150A mice also displayed increased insulin signaling, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis compared with WT controls during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. These data reveal a critical pathophysiological role for INSR Thr1160 phosphorylation and provide further mechanistic links between PKCε and INSR in mediating NAFLD-induced hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:27760050

  9. MeCP2 phosphorylation limits psychostimulant-induced behavioral and neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie V; Wan, Yehong; Wang, Xiaoting; Cohen, Sonia; Wetsel, William C; Greenberg, Michael E; Kenny, Paul J; Calakos, Nicole; West, Anne E

    2014-03-26

    The methyl-DNA binding protein MeCP2 is emerging as an important regulator of drug reinforcement processes. Psychostimulants induce phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421; however, the functional significance of this posttranslational modification for addictive-like behaviors was unknown. Here we show that MeCP2 Ser421Ala knock-in mice display both a reduced threshold for the induction of locomotor sensitization by investigator-administered amphetamine and enhanced behavioral sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of self-administered cocaine. These behavioral differences were accompanied in the knock-in mice by changes in medium spiny neuron intrinsic excitability and nucleus accumbens gene expression typically observed in association with repeated exposure to these drugs. These data show that phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421 functions to limit the circuit plasticities in the nucleus accumbens that underlie addictive-like behaviors.

  10. MeCP2 Phosphorylation Limits Psychostimulant-Induced Behavioral and Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie V.; Wan, Yehong; Wang, Xiaoting; Cohen, Sonia; Wetsel, William C.; Greenberg, Michael E.; Kenny, Paul J.; Calakos, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The methyl-DNA binding protein MeCP2 is emerging as an important regulator of drug reinforcement processes. Psychostimulants induce phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421; however, the functional significance of this posttranslational modification for addictive-like behaviors was unknown. Here we show that MeCP2 Ser421Ala knock-in mice display both a reduced threshold for the induction of locomotor sensitization by investigator-administered amphetamine and enhanced behavioral sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of self-administered cocaine. These behavioral differences were accompanied in the knock-in mice by changes in medium spiny neuron intrinsic excitability and nucleus accumbens gene expression typically observed in association with repeated exposure to these drugs. These data show that phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421 functions to limit the circuit plasticities in the nucleus accumbens that underlie addictive-like behaviors. PMID:24671997

  11. Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in the left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Almela, Pilar; Victoria Milanés, Maria; Luisa Laorden, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Our previous studies have shown that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of cardiac noradrenergic pathways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine withdrawal on site-specific tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation in the rat left ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.). TH phosphorylation was determined by quantitative blot immunolabelling using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. Ninety min after naloxone administration to morphine-dependent rats there was an increase in phospho-Ser40-TH (139.0 +/- 13%, P < 0.05) and Ser31-TH (135.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.05) in the left ventricle which is associated with both an increase in total TH levels (114.4 +/- 4.6%, P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and an enhancement of TH activity (51.0 +/- 11 dm/microg protein, P < 0.001). When HA-1004 (40 nmol/day), inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) was infused, concomitantly with morphine, it diminished the increase in noradrenaline (NA) turnover, total TH expression (95.76 +/- 4.1 %, P < 0.01) and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (85.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.01) in morphine-withdrawn rats. In addition, we showed that the ability of morphine withdrawal to stimulate phosphorylation at serine 31 is reduced (101.7 +/- 7.7%, P < 0.05) by SL327 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.

  12. Sequential phosphorylation mediates receptor- and kinase-induced inhibition of TREK-1 background potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Murbartián, Janet; Lei, Qiubo; Sando, Julianne J; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2005-08-26

    Background potassium channels determine membrane potential and input resistance and serve as prominent effectors for modulatory regulation of cellular excitability. TREK-1 is a two-pore domain background K+ channel (KCNK2, K2P2.1) that is sensitive to a variety of physicochemical and humoral factors. In this work, we used a recombinant expression system to show that activation of G alpha(q)-coupled receptors leads to inhibition of TREK-1 channels via protein kinase C (PKC), and we identified a critical phosphorylation site in a key regulatory domain that mediates inhibition of the channel. In HEK 293 cells co-expressing TREK-1 and either the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR1) or the Orexin receptor (Orx1R), agonist stimulation induced robust channel inhibition that was suppressed by a bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitor but not by a protein kinase A blocker ((R(p))-cAMP-S). Channel inhibition by agonists or by direct activators of PKC (phorbol dibutyrate) and PKA (forskolin) was disrupted not only by alanine or aspartate mutations at an identified PKA site (Ser-333) in the C terminus, but also at a more proximal regulatory site in the cytoplasmic C terminus (Ser-300); S333A and S300A mutations enhanced basal TREK-1 current, whereas S333D and S300D substitutions mimicked phosphorylation and strongly diminished currents. When studied in combination, TREK-1 current density was enhanced in S300A/S333D but reduced in S300D/S333A mutant channels. Channel mutants were expressed and appropriately targeted to cell membranes. Together, these data support a sequential phosphorylation model in which receptor-induced kinase activation drives modification at Ser-333 that enables subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-300 to inhibit TREK-1 channel activity.

  13. GPM6B — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GPM6B is a membrane glycoprotein belonging to the proteolipid protein family. It is thought to be involved in neural development. This protein family is expressed in the brain and may be involved in cellular housekeeping functions. GPM6B is involved in the regulation of osteoblast function and bone formation and matrix vesicle release by osteoblasts. GPM6B may be involved in cellular trafficking of SERT and thereby in regulation of serotonin uptake.

  14. The Dictyostelium prestalk inducer differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) triggers unexpectedly complex global phosphorylation changes

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Chris; Urbaniak, Michael D.; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Williams, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) is a polyketide that induces Dictyostelium amoebae to differentiate as prestalk cells. We performed a global quantitative screen for phosphorylation changes that occur within the first minutes after addition of DIF-1, using a triple-label SILAC approach. This revealed a new world of DIF-1–controlled signaling, with changes in components of the MAPK and protein kinase B signaling pathways, components of the actinomyosin cytoskeletal signaling networks, and a broad range of small GTPases and their regulators. The results also provide evidence that the Ca2+/calmodulin–dependent phosphatase calcineurin plays a role in DIF-1 signaling to the DimB prestalk transcription factor. At the global level, DIF-1 causes a major shift in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation equilibrium toward net dephosphorylation. Of interest, many of the sites that are dephosphorylated in response to DIF-1 are phosphorylated in response to extracellular cAMP signaling. This accords with studies that suggest an antagonism between the two inducers and also with the rapid dephosphorylation of the cAMP receptor that we observe in response to DIF-1 and with the known inhibitory effect of DIF-1 on chemotaxis to cAMP. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001555. PMID:25518940

  15. CaMKII induces permeability transition through Drp1 phosphorylation during chronic β-AR stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shangcheng; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Huiliang; Gong, Guohua; Gutierrez Cortes, Nicolas; Zhu, Weizhong; Yoon, Yisang; Tian, Rong; Wang, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in cardiac dysfunction during chronic β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. The mechanism by which chronic β-AR stimulation leads to mPTP openings is elusive. Here, we show that chronic administration of isoproterenol (ISO) persistently increases the frequency of mPTP openings followed by mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. Mechanistically, this effect is mediated by phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) at a serine 616 (S616) site. Mutating this phosphorylation site or inhibiting Drp1 activity blocks CaMKII- or ISO-induced mPTP opening and myocyte death in vitro and rescues heart hypertrophy in vivo. In human failing hearts, Drp1 phosphorylation at S616 is increased. These results uncover a pathway downstream of chronic β-AR stimulation that links CaMKII, Drp1 and mPTP to bridge cytosolic stress signal with mitochondrial dysfunction in the heart. PMID:27739424

  16. Phosphorylation of p53 by LRRK2 induces microglial tumor necrosis factor α-mediated neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dong Hwan; Seol, Wongi; Eun, Jin Hwan; Son, Il-Hong

    2017-01-22

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2), a major causal gene of Parkinson's disease (PD), functions as a kinase. The most prevalent mutation of LRRK2 is G2019S. It exhibits increased kinase activity compared to the wildtype LRRK2. Previous studies have shown that LRRK2 can phosphorylate p53 at T304 and T377 of threonine-X-arginine (TXR) motif in neurons. Reduction of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity has been shown to be able to alleviate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. In this study, we found that LRRK2 could also phosphorylate p53 in microglia model BV2 cells. Transfection of BV2 with phosphomimetic p53 T304/377D significantly increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα compared to BV2 transfected with p53 wild type after LPS treatment. In addition, conditioned media from these transfected cells increased the death of dopaminergic neuronal SN4741 cells. Moreover, such neurotoxic effect was rescued by co-treatment with the conditioned media and etanercept, a TNFα blocking antibody. Furthermore, TNFα secretion was significantly increased in primary microglia derived from G2019S transgenic mice treated with LPS compared to that in cells derived from their littermates. These results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity in microglia can contribute to neuroinflammation in PD via phosphorylating p53 at T304 and T377 site.

  17. Ethanol-induced GABAA receptor alpha4 subunit plasticity involves phosphorylation and neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Werner, David F; Porcu, Patrizia; Boyd, Kevin N; O'Buckley, Todd K; Carter, Jenna M; Kumar, Sandeep; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-04-01

    GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits are widely implicated in acute ethanol sensitivity, and their spatial and temporal regulation prominently contributes to ethanol-induced neuroplasticity in hippocampus and cortex. However, it is unknown if α4-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, an area of high α4 expression, display similar regulatory patterns following ethanol administration, and if so, by which molecular mechanisms. In the current study, thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit levels were increased following a 6-week-, but not a 2-week chronic ethanol diet. Following acute high-dose ethanol administration, thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit levels were regulated in a temporal fashion, as a decrease was observed at 2h followed by a delayed transient increase. PKCγ and PKCδ levels paralleled α4 temporal expression patterns following ethanol exposure. Initial decreases in α4 subunit expression were associated with reduced serine phosphorylation. Delayed increases in expression were not associated with a change in phosphorylation state, but were prevented by inhibiting neuroactive steroid production with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Overall, these studies indicate that thalamic GABAA receptor α4 subunit expression following acute and chronic ethanol administration exhibits similar regulatory patterns as other regions and that transient expression patterns following acute exposure in vivo are likely dependent on both subunit phosphorylation state and neuroactive steroids.

  18. Mineral induced phosphorylation of glycolate ion--a metaphor in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, V.; Zhang, S.; Xu, Y.; Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Bilateral surface-active minerals with excess positive charge concentrate glycolate and trimetaphosphate ion from l0(-3) m aqueous solution to half-saturation of the internal surface sites, and induce phosphorylation of glycolate ion in the mineral with trimetaphosphate, sorbed from l0(-2) m solution. By utilizing reactants from dilute solution at near-neutral pH, and eliminating the need for participating organic nitrogen compounds, the reaction comprises several elements considered necessary for geochemical realism in models for molecular evolution.

  19. Mineral induced phosphorylation of glycolate ion--a metaphor in chemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Kolb, V; Zhang, S; Xu, Y; Arrhenius, G

    1997-12-01

    Bilateral surface-active minerals with excess positive charge concentrate glycolate and trimetaphosphate ion from l0(-3) m aqueous solution to half-saturation of the internal surface sites, and induce phosphorylation of glycolate ion in the mineral with trimetaphosphate, sorbed from l0(-2) m solution. By utilizing reactants from dilute solution at near-neutral pH, and eliminating the need for participating organic nitrogen compounds, the reaction comprises several elements considered necessary for geochemical realism in models for molecular evolution.

  20. Inflammatory cytokines induce phosphorylation and ubiquitination of prostate suppressor protein NKX3.1.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Mark C; Bowen, Cai; Gelmann, Edward P

    2008-09-01

    Inflammation of the prostate is a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. In the aging prostate, regions of inflammatory atrophy are foci for prostate epithelial cell transformation. Expression of the suppressor protein NKX3.1 is reduced in regions of inflammatory atrophy and in preinvasive prostate cancer. Inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin-1beta accelerate NKX3.1 protein loss by inducing rapid ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The effect of TNF-alpha is mediated via the COOH-terminal domain of NKX3.1 where phosphorylation of serine 196 is critical for cytokine-induced degradation. Mutation of serine 196 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation at that site and the effect of TNF-alpha on NKX3.1 ubiquitination and protein loss. This is in contrast to control of steady-state NKX3.1 turnover, which is mediated by serine 185. Mutation of serine 185 to alanine increases NKX3.1 protein stability by inhibiting ubiquitination and doubling the protein half-life. A third COOH-terminal serine at position 195 has a modulating effect on both steady-state protein turnover and on ubiquitination induced by TNF-alpha. Thus, cellular levels of the NKX3.1 tumor suppressor are affected by inflammatory cytokines that target COOH-terminal serine residues to activate ubiquitination and protein degradation. Our data suggest that strategies to inhibit inflammation or to inhibit effector kinases may be useful approaches to prostate cancer prevention.

  1. Tgf-beta induced Erk phosphorylation of smad linker region regulates smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Hough, Chris; Radu, Maria; Doré, Jules J E

    2012-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) family is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. TGF-β binding to a Serine/Threonine kinase receptor complex causes the recruitment and subsequent activation of transcription factors known as smad2 and smad3. These proteins subsequently translocate into the nucleus to negatively or positively regulate gene expression. In this study, we define a second signaling pathway leading to TGF-β receptor activation of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (Erk) in a cell-type dependent manner. TGF-β induced Erk activation was found in phenotypically normal mesenchymal cells, but not normal epithelial cells. By activating phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), TGF-β stimulates p21-activated kinase2 (Pak2) to phosphorylate c-Raf, ultimately resulting in Erk activation. Activation of Erk was necessary for TGF-β induced fibroblast replication. In addition, Erk phosphorylated the linker region of nuclear localized smads, resulting in increased half-life of C-terminal phospho-smad 2 and 3 and increased duration of smad target gene transcription. Together, these data show that in mesenchymal cell types the TGF-β/PI3K/Pak2/Raf/MEK/Erk pathway regulates smad signaling, is critical for TGF-β-induced growth and is part of an integrated signaling web containing multiple interacting pathways rather than discrete smad/non-smad pathways.

  2. Requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation in lipopolysaccharide-induced murine B-cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden-Badet, M T; Revillard, J P

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a strong B-cell proliferative response with subsequent differentiation, through a complex signal transduction pathway. This process is known to be mediated through protein kinase C (PKC) translocation without Ca2+ mobilization. Here, we show that B-cell proliferative responses induced by five different LPS preparations, as well as by F(ab')2 anti-IgM antibodies, are inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and herbimycin A. In contrast, B-cell proliferation induced by the combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin was not influenced by treatment with either herbimycin A or genistein. These data indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation is required to initiate B-cell proliferation by LPS. PMID:8307617

  3. Pesticides induce spatial memory deficits with synaptic impairments and an imbalanced tau phosphorylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Ning; Luo, Dan-Ju; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Yu, Cong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms are elusive. Here, we studied the effects of pesticide exposure on the cognitive ability and the underlying mechanisms in rats. Deltamethrin and carbofuran were administered respectively into the rats once a day for 28 days by gavage. We found that pesticide exposure induced spatial learning and memory deficits with a simultaneous decrease of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, synaptophysin, and synapsin I, all of which are memory-related synaptic proteins. Pesticide exposure also induced tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related phosphorylation sites with activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and inhibition of protein phosphatase-2A. Additionally, neuron loss in the hippocampus and cortex was observed upon administration of the pesticides. These results indicate that the pesticides exposure could induce AD-like pathology and cognitive abnormality in rats.

  4. Involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced cell death in L6 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, T; Kumano, T; Nakagawa, H; Kuriyama, M

    1999-02-05

    Our previous studies have shown that the HMG-CoA reductase (HCR) inhibitor (HCRI), simvastatin, causes myopathy in rabbits and kills L6 myoblasts. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HCRI-induced cell death. We have demonstrated that simvastatin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins within 10 min. These phosphorylations were followed by apoptosis, as evidenced by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and by morphological changes detected with Nomarski optics. Simvastatin-induced cell death was prevented by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The MTT assay revealed that the addition of mevalonic acid into the culture medium partially inhibited simvastatin-induced cell death. Thus, these results suggested that protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway mediating the HCRI-induced death of myoblasts.

  5. Wnt3A Induces GSK-3β Phosphorylation and β-Catenin Accumulation Through RhoA/ROCK.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Ju; Choi, Won-Ji; Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jaebong; Kim, Sung-Chan; Kang, Seung Goo; Seo, Goo-Young; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun; Park, Jae-Bong

    2017-05-01

    In canonical pathway, Wnt3A has been known to stabilize β-catenin through the dissociation between β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) that suppresses the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin. In non-canonical signaling pathway, Wnt was known to activate Rho GTPases and to induce cell migration. The cross-talk between canonical and non-canonical pathways by Wnt signaling; however, has not been fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that Wnt3A induces not only the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and accumulation of β-catenin but also RhoA activation in RAW264.7 and HEK293 cells. Notably, sh-RhoA and Tat-C3 abolished both the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and accumulation of β-catenin. Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled coil kinase (ROCK) and si-ROCK inhibited both GSK-3β phosphorylation and β-catenin accumulation. Furthermore, active domain of ROCK directly phosphorylated the purified recombinant GSK-3β in vitro. In addition, Wnt3A-induced cell proliferation and migration, which were inhibited by Tat-C3 and Y27632. Taken together, we propose the cross-talk between canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways of Wnt3A, which induces GSK-3β phosphorylation and β-catenin accumulation through RhoA and ROCK activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1104-1113, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. ERK phosphorylation of MED14 in promoter complexes during mitogen-induced gene activation by Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Matthew D; Saxton, Janice; Li, Li; Shelton, Samuel J; Zhang, Hongmei; Espinosa, Joaquin M; Shaw, Peter E

    2013-12-01

    The ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1 stimulates expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) in response to mitogens. These events require phosphorylation of Elk-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphorylation-dependent interaction of Elk-1 with co-activators, including histone acetyltransferases and the Mediator complex. Elk-1 also recruits ERK to the promoters of its target genes, suggesting that ERK phosphorylates additional substrates in transcription complexes at mitogen-responsive promoters. Here we report that MED14, a core subunit of the Mediator, is a bona fide ERK substrate and identify serine 986 (S986) within a serine-proline rich region of MED14 as the major ERK phosphorylation site. Mitogens induced phosphorylation of MED14 on S986 at IEG promoters; RNAi knockdown of MED14 reduced CDK8 and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNAPII C-terminal domain phosphorylation and impaired activation of IEG transcription. A single alanine substitution at S986 reduced activation of an E26 (ETS)-responsive reporter by oncogenic Ras and mitogen-induced, Elk-1-dependent transcription, whereas activities of other transcriptional activators were unaffected. We also demonstrate that Elk-1 can associate with MED14 independently of MED23, which may facilitate phosphorylation of MED14 by ERK to impart a positive and selective impact on mitogen-responsive gene expression.

  7. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Xiao; Whitten, Douglas A.; Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Pestka, James J.

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF DIFFERENTIALLY-INDUCED TCR-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION PATHWAYS IN T LYMPHOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Serina; Lee, Wenhui; Smith, David; Forman, Stephen J.; Lee, Terry D.; Liu, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Activation of T lymphoma cells expressing Syk, but not ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, has been shown to negatively regulate cell activation and activation induced cell death (AICD), perhaps due to differential induction of tyrosine phosphorylation modified proteins. To better understand the role of these proteins and their associated molecules/pathways, we studied a previously described model of T lymphoma cells expressing either a kinase-activated chimeric Syk or ZAP-70 genetically linked to TCR ζ chain (Z/Syk or Z/ZAP cells, respectively). To help identify molecules and pathways linked to cell activation or AICD, a comparative semi-quantitative proteomics-based approach was utilized to analyze tyrosine phosphorylated protein immunoprecipitates from 2 min short-term activated Z/Syk or Z/ZAP cells. Using the resulting bioinformatics datasets, we identified several differentially immunoprecipitated proteins that could be validated biochemically. More tyrosine-phosphorylated and phosphotyrosine-associated proteins were found in Z/Syk than in Z/ZAP cells. Proteins involved in different unique functional pathways were induced in these cells and showed altered intermolecular interactions in varied pathways. Remarkably, 41% of differentially identified proteins in Z/Syk cells belonged to cell cycle or vesicle/trafficking pathways. In contrast, 21% of such proteins in Z/ZAP cells belonged to metabolism pathways. Therefore, molecular pathways involved in post-translational modifications linked to distinct cellular/physiological functions are differentially activated, which may contribute to varied activation and AICD responses of these cells. In summary, we identified proteins belonging to novel differentially activated pathways involved in TCR-mediated signaling, which may be targets for regulating activation and AICD of T lymphoma cells and for potential cancer therapy. PMID:21127342

  9. Phosphorylation of Tyr245 in the open-inhibited state of Abelson kinase does not induce downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Skora, Lukasz; Kempf, Dominique; Mestan, Jürgen; D'Orazio, Daniel; Jahnke, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Binding of tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib was shown to induce a novel open-inhibited conformation of BCR-ABL, in which Tyr245 is exposed and prone to phosphorylation. To evaluate whether this leads to priming of the kinase in cellular systems, we probed activation of downstream signaling as a result of Tyr245 phosphorylation in a series of cellular washout experiments. While a spike in Tyr245 phosphorylation was observed both in overexpression and endogenous settings, no induction of downstream signaling was detected, showing that the priming hypothesis is not relevant for the therapeutic situation.

  10. Zn2+-dependent Activation of the Trk Signaling Pathway Induces Phosphorylation of the Brain-enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Rajagopal, Sathyanarayanan; Shuttleworth, C. William; Paul, Surojit

    2016-01-01

    Excessive release of Zn2+ in the brain is implicated in the progression of acute brain injuries. Although several signaling cascades have been reported to be involved in Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity, a potential contribution of tyrosine phosphatases in this process has not been well explored. Here we show that exposure to high concentrations of Zn2+ led to a progressive increase in phosphorylation of the striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP), a component of the excitotoxic-signaling pathway that plays a role in neuroprotection. Zn2+-mediated phosphorylation of STEP61 at multiple sites (hyperphosphorylation) was induced by the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) signaling, and activation of cAMP-dependent PKA (protein kinase A). Mutational studies further show that differential phosphorylation of STEP61 at the PKA sites, Ser-160 and Ser-221 regulates the affinity of STEP61 toward its substrates. Consistent with these findings we also show that BDNF/Trk/PKA mediated signaling is required for Zn2+-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), a substrate of STEP that is involved in Zn2+-dependent neurotoxicity. The strong correlation between the temporal profile of STEP61 hyperphosphorylation and ERK2 phosphorylation indicates that loss of function of STEP61 through phosphorylation is necessary for maintaining sustained ERK2 phosphorylation. This interpretation is further supported by the findings that deletion of the STEP gene led to a rapid and sustained increase in ERK2 phosphorylation within minutes of exposure to Zn2+. The study provides further insight into the mechanisms of regulation of STEP61 and also offers a molecular basis for the Zn2+-induced sustained activation of ERK2. PMID:26574547

  11. Osmotin attenuates amyloid beta-induced memory impairment, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tahir; Yoon, Gwang Ho; Shah, Shahid Ali; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotection of novel osmotin, a plant protein extracted from Nicotiana tabacum that has been considered to be a homolog of mammalian adiponectin. Here, we observed that treatment with osmotin (15 μg/g, intraperitoneally, 4 hr) at 3 and 40 days post-intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 significantly ameliorated Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in mice. These results revealed that osmotin reverses Aβ1-42 injection-induced synaptic deficits, Aβ accumulation and BACE-1 expression. Treatment with osmotin also alleviated the Aβ1-42-induced hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein at serine 413 through the regulation of the aberrant phosphorylation of p-PI3K, p-Akt (serine 473) and p-GSK3β (serine 9). Moreover, our western blots and immunohistochemical results indicated that osmotin prevented Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration in the Aβ1-42-treated mice. Furthermore, osmotin attenuated Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a novel osmotin against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that this ubiquitous plant protein could potentially serve as a novel, promising, and accessible neuroprotective agent against progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:26118757

  12. Insulin-induced myosin light-chain phosphorylation during receptor capping in IM-9 human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, L Y

    1988-01-01

    We have examined further the interaction between insulin surface receptors and the cytoskeleton of IM-9 human lymphoblasts. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we determined that actin, myosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) are all accumulated directly underneath insulin-receptor caps. In addition, we have now established that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ (as measured by fura-2 fluorescence) increases just before insulin-induced receptor capping. Most importantly, we found that the binding of insulin to its receptor induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain in vivo. Furthermore, a number of drugs known to abolish the activation properties of calmodulin, such as trifluoperazine (TFP) or W-7, strongly inhibit insulin-receptor capping and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These data imply that an actomyosin cytoskeletal contraction, regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and MLCK, is involved in insulin-receptor capping. Biochemical analysis in vitro has revealed that IM-9 insulin receptors are physically associated with actin and myosin; and most interestingly, the binding of insulin-receptor/cytoskeletal complex significantly enhances the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain. This insulin-induced phosphorylation is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists (e.g. TFP and W-7), suggesting that the phosphorylation is catalysed by MLCK. Together, these results strongly suggest that MLCK-mediated myosin light-chain phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the membrane-associated actomyosin contraction required for the collection of insulin receptors into caps. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3048249

  13. Egg jelly induces the phosphorylation of histone H3 in spermatozoa of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata.

    PubMed

    Vacquier, V D; Porter, D C; Keller, S H; Aukerman, M

    1989-05-01

    When spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata are labeled with 32P and treated with soluble egg jelly, radiolabel is incorporated into histone H3. The time course of labeling correlates with the period of chromatin decondensation of sperm pronuclei in eggs. Phosphorylation is on serine and may result from increased turnover of phosphate on H3. The macromolecular fraction of egg jelly (and not the peptide fraction) is the inducer of H3 phosphorylation. The reaction is dependent on external Ca2+ and is induced by monensin and A23187. H3 phosphorylation is not induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX and relatively high (250 microM) concentrations of the protein kinase inhibitor H8 are needed to block the reaction, suggesting that it is cAMP independent. A surprising finding is that merely diluting the cells into Na+ free media is the most effective method to induce the radiolabeling of H3. These results are in contrast to findings on the egg jelly induced phosphorylation of histone H1 in S. purpuratus spermatozoa. These species differences must reflect the great evolutionary divergence between these two sea urchin species in the mechanism of regulation of the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins during fertilization.

  14. Adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation to photoperiod-induced seasonal metabolic states in migratory songbirds.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Amit Kumar; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce chemical energy in the form of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation of metabolic fuels via a series of enzyme mediated biochemical reactions. We propose that the rates of these reactions are altered, as per energy needs of the seasonal metabolic states in avian migrants. To investigate this, blackheaded buntings were photoperiodically induced with non-migratory, premigratory, migratory and post-migratory phenotypes. High plasma levels of free fatty acids, citrate (an intermediate that begins the TCA cycle) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh, an enzyme involved at the end of the TCA cycle) confirmed increased availability of metabolic reserves and substrates to the TCA cycle during the premigratory and migratory states, respectively. Further, daily expression pattern of genes coding for enzymes involved in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA (pdc and pdk) and oxidative phosphorylation in the TCA cycle (cs, odgh, sdhd and mdh) was monitored in the hypothalamus and liver. Reciprocal relationship between pdc and pdk expressions conformed with the altered requirements of acetyl-CoA for the TCA cycle in different metabolic states. Except for pdk, all genes had a daily expression pattern, with high mRNA expression during the day in the premigratory/migratory phenotypes, and at night (cs, odhg, sdhd and mdh) in the nonmigratory phenotype. Differences in mRNA expression patterns of pdc, sdhd and mdh, but not of pdk, cs and odgh, between the hypothalamus and liver indicated a tissue dependent metabolism in buntings. These results suggest the adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway(s) at gene levels to the seasonal alternations in metabolism in migratory songbirds.

  15. Cohesin phosphorylation and mobility of SMC1 at ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bauerschmidt, Christina; Helleday, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Cohesin, a hetero-tetrameric complex of SMC1, SMC3, Rad21 and Scc3, associates with chromatin after mitosis and holds sister chromatids together following DNA replication. Following DNA damage, cohesin accumulates at and promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In addition, phosphorylation of the SMC1/3 subunits contributes to DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint regulation. The aim of this study was to determine the regulation and consequences of SMC1/3 phosphorylation as part of the cohesin complex. We show here that the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of SMC1 and SMC3 is mediated by H2AX, 53BP1 and MDC1. Depletion of RAD21 abolishes these phosphorylations, indicating that only the fully assembled complex is phosphorylated. Comparison of wild type SMC1 and SMC1S966A in fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching experiments shows that phosphorylation of SMC1 is required for an increased mobility after DNA damage in G2-phase cells, suggesting that ATM-dependent phosphorylation facilitates mobilization of the cohesin complex after DNA damage.

  16. Mechanism of neem limonoids-induced cell death in cancer: Role of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelu; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Rahul; Srivastava, Pragya; Sun, Leimin; Rapali, Peter; Marlowe, Timothy; Schneider, Andrea; Inigo, Joseph R; O'Malley, Jordan; Londonkar, Ramesh; Gogada, Raghu; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Yadava, Nagendra; Chandra, Dhyan

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that neem limonoids (neem) induce multiple cancer cell death pathways. Here we dissect the underlying mechanisms of neem-induced apoptotic cell death in cancer. We observed that neem-induced caspase activation does not require Bax/Bak channel-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, permeability transition pore, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Neem enhanced mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biomass. While oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex-I activity was decreased, the activities of other OXPHOS complexes including Complex-II and -IV were unaltered. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were associated with an increase in mitochondrial biomass and apoptosis upon neem exposure. Complex-I deficiency due to the loss of Ndufa1-encoded MWFE protein inhibited neem-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, but cell death induction was enhanced. Complex II-deficiency due to the loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) robustly decreased caspase activation, apoptosis, and cell death. Additionally, the ablation of Complexes-I, -III, -IV, and -V together did not inhibit caspase activation. Together, we demonstrate that neem limonoids target OXPHOS system to induce cancer cell death, which does not require upregulation or activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

  17. Evaluation of butyrate-induced production of a mannose-6-phosphorylated therapeutic enzyme using parallel bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Wong, Lily; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Braulke, Thomas; Khan, Mansoor; Anderson, Howard; Johnson, Gibbes R

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycan content and the enzymatic catalytic kinetic parameters are critical quality attributes (CQAs) of many therapeutic enzymes used to treat lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Here, we have evaluated the effect of adding butyrate to bioreactor production cultures of human recombinant β-glucuronidase produced from CHO-K1 cells, with an emphasis on CQAs. The β-glucuronidase produced in parallel bioreactors was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, the catalytic kinetic parameters were measured using steady-state analysis, and mannose-6-phosphorylation status was assessed using an M6P-specific single-chain antibody fragment. Using this approach, we found that butyrate treatment increased β-glucuronidase production up to approximately threefold without significantly affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, M6P content in β-glucuronidase was inversely correlated with the increased enzyme production induced by butyrate treatment. This assessment demonstrated that although butyrate dramatically increased β-glucuronidase production in bioreactors, it adversely impacted the mannose-6-phosphorylation of this LSD therapeutic enzyme. This strategy may have utility in evaluating manufacturing process changes to improve therapeutic enzyme yields and CQAs.

  18. Stimulation of prolactin receptor induces STAT-5 phosphorylation and cellular invasion in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Alkharusi, Amira; Yu, Shengze; Landázuri, Natalia; Zadjali, Fahad; Davodi, Belghis; Nyström, Thomas; Gräslund, Torbjörn; Rahbar, Afsar; Norstedt, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans and is characterized with poor outcome. In this study, we investigated components of prolactin (Prl) system in cell models of GBM and in histological tissue sections obtained from GBM patients. Expression of Prolactin receptor (PrlR) was detected at high levels in U251-MG, at low levels in U87-MG and barely detectable in U373 cell lines and in 66% of brain tumor tissues from 32 GBM patients by immunohistochemical technique. In addition, stimulation of U251-MG and U87-MG cells but not U373 with Prl resulted in increased STAT5 phosphorylation and only in U251-MG cells with increased cellular invasion. Furthermore, STAT5 phosphorylation and cellular invasion induced in Prl stimulated cells were significantly reduced by using a Prl receptor antagonist that consists of Prl with four amino acid replacements. We conclude that Prl receptor is expressed at different levels in the majority of GBM tumors and that blocking of PrlR in U251-MG cells significantly reduce cellular invasion. PMID:27788487

  19. 1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium iodide (NH125) Induces Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 (eEF2)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehan; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M.; Bui, Mai-Ha; Soni, Niru B.; Warrior, Usha; Johnson, Eric F.; Donnelly, Jennifer B.; Glaser, Keith B.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) relays growth and stress signals to protein synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). 1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium iodide (NH125) is a widely accepted inhibitor of mammalian eEF2K and an efficacious anti-proliferation agent against different cancer cells. It implied that eEF2K could be an efficacious anticancer target. However, eEF2K siRNA was ineffective against cancer cells including those sensitive to NH125. To test if pharmacological intervention differs from siRNA interference, we identified a highly selective small molecule eEF2K inhibitor A-484954. Like siRNA, A-484954 had little effect on cancer cell growth. We carefully examined the effect of NH125 and A-484954 on phosphorylation of eEF2, the known cellular substrate of eEF2K. Surprisingly, NH125 increased eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas A-484954 inhibited the phosphorylation as expected for an eEF2K inhibitor. Both A-484954 and eEF2K siRNA inhibited eEF2K and reduced eEF2 phosphorylation with little effect on cancer cell growth. These data demonstrated clearly that the anticancer activity of NH125 was more correlated with induction of eEF2 phosphorylation than inhibition of eEF2K. Actually, induction of eEF2 phosphorylation was reported to correlate with inhibition of cancer cell growth. We compared several known inducers of eEF2 phosphorylation including AMPK activators and an mTOR inhibitor. Interestingly, stronger induction of eEF2 phosphorylation correlated with more effective growth inhibition. We also explored signal transduction pathways leading to NH125-induced eEF2 phosphorylation. Preliminary data suggested that NH125-induced eEF2 phosphorylation was likely mediated through multiple pathways. These observations identified an opportunity for a new multipathway approach to anticancer therapies. PMID:22020937

  20. Promotion of PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration by phosphorylated VASP depends on PKA anchoring via AKAP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deling; Ouyang, Jingping; Wang, Nian; Zhang, Yahui; Bie, Jinghua; Zhang, Yemin

    2010-02-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an important substrate of PKA, plays a critical role in remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and actin-based cell motility. However, how PKA accurately transfers extracellular signals to VASP and then how phosphorylation of VASP regulates endothelial cell migration have not been clearly defined. Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are considered to regulate intracellular-specific signal targeting of PKA via AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring. Thus, our study investigated the relationship among AKAP anchoring of PKA, PKA activity, and VASP phosphorylation, which is to clarify the exact role of VASP and its upstream regulatory mechanism in PKA-dependent migration. Our results show that chemotactic factor PDGF activated PKA, increased phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157, and enhanced ECV304 endothelial cell migration. However, phosphorylation site-directed mutation of VASP at Ser157 attenuated the chemotactic effect of PDGF on endothelial cells, suggesting phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157 promotes PKA-mediated endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP or PKA activity significantly attenuated the PKA activity, VASP phosphorylation, and subsequent cell migration. Meanwhile, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP abolished PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and special VASP accumulation at leading edge of lamellipodia. These results indicate that PKA activation and PKA-mediated substrate responses in VASP phosphorylation and localization depend on PKA anchoring via AKAP in PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration. In conclusion, AKAP anchoring of PKA is an essential upstream event in regulation of PKA-mediated VASP phosphorylation and subsequent endothelial cell migration, which contributes to explore new methods for controlling endothelial cell migration related diseases and angiogenesis.

  1. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells.

  2. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells. PMID:26009982

  3. Flow-induced HDAC1 phosphorylation and nuclear export in angiogenic sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Bazou, Despina; Ng, Mei Rosa; Song, Jonathan W.; Chin, Shan Min; Maimon, Nir; Munn, Lance L.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis requires the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs), with each EC residing in the vessel wall integrating local signals to determine whether to remain quiescent or undergo morphogenesis. These signals include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and flow-induced mechanical stimuli such as interstitial flow, which are both elevated in the tumor microenvironment. However, it is not clear how VEGF signaling and mechanobiological activation due to interstitial flow cooperate during angiogenesis. Here, we show that endothelial morphogenesis is histone deacetylase-1- (HDAC1) dependent and that interstitial flow increases the phosphorylation of HDAC1, its activity, and its export from the nucleus. Furthermore, we show that HDAC1 inhibition decreases endothelial morphogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) expression. Our results suggest that HDAC1 modulates angiogenesis in response to flow, providing a new target for modulating vascularization in the clinic. PMID:27669993

  4. Mitomycin C treatment induces resistance and enhanced migration via phosphorylated Akt in aggressive lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liang-Chuan; Chuang, Eric Y.; Tsai, Mong-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    Since 1984, mitomycin C (MMC) has been applied in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MMC-based chemotherapeutic regimens are still under consideration owing to the efficacy and low cost as compared with other second-line regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC. Hence, it is important to investigate whether MMC induces potential negative effects in NSCLC. Here, we found that the malignant lung cancer cells, CL1-2 and CL1-5, were more resistant to MMC than were the parental CL1-0 cells and pre-malignant CL1-1 cells. CL1-2 and CL1-5 cells consistently showed lower sub-G1 fractions post MMC treatment. DNA repair-related proteins were not induced more in CL1-5 than in CL1-0 cells, but the levels of endogenous and MMC-induced phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) were higher in CL1-5 cells. Administering a p-Akt inhibitor reduced the MMC resistance, demonstrating that p-Akt is important in the MMC resistance of CL1-5 cells. Furthermore, we revealed that cell migration was enhanced by MMC but lowered by a p-Akt inhibitor in CL1-5 cells. This study suggests that in CL1-5 cells, the activity of p-Akt, rather than DNA repair mechanisms, may underlie the resistance to MMC and enhance the cells' migration abilities after MMC treatment. PMID:27833080

  5. The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces AQP2 translocation independently from AQP2 phosphorylation in renal collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Valenti, G; Procino, G; Carmosino, M; Frigeri, A; Mannucci, R; Nicoletti, I; Svelto, M

    2000-06-01

    Phosphorylation by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatase markedly affect the biological activity of proteins involved in intracellular signaling. In this study we investigated the effect of the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid on water permeability properties and on aquaporin2 (AQP2) translocation in AQP2-transfected renal CD8 cells. In CD8 cells both forskolin alone and okadaic acid alone increased the osmotic water permeability coefficient P(f) by about 4- to 5-fold. In intact cells, in vivo phosphorylation studies revealed that forskolin stimulation resulted in a threefold increase in AQP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, okadaic acid treatment promoted only a 60% increase in AQP2 phosphorylation which was abolished when this treatment was performed in the presence of 1 microM H89, a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Nevertheless, in this latter condition, confocal microscopy analysis revealed that AQP2 translocated and fused to the apical membrane. Okadaic acid-induced AQP2 translocation was dose dependent having its maximal effect at a concentration of 1 microM. In conclusion, our results clearly indicate that okadaic acid exerts a full forskolin-like effect independent from AQP2 phosphorylation. Thus AQP2 phosphorylation is not essential for water channel translocation in renal cells, indicating that different pathways might exist leading to AQP2 apical insertion and increase in P(f).

  6. Suppression of ERK phosphorylation through oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism underlying sevoflurane-induced toxicity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Yufune, Shinya; Satoh, Yasushi; Akai, Ryosuke; Yoshinaga, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Endo, Shogo; Kazama, Tomiei

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, neonatal exposure to general anesthetics significantly increased neuronal apoptosis with subsequent behavioral deficits in adulthood. Although the underlying mechanism is largely unknown, involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) is speculated since ERK phosphorylation is decreased by neonatal anesthetic exposure. Importance of ERK phosphorylation for neuronal development is underscored by our recent finding that transient suppression of ERK phosphorylation during the neonatal period significantly increased neuronal apoptosis and induced behavioral deficits. However, it is still unknown as to what extent decreased ERK phosphorylation contributes to the mechanism underlying anesthetic-induced toxicity. Here we investigated the causal relationship of decreased ERK phosphorylation and anesthetic-induced toxicity in the developing brain. At postnatal day 6 (P6), mice were exposed to sevoflurane (2%) or the blood-brain barrier-penetrating MEK inhibitor, α-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzeneacetonitrile (SL327) (50 mg/kg). Transient suppression of ERK phosphorylation by an intraperitoneal injection of SL327 at P6 significantly increased apoptosis similar to sevoflurane-induced apoptosis. Conversely, SL327 administration at P14 or P21 did not induce apoptosis, even though ERK phosphorylation was inhibited. Restoring ERK phosphorylation by administration of molecular hydrogen ameliorated sevoflurane-induced apoptosis. Together, our results strongly suggests that suppressed ERK phosphorylation is critically involved in the mechanism underlying anesthetic-induced toxicity in the developing brain. PMID:26905012

  7. The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Manjula; Johnson, Michaela E; Bobrovskaya, Larisa

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation in the adrenal gland, C1 cell group, locus coeruleus (LC) and midbrain dopaminergic cell groups that are thought to play a role in response to hypoglycaemia and compared the effects of different concentrations of insulin in rats. Insulin (1 and 10 U/kg) treatment caused similar reductions in blood glucose concentration (from 7.5-9 to 2-3 mmol/L); however, plasma adrenaline concentration was increased 20-30 fold in response to 10 U/kg insulin and only 14 fold following 1 U/kg. Time course studies (at 10 U/kg insulin) revealed that in the adrenal gland, Ser31 phosphorylation was increased between 30 and 90 min (4-5 fold), implying that TH was activated to increase catecholamine synthesis in adrenal medulla to replenish the stores. In the brain, Ser19 phosphorylation was limited to certain dopaminergic groups in the midbrain, while Ser31 phosphorylation was increased in most catecholaminergic regions at 60 min (1.3-2 fold), suggesting that Ser31 phosphorylation may be an important mechanism to maintain catecholamine synthesis in the brain. Comparing the effects of 1 and 10 U/kg insulin revealed that Ser31 phosphorylation was increased to similar extent in the adrenal gland and C1 cell group in response to both doses whereas Ser31 and Ser19 phosphorylation were only increased in response to 1 U/kg insulin in LC and in response to 10 U/kg insulin in most midbrain regions. Thus, the adrenal gland and some catecholaminergic brain regions become activated in response to insulin administration and brain catecholamines may be important for initiation of physiological defences against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia.

  8. Osmotic stress induces the phosphorylation of WNK4 Ser575 via the p38MAPK-MK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Yumie; Umeda, Tsuyoshi; Vandewalle, Alain; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Naguro, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The With No lysine [K] (WNK)-Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) pathway has been reported to be a crucial signaling pathway for triggering pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease that is characterized by hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 pathway is regulated remain unclear. In this report, we identified WNK4 as an interacting partner of a recently identified MAP3K, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 3 (ASK3). We found that WNK4 is phosphorylated in an ASK3 kinase activity-dependent manner. By exploring the ASK3-dependent phosphorylation sites, we identified Ser575 as a novel phosphorylation site in WNK4 by LC-MS/MS analysis. ASK3-dependent WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation was mediated by the p38MAPK-MAPK-activated protein kinase (MK) pathway. Osmotic stress, as well as hypotonic low-chloride stimulation, increased WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation via the p38MAPK-MK pathway. ASK3 was required for the p38MAPK activation induced by hypotonic stimulation but was not required for that induced by hypertonic stimulation or hypotonic low-chloride stimulation. Our results suggest that the p38MAPK-MK pathway might regulate WNK4 in an osmotic stress-dependent manner but its upstream regulators might be divergent depending on the types of osmotic stimuli. PMID:26732173

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Küper, Christoph; Bartels, Helmut; Beck, Franz-X; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    During antidiuresis, cell survival in the renal medulla requires cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. We have recently found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival by phosphorylation and, hence, inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad during hypertonic stress in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro. Here we determine the role of COX-2-derived PGE(2) on phosphorylation of Bad and medullary apoptosis in vivo using COX-2-deficient mice. Both wild-type and COX-2-knockout mice constitutively expressed Bad in tubular epithelial cells of the renal medulla. Dehydration caused a robust increase in papillary COX-2 expression, PGE2 excretion, and Bad phosphorylation in wild-type, but not in the knockout mice. The abundance of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was significantly higher in papillary homogenates, especially in tubular epithelial cells of the knockout mice. Knockdown of Bad in MDCK cells decreased tonicity-induced caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, the addition of PGE2 to cells with knockdown of Bad had no effect on caspase-3 activation; however, PGE2 caused phosphorylation of Bad and substantially improved cell survival in mock-transfected cells. Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells.

  10. PDGF-RECEPTOR ACTIVATION INDUCES p120-CATENIN PHOSPHORYLATION AT SERINE 879 VIA A PKCα-DEPENDENT PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith V.; Burnett, Patrick E.; Denning, Mitchell F.; Reynolds, Albert B.

    2010-01-01

    p120-catenin (p120) is required for cadherin stability and is thought to have a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Several lines of evidence suggest that S/T phosphorylation may regulate p120 activity, but the upstream kinases involved have not been established, nor has a discreet measurable function been assigned to an individual site. To approach these issues, we have generated p120 phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies to several individual phosphorylation sites and are using them to pinpoint upstream kinases and signaling pathways that control p120 activity. Protein Kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a signaling intermediate in several cadherin-associated cellular activities. Signaling events that activate PKC induce rapid phosphorylation at p120 Serine 879 (S879), suggesting that p120 activity is regulated, in part, by one or more PKC isoforms. Here, we find that physiologic activation of a G-protein coupled receptor (i.e., endothelin receptor), as well as several Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, induce rapid and robust p120 phosphorylation at S879, suggesting that these pathways crosstalk to cadherin complexes via p120. Using Va2 cells and PDGF stimulation, we show for the first time that PDGFR-mediated phosphorylation at this site is dependent on PKCα, a conventional PKC isoform implicated previously in disruption of adherens junctions. PMID:18950621

  11. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)
    Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  12. Protective effect of wogonin on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via reduction of p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Sun, Hai-Lun; Yang, Ming-Ling; Yang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Li-You; Li, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chien-Ying; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious inflammatory disorder which remains the primary cause of incidence and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary inflammation. However, there is still no effective medical strategy available clinically for the improvement of ALI. Wogonin, isolated from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a common medicinal herb which presents biological and pharmacological effects, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anticancer. Preadministration of wogonin inhibited not only lung edema but also protein leakage into the alveolar space in murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Moreover, wogonin not only reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but also inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by LPS. We further found wogonin inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK at a concentration lower than ERK. In addition, inhibition of lung edema, protein leakage, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK were all observed in a parallel concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that wogonin possesses potential protective effect against LPS-induced ALI via downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression by blocking phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 397-403, 2017.

  13. Stress-induced nuclear translocation of CDK5 suppresses neuronal death by downregulating ERK activation via VRK3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haengjin; Kim, Wanil; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dohyun; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activity is generally associated with cell survival, prolonged ERK activation induced by oxidative stress also mediates neuronal cell death. Here we report that oxidative stress-induced cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation stimulates neuroprotective signaling via phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 3 (VRK3) at Ser 108. The binding of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase to phosphorylated VRK3 increased its affinity for phospho-ERK and subsequently downregulated ERK activation. Overexpression of VRK3 protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. However the CDK5 was unable to phosphorylate mutant VRK3, and thus the mutant forms of VRK3 could not attenuate apoptotic process. Suppression of CDK5 activity results in increase of ERK activation and elevation of proapoptotic protein Bak expression in mouse cortical neurons. Results from VRK3-deficient neurons were further confirmed the role of VRK3 phosphorylation in H2O2-evoked ERK regulation. Importantly, we showed an association between phospho-VRK3 levels and the progression of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Together our work reveals endogenous protective mechanism against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death and suggest VRK3 as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27346674

  14. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  15. Mild Electrical Stimulation at 0.1-ms Pulse Width Induces p53 Protein Phosphorylation and G2 Arrest in Human Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryosuke; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Omachi, Kohei; Kai, Yukari; Matsuyama, Shingo; Mitsutake, Kazunori; Taura, Manabu; Morino-Koga, Saori; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous low-intensity electrical stimulation has been used for treatment of various intractable diseases despite the dearth of information on the molecular underpinnings of its effects. Our work and that of others have demonstrated that applied electrical stimulation at physiological strength or mild electrical stimulation (MES) activates the PI3K-Akt pathway, but whether MES activates other molecules remains unknown. Considering that MES is a form of physiological stress, we hypothesized that it can activate the tumor suppressor p53, which is a key modulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis in response to cell stresses. The potential response of p53 to an applied electrical current of low intensity has not been investigated. Here, we show that p53 was transiently phosphorylated at Ser-15 in epithelial cells treated with an imperceptible voltage (1 V/cm) and a 0.1-ms pulse width. MES-induced p53 phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor and transfection of dominant-negative mutants of p38, MKK3b, and MKK6b, implying the involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, MES treatment enhanced p53 transcriptional function and increased the expression of p53 target genes p21, BAX, PUMA, NOXA, and IRF9. Importantly, MES treatment triggered G2 cell cycle arrest, but not cell apoptosis. MES treatment had no effect on the cell cycle in HCT116 p53−/− cells, suggesting a dependence on p53. These findings identify some molecular targets of electrical stimulation and incorporate the p38-p53 signaling pathway among the transduction pathways that MES affects. PMID:23599430

  16. Stress Induces p38 MAPK-mediated Phosphorylation and Inhibition of Drosha-dependent Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Li, Wenming; She, Hua; Dou, Juan; Duong, Duc M; Du, Yuhong; Yang, Shao-Hua; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Fu, Haian; Gao, Guodong; Mao, Zixu

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the translational potential of their mRNA targets and control many cellular processes. The key step in canonical miRNA biogenesis is the cleavage of the primary transcripts by the nuclear RNase III enzyme Drosha. Emerging evidence suggests that the miRNA biogenic cascade is tightly controlled. However, little is known whether Drosha is regulated. Here we show that Drosha is targeted by stress. Under stress, p38 MAPK directly phosphorylates Drosha at its N-terminus. This reduces its interaction with DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8, and promotes its nuclear export and degradation by calpain. This regulatory mechanism mediates stress-induced inhibition of Drosha function. Reduction of Drosha sensitizes cells to stress and increases death. In contrast, increase in Drosha attenuates stress-induced death. These findings reveal a critical regulatory mechanism by which stress engages p38 MAPK pathway to destabilize Drosha and inhibit Drosha-mediated cellular survival. PMID:25699712

  17. SCO2 Mediates Oxidative Stress-Induced Glycolysis to Oxidative Phosphorylation Switch in Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Wilson, Andrew F; Pang, Qishen

    2016-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome, presumably resulting from defects in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Normal HSCs depend more on glycolysis than on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production. Here, we show that FA HSCs are more sensitive to the respiration inhibitor NaN3 treatment than to glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), indicating more dependence on OXPHOS. FA HSCs undergo glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch in response to oxidative stress through a p53-dependent mechanism. Metabolic stresses induce upregulation of p53 metabolic targets in FA HSCs. Inactivation of p53 in FA HSCs prevents glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch. Furthermore, p53-deficient FA HSCs are more sensitive to 2-DG-mediated metabolic stress. Finally, oxidative stress-induced glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch is mediated by synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2). These findings demonstrate p53-mediated OXPHOS function as a compensatory alteration in FA HSCs to ensure a functional but mildly impaired energy metabolism and suggest a cautious approach to manipulating p53 signaling in FA.

  18. Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2010-04-09

    Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3{beta}. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  19. Nitric oxide and brassinosteroids mediated fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil production through protein phosphorylation pathways in Atractylodes lancea plantlets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Fungal endophytes have been isolated from almost every plant, infecting their hosts without causing visible disease symptoms, and yet have still proved to be involved in plant secondary metabolites accumulation. To decipher the possible physiological mechanisms of the endophytic fungus-host interaction, the role of protein phosphorylation and the relationship between endophytic fungus-induced kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) and brassinolide (BL) in endophyte-enhanced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets were investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Inoculation with the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 enhanced the activities of total protein phosphorylation, Ca²⁺-dependent protein kinase, and volatile oil accumulation in A. lancea plantlets. The upregulation of protein kinase activity could be blocked by the BL inhibitor brassinazole. Furthermore, pretreatments with the NO-specific scavenger cPTIO significantly reduced the increased activities of protein kinases in A. lancea plantlets inoculated with endophytic fungus. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced fungus-induced NO production and volatile oil accumulation, but had barely no effect on the BL level. These data suggest that protein phosphorylation is required for endophyte-induced volatile oil production in A. lancea plantlets, and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and the NO pathway may occur and act as a downstream signaling event of the BL pathway.

  20. Phosphorylation of GSK-3β mediates Intralipid-induced cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Siamak; Li, Jingyuan; Bopassa, Jean Chrisostome; Umar, Soban; Iorga, Andrea; Partownavid, Parisa; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    Background Intralipid, a brand name for the first safe fat emulsion for human use, has been shown to be cardioprotective. However, the mechanism of this protection is not known. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) of Intralipid-induced cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, particularly the role of GSK-3β and mitochondiral permeability transition pore in this protective action. Methods In-vivo rat hearts or isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were subjected to ischemia followed by reperfusion with Intralipid (1% in ex-vivo and one bolus of 20% in in-vivo) or vehicle. The hemodynamic function, infarct size, threshold for the opening of mitochondiral permeability transition pore and phosphorylation levels of Akt/ERK/GSK-3β were measured. Results Administration of Intralipid at the onset of reperfusion resulted in ~70% reduction in infarct size in the in-vivo rat model. Intralipid also significantly improved functional recovery of isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts as the rate pressure product was increased from 2999±863mmHg*beats/min in control to 13676±611 mmHg*beats/min (Mean±SEM) and the infarct size was markedly smaller (18.3±2.4% vs. 54.8±2.9% in control, P<0.01). The Intralipid-induced cardioprotection was fully abolished by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, but only partially by PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. Intralipid also increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt/ERK1/GSK-3β by 8, 3 and 9 fold, respectively. The opening of mitochondiral permeability transition pore was inhibited by Intralipid as calcium retention capacity was higher in Intralipid group (274.3±8.4nM/mg vs. 168.6±9.6nM/mg control). Conclusions Postischemic treatment with Intralipid inhibits the opening of mitochondiral permeability transition pore and protects the heart through GSK-3β via PI3K/Akt/ERK pathways. PMID:21691195

  1. Kindling alters neurosteroid-induced modulation of phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents: role of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kia, Arash; Ribeiro, Fabiola; Nelson, Renee; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Poulter, Michael O

    2011-03-01

    We have previously shown that after kindling (a model of temporal lobe epilepsy), the neuroactive steroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) was unable to augment GABA type A receptor (GABA(A))-mediated synaptic currents occurring on pyramidal cells of the piriform cortex. Phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors has been shown previously to alter the activity of THDOC, so we tested the hypothesis that kindling induces changes in the phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors and this accounts for the loss in efficacy. To assay whether GABA(A) receptors are more phosphorylated after kindling, we examined the phosphorylation state of the β3 subunit and found that it was increased. Incubation of brain slices with the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (100 nM) also increased phosphorylation in the same assay. In patch clamp, recordings from non-kindled rat brain slices PMA also reduced the activity of THDOC in a manner that was identical to what is observed after kindling. We also found that the tonic current was no longer augmented by THODC after kindling and PMA treatment. The protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist bisindolylmaleimide I blocked the effects PMA on the synaptic but not the tonic currents. However, the broad spectrum PKC antagonist staurosporine blocked the effects of PMA on the tonic currents, implying that different PKC isoforms phosphorylate GABA(A) receptors responsible for phasic and tonic currents. The phosphatase activator Li(+) palmitate restored the 'normal' activity of THDOC on synaptic currents in kindled brain slices but not the tonic currents. These data demonstrate that kindling enhances the phosphorylation state of GABA(A) receptors expressed in pyramidal neurons reducing THDOC efficacy.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of phosphorylation-induced conformational transitions in the mycobacterium tuberculosis response regulator PrrA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guo; Mcmahon, Benjamin H; Tung, Chang - Shung

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorylation-activated modulation of response regulators (RR) is predominantly used by bacteria as a strategy in regulating their two-component signaling (TCS) systems, the underlying molecular mechanisms are however far from fully understood. In this work we have conducted a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the phosphorylation-induced conformational transitions of RRs with the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis PrrA as a particular example. Starting from the full-length inactive structure of PrrA we introduced a local disturbance by phosphorylating the conserved aspartic acid residue, Asp-58, in the regulatory domain. A Go-model-type algorithm packaged with AMBER force fields was then applied to simulate the dynamics upon phosphorylation. The MD simulation shows that the phosphorylation of Asp-58 facilitates PrrA, whose inactive state has a compact conformation with a closed interdomain interface, to open up with its interdomain separation being increased by an average of about 1.5 {angstrom} for a simulation of 20 ns. The trans-activation loop, which is completely buried within the interdomain interface in the inactive PrrA, is found to become more exposed with the phosphorylated structure as well. These results provide more structural details of how the phosphorylation of a local aspartate activates PrrA to undergo a global conformational rearrangement toward its extended active state. This work also indicates that MD simulations can serve as a fast tool to unravel the regulation mechanisms of all RRs, which is especially valuable when the structures of full-length active RRs are currently unavailable.

  3. Insulin Resistance Prevents AMPK-induced Tau Dephosphorylation through Akt-mediated Increase in AMPKSer-485 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bhumsoo; Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Pacut, Crystal; Backus, Carey; Feldman, Eva L.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (IR) is the central feature of MetS. Recent studies suggest that MetS is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved fuel-sensing enzyme and a key player in regulating energy metabolism. In this report, we examined the role of IR on the regulation of AMPK phosphorylation and AMPK-mediated Tau phosphorylation. We found that AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, phosphorylation is increased in the cortex of db/db and high fat diet-fed obese mice, two mouse models of IR. In vitro, treatment of human cortical stem cell line (HK-5320) and primary mouse embryonic cortical neurons with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), induced AMPK phosphorylation at both Thr-172 and Ser-485. AMPK activation also triggered Tau dephosphorylation. When IR was mimicked in vitro by chronically treating the cells with insulin, AICAR specifically induced AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, hyperphosphorylation whereas AICAR-induced Tau dephosphorylation was inhibited. IR also resulted in the overactivation of Akt by AICAR treatment; however, preventing Akt overactivation during IR prevented AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation and restored AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Transfection of AMPKS485A mutant caused similar results. Therefore, our results suggest the following mechanism for the adverse effect of IR on AD pathology: IR → chronic overactivation of Akt → AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation → inhibition of AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Together, our results show for the first time a possible contribution of IR-induced AMPKSer-485 phosphorylation to the increased risk of AD in obesity and diabetes. PMID:26100639

  4. Jade-1S phosphorylation induced by CK1α contributes to cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Borgal, Lori; Rinschen, Markus M; Dafinger, Claudia; Liebrecht, Valérie I; Abken, Hinrich; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The PHD zinc finger protein Jade-1S is a component of the HBO1 histone acetyltransferase complex and binds chromatin in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Jade-1S also acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for the canonical Wnt effector protein β-catenin and is influenced by CK1α-mediated phosphorylation. To further elucidate the functional impact of this phosphorylation, we used a stable, low-level expression system to express either wild-type or mutant Jade-1S lacking the N-terminal CK1α phosphorylation motif. Interactome analyses revealed that the Jade-1S mutant unable to be phosphorylated by CK1α has an increased binding affinity to proteins involved in chromatin remodelling, histone deacetylation, transcriptional repression, and ribosome biogenesis. Interestingly, cells expressing the mutant displayed an elongated cell shape and a delay in cell cycle progression. Finally, phosphoproteomic analyses allowed identification of a Jade-1S site phosphorylated in the presence of CK1α but closely resembling a PLK1 phosphorylation motif. Our data suggest that Jade-1S phosphorylation at an N-terminal CK1α motif creates a PLK1 phospho-binding domain. We propose CK1α phosphorylation of Jade 1S to serve as a molecular switch, turning off chromatin remodelling functions of Jade-1S and allowing timely cell cycle progression. As Jade-1S protein expression in the kidney is altered upon renal injury, this could contribute to understanding mechanisms underlying epithelial injury repair.

  5. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Contraction in the Isolated Endothelium-Denuded Rat Aorta Involves PKC-δ-mediated JNK Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jongsun; Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Vasoconstriction mediated by the highly selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine leads to transiently increased blood pressure and severe hypertension. The dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated pathway. However, the main PKC isoform involved in the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction remains unknown. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the specific PKC isoform that contributes to the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction in the isolated rat aorta. The endothelium-denuded rat aorta was suspended for isometric tension recording. Dexmedetomidine dose-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the pan-PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine; the PKC-α and -β inhibitor, Go6976; the PKC-α inhibitor, safingol; the PKC-β inhibitor, ruboxistaurin; the PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin; the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125; and the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7 hydrochloride. Western blot analysis was used to examine the effect of rottlerin on dexmedetomidine-induced PKC-δ expression and JNK phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on PKC-δ expression in VSMCs transfected with PKC-δ small interfering RNA (siRNA) or control siRNA. Chelerythrine as well as SP600125 and ML-7 hydrochloride attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Go6976, safingol, and ruboxistaurin had no effect on the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction, whereas rottlerin inhibited the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Dexmedetomidine induced PKC-δ expression, whereas rottlerin and PKC-δ siRNA transfection inhibited dexmedetomidine-induced PKC-δ expression. Dexmedetomidine also induced JNK phosphorylation, which was inhibited by rottlerin. Taken together, these results suggest that the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves PKC-δ-dependent JNK phosphorylation in the isolated rat aorta.

  6. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  7. The mitosis-regulating and protein-protein interaction activities of astrin are controlled by aurora-A-induced phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Cheng, Tai-Shan; Wang, Ya-Hui Candice; Ku, Chia-Feng; Lian, Chiao-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Chih Jared; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2014-09-01

    Cells display dramatic morphological changes in mitosis, where numerous factors form regulatory networks to orchestrate the complicated process, resulting in extreme fidelity of the segregation of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Astrin regulates several aspects of mitosis, such as maintaining the cohesion of sister chromatids by inactivating Separase and stabilizing spindle, aligning and segregating chromosomes, and silencing spindle assembly checkpoint by interacting with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP) and cytoplasmic linker-associated protein-1α (CLASP-1α). To understand how Astrin is regulated in mitosis, we report here that Astrin acts as a mitotic phosphoprotein, and Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin at Ser(115). The phosphorylation-deficient mutant Astrin S115A abnormally activates spindle assembly checkpoint and delays mitosis progression, decreases spindle stability, and induces chromosome misalignment. Mechanistic analyses reveal that Astrin phosphorylation mimicking mutant S115D, instead of S115A, binds and induces ubiquitination and degradation of securin, which sequentially activates Separase, an enzyme required for the separation of sister chromatids. Moreover, S115A fails to bind mitosis regulators, including SKAP and CLASP-1α, which results in the mitotic defects observed in Astrin S115A-transfected cells. In conclusion, Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin and guides the binding of Astrin to its cellular partners, which ensures proper progression of mitosis.

  8. Arcuate Src activation-induced phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunit contributes to inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Zhu, Qi; Gong, Shan; Tao, Jin; Xu, Guang-Yin; Jiang, Xinghong

    2012-12-01

    The tyrosine kinases of Src family play an important role in the central sensitization following peripheral inflammation. However, whether the Src family in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mediobasal hypothalamus is involved in central sensitization remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of tyrosine kinases of Src family in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the ARC following peripheral inflammation. Peripheral inflammation was induced by unilateral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into rat hindpaw. The neuronal activities of the ARC were recorded using electrophysiological field recording from the in vitro mediobasal hypothalamic slices from control and CFA rats. Expression of total and phosphorylated Src and NR2B subunit protein was analyzed by Western blot and immuoprecipitation. Our results showed that CFA injection resulted in an increase in mechanical and thermal sensitivity, which was partially blocked by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. CFA injection also enhanced spontaneous firings of ARC neurons, which were reversed by the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit specific antagonist Ro25-6981 and by PP2, an Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In addition, peripheral inflammation enhanced Src phosphorylation and NMDA receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation without alteration of total NR2B subunit expression in the ARC. Peripheral inflammation also increased the association of NR2B protein with p-Src protein in the ARC. Administration of PP2 blocked the upregulation of NR2B phosphorylation induced by CFA injection. Taken together, our present results suggest that the arcuate Src activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunit may contribute to inflammatory pain.

  9. Modifications of myofilament protein phosphorylation and function in response to cardiac arrest induced in a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Mike; Previs, Michael J.; Mader, Timothy J.; Debold, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a prevalent condition with a poor prognosis, attributable in part to persistent myocardial dysfunction following resuscitation. The molecular basis of this dysfunction remains unclear. We induced cardiac arrest in a porcine model of acute sudden death and assessed the impact of ischemia and reperfusion on the molecular function of isolated cardiac contractile proteins. Cardiac arrest was electrically induced, left untreated for 12 min, and followed by a resuscitation protocol. With successful resuscitations, the heart was reperfused for 2 h (IR2) and the muscle harvested. In failed resuscitations, tissue samples were taken following the failed efforts (IDNR). Actin filament velocity, using myosin isolated from IR2 or IDNR cardiac tissue, was nearly identical to myosin from the control tissue in a motility assay. However, both maximal velocity (25% faster than control) and calcium sensitivity (pCa50 6.57 ± 0.04 IDNR vs. 6.34 ± 0.07 control) were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced using native thin filaments (actin+troponin+tropomyosin) from IDNR samples, suggesting that the enhanced velocity is mediated through an alteration in muscle regulatory proteins (troponin+tropomyosin). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that only samples from the IR2 had an increase in total phosphorylation levels of troponin (Tn) and tropomyosin (Tm), but both IR2 and IDNR samples demonstrated a significant shift from mono-phosphorylated to bis-phosphorylated forms of the inhibitory subunit of Tn (TnI) compared to control. This suggests that the shift to bis-phosphorylation of TnI is associated with the enhanced function in IDNR, but this effect may be attenuated when phosphorylation of Tm is increased in tandem, as observed for IR2. There are likely many other molecular changes induced following cardiac arrest, but to our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence that this form cardiac arrest can alter the in vitro function of the cardiac contractile proteins

  10. Stress-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells: baculovirus p35 mitigates eIF2 alpha phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Aparna, Gunda; Bhuyan, Abani K; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E; Kaufman, Randal J; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2003-12-30

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) ovarian cells, natural hosts for baculovirus, are good model systems to study apoptosis and also heterologous gene expression. We report that uninfected Sf9 cells readily undergo apoptosis and show increased phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) in the presence of agents such as UVB light, etoposide, high concentrations of cycloheximide, and EGTA. In contrast, tunicamycin, A23187, and low concentrations of cycloheximide promoted eIF2alpha phosphorylation in Sf9 cells but without apoptosis. These findings therefore suggest that increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation does not always necessarily lead to apoptosis, but it is a characteristic hallmark of stressed cells and also of cells undergoing apoptosis. Cell death induced by the above agents was abrogated by infection of Sf9 cells with wild-type (wt) AcNPV. In contrast, Sf9 cells when infected with vAcdelta35, a virus carrying deletion of the antiapoptotic p35 gene, showed increased apoptosis and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Further, a recombinant wt virus vAcS51D expressing human S51D, a phosphomimetic form of eIF2alpha, induced apoptosis in UVB pretreated Sf9 cells. However, infection with vAcS51A expressing a nonphosphorylatable form (S51A) of human eIF2alpha partially reduced apoptosis. Consistent with these findings, it has been observed here that caspase activation has led to increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation, while caspase inhibition by z-VAD-fmk reduced eIF2alpha phosphorylation selectively in cells exposed to proapoptotic agents. These findings therefore suggest that the stress signaling pathway determines apoptosis, and caspase activation is a prerequisite for increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation in Sf9 cells undergoing apoptosis. The findings also reinforce the conclusion for the first time that the "pancaspase inhibitor" baculovirus p35 mitigates eIF2alpha phosphorylation.

  11. Lectin-induced activation of platelets may require only limited phosphorylation of the 47K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, C.; Chelladurai, M.; Ganguly, P.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is an N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-NAc) specific lectin which can activate platelets. Like thrombin, stimulation of platelets by WGA is accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of two polypeptides of M/sub r/ 47K and 20K. Addition of GlcNAc at different time intervals arrested that aggregation of platelets by WGA and paralleled the modification of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide. So, the phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide may regulate the WGA-receptor mediated stimulation of platelets. However, the ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine in the 47K protein was markedly different in WGA-activated than thrombin-stimulated platelets. Thus, the molecular mechanism of action of thrombin and WGA could be different. To explore this idea, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled platelets were stimulated with WGA and the activation arrested with N-acetyl-glucosamine at different times. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total protein at 5s showed only two phosphorylated species of 47K protein. At 60s, maximally four phosphorylated species were noted. In contrast, with thrombin using the same technique, seven to nine phosphorylated components have been reported. These results suggest that the different activators of platelets may act by different mechanisms. In addition, activation of platelets may require only limited levels of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide.

  12. ERM protein moesin is phosphorylated by advanced glycation end products and modulates endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Lingjun; Chen, Bo; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jiping; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Xuliang; Huang, Qiaobing

    2009-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulated in different pathological conditions have the potent capacity to alter cellular properties that include endothelial structural and functional regulations. The disruption of endothelial barrier integrity may contribute to AGE-induced microangiopathy and macrovasculopathy. Previous studies have shown that AGEs induced the rearrangement of actin and subsequent hyperpermeability in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanisms involved in this AGE-evoked EC malfunction are not well understood. This study directly evaluated the involvement of moesin phosphorylation in AGE-induced alterations and the effects of the RhoA and p38 MAPK pathways on this process. Using immortalized human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVECs), we first confirmed that the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) protein moesin is required in AGE-induced F-actin rearrangement and hyperpermeability responses in ECs by knockdown of moesin protein expression with small interfering RNA. We then detected AGE-induced moesin phosphorylation by Western blot analysis. The mechanisms involved in moesin phosphorylation were analyzed by blocking AGE receptor binding and inhibiting Rho and MAPK pathways. AGE-treated HMVECs exhibited time- and dose-dependent increases in the Thr(558) phosphorylation of moesin. The increased moesin phosphorylation was attenuated by preadministrations of AGE receptor antibody, Rho kinase (ROCK), or p38 inhibitor. Suppression of p38 activation via the expression of dominant negative mutants with Ad.MKK6b or Ad.p38alpha also decreased moesin phosphorylation. The activation of the p38 pathway by transfection of HMVECs with an adenoviral construct of dominant active MKK6b resulted in moesin phosphorylation. These results suggest a critical role of moesin phosphorylation in AGE-induced EC functional and morphological regulations. Activation of the ROCK and p38 pathways is required in moesin phosphorylation.

  13. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-08

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis.

  14. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43−/− salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43−/− samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43−/− phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. PMID:26565022

  15. Protein kinase A-mediated CREB phosphorylation is an oxidant-induced survival pathway in alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Christy A.; Kitiphongspattana, Kajorn; Siddiqui, Nazli; Roe, Michael W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidant stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, including fibrotic lung disease and cancer. We previously found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiates an increase in Ca2+/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in C10 alveolar type II cells that requires activation of extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here, we investigated the role of crosstalk between protein kinase A (PKA) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oxidant-induced signaling to ERK1/2 and CREB in C10 cells. Application of H2O2 increased nuclear accumulation of PKA, and inhibition of PKA with H89 reduced oxidant-mediated phosphorylation of both CREB and ERK1/2. Single cell measurements of cAMP and redox status, using a FRET-based biosensor and a redox-sensitive GFP, respectively, indicated that H2O2 increases production of cAMP that correlates with redox state. Inhibition of EGFR activity decreased both H2O2-induced CREB phosphorylation and translocation of PKA to the nucleus, suggesting that crosstalk between PKA and EGFR underlies the oxidant-induced CREB response. Furthermore, knockdown of CREB expression using siRNA led to a decrease in bcl-2 and an increase in oxidant-induced apoptosis. Together these data reveal a novel role for crosstalk between PKA, ERK1/2 and CREB that mediates cell survival during oxidant stress. PMID:18392938

  16. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) induces phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668, in okadaic acid-induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hwan; So, Sang-Pil; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have revealed that phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668 is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor, has been used in AD research models to increase tau phosphorylation and induce neuronal death. We previously showed that OA increased levels of APP and induced accumulation of APP in axonal swellings. In this study, we found that in OA-treated neurons, phosphorylation of APP at Thr668 increased and accumulated in axonal swellings by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and not by Cdk5 or ERK/MAPK. These results suggest that JNK may be one of therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 376-381] PMID:26839154

  17. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-11-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of ({sup 32}P) ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of {sup 32}P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on {sup 32}P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K{sub m} values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins.

  18. MYB75 Phosphorylation by MPK4 Is Required for Light-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengnan; Wang, Wenyi; Gao, Jinlan; Yin, Kangquan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chengcheng; Mundy, John

    2016-01-01

    Light is a major environmental cue affecting various physiological and metabolic processes in plants. Although plant photoreceptors are well characterized, the mechanisms by which light regulates downstream responses are less clear. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the accumulation of photoprotective anthocyanin pigments is light dependent, and the R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB75/PAP1 regulates anthocyanin accumulation. Here, we report that MYB75 interacts with and is phosphorylated by MAP KINASE4 (MPK4). Their interaction is dependent on MPK4 kinase activity and is required for full function of MYB75. MPK4 can be activated in response to light and is involved in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins. We show that MPK4 phosphorylation of MYB75 increases its stability and is essential for light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Our findings reveal an important role for a MAPK pathway in light signal transduction. PMID:27811015

  19. A Comprehensive Proteomic Survey of ABA-Induced Protein Phosphorylation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Lin, Haiyan; Wei, Xiangjin; Ao, Hejun; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone regulating plant development and stress response. The signal transduction of ABA largely relies on protein phosphorylation. However; little is known about the phosphorylation events occurring during ABA signaling in rice thus far. By employing a label-free; MS (Mass Spectrometry)-based phosphoproteomic approach; we identified 2271 phosphosites of young rice seedlings and their intensity dynamics in response to ABA; during which 1060 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated. Western-blot analysis verified the differential phosphorylation pattern of D1, SMG1 and SAPK9 as indicated by the MS result; suggesting the high reliability of our phosphoproteomic data. The DP (differentially phosphorylated) proteins are extensively involved in ABA as well as other hormone signaling pathways. It is suggested that ABA antagonistically regulates brassinosteroid (BR) signaling via inhibiting BR receptor activity. The result of this study not only expanded our knowledge of rice phosphoproteome, but also shed more light on the pattern of protein phosphorylation in ABA signaling. PMID:28054942

  20. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival during 6-OHDA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Ay, Muhammet; Jin, Huajun; Gosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD. PMID:24806360

  1. Brevetoxin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and Src in murine neocortical neurons involves distinct signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; George, Joju; Baden, Daniel G.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Brevetoxins (PbTx-1 to PbTx-10) are potent lipid soluble polyether neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Brevetoxins bind to site 5 of the α-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and augment Na+ influx. In neocortical neurons brevetoxins elevate intracellular Ca2+ and augment NMDA receptor signaling. In this study, we explored the effects of PbTx-2 on Pyk2 and Src activation in neocortical neurons. We found that both Pyk2 and Src were activated following PbTx-2 exposure. PbTx-2-induced Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was dependent on elevation of Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors. Moreover, Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was also found to require PKC activation inasmuch as RO-31-8425 and GF 109203x both attenuated the response. In contrast, PbTx-2-induced Src Tyr416 phosphorylation involved a Gq-coupled receptor inasmuch as U73122, a specific PLC inhibitor, abolished the response. This Gq-coupled receptor appears to be mGluR 5. The PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin abolished PbTx-2-induced Src activation demonstrating that this isoform of PKC is involved in the activation of Src by PbTx-2. Considered together these data suggest that although activation of neuronal Pyk2 and Src result from PbTx-2 stimulation of VGSC, engagement of these two non-receptor tyrosine kinases involves distinct signaling pathways. PMID:17963734

  2. Acute Footshock Stress Induces Time-Dependent Modifications of AMPA/NMDA Protein Expression and AMPA Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Daniela; Mora, Cristina; Tornese, Paolo; Sala, Nathalie; Filippini, Alice; La Via, Luca; Milanese, Marco; Calza, Stefano; Bonanno, Gianbattista; Racagni, Giorgio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Popoli, Maurizio; Musazzi, Laura; Barbon, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on patients with stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders reported functional and morphological changes in brain areas where glutamatergic transmission is predominant, including frontal and prefrontal areas. In line with this evidence, several preclinical works suggest that glutamate receptors are targets of both rapid and long-lasting effects of stress. Here we found that acute footshock- (FS-) stress, although inducing no transcriptional and RNA editing alterations of ionotropic AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits, rapidly and transiently modulates their protein expression, phosphorylation, and localization at postsynaptic spines in prefrontal and frontal cortex. In total extract, FS-stress increased the phosphorylation levels of GluA1 AMPA subunit at Ser(845) immediately after stress and of GluA2 Ser(880) 2 h after start of stress. At postsynaptic spines, stress induced a rapid decrease of GluA2 expression, together with an increase of its phosphorylation at Ser(880), suggesting internalization of GluA2 AMPA containing receptors. GluN1 and GluN2A NMDA receptor subunits were found markedly upregulated in postsynaptic spines, 2 h after start of stress. These results suggest selected time-dependent changes in glutamatergic receptor subunits induced by acute stress, which may suggest early and transient enhancement of AMPA-mediated currents, followed by a transient activation of NMDA receptors.

  3. HDAC Inhibitor-Mediated Beta-Cell Protection Against Cytokine-Induced Toxicity Is STAT1 Tyr701 Phosphorylation Independent

    PubMed Central

    Dahllöf, Mattias S.; Christensen, Dan P.; Harving, Mette; Wagner, Bridget K.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition protects pancreatic beta-cells against apoptosis induced by the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon (IFN)-γ. Decreased expression of cell damage-related genes is observed on the transcriptional level upon HDAC inhibition using either IL-1β or IFN-γ alone. Whereas HDAC inhibition has been shown to regulate NFκB-activity, related primarily to IL-1β signaling, it is unknown whether the inhibition of HDACs affect IFN-γ signaling in beta-cells. Further, in non-beta-cells, there is a dispute whether HDAC inhibition regulates IFN-γ signaling at the level of STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation. Using different small molecule HDAC inhibitors with varying class selectivity, INS-1E wild type and stable HDAC1-3 knockdown pancreatic INS-1 cell lines, we show that IFN-γ-induced Cxcl9 and iNos expression as well as Cxcl9 and GAS reporter activity were decreased by HDAC inhibition in a STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation-independent fashion. In fact, knockdown of HDAC1 increased IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. PMID:25062500

  4. Acute Footshock Stress Induces Time-Dependent Modifications of AMPA/NMDA Protein Expression and AMPA Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Daniela; Mora, Cristina; Tornese, Paolo; Sala, Nathalie; Filippini, Alice; La Via, Luca; Milanese, Marco; Calza, Stefano; Bonanno, Gianbattista; Racagni, Giorgio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Popoli, Maurizio; Musazzi, Laura; Barbon, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on patients with stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders reported functional and morphological changes in brain areas where glutamatergic transmission is predominant, including frontal and prefrontal areas. In line with this evidence, several preclinical works suggest that glutamate receptors are targets of both rapid and long-lasting effects of stress. Here we found that acute footshock- (FS-) stress, although inducing no transcriptional and RNA editing alterations of ionotropic AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits, rapidly and transiently modulates their protein expression, phosphorylation, and localization at postsynaptic spines in prefrontal and frontal cortex. In total extract, FS-stress increased the phosphorylation levels of GluA1 AMPA subunit at Ser845 immediately after stress and of GluA2 Ser880 2 h after start of stress. At postsynaptic spines, stress induced a rapid decrease of GluA2 expression, together with an increase of its phosphorylation at Ser880, suggesting internalization of GluA2 AMPA containing receptors. GluN1 and GluN2A NMDA receptor subunits were found markedly upregulated in postsynaptic spines, 2 h after start of stress. These results suggest selected time-dependent changes in glutamatergic receptor subunits induced by acute stress, which may suggest early and transient enhancement of AMPA-mediated currents, followed by a transient activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:26966584

  5. Chronic morphine administration induces over-expression of aldolase C with reduction of CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Pu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-05-01

    In recent studies, alterations in the activity and expression of metabolic enzymes, such as those involved in glycolysis, have been detected in morphine-dependent patients and animals. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hippocampus is an important brain region associated with morphine dependence, but the molecular events occurring in the hippocampus following chronic exposure to morphine are poorly understood. Aldolase C is the brain-specific isoform of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase which is a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing reactions in the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and fructose metabolic pathways. Using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays, we found the expression of aldolase C was markedly increased in the mouse hippocampus following chronic morphine treatment. Naloxone pretreatment before morphine administration suppressed withdrawal jumping, weight loss, and overexpression of aldolase C. CREB is a transcription factor regulated through phosphorylation on Ser133, which is known to play a key role in the mechanism of morphine dependence. When detecting the expression of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the mouse hippocampus using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found CREB phosphorylation was clearly decreased following chronic morphine treatment. Interestingly, laser-confocal microscopy showed that overexpression of aldolase C in mouse hippocampal neurons was concomitant with the decreased immunoreactivity of p-CREB. The results suggest potential links between the morphine-induced alteration of aldolase C and the regulation of CREB phosphorylation, a possible mechanism of morphine dependence.

  6. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  7. Spinal serum-inducible and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 mediates neuropathic pain via kalirin and downstream PSD-95-dependent NR2B phosphorylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsien-Yu; Chen, Gin-Den; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Lin, Tzer-Bin

    2013-03-20

    The coupling of the spinal postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) with the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit and the subsequent NR2B phosphorylation contribute to pain-related plasticity. Increasing evidence reveals that kalirin, a Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor, modulates PSD-95-NR2B-dependent neuroplasticity. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that serum-inducible and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) participates in inflammation-associated pain hypersensitivity by modulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Because kalirin is one of the proteins in PSD that is highly phosphorylated by various kinases, we tested whether kalirin could be a downstream target of spinal SGK1 that participates in neuropathic pain development via regulation of the PSD-95-NR2B coupling-dependent phosphorylation of NR2B. We observed that spinal nerve ligation (SNL, L5) in male Sprague Dawley rats resulted in behavioral allodynia, which was associated with phosphorylated SGK1 (pSGK1), kalirin, and phosphorylated NR2B (pNR2B) expression and an increase in pSGK1-kalirin-PSD-95-pNR2B coprecipitation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn (L4-L5). SNL-enhanced kalirin immunofluorescence was coincident with pSGK1, PSD-95, and pNR2B immunoreactivity. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) that targeted spinal kalirin mRNA expression (10 μg, 10 μl; i.t.) reduced SNL-induced allodynia, kalirin and pNR2B expression, as well as kalirin-PSD-95 and PSD-95-pNR2B coupling and costaining without affecting SGK1 phosphorylation. Daily administration of GSK-650394 (an SGK1 antagonist; 100 nm, 10 μl, i.t.) not only exhibited effects similar to the kalirin mRNA-targeting siRNA but also attenuated pSGK1-kalirin costaining and SGK1-kalirin coupling. We suggest that nerve injury could induce spinal SGK1 phosphorylation that subsequently interacts with and upregulates kalirin to participate in neuropathic pain development via PSD-95-NR2B coupling-dependent NR2B phosphorylation.

  8. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  9. Alpha particles induce pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX in primary human lymphocytes mediated through ATM.

    PubMed

    Horn, Simon; Brady, Darren; Prise, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    The use of high linear energy transfer radiations in the form of carbon ions in heavy ion beam lines or alpha particles in new radionuclide treatments has increased substantially over the past decade and will continue to do so due to the favourable dose distributions they can offer versus conventional therapies. Previously it has been shown that exposure to heavy ions induces pan-nuclear phosphorylation of several DNA repair proteins such as H2AX and ATM in vitro. Here we describe similar effects of alpha particles on ex vivo irradiated primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Following alpha particle irradiation pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM, but not DNA-PK and 53BP1, was observed throughout the nucleus. Inhibition of ATM, but not DNA-PK, resulted in the loss of pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX in alpha particle irradiated lymphocytes. Pan-nuclear gamma-H2AX signal was rapidly lost over 24h at a much greater rate than foci loss. Surprisingly, pan-nuclear gamma-H2AX intensity was not dependent on the number of alpha particle induced double strand breaks, rather the number of alpha particles which had traversed the cell nucleus. This distinct fluence dependent damage signature of particle radiation is important in both the fields of radioprotection and clinical oncology in determining radionuclide biological dosimetry and may be indicative of patient response to new radionuclide cancer therapies.

  10. Phosphorylation of Ser8 promotes zinc-induced dimerization of the amyloid-β metal-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Kulikova, Alexandra A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Indeykina, Maria I; Popov, Igor A; Zhokhov, Sergey S; Golovin, Andrey V; Polshakov, Vladimir I; Kozin, Sergey A; Nudler, Evgeny; Makarov, Alexander A

    2014-10-01

    Zinc-induced aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a hallmark molecular feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently it was shown that phosphorylation of Aβ at Ser8 promotes the formation of toxic aggregates. In this work, we have studied the impact of Ser8 phosphorylation on the mode of zinc interaction with the Aβ metal-binding domain 1-16 using isothermal titration calorimetry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We have discovered a novel zinc binding site ((6)HDpS(8)) in the phosphorylated peptide, in which the zinc ion is coordinated by the imidazole ring of His6, the phosphate group attached to Ser8 and a backbone carbonyl group of His6 or Asp7. Interaction of the zinc ion with this site involves His6, thereby withdrawing it from the interaction pattern observed in the non-modified peptide. This event was found to stimulate dimerization of peptide chains through the (11)EVHH(14) site, where the zinc ion is coordinated by the two pairs of Glu11 and His14 in the two peptide subunits. The proposed molecular mechanism of zinc-induced dimerization could contribute to the understanding of initiation of pathological Aβ aggregation, and the (11)EVHH(14) tetrapeptide can be considered as a promising drug target for the prevention of amyloidogenesis.

  11. Accumulation of Phosphorylated β-Catenin Enhances ROS-Induced Cell Death in Presenilin-Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Jung H.; Song, Hyundong; Kim, Ji E.; Kang, David E.; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2009-01-01

    Presenilin (PS) is involved in many cellular events under physiological and pathological conditions. Previous reports have revealed that PS deficiency results in hyperproliferation and resistance to apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PS on β-catenin and cell mortality during serum deprivation. Under these conditions, PS1/PS2 double-knockout MEFs showed aberrant accumulation of phospho-β-catenin, higher ROS generation, and notable cell death. Inhibition of β-catenin phosphorylation by LiCl reversed ROS generation and cell death in PS deficient cells. In addition, the K19/49R mutant form of β-catenin, which undergoes normal phosphorylation but not ubiquitination, induced cytotoxicity, while the phosphorylation deficient S37A β-catenin mutant failed to induce cytotoxicity. These results indicate that aberrant accumulation of phospho-β-catenin underlies ROS-mediated cell death in the absence of PS. We propose that the regulation of β-catenin is useful for identifying therapeutic targets of hyperproliferative diseases and other degenerative conditions. PMID:19137062

  12. Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) induces initiation factor 2 alpha phosphorylation and translation inhibition in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, F; Martín, M E; Salinas, M; Fando, J L

    2001-03-09

    We have investigated the effect of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) on protein synthesis rate and initiation factor 2 (eIF2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells differentiated with nerve growth factor. FCCP treatment induced a very rapid 2-fold increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that was accompanied by a strong protein synthesis rate inhibition (68%). The translation inhibition correlated with an increased phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 (eIF2 alpha) (25% vs. 7%, for FCCP-treated and control cells, respectively) and a 1.7-fold increase in the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activity. No changes in the PKR endoplasmic reticulum-related kinase or eIF2 alpha phosphatase were found. Translational regulation may play a significant role in the process triggered by mitochondrial calcium mobilization.

  13. The Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Induces Liver Cell Proliferation and Is Phosphorylated by AMP Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Viswakarma, Navin; Jia, Yuzhi; Bai, Liang; Gao, Qian; Lin, Bingliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Misra, Parimal; Rana, Ajay; Jain, Sanjay; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2013-01-01

    Mediator, a large multisubunit protein complex, plays a pivotal role in gene transcription by linking gene-specific transcription factors with the preinitiation complex and RNA polymerase II. In the liver, the key subunit of the Mediator complex, Med1, interacts with several nuclear receptors and transcription factors to direct gene-specific transcription. Conditional knock-out of Med1 in the liver showed that hepatocytes lacking Med1 did not regenerate following either partial hepatectomy or treatment with certain nuclear receptor activators and failed to give rise to tumors when challenged with carcinogens. We now report that the adenovirally driven overexpression of Med1 in mouse liver stimulates hepatocyte DNA synthesis with enhanced expression of DNA replication, cell cycle control, and liver-specific genes, indicating that Med1 alone is necessary and sufficient for liver cell proliferation. Importantly, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important cellular energy sensor, interacts with, and directly phosphorylates, Med1 in vitro at serine 656, serine 756, and serine 796. AMPK also phosphorylates Med1 in vivo in mouse liver and in cultured primary hepatocytes and HEK293 and HeLa cells. In addition, we demonstrate that PPARα activators increase AMPK-mediated Med1 phosphorylation in vivo. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C decreased hepatocyte proliferation induced by Med1 and also by the PPARα activators fenofibrate and Wy-14,643. Co-treatment with compound C attenuated PPARα activator-inducible fatty acid β-oxidation in liver. Our results suggest that Med1 phosphorylation by its association with AMPK regulates liver cell proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, most likely as a downstream effector of PPARα and AMPK. PMID:23943624

  14. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E H; Naylor, Maria L; Dephoure, Noah; Ballif, Bryan A; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gygi, Steven P; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-06-28

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast.

  15. Identification of okadaic acid-induced phosphorylation events by a mass spectrometry approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Jennifer J. . E-mail: Jennifer.Hill@nrc.gc.ca; Callaghan, Deborah A.; Ding Wen; Kelly, John F.; Chakravarthy, Balu R.

    2006-04-14

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a widely used small-molecule phosphatase inhibitor that is thought to selectively inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Multiple studies have demonstrated that PP2A activity is compromised in Brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Thus, we set out to determine changes in phosphorylation that occur upon OA treatment of neuronal cells. Utilizing isotope-coded affinity tags and mass spectrometry analysis, we determined the relative abundance of proteins in a phosphoprotein enriched fraction from control and OA-treated primary cortical neurons. We identified many proteins whose phosphorylation state is regulated by OA, including glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}, collapsin-response mediator proteins (DRP-2, DPYSL-5, and CRMP-4), and the B subunit of PP2A itself. Most interestingly, we have found that complexin 2, an important regulator of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity, is phosphorylated at serine 93 upon OA treatment of neurons. This is First report of a phosphorylation site on complexin 2.

  16. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Naylor, Maria L.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast. PMID:27298372

  17. The Role of VDR in Phosphorylation in Vitamin D-Induced Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Terpening , C.A. Haussler, M.R. Haussler and G.K. Whitfield (1993) Phosphorylation of serine 208 in the human vitamin D receptor. The predominant amino acid...fragmentation, MCF-7 cells were harvested by destained with H 20, and solubilized with 0.2% Triton X-100. Absorb - trypsinization, collected by centrifugation

  18. Hh-induced Smoothened conformational switch is mediated by differential phosphorylation at its C-terminal tail in a dose- and position-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junkai; Liu, Yajuan; Jia, Jianhang

    2012-06-15

    The activation of Smoothened (Smo) requires phosphorylation at three clusters of Serine residues in Drosophila Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. However, the mechanism by which phosphorylation promotes Smo conformational change and subsequently activates Smo in response to Hh gradient remains unclear. Here, we show that the conformational states of Smo are determined by not only the amount but also the position of the negative charges provided by phosphorylation. By using a Smo phospho-specific antibody, we demonstrate that Smo is differentially phosphorylated at three clusters of serine residues in response to levels of Hh activity. Mutating the first cluster, compared to mutating the other clusters, impairs Smo activity more severely, whereas mutating the last cluster prohibits C-terminus dimerization. In addition, phosphorylation of the membrane proximal cluster promotes phosphorylation of the distal cluster. We propose a zipper-lock model in which the gradual phosphorylation at these clusters induces a gradual conformational change in the Smo cytoplasmic tail, which promotes the interaction between Smo and Costal2 (Cos2). Moreover, we show that Hh regulates both PKA and CK1 phosphorylation of Smo. Thus, the differential phosphorylation of Smo mediates the thresholds of Hh activity.

  19. Myeloid differentiation factor-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-10-15

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific; it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, as well as by an inhibitor of endocytosis, cytochalasin D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD-2 and not on the cell surface. Furthermore, we identified two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine had reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD-2 coprecipitated and colocalized with Lyn kinase, most likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response.

  20. Vitamin C suppresses TNF alpha-induced NF kappa B activation by inhibiting I kappa B alpha phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan M; Pedraza, Alicia; Bórquez-Ojeda, Oriana; Golde, David W

    2002-10-29

    Extracellular stimuli signal for activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB, leading to gene expression regulating processes involved in immune responses, inflammation, and cell survival. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) activates NFkappaB via a well-defined kinase pathways involving NFkappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), which activates downstream multisubunit IkappaB kinases (IKK). IKK in turn phosphorylates IkappaB, the central regulator of NFkappaB function. We found that intracellular vitamin C inhibits TNFalpha-induced activation of NFkappaB in human cell lines (HeLa, monocytic U937, myeloid leukemia HL-60, and breast MCF7) and primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a dose-dependent manner. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, and most cells accumulate ascorbic acid (AA) intracellularly by transporting the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Because ascorbic acid is a strong pro-oxidant in the presence of transition metals in vitro, we loaded cells with vitamin C by incubating them with DHA. Vitamin C-loaded cells showed significantly decreased TNFalpha-induced nuclear translocation of NFkappaB, NFkappaB-dependent reporter transcription, and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Our data point to a mechanism of vitamin C suppression of NFkappaB activation by inhibiting TNFalpha-induced activation of NIK and IKKbeta kinases independent of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that intracellular vitamin C can influence inflammatory, neoplastic, and apoptotic processes via inhibition of NFkappaB activation.

  1. BMP-2 induces Osterix expression through up-regulation of Dlx5 and its phosphorylation by p38.

    PubMed

    Ulsamer, Arnau; Ortuño, María José; Ruiz, Silvia; Susperregui, Antonio R G; Osses, Nelson; Rosa, José Luis; Ventura, Francesc

    2008-02-15

    Osterix, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is specifically expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes of all developing bones. Because no bone formation occurs in Osterix null mice, Osterix is thought to be an essential regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We report that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) induces an increase in Osterix expression, which is mediated through a homeodomain sequence located in the proximal region of the Osterix promoter. Our results demonstrate that induction of Dlx5 by BMP-2 mediates Osterix transcriptional activation. First, BMP-2 induction of Dlx5 precedes the induction of Osterix. Second, Dlx5 binds to the BMP-responsive homeodomain sequences both in vitro and in vivo. Third, Dlx5 overexpression and knock-down assays demonstrate its role in activating Osterix expression in response to BMP-2. Furthermore, we show that Dlx5 is a novel substrate for p38 MAPK in vitro and in vivo and that Ser-34 and Ser-217 are the sites phosphorylated by p38. Phosphorylation at Ser-34/217 increases the transactivation potential of Dlx5. Thus, we propose that BMP activates expression of Osterix through the induction of Dlx5 and its further transcriptional activation by p38-mediated phosphorylation.

  2. Nitric oxide attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced barrier disruption and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in monolayers of intestinal epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takanori; Tsuji, Hideo; Onoda, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium provides a barrier to the transport of harmful luminal molecules into the systemic circulation. A dysfunctional epithelial barrier is closely associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of intestinal and systemic disorders. We investigated here the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. When treated with H(2)O(2), Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on permeable supports exhibited several remarkable features of barrier dysfunction as follows: a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance, an increase in paracellular permeability to dextran, and a disruption of the intercellular junctional localization of the scaffolding protein ZO-1. In addition, an induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins including ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin, components of tight and adherens junctions, was observed. On the other hand, combined treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with H(2)O(2) and an NO donor (NOC5 or NOC12) relieved the damage to the barrier function and suppressed the protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2) alone. These results suggest that NO protects the barrier function of intestinal epithelia from oxidative stress by modulating some intracellular signaling pathways of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in epithelial cells.

  3. Prostaglandin F2 alpha administered in vivo induces Ca2+-dependent protein phosphorylation in rat luteal tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was performed in order to further elucidate the mechanism of action of PGF2 alpha in luteolysis in the rat ovary. Seven days after priming with superovulatory doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin to induce luteal tissue formation, the rats were injected with a luteolytic dose of the prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue cloprostenol. The ovaries were then homogenized, a 30,000 x g supernatant and pellet were prepared, whereafter aliquots of the preparations were incubated in the presence of (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP with or without Ca2+. The phosphorylated proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and localized by autoradiography. The presence of Ca2+ caused an increased phosphorylation of a 45 kDa protein band in the particulate, but not in the cytosol, fraction. Furthermore, PGF2 alpha rapidly increased the /sup 32/P incorporation into the same protein band of 45 kDa. Thus, the PGF2 alpha-stimulated /sup 32/P incorporation was Ca2+-dependent and seen only in the particulate fraction. These results suggest that PGF2 alpha in its role as a luteolytic agent stimulates a Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of a specific protein in luteal membranes of the rat ovary.

  4. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates S6 phosphorylation and induced activation of S6 protein kinase in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, C.; Okabayashi, Y.; Williams, J.

    1987-05-01

    CCK and insulin stimulate pancreatic protein synthesis at a post transcriptional step. To better understand this regulation the authors evaluated the phosphorylation state of ribosomal protein S6 and the presence of a specific S6 protein kinase in pancreatic acini from diabetic rats. Both CCK and insulin increased S6 phosphorylation by up to 400% in intact TSP-labelled acini. The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also stimulated both protein synthesis and S6 phosphorlyation suggesting a role for protein kinase C in mediating the effect of CCK. By contrast, the CaS ionophore ionomycin had no effect on either parameter. Recently, insulin has been shown to activate a unique S6 kinase in various cells. To test for its presence, cytosolic extracts were prepared from acini stimulated with CCK and insulin by homogenization in US -glycerophosphate buffer and assayed for the kinase using el-TSP ATP and rat pancreatic ribosomes followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. CCK and insulin both increased S6 kinase activity which required neither CaS or phospholipid. The dose response for CCk was similar to S6 phosphorlyation in the intact acini. TPA did not stimulate the S6 kinase. Thus, CCK may induce S6 phosphorylation both via C kinase and by activation of a unique S6 kinase.

  5. Gamma-radiation-induced phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 is dose-dependent in MOLT-4 leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Tichý, A; Záskodová, D; Zoelzer, F; Vávrová, J; Sinkorová, Z; Pejchal, J; Osterreicher, J; Rezácová, M

    2009-01-01

    Molecular indicators of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation are powerful tools in biodosimetry. The studies reported here were undertaken with the motivation to find such a marker among the mo lecules involved in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase- dependent signalling induced by ionizing radiation (ATM-kinase, checkpoint kinase-2, protein p53, and oncoprotein Mdm2). In our previous work on T-lymphocyte leukaemia MOLT-4 cells we described the mentioned molecules of ATM-dependent pathway and none of them showed a pronounced dosedependent response. Here we employed Western blotting and ELISA assay to investigate the response of post-translationally modified p53 (particularly phosphorylated on serine 15) after gamma-irradiation. We have found the amount of phosphorylated p53 to be homogenously increased after irradiation by the doses of 0.5 to 7.5 Gy. The dose-dependent response was pronounced especially after the doses up to 3.0 Gy. The presented data indicate that p53 phosphorylated on serine 15 might be used as a potential biodosimetric marker.

  6. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Trejo Bittar, Humberto E.; Welch, Lynn C.; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M.; Baker, Mairead R.; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:26370512

  7. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Dada, Laura A; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E; Welch, Lynn C; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M; Baker, Mairead R; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2015-12-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells.

  8. Compressive Stress Induces Dephosphorylation of the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain via RhoA Phosphorylation by the Adenylyl Cyclase/Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Kenji; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress that arises due to deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) either stretches or compresses cells. The cellular response to stretching has been actively studied. For example, stretching induces phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) via the RhoA/RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway, resulting in increased cellular tension. In contrast, the effects of compressive stress on cellular functions are not fully resolved. The mechanisms for sensing and differentially responding to stretching and compressive stress are not known. To address these questions, we investigated whether phosphorylation levels of MRLC were affected by compressive stress. Contrary to the response in stretching cells, MRLC was dephosphorylated 5 min after cells were subjected to compressive stress. Compressive loading induced activation of myosin phosphatase mediated via the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853). Because myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853) is phosphorylated only by ROCK, compressive loading may have induced inactivation of ROCK. However, GTP-bound RhoA (active form) increased in response to compressive stress. The compression-induced activation of RhoA and inactivation of its effector ROCK are contradictory. This inconsistency was due to phosphorylation of RhoA (Ser188) that reduced affinity of RhoA to ROCK. Treatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A that phosphorylates RhoA (Ser188) induced suppression of compression-stimulated MRLC dephosphorylation. Incidentally, stretching induced phosphorylation of MRLC, but did not affect phosphorylation levels of RhoA (Ser188). Together, our results suggest that RhoA phosphorylation is an important process for MRLC dephosphorylation by compressive loading, and for distinguishing between stretching and compressing cells. PMID:25734240

  9. Potent homocysteine-induced ERK phosphorylation in cultured neurons depends on self-sensitization via system Xc{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Li; Hu Xiaoling; Xue Zhanxia; Yang Jun; Wan Lishu; Ren Yan; Hertz, Leif; Peng Liang

    2010-01-15

    Homocysteine is increased during pathological conditions, endangering vascular and cognitive functions, and elevated homocysteine during pregnancy may be correlated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. This study showed that millimolar homocysteine concentrations in saline medium cause phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK{sub 1/2}) in cerebellar granule neurons, inhibitable by metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. These findings are analogous to observations by , that similar concentrations cause neuronal death. However, these concentrations are much higher than those occurring clinically during hyperhomocysteinemia. It is therefore important that a approx 10-fold increase in potency occurred in the presence of the glutamate precursor glutamine, when ERK{sub 1/2} phosphorylation became inhibitable by NMDA or non-NMDA antagonists and dependent upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation. However, glutamate release to the medium was reduced, suggesting that reversal of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system X{sub c}{sup -} could be involved in potentiation of the response by causing a localized release of initially accumulated homocysteine. In agreement with this hypothesis further enhancement of ERK{sub 1/2} phosphorylation occurred in the additional presence of cystine. Pharmacological inhibition of system X{sub c}{sup -} prevented the effect of micromolar homocysteine concentrations, and U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK{sub 1/2} phosphorylation enhanced homocysteine-induced death. In conclusion, homocysteine interacts with system X{sub c}{sup -} like quisqualate (Venkatraman et al. 1994), by 'self-sensitization' with initial accumulation and subsequent release in exchange with cystine and/or glutamate, establishing high local homocysteine concentrations, which activate adjacent ionotropic glutamate receptors and cause neurotoxicity.

  10. The MEK1 inhibitors UO126 and PD98059 block PDGF-AB induced phosphorylation of threonine 292 in porcine smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kubin, Thomas; Cetinkaya, Ayse; Schönburg, Markus; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Walther, Thomas; Richter, Manfred

    2017-02-21

    PDGF-AB and FGF-2 (GFs) induce smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation which is indispensible for arteriogenesis. While there is common agreement that GFs stimulate SMC proliferation through phosphorylation (P-) of MEK1/2 at Ser218/222, we previously demonstrated that the MEK inhibitors PD98059 and UO126 did not inhibit P-Ser218/222 as originally proposed but caused strong hyperphosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that GFs increased phosphorylation of MEK1 at Thr292 while UO126 and PD98059 blocked this phosphorylation. This was again surprising since phosphorylation of Thr292 is regarded as a negative feedback loop. Our findings suggest that inhibition of Thr292 phosphorylation in combination with hyperphosphorylation of Ser218/222 serves as an "off" switch of SMC proliferation and potentially of arteriogenesis.

  11. Hormone-induced protein phosphorylation. I. Relationship between secretagogue action and endogenous protein phosphorylation in intact cells from the exocrine pancreas and parotid

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We undertook studies to determine whether secretagogue action on the exocrine pancreas and parotid is accompanied by phosphorylation of proteins in intact cells. For this purpose, rat pancreatic, and parotid lobules were preincubated with 32Pi for 45 min at 37 degrees C, washed, and then incubated at 37 degrees C in the presence or absence of secretagogues that effect discharge through different second messengers. Among a variety of polypeptides exhibiting enhanced phosphorylation in pancreatic lobules upon a 30-s incubation in the presence of the secretagogues carbamylcholine, cholecystokinin octapeptide, or secretin, one species with an Mr of 29,000 was especially notable for three reasons: (a) its enhanced level of phosphorylation was dependent on the dose of secretagogue used and was still apparent after incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C; (b) an analogous phosphorylated polypeptide was observed in isoproterenol- stimulated parotid lobules; and (c) in both tissues its selective dephosphorylation was observed upon termination of stimulation by administration of atropine to carbamylcholine-stimulated pancreatic lobules and propranolol to isoproterenol-stimulated parotid lobules. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of one protein with an Mr of 29,000 is closely correlated both temporally and in a dose- dependent fashion with secretagogue action in both the exocrine pancreas and parotid. PMID:6296160

  12. A Pea Plasma Membrane Protein Exhibiting Blue Light-Induced Phosphorylation Retains Photosensitivity following Triton Solubilization.

    PubMed Central

    Short, T. W.; Reymond, P.; Briggs, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation of a polypeptide of approximately 120 kD in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membranes in response to blue light has been shown to be involved in phototropic curvature, but the relationship of this protein to the kinase and photoreceptor acting upon it is uncertain. Using two-phase aqueous partitioning to isolate right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the photoreceptor, kinase, and substrate are localized to the plasma membrane fraction. Latent phosphorylation accessible through Triton X-100 or freeze/thaw treatments of purified plasma membrane vesicles indicates that at least the kinase moiety is present on the internal face of the plasma membrane. Effects of solubilization of vesicles on fluence-response characteristics and on phosphorylation levels provide evidence that the receptor, kinase, and protein substrate are present together in individual mixed detergent micelles, either as a stable complex or as domains of a single polypeptide. In vivo blue-light irradiation results in a small but significant decrease in mobility of the 120-kD phosphorylated protein on sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. This mobility shift is evident on Coomassie-stained gels and on western blots probed with polyclonal antibodies raised against the 120-kD protein. Among the plasma membrane proteins bound to the reactive nucleotide analog fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenine (FSBA), a distinct protein band at 120 kD can be detected on blots probed with anti-FSBA antibodies. This band exhibits an in vivo light-dependent mobility shift identical to that observed for the protein band and antibodies specific for the 120-kD protein, implying that the 120-kD protein has an integral nucleotide binding site and consistent with the possibility that the substrate protein is also a kinase. PMID:12231721

  13. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of glycerol kinase

  14. A Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomic Approach To Identifying Sulfur Mustard-Induced Protein Phosphorylation Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-31

    with immobilized metal affinity chromatography to study the large-scale protein phosphorylation changes resulting from SM exposure in a human...medium, resulting in isotopically “light” and “ heavy ” cell populations, respectively. Protein samples collected from control (light-labeled) and...experimental ( heavy -labeled) cells can then be mixed in equal ratios, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The

  15. Phosphorylation of DGCR8 increases its intracellular stability and induces a progrowth miRNA profile.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Kristina M; Pimienta, Genaro; DeGregorio, Suzanne J; Alexandrov, Andrei; Steitz, Joan A

    2013-11-27

    During miRNA biogenesis, the microprocessor complex (MC), which is composed minimally of Drosha, an RNase III enzyme, and DGCR8, a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, cleaves the primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in order to release the pre-miRNA stem-loop structure. Using phosphoproteomics, we mapped 23 phosphorylation sites on full-length human DGCR8 expressed in insect or mammalian cells. DGCR8 can be phosphorylated by mitogenic ERK/MAPK, indicating that DGCR8 phosphorylation may respond to and integrate extracellular cues. The expression of phosphomimetic DGCR8 or inhibition of phosphatases increased the cellular levels of DGCR8 and Drosha proteins. Increased levels of phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not due to higher mRNA levels, altered DGCR8 localization, or DGCR8's ability to self-associate, but rather to an increase in protein stability. MCs incorporating phosphomutant or phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not altered in specific processing activity. However, HeLa cells expressing phosphomimetic DGCR8 exhibited a progrowth miRNA expression profile and increased proliferation and scratch closure rates relative to cells expressing phosphomutant DGCR8.

  16. Phosphorylation of DGCR8 Increases Its Intracellular Stability and Induces a Progrowth miRNA Profile

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Kristina M.; Pimienta, Genaro; DeGregorio, Suzanne J.; Alexandrov, Andrei; Steitz, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During miRNA biogenesis, the microprocessor complex (MC), which is composed minimally of Drosha, an RNase III enzyme, and DGCR8, a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, cleaves the primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in order to release the pre-miRNA stem-loop structure. Using phosphoproteomics, we mapped 23 phosphorylation sites on full-length human DGCR8 expressed in insect or mammalian cells. DGCR8 can be phosphorylated by mitogenic ERK/MAPK, indicating that DGCR8 phosphorylation may respond to and integrate extracellular cues. The expression of phosphomimetic DGCR8 or inhibition of phosphatases increased the cellular levels of DGCR8 and Drosha proteins. Increased levels of phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not due to higher mRNA levels, altered DGCR8 localization, or DGCR8’s ability to self-associate, but rather to an increase in protein stability. MCs incorporating phosphomutant or phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not altered in specific processing activity. However, HeLa cells expressing phosphomimetic DGCR8 exhibited a progrowth miRNA expression profile and increased proliferation and scratch closure rates relative to cells expressing phosphomutant DGCR8. PMID:24239349

  17. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of /sup 32/P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve.

  18. Aloe-emodin suppressed NMDA-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Huang, Shiuan-Yi; Wan, Lai; Wu, Chen-Ju; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-11-01

    A high concentration of glutamate in the vitreous body and optic nerves of the eyes activates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is toxic to retina ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucomatous patients. Aloe-emodin sulfates/glucuronides (s/g), the major metabolites of aloe-emodin, was found to be effective in decreasing NMDA-induced apoptosis in RGCs. In order to elucidate the mechanisms, an in vitro optic neuropathy model adding NMDA to N18 RGCs was used in this study. The phosphorylation level of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (cytokines-suppressive antiinflammatory drug binding protein kinase) were measured by western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that aloe-emodin metabolites significantly decreased the activation of three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the activation of downstream genes in nucleus induced by NMDA, which were verified by the addition of the respective inhibitors. Comparing the effect of the inhibitors of the three MAP kinase pathways, the ERK pathway was found to be the major route of aloe-emodin metabolites in decreasing the apoptosis of NMDA-treated RGCs. Besides, cfos rather then cjun was the target downstream gene. Aloe-emodin emodin metabolites could regulate the phosphorylation of ERK kinases and it was a promising candidate for NMDA-induced apoptosis of RGCs.

  19. Cobalt chloride-mediated protein kinase Cα (PKCα) phosphorylation induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in the nucleus of gastric cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Rath, Suvasmita; Anand, Aditya; Ghosh, Nilabh; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant B; Dixit, Pragyesh; Majhi, Swetapadma; Rout, Niranjan; Singh, Shivaram P; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2016-02-26

    Hypoxia promotes cancer progression, and metastasis. The major protein expressed in hypoxic solid cancer is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). We show that enhanced phosphorylation of a conventional protein kinase C isoform, PKCα, at threonine 638 (T(638)) by hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride induces HIF1α in nuclei of gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Moreover, phospho-T(638)-PKCα (P-PKCα) interacts with p300-HIF1α complex in the nuclei of hypoxic GECs and PKCα phosphorylation at T(638) enhances transcriptional activity of HIF1α. High P-PKCα expression in neoplastic gastric cancer biopsy samples as compared to nonneoplastic samples suggests that P-PKCα might act as an indicator of gastric cancer progression.

  20. H2AX phosphorylation regulated by p38 is involved in Bim expression and apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells induced by imatinib.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yaqiong; Xiong, Min; Duan, Lianning; Liu, Ze; Niu, Tianhui; Luo, Yuan; Wu, Xinpin; Xu, Chengshan; Lu, Chengrong

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that histone H2AX plays a critical role in regulation of tumor cell apoptosis and acts as a novel human tumor suppressor protein. However, the action of H2AX in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells is unknown. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. Here, we report that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of H2AX increased apoptotic sensitivity of CML cells (K562) induced by imatinib. However, overexpression of Ser139-mutated H2AX (blocking phosphorylation) decreased sensitivity of K562 cells to apoptosis. Similarly, knockdown of H2AX made K562 cells resistant to apoptotic induction. These results revealed that the function of H2AX involved in apoptosis is strictly related to its phosphorylation (Ser139). Our data further indicated that imatinib may stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member p38, and H2AX phosphorylation followed a similar time course, suggesting a parallel response. H2AX phosphorylation can be blocked by p38 siRNA or its inhibitor. These data demonstrated that H2AX phosphorylation was regulated by p38 MAPK pathway in K562 cells. However, the p38 MAPK downstream, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 and -2, which phosphorylated histone H3, were not required for H2AX phosphorylation during apoptosis. Finally, we provided epigenetic evidence that H2AX phosphorylation regulated apoptosis-related gene Bim expression. Blocking of H2AX phosphorylation inhibited Bim gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrated that H2AX phosphorylation regulated by p38 is involved in Bim expression and apoptosis in CML cells induced by imatinib.

  1. The Roles of Phosphorylation and SHAGGY-Like Protein Kinases in Geminivirus C4 Protein Induced Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Lujan, Katherine; Andrews, David L.; Chou, Chau-wen; Deom, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Even though plant cells are highly plastic, plants only develop hyperplasia under very specific abiotic and biotic stresses, such as when exposed to pathogens like Beet curly top virus (BCTV). The C4 protein of BCTV is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and alter Arabidopsis development. It was previously shown that C4 interacts with two Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases, AtSK21 and 23, which are negative regulators of brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling. Here we show that the C4 protein interacts with five additional AtSK family members. Bikinin, a competitive inhibitor of the seven AtSK family members that interact with C4, induced hyperplasia similar to that induced by the C4 protein. The Ser49 residue of C4 was found to be critical for C4 function, since: 1) mutagenesis of Ser49 to Ala abolished the C4-induced phenotype, abolished C4/AtSK interactions, and resulted in a mutant protein that failed to induce changes in the BR signaling pathway; 2) Ser49 is phosphorylated in planta; and 3) plant-encoded AtSKs must be catalytically active to interact with C4. A C4 N-myristoylation site mutant that does not localize to the plasma membrane and does not induce a phenotype, retained the ability to bind AtSKs. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma membrane associated C4 interacts with and co-opts multiple AtSKs to promote its own phosphorylation and activation to subsequently compromise cell cycle control. PMID:25815729

  2. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28072855

  3. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  4. Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Price, D M; Kanyo, R; Steinberg, N; Chik, C L; Ho, A K

    2009-05-01

    We have shown previously that Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3 occurs in rat pinealocytes after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and that histone modifications such as acetylation appear to play an important role in pineal gene transcription. Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3. Studies with cultured pinealocytes indicate that Aurora C phosphorylation is induced by NE and this induction can be blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP, but not other kinase activators, mimics the effect of NE on Aurora C phosphorylation. These results indicate that Aurora C is phosphorylated primarily by a beta-adrenergic/protein kinase A-mediated mechanism. Treatment with an Aurora C inhibitor reduces the NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation and suppresses the NE-stimulated induction of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rhythm-controlling enzyme of melatonin synthesis, and melatonin production. The effects of Aurora C inhibitors on adrenergic-induced genes in rat pinealocytes are gene specific: inhibitory for Aa-nat and inducible cAMP repressor but stimulatory for c-fos. Together our results support a role for the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of Aurora C and the subsequent remodeling of chromatin in NE-stimulated Aa-nat transcription. This phenomenon suggests that activation of this mitotic kinase can be induced by extracellular signals to participate in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes in the rat pineal gland.

  5. The role of nitric-oxide synthase in the regulation of UVB light-induced phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; László, Csaba F; Miao, Zhixin; Chen, Hao; Wu, Shiyong

    2009-09-04

    UV light induces phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and inhibits global protein synthesis. Both eIF2 kinases, protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and general control of nonderepressible protein kinase 2 (GCN2), have been shown to phosphorylate eIF2alpha in response to UV irradiation. However, the roles of PERK and GCN2 in UV-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation are controversial. The one or more upstream signaling pathways that lead to the activation of PERK or GCN2 remain unknown. In this report we provide data showing that both PERK and GCN2 contribute to UV-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Reduction of expression of PERK or GCN2 by small interfering RNA decreases phosphorylation of eIF2alpha after UV irradiation. These data also show that nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)-mediated oxidative stress plays a role in regulation of eIF2alpha phosphorylation upon UV irradiation. Treating the cells with the broad NOS inhibitor N(G)-methyl-l-arginine, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine, or the NOS substrate l-arginine partially inhibits UV-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation. The results presented above led us to propose that NOS mediates UV-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation by activation of both PERK and GCN2 via oxidative stress and l-arginine starvation signaling pathways.

  6. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong-Whan; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Hui-Sun; Choe, Han; Lee, Seung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2010-04-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) is recognized as one of major kinases to phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus lots of AD drug discoveries target GSK3{beta}. However, the inactive form of GSK3{beta} which is phosphorylated at serine-9 is increased in AD brains. This is also inconsistent with phosphorylation status of other GSK3{beta} substrates, such as {beta}-catenin and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) since their phosphorylation is all increased in AD brains. Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death. Interestingly, OA also induces phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at serine-9 and other substrates including tau, {beta}-catenin and CRMP2 like in AD brains. In this context, we observed that GSK3{beta} inhibitors such as lithium chloride and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-monoxime (6-BIO) reversed those phosphorylation events and protected neurons. These data suggest that GSK3{beta} may still have its kinase activity despite increase of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in AD brains at least in PP2A-compromised conditions and that GSK3{beta} inhibitors could be a valuable drug candidate in AD.

  7. MD-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS-induced activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S.; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that MD-2 is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific, it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Herbimycin A, and by an inhibitor of endocytosis, Cytochalsin-D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD2 and not on cell surface. Furthermore, we identify two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine have reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD2 co-precipitates and colocalizes with Lyn kinase, most likely in ER. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phophorylation. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response. PMID:21918188

  8. Involvement of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate phosphorylation and translocation in cholecystokinin-induced amylase release in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Keitaro; Narita, Takanori; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2016-03-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone that induces exocytotic amylase release in pancreatic acinar cells. The activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the CCK-induced pancreatic amylase release. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is a ubiquitously expressed substrate of PKC. MARCKS has been implicated in membrane trafficking in several cell types. The phosphorylation of MARCKS by PKC results in the translocation of MARCKS from the membrane to the cytosol. Here, we studied the involvement of MARCKS in the CCK-induced amylase release in rat pancreatic acini. Employing Western blotting, we detected MARCKS protein in the rat pancreatic acini. CCK induced MARCKS phosphorylation. A PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin, inhibited the CCK-induced MARCKS phosphorylation and amylase release. In the translocation assay, we also observed CCK-induced PKC-δ activation. An immunohistochemistry study showed that CCK induced MARCKS translocation from the membrane to the cytosol. When acini were lysed by a detergent, Triton X-100, CCK partially induced displacement of the MARCKS from the GM1a-rich detergent-resistant membrane fractions (DRMs) in which Syntaxin2 is distributed. A MARCKS-related peptide inhibited the CCK-induced amylase release. These findings suggest that MARCKS phosphorylation by PKC-δ and then MARCKS translocation from the GM1a-rich DRMs to the cytosol are involved in the CCK-induced amylase release in pancreatic acinar cells.

  9. Multiple phosphorylated forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein include an isoform induced in response to high salt concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, M H; Nadeau, E T; Grayhack, E J

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein is an essential multifunctional transcription factor which is highly homologous to human serum response factor. Mcm1 protein acts on a large number of distinctly regulated genes: haploid cell-type-specific genes, G2-cell-cycle-regulated genes, pheromone-induced genes, arginine metabolic genes, and genes important for cell wall and cell membrane function. We show here that Mcm1 protein is phosphorylated in vivo. Several (more than eight) isoforms of Mcm1 protein, resolved by isoelectric focusing, are present in vivo; two major phosphorylation sites lie in the N-terminal 17 amino acids immediately adjacent to the conserved MADS box DNA-binding domain. The implications of multiple species of Mcm1, particularly the notion that a unique Mcm1 isoform could be required for regulation of a specific set of Mcm1's target genes, are discussed. We also show here that Mcm1 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by NaCl. G. Yu, R. J. Deschenes, and J. S. Fassler (J. Biol. Chem. 270:8739-8743, 1995) showed that Mcm1 function is affected by mutations in the SLN1 gene, a signal transduction component implicated in the response to osmotic stress. We find that mcm1 mutations can confer either reduced or enhanced survival on high-salt medium; deletion of the N terminus or mutation in the primary phosphorylation site results in impaired growth on high-salt medium. Furthermore, Mcm1 protein is a target of a signal transduction system responsive to osmotic stress: a new isoform of Mcm1 is induced by NaCl or KCl; this result establishes that Mcm1 itself is regulated. PMID:9001236

  10. 6,7-di-O-acetylsinococuline (FK-3000) induces G2/M phase arrest in breast carcinomas through p38 MAPK phosphorylation and CDC25B dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONG-CHUN; KIM, BONG-HEE; CHO, SOON-CHANG; BANG, MI-AE; KIM, SUNMIN; PARK, DAE-HUN

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the cytostatic effect of 6,7-di-O-acetylsinococuline (FK-3000) isolated from Stephania delavayi Diels. against breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. FK-3000 suppressed CDC25B phosphorylation directly and indirectly via p38 MAPK phosphorylation. CDC25B dephosphorylation decreased levels of cyclin B and phospho-CDC-2, and ultimately induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB 239063 blocked FK-3000-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, but did not completely rescue cell death. Conclusively FK-3000 exerts its antiproliferative effect through two pathways: i) G2/M cell cycle arrest via downregulation of cyclin B and phospho-CDC2 by p38 MAPK phosphorylation and CDC25B dephosphorylation, and ii) p38 MAPK-independent induction of apoptosis. PMID:25384584

  11. Inhibition of Akt2 phosphorylation abolishes the calorie restriction-induced improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by rat soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B.; Cartee, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR; ~60–65% of ad libitum, AL, consumption) can enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) in predominantly slow-twitch skeletal muscles (e.g., soleus) by an incompletely understood mechanism. We used an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) to eliminate CR’s effect on insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation in isolated rat soleus muscles. We found long-term CR-enhanced ISGU was abolished by eliminating the CR-effect on Akt2 phosphorylation, suggesting the CR-induced benefit on ISGU in the predominantly slow-twitch soleus relies on enhanced Akt2 phosphorylation. PMID:27786542

  12. ACTH-induced caveolin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is related to podosome assembly in Y1 adrenal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, Cecilia . E-mail: ccolonna@fmed.uba.ar; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2005-04-01

    Y1 adrenocortical cells respond to ACTH with a characteristic rounding-up that facilitates cAMP signaling, critical for transport of cholesterol to the mitochondria and increase in steroid secretion. We here demonstrate that caveolin-1 participates in coupling activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to the control of cell shape. ACTH/8-Br-cAMP induced reorganization of caveolin-1-positive structures in correlation with the cellular rounding-up. Concomitant with this change, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) localized at focal adhesions (FA) with reorganization of FA to rounded, ringlike structures. Colocalization with phalloidin showed that phosphocaveolin is present at the edge of actin filaments and that after ACTH stimulation F-actin dots at the cell periphery become surrounded by phosphocaveolin-1. These observations along with electron microscopy studies revealed these structures as podosomes. Podosome assembly was dependent on both PKA and tyrosine kinase activities because their formation was impaired after treatment with specific inhibitors [myristoylated PKI (mPKI) or PP2, respectively] previous to ACTH/8-Br-cAMP stimulation. These results show for the first time that ACTH induces caveolin-1 phosphorylation and podosome assembly in Y1 cells and support the view that the morphological and functional responses to PKA activation in steroidogenic cells are related to cytoskeleton dynamics.

  13. STIM1 Phosphorylation at Y361 Recruits Orai1 to STIM1 Puncta and Induces Ca2+ Entry

    PubMed Central

    Yazbeck, Pascal; Tauseef, Mohammad; Kruse, Kevin; Amin, Md-Ruhul; Sheikh, Rayees; Feske, Stefan; Komarova, Yulia; Mehta, Dolly

    2017-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ER Ca2+-store depletion rapidly induces STIM1 phosphorylation at Y361 via proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2) in ECs. Surprisingly, the phospho-defective STIM1-Y361F mutant formed puncta but failed to recruit Orai1, thereby preventing. SOCE Furthermore, studies in mouse lungs, expression of phosphodefective STIM1-Y361F mutant in ECs prevented the increase in vascular permeability induced by the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Hence, Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of STIM1 at Y361 is a critical phospho-switch enabling recruitment of Orai1 into STIM1 puncta leading to SOCE. Therefore, Y361 in STIM1 represents a novel target for limiting SOCE-associated vascular leak. PMID:28218251

  14. ACTH-induced caveolin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is related to podosome assembly in Y1 adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Cecilia; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2005-04-01

    Y1 adrenocortical cells respond to ACTH with a characteristic rounding-up that facilitates cAMP signaling, critical for transport of cholesterol to the mitochondria and increase in steroid secretion. We here demonstrate that caveolin-1 participates in coupling activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to the control of cell shape. ACTH/8-Br-cAMP induced reorganization of caveolin-1-positive structures in correlation with the cellular rounding-up. Concomitant with this change, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) localized at focal adhesions (FA) with reorganization of FA to rounded, ringlike structures. Colocalization with phalloidin showed that phosphocaveolin is present at the edge of actin filaments and that after ACTH stimulation F-actin dots at the cell periphery become surrounded by phosphocaveolin-1. These observations along with electron microscopy studies revealed these structures as podosomes. Podosome assembly was dependent on both PKA and tyrosine kinase activities because their formation was impaired after treatment with specific inhibitors [myristoylated PKI (mPKI) or PP2, respectively] previous to ACTH/8-Br-cAMP stimulation. These results show for the first time that ACTH induces caveolin-1 phosphorylation and podosome assembly in Y1 cells and support the view that the morphological and functional responses to PKA activation in steroidogenic cells are related to cytoskeleton dynamics.

  15. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  16. Phosphorylation-triggered CUEDC2 degradation promotes UV-induced G1 arrest through APC/C(Cdh1) regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Na; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ai-Ling; Wang, Na; Xu, Jin-Jing; Chang, Yan; Man, Jiang-Hong; Pan, Xin; Li, Tao; Li, Wei-Hua; Mu, Rui; Liang, Bing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Bao-Feng; Xia, Qing; Gong, Wei-Li; Zhang, Xue-Min; Wang, Li; Li, Hui-Yan

    2013-07-02

    DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest to provide a time window for DNA repair. Failure of arrest could lead to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. DNA damage-induced G1 arrest is generally achieved by the accumulation of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). However, p21 is degraded and does not play a role in UV-induced G1 arrest. The mechanism of UV-induced G1 arrest thus remains elusive. Here, we have identified a critical role for CUE domain-containing protein 2 (CUEDC2) in this process. CUEDC2 binds to and inhibits anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)), a critical ubiquitin ligase in G1 phase, thereby stabilizing Cyclin A and promoting G1-S transition. In response to UV irradiation, CUEDC2 undergoes ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation, leading to APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated Cyclin A destruction, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inactivation, and G1 arrest. A nonphosphorylatable CUEDC2 mutant is resistant to UV-induced degradation. Expression of this stable mutant effectively overrides UV-induced G1-S block. These results establish CUEDC2 as an APC/C(Cdh1) inhibitor and indicate that regulated CUEDC2 degradation is critical for UV-induced G1 arrest.

  17. Aurora Kinases Phosphorylate Lgl to Induce Mitotic Spindle Orientation in Drosophila Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham P.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; Brain, Ruth; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) protein was discovered in Drosophila as a tumor suppressor in both neural stem cells (neuroblasts) and epithelia. In neuroblasts, Lgl relocalizes to the cytoplasm at mitosis, an event attributed to phosphorylation by mitotically activated aPKC kinase and thought to promote asymmetric cell division. Here we show that Lgl also relocalizes to the cytoplasm at mitosis in epithelial cells, which divide symmetrically. The Aurora A and B kinases directly phosphorylate Lgl to promote its mitotic relocalization, whereas aPKC kinase activity is required only for polarization of Lgl. A form of Lgl that is a substrate for aPKC, but not Aurora kinases, can restore cell polarity in lgl mutants but reveals defects in mitotic spindle orientation in epithelia. We propose that removal of Lgl from the plasma membrane at mitosis allows Pins/LGN to bind Dlg and thus orient the spindle in the plane of the epithelium. Our findings suggest a revised model for Lgl regulation and function in both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. PMID:25484300

  18. Susceptibility to simvastatin-induced toxicity is partly determined by mitochondrial respiration and phosphorylation state of Akt.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Peter J; Zahno, Anja; Lindinger, Peter; Maseneni, Swarna; Felser, Andrea; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Brecht, Karin

    2011-12-01

    Statins are widely used to prevent cardiovascular diseases. They are well-tolerated, with side-effects mainly seen in skeletal muscle. How these side-effects are caused is unknown. We compared isolated primary mouse skeletal muscle myocytes, C2C12 myotubes and liver HepG2 cells to detect differences that could uncover why statins are toxic in skeletal muscle but less so in the liver. 10μM simvastatin caused a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in the primary mouse myocytes and C2C12 myotubes, but had no effect in the HepG2 cells. Mitochondrial integrity is maintained by multiple signaling pathways. One of these pathways, Igf-1/Akt signaling, is also heavily implicated in causing statin-induced toxicity by upregulating atrogin-1. We found that phosphorylated Akt was reduced in C2C12 myotubes but not in HepG2 cells. HepG2 mitochondrial respiration became susceptible to simvastatin-treatment after Akt inhibition, and mitochondrial respiration was rescued in Igf-1-treated C2C12 myotubes. These results suggest that disruption of Igf-1/Akt signaling is a causative factor in simvastatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 myotubes, whereas HepG2 cells are protected by maintaining Igf-1/Akt signaling. We conclude that phosphorylation of Akt is a key indicator of susceptibility to statin-induced toxicity. How statins can disrupt Igf-1/Akt signaling is unknown. Statins reduce geranylgeranylation of small GTPases, such as Rap1. Previous studies implicate Rap1 as a link between cAMP/Epac and Igf-1/Akt signaling. Transient transfection of constitutively active Rap1 into C2C12 myotubes led to a partial rescue of simvastatin-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, providing a novel link between signaling and respiration.

  19. Inhibition of p38 MAPK Phosphorylation Is Critical for Bestatin to Enhance ATRA-Induced Cell Differentiation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xijun; He, Jingsong; Zhao, Yi; Lin, Maofang

    2016-01-01

    Bestatin has been known as an immunomodulating agent in anti-leukemia treatment. The mechanism by which Bestatin enhances all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced cell differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells is generally attributed to inhibition of cell surface CD13/aminopeptidase N activity. Bestatin also exerts its biological activities besides its ability to inhibit aminopeptidase N enzymatic activity. This article provides data to support an alternative mechanism regarding an important role of inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway in Bestatin's anti-leukemia effect. Bestatin enhanced ATRA-induced differentiation and inhibited ATRA-driven phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in ATRA-sensitive APL NB4 cells. In contrast, Bestatin could not reverse the differentiation block in ATRA-resistant APL MR2 cells, in which ATRA was unable to induce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Moreover, CD13 ligation with anti-CD13 antibody WM-15 resulted in phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, reduced the inhibition of Bestatin on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and completely abolished the enhancement of Bestatin on ATRA-inducing differentiation in NB4 cells. This study shows that inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation is critical for Bestatin to enhance ATRA-induced cell differentiation in ATRA-sensitive APL NB4 cells. Results suggested that pharmacological inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway might enhance ATRA-dependent differentiation.

  20. RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) depletes nutrients, inducing phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengcheng; Hao, Chuncheng; Shao, RuPing; Fang, Bingliang; Correa, Arlene M; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Roth, Jack A; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Swisher, Stephen G; Pataer, Apar

    2015-05-10

    We have demonstrated that RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and its downstream protein p-eIF2α are independent prognostic markers for overall survival in lung cancer. In the current study, we further investigate the interaction between PKR and AMPK in lung tumor tissue and cancer cell lines. We examined PKR protein expression in 55 frozen primary lung tumor tissues by Western blotting and analyzed the association between PKR expression and expression of 139 proteins on tissue samples examined previously by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) from the same 55 patients. We observed that biomarkers were either positively (phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase(T172) [p-AMPK]) or negatively (insulin receptor substrate 1, meiotic recombination 11, ATR interacting protein, telomerase, checkpoint kinase 1, and cyclin E1) correlated with PKR. We further confirmed that induction of PKR with expression vectors in lung cancer cells causes activation of the AMPK protein independent of the LKB1, TAK1, and CaMKKβ pathway. We found that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which increases AMP levels and decreases ATP levels, causing AMPK phosphorylation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting AMPK expression with compound C or siRNA enhanced PKR-mediated cell death. We next explored the combination of PKR and p-AMPK expression in NSCLC patients and observed that expression of p-AMPK predicted a poor outcome for adenocarcinoma patients with high PKR expression and a better prognosis for those with low PKR expression. These findings were consistent with our in vitro results. AMPK might rescue cells facing metabolic stresses, such as ATP depletion caused by PKR. Our data indicate that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which induces the phosphorylation of AMPK. AMPK might act as a protective response to metabolic stresses, such as nutrient deprivation.

  1. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 induces cyclin D1 degradation through the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} in squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Jun; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hirata, Masato; Morimoto, Sachio; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are morphogens which induce cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. We reported that DIF-1 and DIF-3 inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines NA and SAS, well differentiated and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Although DIF-1 did not induce the expression of cell differentiation makers in these cell lines, it inhibited the proliferation of NA and SAS in a dose-dependent manner by restricting the cell cycle in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. DIF-1 induced cyclin D1 degradation, but this effect was prevented by treatment with lithium chloride and SB216763, the inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}). Depletion of endogenous GSK-3{beta} by RNA interference also attenuated the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 degradation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on GSK-3{beta} and found that DIF-1 dephosphorylated GSK-3{beta} on Ser{sup 9} and induced the nuclear translocation of GSK-3{beta}, suggesting that DIF-1 activated GSK-3{beta}. Then, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 mutants (Thr286Ala, Thr288Ala, and Thr286/288Ala). We revealed that Thr286Ala and Thr286/288Ala mutants were highly resistant to DIF-1-induced degradation compared with wild-type cyclin D1, indicating that the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} was critical for cyclin D1 degradation induced by DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 induces degradation of cyclin D1 through the GSK-3{beta}-mediated phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286}.

  2. Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial p53 Induces Anti-Apoptotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Fan, Ming; Duru, Nadire; Wen, Yunfei; Reed, John C.; Li, Jian Jian

    2010-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic function of p53 has been well defined in preventing genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the intriguing fact that p53 contributes to a pro-survival advantage of tumor cells under DNA damage conditions raises a critical question in radiation therapy for the 50% human cancers with intact p53 function. Herein, we reveal an anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial p53 regulated by the cell cycle complex cyclin B1/Cdk1 in irradiated human colon cancer HCT116 cells with p53+/+ status. Steady-state levels of p53 and cyclin B1/Cdk1 were identified in the mitochondria of many human and mouse cells, and their mitochondrial influx was significantly enhanced by radiation. The mitochondrial kinase activity of cyclin B1/Cdk1 was found to specifically phosphorylate p53 at Ser-315 residue, leading to enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis. The improved mitochondrial function can be blocked by transfection of mutant p53 Ser-315-Ala, or by siRNA knockdown of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes. Enforced translocation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 into mitochondria with a mitochondrial-targeting-peptide increased levels of Ser-315 phosphorylation on mitochondrial p53, improved ATP production and decreased apoptosis by sequestering p53 from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, reconstitution of wild-type p53 in p53-deficient HCT116 p53−/− cells resulted in an increased mitochondrial ATP production and suppression of apoptosis. Such phenomena were absent in the p53-deficient HCT116 p53−/− cells reconstituted with the mutant p53. These results demonstrate a unique anti-apoptotic function of mitochondrial p53 regulated by cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated Ser-315 phosphorylation in p53-wild-type tumor cells, which may provide insights for improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors that retain p53. PMID:20808790

  3. Chronic restraint stress induces sperm acrosome reaction and changes in testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Maneenin, Chanwit; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS), n=7). CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day) for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL), corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl), corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml), acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%), and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18%) were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g), testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml), and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml) of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05) than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein. PMID:27525328

  4. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Sayama, Koji

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

  5. Nucleotide P2Y13-stimulated phosphorylation of CREB is required for ADP-induced proliferation of late developing retinal glial progenitors in culture.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Flavia Jesus; Silva, Thayane Martins; da Silva, Flavia Emenegilda; Ornelas, Isis Moraes; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques

    2017-03-24

    Nucleotides stimulate phosphorylation of CREB to induce cell proliferation and survival in diverse cell types. We report here that ADP induces the phosphorylation of CREB in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in chick embryo retinal progenitors in culture. ADP-induced increase in phospho-CREB is mediated by P2 receptors as it is blocked by PPADS but not by the adenosine antagonists DPCPX or ZM241385. Incubation of the cultures with the CREB inhibitor KG-501 prevents ADP-induced incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine, indicating that CREB is involved in retinal cell proliferation. No effect of this compound is observed on the viability of retinal progenitors. While no significant increase in CREB phosphorylation is observed with the P2Y1 receptor agonist MRS2365, ADP-induced phosphorylation of CREB is blocked by the P2Y13 receptor selective antagonist MRS2211, but not by MRS2179 or PSB0739, two antagonists of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, respectively, suggesting that ADP-induced CREB phosphorylation is mediated by P2Y13 receptors. ADP-induced increase in phospho-CREB is attenuated by the PI3K inhibitor LY241385 and completely prevented by the MEK inhibitor U0126, suggesting that at least ERK is involved in ADP-induced CREB phosphorylation. A pharmacological profile similar to the activation and inhibition of CREB phosphorylation is observed in the phosphorylation of ERK, suggesting that P2Y13 receptors mediate ADP induced ERK/CREB pathway in the cultures. While no increase in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation is observed with the P2Y1 receptor agonist MRS2365, both MRS2179 and MRS2211 prevent ADP-mediated increase in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, but not progenitor's survival, suggesting that both P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptor subtypes are involved in ADP-induced cell proliferation. P2Y1 receptor-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i is observed in glial cells only when cultures maintained for 9days are used. In glia from cultures cultivated for only 2days, no increase in [Ca

  6. Senescence may mediate conversion of tau phosphorylation-induced apoptotic escape to neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Hao

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegeneration is the characteristic pathology in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the nature and molecular mechanism leading to the degeneration are not clarified. Given that only the neurons filled with neurofibrillary tangles survive to the end stage of the disease and the major component of the tangles is the hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, it is conceivable that tau hyperphosphorylation must play a crucial role in AD neurodegeneration. We have demonstrated that tau hyperphosphorylation renders the cells more resistant to the acute apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms involve substrate competition of tau and β-catenin for glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β); activation of Akt; preservation of Bcl-2 and suppression of Bax, cytosolic cytochrome-c, and caspase-3 activity; and upregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR), i.e., up-regulating phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2 and IRE1 with an increased cleavage of ATF6 and ATF4. On the other hand, tau hyperphosphorylation promotes its intracellular accumulation and disrupts axonal transport; hyperphosphorylated tau also impairs cholinergic function and inhibits proteasome activity. These findings indicate that tau hyperphosphorylation and its intracellular accumulation play dual role in the evolution of AD. We speculate that transient tau phosphorylation helps cells abort from an acute apoptosis, while persistent tau hyperphosphorylation/accumulation may trigger cell senescence that eventually causes a chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, the nature of "AD neurodegeneration" may represent a new type of tau-regulated chronic neuron death; and the stage of cell senescence may provide a broad window for the intervention of AD.

  7. Cryopreservation-induced alterations in protein tyrosine phosphorylation of spermatozoa from different portions of the boar ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Siqueira, A P; Hossain, M S; Bergqvist, A S

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that boar sperm quality after cryopreservation differs depending on the ejaculate fraction used and that spermatozoa contained in the first 10mL (P1) of the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) show better cryosurvival than those in the SRF-P1. Since protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) in spermatozoa is related with the tolerance of spermatozoa to frozen storage and cryocapacitation, we assessed the dynamics of cryopreservation-induced PTP and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in spermatozoa, using flow cytometry, from P1 and SRF-P1 of the boar ejaculate at different stages of cryopreservation. Sperm kinetics, assessed using a computer-assisted semen analyzer, did not differ between P1 and SRF-P1 during cryopreservation but the decrease in sperm velocity during cryopreservation was significant (P<0.05) in SRF-P1 compared to P1. There were no significant differences in percentages of spermatozoa with high [Ca(2+)]i between P1 and SRF-P1 in fresh as well as in frozen-thawed semen. A higher (P<0.001) proportion of spermatozoa displayed PTP during the course of cryopreservation indicating a definite effect of the cryopreservation process on sperm PTP. The proportion of spermatozoa with PTP did not differ significantly between portions of the boar ejaculate. However at any given step during cryopreservation the percentage of spermatozoa with PTP was comparatively higher in SRF-P1 than P1. A 32kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein, associated with capacitation, appeared after cooling suggesting that cooling induces capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa. In conclusion, the study has shown that the cryopreservation process induced PTP in spermatozoa and their proportions were similar between portions of SRF.

  8. Semaphorin3A-induced axonal transport mediated through phosphorylation of Axin-1 by GSK3β.

    PubMed

    Hida, Tomonobu; Nakamura, Fumio; Usui, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kan; Yamashita, Naoya; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-02-19

    The establishment of neuronal polarity is necessary for proper neuronal wiring. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), originally identified as a repulsive axon guidance molecule, exerts a wide variety of biological functions through signaling pathways including sequential phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Sema3A acts on its receptor neuropilin-1 to regulate axonal transport. To delineate mechanism by which Sema3A induces axonal transport, we investigate whether GSK3β is involved in mediating Sema3A-induced axonal transport. 4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione, an inhibitor of GSK3β, suppressed Sema3A-induced antero- and retrograde axonal transport. Introduction of either GSK3β mutants, GSK3β-L128A or K85M, suppressed Sema3A-induced axonal transport. On the other hand, introduction of GSK3β-R96A did not affect the Sema3A effect, suggesting that unprimed substrates are primarily involved in Sema3A-induced axonal transport. Overexpression of a partial fragment of frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRATtide), which interferes the interaction between GSK3β and Axis inhibitor-1 (Axin-1), also suppressed Sema3A-induced transport. siRNA knockdown of Axin-1, an unprimed substrate of GSK3β, suppressed Sema3A-induced antero- and retrograde axonal transport. These results indicate that GSK3β and Axin-1 are involved in Sema3A-induced bidirectional axonal transport. This finding should provide a clue for understanding of mechanisms of a wide variety of biological activities of Sema3A.

  9. RhoA Phosphorylation Induces Rac1 Release from Guanine Dissociation Inhibitor α and Stimulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration▿

    PubMed Central

    Rolli-Derkinderen, Malvyne; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Pacaud, Pierre; Loirand, Gervaise

    2010-01-01

    Although overactivation of RhoA is recognized as a common component of vascular disorders, the molecular mechanisms regulating RhoA activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are still unclear. We have previously shown that in VSMC, RhoA is phosphorylated on Ser188 by nitric oxide (NO)-stimulated cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG), which leads to RhoA-Rho kinase pathway inhibition. In this study, we showed that expression of phosphoresistant RhoA mutants prevented the stimulation of VSMC migration and adhesion induced by NO-PKG pathway activation. In contrast, under basal conditions, phosphomimetic RhoA mutants stimulated VSMC adhesion and migration through a signaling pathway requiring Rac1 and the Rho exchange factor Vav3. RhoA phosphorylation or phosphomimetic RhoA mutants induced Rac1 activation but did not activate Vav3. Indeed, phosphorylated RhoA or phosphomimetic mutants trapped guanine dissociation inhibitor α (GDIα), leading to the release of Rac1 and its translocation to the membrane, where it was then activated by the basal Vav3 nucleotide exchange activity. In vivo, RhoA phosphorylation induced by PKG activation in the aortas of rats treated with sildenafil induced dissociation of Rac1 from GDIα and activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of RhoA represents a novel potent and physiological GDIα displacement factor that leads to Rac1 activation and regulation of Rac1-dependent VSMC functions. PMID:20696841

  10. Cyclical compressive stress induces differentiation of rat primary mandibular condylar chondrocytes through phosphorylated myosin light chain II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Chen, Lin; Mai, Zhihui; Peng, Zhuli; Yu, Kafung; Liu, Guanqi; Ai, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The role of myosin light chain II (MLC‑II) in cellular differentiation of rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) induced by cyclical uniaxial compressive stress (CUCS) remains unclear. In the current study, a four‑point bending system was used to apply CUCS to primary cultured MCCs from rats. It was identified that CUCS stimulated features of cellular differentiation including morphological alterations, cytoskeleton rearrangement and overproduction of proteoglycans. Furthermore, CUCS promoted runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2) expression at mRNA (P<0.01) and protein levels (P<0.05) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (P<0.01), which are both markers of osteogenic differentiation. Under conditions of stress, western blotting indicated that the ratio of phosphorylated MLC‑II to total MLC‑II was increased significantly (P<0.05). Silencing MLC‑II by RNA interference reduced ALP activity (P<0.01), and eliminated RUNX2 mRNA expression (P<0.01). Addition of the MLC kinase inhibitor, ML‑7, reduced the CUCS‑associated upregulation of RUNX2 expression (P<0.01) and ALP activity (P<0.01). The data indicated that CUCS promoted cellular differentiation of rat primary MCCs, and this was suggested to be via the phosphorylation of MLC‑II.

  11. Vitronectin induces phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin actin-binding proteins through binding to its novel neuronal receptor telencephalin.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Miwa; Matsuno, Hitomi; Mitsui, Sachiko; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-09

    Vitronectin (VN) is an extracellular matrix protein abundantly present in blood and a wide variety of tissues and plays important roles in a number of biological phenomena mainly through its binding to αV integrins. However, its definite function in the brain remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of telencephalin (TLCN/ICAM-5) as a novel VN receptor on neuronal dendrites. VN strongly binds to TLCN, a unique neuronal member of the ICAM family, which is specifically expressed on dendrites of spiny neurons in the mammalian telencephalon. VN-coated microbeads induce the formation of phagocytic cup-like plasma membrane protrusions on dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons and trigger the activation of TLCN-dependent intracellular signaling cascade including the phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin actin-binding proteins and recruitment of F-actin and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for morphological transformation of the dendritic protrusions. These results suggest that the extracellular matrix molecule VN and its neuronal receptor TLCN play a pivotal role in the phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins and the formation of phagocytic cup-like structures on neuronal dendrites.

  12. Rat Aquaporin-5 Is pH-Gated Induced by Phosphorylation and Is Implicated in Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Mósca, Andreia Filipa; Martins, Ana Paula; Nobre, Tatiana; Prista, Catarina; Antunes, Fernando; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana; Soveral, Graça

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a membrane water channel widely distributed in human tissues that was found up-regulated in different tumors and considered implicated in carcinogenesis in different organs and systems. Despite its wide distribution pattern and physiological importance, AQP5 short-term regulation was not reported and mechanisms underlying its involvement in cancer are not well defined. In this work, we expressed rat AQP5 in yeast and investigated mechanisms of gating, as well as AQP5’s ability to facilitate H2O2 plasma membrane diffusion. We found that AQP5 can be gated by extracellular pH in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, with higher activity at physiological pH 7.4. Moreover, similar to other mammalian AQPs, AQP5 is able to increase extracellular H2O2 influx and to affect oxidative cell response with dual effects: whereas in acute oxidative stress conditions AQP5 induces an initial higher sensitivity, in chronic stress AQP5 expressing cells show improved cell survival and resistance. Our findings support the involvement of AQP5 in oxidative stress and suggest AQP5 modulation by phosphorylation as a novel tool for therapeutics. PMID:27983600

  13. Aging-induced alterations in gene transcripts and functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Preston, Claudia C; Oberlin, Andrew S; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Gupta, Anu; Sagar, Sandeep; Syed, Rashad H Khazi; Siddiqui, Sabeeh A; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad

    2008-06-01

    Aging is associated with progressive decline in energetic reserves compromising cardiac performance and tolerance to injury. Although deviations in mitochondrial functions have been documented in senescent heart, the molecular bases for the decline in energy metabolism are only partially understood. Here, high-throughput transcription profiles of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins in ventricles from adult (6-months) and aged (24-months) rats were compared using microarrays. Out of 614 genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins, 94 were differentially expressed with 95% downregulated in the aged. The majority of changes affected genes coding for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (39), substrate metabolism (14) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (6). Compared to adult, gene expression changes in aged hearts translated into a reduced mitochondrial functional capacity, with decreased NADH-dehydrogenase and F(0)F(1) ATPase complex activities and capacity for oxygen-utilization and ATP synthesis. Expression of genes coding for transcription co-activator factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis were downregulated in aged ventricles without reduction in mitochondrial density. Thus, aging induces a selective decline in activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and V within a broader transcriptional downregulation of mitochondrial genes, providing a substrate for reduced energetic efficiency associated with senescence.

  14. Aging-Induced Alterations in Gene Transcripts and Functional Activity of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Complexes in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Claudia C.; Oberlin, Andrew S.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Gupta, Anu; Sagar, Sandeep; Khazi Syed, Rashad H.; Siddiqui, Sabeeh; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive decline in energetic reserves compromising cardiac performance and tolerance to injury. Although deviations in mitochondrial functions have been documented in senescent heart, the molecular bases for the decline in energy metabolism are only partially understood. Here, high-throughput transcription profiles of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins in ventricles from adult (6-months) and aged (24-months) rats were compared using microarrays. Out of 614 genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins, 94 were differentially expressed with 95% downregulated in the aged. The majority of changes affected genes coding for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (39), substrate metabolism (14) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (6). Compared to adult, gene expression changes in aged hearts translated into a reduced mitochondrial functional capacity, with decreased NADH-dehydrogenase and F0F1-ATPase complex activities and capacity for oxygen-utilization and ATP synthesis. Expression of genes coding for transcription co-activator factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis were downregulated in aged ventricles without reduction in mitochondrial density. Thus, aging induces a selective decline in activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and V within a broader transcriptional downregulation of mitochondrial genes, providing a substrate for reduced energetic efficiency associated with senescence. PMID:18400259

  15. Constitutive phosphorylation of a Rac GAP MgcRacGAP is implicated in v-Src-induced transformation of NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Doki, Noriko; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Akiho; Oneyama, Chitose; Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Toshio

    2009-09-01

    MgcRacGAP plays critical roles in cell division through regulating Rho family small GTPases. As we previously reported, phosphorylation of MgcRacGAP on serine 387 (S387) is induced by Aurora B kinase at the midbody during cytokinesis, which is a critical step of cytokinesis. Phosphorylation of S387-MgcRacGAP converts it from RacGAP to RhoGAP, leading to completion of cytokinesis. Here we show that MgcRacGAP is prominently phosphorylated on S387 even in the interphase of v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells in the cytoplasm, but not in the interphase of parental NIH3T3 or H-RasV12-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, levels of phosphorylation on S387 (pS387) correlated with soft agar colony-forming abilities of v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Expression of a phosphorylation-mimic mutant MgcRacGAP-S387D enhanced colony formation of v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Surprisingly, a Rac1 inhibitor but not kinase inhibitors including Aurora B kinase inhibitor specifically inhibited phosphorylation of S387-MgcRacGAP in v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells, suggesting the v-Src-induced pathological positive feedback mechanisms towards Rac1 activation using pS387-MgcRacGAP. These results indicated the difference in the mechanisms between v-Src- and H-RasV12-induced transformation, and should shed some light on pathological roles of disordered phosphorylation of MgcRacGAP at S387 in v-Src-induced cell transformation.

  16. Smad3 linker phosphorylation attenuates Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hong, Suntaek; Liu, Fang; Ooshima, Akira

    2012-10-26

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has a distinct role in renal fibrosis associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the renal tubules and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Smad3 plays an essential role in fibrosis initiated by EMT. Phosphorylation of Smad3 in the C-terminal SSXS motif by type I TGF-β receptor kinase is essential for mediating TGF-β response. Smad3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region. However, the functional role of Smad3 linker phosphorylation is not well characterized. We now show that Smad3 EPSM mutant, which mutated the four phosphorylation sites in the linker region, markedly enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT of Smad3-deficient primary renal tubular epithelial cells, whereas Smad3 3S-A mutant, which mutated the C-terminal phosphorylation sites, was unable to induce EMT in response to TGF-β1. Furthermore, immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis showed a marked induction of fibrogenic gene expression with a significant reduction in E-cadherin in HK2 human renal epithelial cells expressing Smad3 EPSM. TGF-β1 could not induce the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin and PAI-1 or reduce the expression of E-cadherin in HK2 cells expressing Smad3 3S-A in response to TGF-β1. Our results suggest that Smad3 linker phosphorylation has a negative regulatory role on Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced renal EMT. Elucidation of mechanism regulating the Smad3 linker phosphorylation can provide a new strategy to control renal fibrosis.

  17. Corticotropin-releasing factor induces phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma at tyrosine residues via its receptor 2beta in human epidermoid A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Kiang, J G; Ding, X Z; Gist, I D; Jones, R R; Tsokos, G C

    1998-12-18

    This laboratory previously reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, cellular cAMP, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, protein kinase C activity, and protein phosphorylation in human A-431 cells. The increase was blocked by CRF receptor antagonist. In this study, we identified the type of CRF receptors present and investigated whether CRF induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma via CRF receptors. Using novel primers in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we determined the CRF receptor type to be that of 2beta. The levels of the CRF receptor type 2beta were not altered in cells treated with activators of protein kinase C, Ca2+ ionophore, or cells overexpressing heat shock protein 70 kDa. Cells treated with CRF displayed increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation approximately at 150 kDa as detected by immunoblotting using an antibody against phosphotyrosine. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against phospholipase C-beta3, -gamma1, or -gamma2 isoforms (which have molecular weights around 150 kDa) followed by Western blotting using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed that only phospholipase C-gamma1 and -gamma2 were phosphorylated. The increase in phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 4.2+/-0.1 pM. The maximal phosphorylation by CRF at 1 nM occurred by 5 min. The CRF-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, suggesting that CRF activates protein tyrosine kinases. Treatment of cells with CRF receptor antagonist, but not pertussis toxin, prior to treatment with CRF inhibited the CRF-induced phosphorylation, suggesting it is mediated by the CRF receptor type 2beta that is not coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Treatment with 1,2-bis(2iminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid attenuated the phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation. In summary

  18. The Differential DRP1 Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Regional Specific Astroglial Death Induced by Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ah-Reum; Hyun, Hye-Won; Min, Su-Ji; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    The response and susceptibility to astroglial degenerations are relevant to the distinctive properties of astrocytes in a hemodynamic-independent manner following status epilepticus (SE). Since impaired mitochondrial fission plays an important role in mitosis, apoptosis and programmed necrosis, we investigated whether the unique pattern of mitochondrial dynamics is involved in the characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. In the present study, SE induced astroglial apoptosis in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial length. In contrast, clasmatodendritic (autophagic) astrocytes in the CA1 region showed mitochondrial elongation induced by SE. Mdivi-1 (an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission) effectively attenuated astroglial apoptosis, but WY14643 (an enhancer of mitochondrial fission) aggravated it. In addition, Mdivi-1 accelerated clasmatodendritic changes in astrocytes. These regional specific mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytes were closely correlated with dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) phosphorylation, not optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; a mitochondrial fusion protein) expression. To the best of our knowledge, the present data demonstrate for the first time the novel role of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission in astroglial loss. Thus, the present findings suggest that the differential astroglial mitochondrial dynamics may participate in the distinct characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. PMID:27242436

  19. Ganglioside GM1 induces phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin and restores normal motor behavior in Huntington disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Pardo, Alba; Maglione, Vittorio; Alpaugh, Melanie; Horkey, Melanie; Atwal, Randy S.; Sassone, Jenny; Ciammola, Andrea; Steffan, Joan S.; Fouad, Karim; Truant, Ray; Sipione, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative monogenic disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant huntingtin triggers neural dysfunction and death, mainly in the corpus striatum and cerebral cortex, resulting in pathognomonic motor symptoms, as well as cognitive and psychiatric decline. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HD. We report that intraventricular infusion of ganglioside GM1 induces phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin at specific serine amino acid residues that attenuate huntingtin toxicity, and restores normal motor function in already symptomatic HD mice. Thus, our studies have identified a potential therapy for HD that targets a posttranslational modification of mutant huntingtin with critical effects on disease pathogenesis. PMID:22331905

  20. Song-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein in the songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, H; Wada, K; Maekawa, M; Watsuji, T; Hagiwara, M

    1999-05-15

    We have investigated the participation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the response of the songbird brain to a natural auditory stimulus, a conspecific song. The cells in the two song control nuclei, the higher vocal center (HVC) and area X of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), were intensely stained with an anti-CREB monoclonal antibody. Double-labeling studies showed that CREB immunoreactivity was detected only in area X-projecting neurons in the HVC. The cloned CREB cDNA from zebra finches (zCREB) is highly homologous to mammalian delta CREB. Phosphorylation of zCREB at Ser119 in area X-projecting HVC neurons was induced by hearing tape-recorded conspecific songs of zebra finches, but not by birdsongs of another species or white noise. These results raise the possibility that zCREB plays a crucial role in the sensory process of song learning.

  1. Phytochrome Induces Rapid PIF5 Phosphorylation and Degradation in Response to Red-Light Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochrome (phy) family of sensory photoreceptors (phyA–phyE in Arabidopsis thaliana) induces changes in target-gene expression upon light-induced translocation to the nucleus, where certain members interact with selected members of the constitutively nuclear basic helix-loop-helix transcriptio...

  2. All-trans retinoic acid induces oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria biogenesis in adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Tourniaire, Franck; Musinovic, Hana; Gouranton, Erwan; Astier, Julien; Marcotorchino, Julie; Arreguin, Andrea; Bernot, Denis; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa; Ribot, Joan; Landrier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    A positive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) oxidative and thermogenic capacity has been described and linked to an in vivo fat-lowering effect of ATRA in mice. However, little is known about the effects of ATRA on mitochondria in white fat. Our objective has been to characterize the effect of ATRA on mitochondria biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in mature white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis, oxygraphy, analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and flow cytometry-based analysis of mitochondria density were performed in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes after 24 h incubation with ATRA (2 µM) or vehicle. Selected genes linked to mitochondria biogenesis and function and mitochondria immunostaining were analyzed in WAT tissues of ATRA-treated as compared with vehicle-treated mice. ATRA upregulated the expression of a large set of genes linked to mtDNA replication and transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis, and OXPHOS in adipocytes, as indicated by transcriptome analysis. Oxygen consumption rate, mtDNA content, and staining of mitochondria were increased in the ATRA-treated adipocytes. Similar results were obtained in WAT depots of ATRA-treated mice. We conclude that ATRA impacts mitochondria in adipocytes, leading to increased OXPHOS capacity and mitochondrial content in these cells. PMID:25914170

  3. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 induces PACS-1 binding of nephrocystin and targeting to cilia

    PubMed Central

    Schermer, Bernhard; Höpker, Katja; Omran, Heymut; Ghenoiu, Cristina; Fliegauf, Manfred; Fekete, Andrea; Horvath, Judit; Köttgen, Michael; Hackl, Matthias; Zschiedrich, Stefan; Huber, Tobias B; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Blaukat, Andree; Walz, Gerd; Benzing, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in proteins localized to cilia and basal bodies have been implicated in a growing number of human diseases. Access of these proteins to the ciliary compartment requires targeting to the base of the cilia. However, the mechanisms involved in transport of cilia proteins to this transitional zone are elusive. Here we show that nephrocystin, a ciliary protein mutated in the most prevalent form of cystic kidney disease in childhood, is expressed in respiratory epithelial cells and accumulates at the base of cilia, overlapping with markers of the basal body area and the transition zone. Nephrocystin interacts with the phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein (PACS)-1. Casein kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation of three critical serine residues within a cluster of acidic amino acids in nephrocystin mediates PACS-1 binding, and is essential for colocalization of nephrocystin with PACS-1 at the base of cilia. Inhibition of CK2 activity abrogates this interaction and results in the loss of correct nephrocystin targeting. These data suggest that CK2-dependent transport processes represent a novel pathway of targeting proteins to the cilia. PMID:16308564

  4. All-trans retinoic acid induces oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria biogenesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tourniaire, Franck; Musinovic, Hana; Gouranton, Erwan; Astier, Julien; Marcotorchino, Julie; Arreguin, Andrea; Bernot, Denis; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Ribot, Joan; Landrier, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    A positive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) oxidative and thermogenic capacity has been described and linked to an in vivo fat-lowering effect of ATRA in mice. However, little is known about the effects of ATRA on mitochondria in white fat. Our objective has been to characterize the effect of ATRA on mitochondria biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in mature white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis, oxygraphy, analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and flow cytometry-based analysis of mitochondria density were performed in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes after 24 h incubation with ATRA (2 µM) or vehicle. Selected genes linked to mitochondria biogenesis and function and mitochondria immunostaining were analyzed in WAT tissues of ATRA-treated as compared with vehicle-treated mice. ATRA upregulated the expression of a large set of genes linked to mtDNA replication and transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis, and OXPHOS in adipocytes, as indicated by transcriptome analysis. Oxygen consumption rate, mtDNA content, and staining of mitochondria were increased in the ATRA-treated adipocytes. Similar results were obtained in WAT depots of ATRA-treated mice. We conclude that ATRA impacts mitochondria in adipocytes, leading to increased OXPHOS capacity and mitochondrial content in these cells.

  5. Metformin exaggerates phenylephrine-induced AMPK phosphorylation independent of CaMKKβ and attenuates contractile response in endothelium-denuded rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Pyla, Rajkumar; Osman, Islam; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Hansen, Paul; Segar, Lakshman

    2014-11-15

    Metformin, a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug, has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Its beneficial effect toward improved vasodilation results from its ability to activate AMPK and enhance nitric oxide formation in the endothelium. To date, metformin regulation of AMPK has not been fully studied in intact arterial smooth muscle, especially during contraction evoked by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. In the present study, ex vivo incubation of endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings with 3mM metformin for 2h resulted in significant accumulation of metformin (∼ 600 pmoles/mg tissue), as revealed by LC-MS/MS MRM analysis. However, metformin did not show significant increase in AMPK phosphorylation under these conditions. Exposure of aortic rings to a GPCR agonist (e.g., phenylephrine) resulted in enhanced AMPK phosphorylation by ∼ 2.5-fold. Importantly, in metformin-treated aortic rings, phenylephrine challenge showed an exaggerated increase in AMPK phosphorylation by ∼ 9.7-fold, which was associated with an increase in AMP/ATP ratio. Pretreatment with compound C (AMPK inhibitor) prevented AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone and also that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. However, pretreatment with STO-609 (CaMKKβ inhibitor) diminished AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone but not that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. Furthermore, attenuation of phenylephrine-induced contraction (observed after metformin treatment) was prevented by AMPK inhibition but not by CaMKKβ inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that, upon endothelial damage in the vessel wall, metformin uptake by the underlying vascular smooth muscle would accentuate AMPK phosphorylation by GPCR agonists independent of CaMKKβ to promote vasorelaxation.

  6. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  7. Mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Saito, Kan; Maruya, Yuriko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Aya; Fukumoto, Emiko; Ishikawa, Momoko; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Kanako; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ge, Lihong; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate hard tissue formation, including bone and tooth. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a known BMP, is expressed in cartilage and regulates chondrogenesis, and mutations have been shown to cause osteoarthritis. Notably, GDF5 is also expressed in periodontal ligament tissue; however, its role during tooth development is unclear. Here, we used cell culture and in vivo analyses to determine the role of GDF5 during tooth development. GDF5 and its associated BMP receptors are expressed at the protein and mRNA levels during postnatal tooth development, particularly at a stage associated with enamel formation. Furthermore, whereas BMP2 was observed to induce evidently the differentiation of enamel-forming ameloblasts, excess GDF5 induce mildly this differentiation. A mouse model harbouring a mutation in GDF5 (W408R) showed enhanced enamel formation in both the incisors and molars, but not in the tooth roots. Overexpression of the W408R GDF5 mutant protein was shown to induce BMP2-mediated mRNA expression of enamel matrix proteins and downstream phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. These results suggest that mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-signalling. PMID:27030100

  8. Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwu; Lan, Xiaoyan; Ahsan, Anil; Xi, Yalin; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Zonghui; Chu, Peng; Song, Yushu; Piao, Fengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Lin, Yuan; Han, Guozhu; Tang, Zeyao

    2016-03-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an exogenous energy substance, which provides phosphate groups for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle and promotes energy metabolism in cells. However, it is still unclear whether PCr has influenced on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHO) in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of PCr on lipopolsaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mitochondrial OXPHO pathway. PCr protected HUVECs against LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, cytosolic release of cytochrome c (Cyt C), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of caspases, and increasing Bcl2 expression, while suppressing Bax expression. More importantly, PCr significantly improved mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential, enhanced the activities of ATP synthase and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKmt) in creatine shuttle, influenced on respiratory chain enzymes, respiratory control ratio, phosphorus/oxygen ratio and ATP production of OXPHO. Above PCr-mediated mitochondrial events were effectively more favorable to reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) pathway than reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotid pathway in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our results revealed that PCr protects against LPS-induced HUVECs apoptosis, which probably related to stabilization of intracellular energy metabolism, especially for FADH2 pathway in mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP synthase and CKmt. Our findings suggest that PCr may play a certain role in the treatment of atherosclerosis via protecting endothelial cell function.

  9. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  10. [Phosphorylation of tau protein].

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Ishiguro, K

    1990-05-01

    found on the tubulin-binding domain of tau, leading us to the idea that the interaction of tau with tubulin could induce conformational changes on tau making it accessible to effects of the kinase. We detected -SP- as a sequence common to three major phosphorylation sites on K1, K2 and K3 fragments. Neurofilament-specific kinase and growth-associated histone H1 kinase are known to recognize the consensus sequence including -SP-. These enzymes exhibit certain properties similar to tau protein kinase and seem to play a crucial role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth or cell growth, through the phosphorylation of a specific substrate, neurofilaments or histone H1, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. Requirement for kinase-induced conformational change in eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) restricts phosphorylation of Ser51.

    PubMed

    Dey, Madhusudan; Velyvis, Algirdas; Li, John J; Chiu, Elaine; Chiovitti, David; Kay, Lewis E; Sicheri, Frank; Dever, Thomas E

    2011-03-15

    As phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) on Ser51 inhibits protein synthesis, cells restrict this phosphorylation to the antiviral protein kinase PKR and related eIF2α kinases. In the crystal structure of the PKR-eIF2α complex, the C-terminal lobe of the kinase contacts eIF2α on a face remote from Ser51, leaving Ser51 ∼ 20 Å from the kinase active site. PKR mutations that cripple the eIF2α-binding site impair phosphorylation; here, we identify mutations in eIF2α that restore Ser51 phosphorylation by PKR with a crippled substrate-binding site. These eIF2α mutations either disrupt a hydrophobic network that restricts the position of Ser51 or alter a linkage between the PKR-docking region and the Ser51 loop. We propose that the protected state of Ser51 in free eIF2α prevents promiscuous phosphorylation and the attendant translational regulation by heterologous kinases, whereas docking of eIF2α on PKR induces a conformational change that regulates the degree of Ser51 exposure and thus restricts phosphorylation to the proper kinases.

  12. ATM- and ATR-mediated phosphorylation of XRCC3 regulates DNA double-strand break-induced checkpoint activation and repair.

    PubMed

    Somyajit, Kumar; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Scully, Ralph; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2013-05-01

    The RAD51 paralogs XRCC3 and RAD51C have been implicated in homologous recombination (HR) and DNA damage responses. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which these paralogs regulate HR and DNA damage signaling remains obscure. Here, we show that an SQ motif serine 225 in XRCC3 is phosphorylated by ATR kinase in an ATM signaling pathway. We find that RAD51C but not XRCC2 is essential for XRCC3 phosphorylation, and this modification follows end resection and is specific to S and G2 phases. XRCC3 phosphorylation is required for chromatin loading of RAD51 and HR-mediated repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Notably, in response to DSBs, XRCC3 participates in the intra-S-phase checkpoint following its phosphorylation and in the G2/M checkpoint independently of its phosphorylation. Strikingly, we find that XRCC3 distinctly regulates recovery of stalled and collapsed replication forks such that phosphorylation is required for the HR-mediated recovery of collapsed replication forks but is dispensable for the restart of stalled replication forks. Together, these findings suggest that XRCC3 is a new player in the ATM/ATR-induced DNA damage responses to control checkpoint and HR-mediated repair.

  13. Growth hormone suppresses the expression of IGFBP-5, and promotes the IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Yano, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hagino, Akihiko; Aso, Hisashi; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2007-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a specific role to inhibit apoptosis in the bovine mammary gland through the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system, however, the mechanism of GH action is poorly understood. In this study, we show that GH dramatically inhibits the expression of IGFBP-5, and GH along with IGF-I enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt through the reduction of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-5. To determine how GH affects Akt through IGF-I in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs), we examined the phosphorylation of Akt in GH treated BMECs and found that IGF-I induced phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced by the treatment with GH. We demonstrated that GH reduces mRNA and protein expression of IGFBP-5 in BMECs, but it does not affect the expression of IGFBP-3. To determine that the enhanced effect of the Akt phosphorylation by the treatment of GH is due to the inhibition of the expression of IGFBP-5, we examined the effect of IGFBP-3 and -5 on the phosphorylation of Akt through IGF-I in the GH-treated BMECs. The phosphorylation of Akt was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner when IGFBP-5 was added at varying concentrations and was also inhibited in the presence of IGFBP-3. The results of this study suggest that GH plays an important role on mammary gland involution in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  14. The effect of P2X7 receptor activation on nuclear factor-κB phosphorylation induced by status epilepticus in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Duk-Soo; Jin Ryu, Hea; Il Kim, Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Won Kim, Dae; Young Choi, Soo; Kang, Tea-Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) signal is essential for neuronal survival and its activation may protect neuron against various stimuli. Since purinergic signals activate NFκB through the P2X7 receptor, we investigated the distinct pattern of NF-κB phosphorylation in neurons by P2X7 receptor activation following status epilepticus (SE) in an effort to understand the role of P2X7 receptor in epileptogenic insult. In non-SE animals, 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP, a P2X7R agonist) treatment increased only p52-Ser869 NF-κB phosphorylation in neuron. Following SE, p52-Ser865, p52-Ser869, p65-Ser276, p65-Ser311, p65-Ser468, and p65-Ser529 NF-κB phosphorylation was significantly decreased in CA1 and CA3 neurons. However, BzATP treatment prevented reductions in p65-Ser276, p65-Ser311, p65-Ser529, and p52-Ser869 NF-κB phosphorylations in CA1 and/or CA3 neurons induced by SE. Furthermore, BzATP treatment reduced SE-induced p65-Ser311, p65-Ser468, p65-Ser536, and p52-Ser869 NF-κB phosphorylations in astrocytes. These findings indicate that P2X7 functions may be involved in the regulation of SE-induced reactive astrocytes and neuronal degeneration via NF-κB phosphorylations in response to pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat hippocampus.

  15. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  16. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  17. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  18. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  19. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents stress-induced LTP impairment: the critical role of phosphorylated CaMKII and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Aleisa, A M; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine has been reported to enhance cognition in animal and humans. Additionally, caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a number of disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The lipophilic nature of caffeine allows for rapid absorption into the bloodstream where it freely crosses the blood-brain barrier. Caffeine promotes dendritic spine growth in cultured hippocampal neurons, which suggests a neuroprotective effect. We examined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment on stress-induced suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and impairment of molecules of its signaling cascade. Rats were subjected to daily stress using the psychosocial stress paradigm (intruder model), in vivo recordings from area CA1 of the hippocampus of adult rat, and immunoblot analysis of essential signaling molecules. Caffeine prevented stress-induced LTP impairment. Western blot analysis showed reduction of the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium calmodulin kinase II (P-CAMKII), total CaMKII, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in area CA1 of stressed rats. These reductions were prevented by chronic caffeine treatment (0.33 mg/L in drinking water). In addition, caffeine prevented the upregulation of calcineurin levels in stressed rats. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) normally increased P-CaMKII, total CaMKII, and calcineurin levels in control as well as in caffeine-treated stressed rats. However, in stressed rats, the same HFS induced increases in the levels of total CaMKII and calcineurin, but not those of P-CaMKII. The levels of signaling molecules may not reflect activities of these molecules. It appears that the neuroprotective effect of caffeine involves preservation of the levels of essential kinases and phosphatases in stressed rats. This may include preservation of basal levels of BDNF by chronic caffeine treatment in stressed animals. These findings highlight the critical role of P-CaMKII and BDNF in caffeine-induced prevention of stress-induced

  20. Vitamin K3 (menadione)-induced oncosis associated with keratin 8 phosphorylation and histone H3 arylation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gary K; Atsriku, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Held, Jason; Gibson, Brad; Baldwin, Michael A; Benz, Christopher C

    2005-09-01

    The vitamin K analog menadione (K3), capable of both redox cycling and arylating nucleophilic substrates by Michael addition, has been extensively studied as a model stress-inducing quinone in both cell culture and animal model systems. Exposure of keratin 8 (k-8) expressing human breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D, SKBr3) to K3 (50-100 microM) induced rapid, sustained, and site-specific k-8 serine phosphorylation (pSer73) dependent on signaling by a single mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, MEK1/2. Normal nuclear morphology and k-8 immunofluorescence coupled with the lack of DNA laddering or other features of apoptosis indicated that K3-induced cytotoxicity, evident within 4 h of treatment and delayed but not prevented by MEK1/2 inhibition, was due to a form of stress-activated cell death known as oncosis. Independent of MAPK signaling was the progressive appearance of K3-induced cellular fluorescence, principally nuclear in origin and suggested by in vitro fluorimetry to have been caused by K3 thiol arylation. Imaging by UV transillumination of protein gels containing nuclear extracts from K3-treated cells revealed a prominent 17-kDa band shown to be histone H3 by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). K3 arylation of histones in vitro followed by electrospray ionization-tandem MS analyses identified the unique Cys110 residue within H3, exposed only in the open chromatin of transcriptionally active genes, as a K3 arylation target. These findings delineate new pathways associated with K3-induced stress and suggest a potentially novel role for H3 Cys110 as a nuclear stress sensor.

  1. Agonist-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the myosin- binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase and CPI17, two regulatory factors of myosin light chain phosphatase, in smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Niiro, Naohisa; Koga, Yasuhiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) enhances smooth muscle contraction at a constant [Ca2+]. There are two components, myosin-binding subunit of MLCP (MBS) and CPI17, thought to be responsible for the inhibition of MLCP by external stimuli. The phosphorylation of MBS at Thr-641 and of CPI17 at Thr-38 inhibits the MLCP activity in vitro. Here we determined the changes in the phosphorylation of MBS and CPI17 after agonist stimulation in intact as well as permeabilized smooth muscle strips using phosphorylation-site-specific antibodies as probes. The CPI17 phosphorylation transiently increased after agonist stimulation in both alpha-toxin skinned and intact fibres. The time course of the increase in CPI17 phosphorylation after stimulation correlated with the increase in myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. The increase in CPI17 phosphorylation was significantly diminished by Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, and GF109203x, a protein kinase C inhibitor, suggesting that both the protein kinase C and Rho kinase pathways influence the change in CPI17 phosphorylation. On the other hand, a significant level of MBS phosphorylation at Thr-641, an inhibitory site, was observed in the resting state for both skinned and intact fibres and the agonist stimulation did not significantly alter the MBS phosphorylation level at Thr-641. While the removal of the agonist markedly decreased MLC phosphorylation and induced relaxation, the phosphorylation of MBS was unchanged, while CPI17 phosphorylation markedly diminished. These results strongly suggest that the phosphorylation of CPI17 plays a more significant role in the agonist-induced increase in myosin phosphorylation and contraction of smooth muscle than MBS phosphorylation in the Ca2+-independent activation mechanism of smooth muscle contraction. PMID:12296769

  2. Gefitinib induces apoptosis in human glioma cells by targeting Bad phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2011-12-01

    Gefitinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is under clinical testing and use in cancer patients, including glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma remain largely uncharacterized. Gefitinib inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human glioma cells. Gefitinib also induces death of H4 cells with characteristics of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, including Bax mitochondrial translocation, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c cytosolic release, and caspase-9/caspase-3 activation. The importance of Bax in mediating gefitinib-induced apoptosis was confirmed by the attenuation of apoptosis by Bax siRNA and Bax channel blocker. Gefitinib caused Bad dephosphorylation, particularly in serine-112, and increased its binding preference to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. The dephosphorylation of Bad in gefitinib-treated cells was accompanied by reduced intracellular cyclic AMP content and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin attenuated, but PKA inhibitor H89 augmented, gefitinib-induced Bad dephosphorylation, Bax mitochondrial translocation, caspase-9/caspase-3 activation, and viability loss. Intriguingly, a nonselective protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid alleviated gefitinib-induced alterations, except Bad dephosphorylation. In parallel with the higher basal PKA activity, response of U87 cells to gefitinib treatment was delayed and relatively resistant compared with that of H4 and T98G cells. Inactivation of PKA sensitized H4, T98G, and U87 cells to gefitinib cytotoxicity, Bad dephosphorylation in serine-112, and caspase-9/caspase-3 activation. Our findings suggest the involvement of the Bad/Bax signaling pathway in gefitinib-induced glioma apoptosis. Furthermore, the inactivation of PKA was shown to play a role in triggering the proapoptotic function of Bad.

  3. Real-time imaging elucidates the role of H2O2 in regulating kinetics of epidermal growth factor-induced and Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ting; Li, Xiangyong; Liu, Nisha; Pan, Shaotao; Lu, Jinling; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong

    2012-07-01

    Reversible oxidation is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), upon growth factor stimulation, is hypothesized to inhibit activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). This ensures that protein tyrosine kinases can elevate the steady-state level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which then allows propagation of the tyrosine phosphorylation signal. However, the effects of H2O2 on the kinetics of tyrosine phosphorylation signaling remain poorly understood, especially in living cells. Therefore, we used a genetically encoded Src kinase-specific biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to image the kinetics of the Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling (Src signaling) induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We examined the kinetics under increased and decreased H2O2 levels. Through a straightforward, quantitative analysis method which characterized the signaling kinetics, we demonstrated that H2O2 modulated the amplitude and duration of the signal by inhibiting PTPs' activity. Our evidence also suggested the effect of H2O2 on Src activation is mediated by H2O2-dependent inhibition of PTPs. Furthermore, we provide evidence showing global elevation of intracellular H2O2 level attenuates EGF-induced Src signaling.

  4. Ibuprofen inhibits activation of nuclear {beta}-catenin in human colon adenomas and induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta}.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Emily J; Madigan, James P; Boardman, Lisa A; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    Nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors target many of the same cancer-associated molecular pathways as COX-2-specific inhibitors. Although these nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often associated with gastrointestinal toxicity, there is renewed interest in their use as colorectal cancer (CRC) chemopreventive agents due to the adverse side effects associated with long-term use of selective COX-2 inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term use (up to 25 years) of NSAIDs (ibuprofen or aspirin) on adenoma pathology and β-catenin-mediated signaling in sporadic human colon adenomas. Although NSAID use did not impact overall adenoma size or degree of dysplasia, it did cause a significant inhibition of nuclear β-catenin localization, which correlated with suppression of cyclin D1 expression. To further elucidate the effect of these agents in regulating β-catenin, we treated SW480 colon cancer cells with a panel of NSAIDs and determined their effects on β-catenin levels and cellular localization. In agreement with our in vivo results, both S-ibuprofen and aspirin were found to decrease total levels of β-catenin while increasing its phosphorylation. In addition, S-ibuprofen induced both degradation of IκBα and nuclear localization of NF-κB. Despite its nuclear localization, however, the activation of the NF-κB target genes, Bcl-2, survivin, and cyclin D1, was suppressed. This reduction in NF-κB transcriptional activity may be due to increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β following S-ibuprofen treatment. These data suggest that ibuprofen can effectively target both the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB pathways, and potentially uncovers a novel mechanism through which NSAIDS may exert their chemopreventive efficacy.

  5. HSF1 phosphorylation by ERK/GSK3 suppresses RNF126 to sustain IGF-IIR expression for hypertension-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Fa-Lun; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Fu-Jen; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-04-06

    Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis are major characteristics of early-stage heart failure (HF). Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) efficaciously suppressed angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis by blocking insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) signaling. However, the detailed mechanism by which ANG II induces ERK-mediated IGF-IIR signaling remains elusive. Here, we found that ANG II activated ERK to upregulate IGF-IIR expression via the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1 R). ERK activation subsequently phosphorylates HSF1 at serine 307, leading to a secondary phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase III (GSK3) at serine 303. Moreover, we found that ANG II mediated ERK/GSK3-induced IGF-IIR protein stability by downregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase of IGF-IIR RING finger protein CXXVI (RNF126). The expression of RNF126 decreased following ANG II-induced HSF1(S303) phosphorylation, resulting in IGF-IIR protein stability and increased cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of GSK3 significantly alleviated ANG II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF1 phosphorylation stabilizes IGF-IIR protein stability by downregulating RNF126 during cardiac hypertrophy. ANG II activates ERK/GSK3 to phosphorylate HSF1, resulting in RNF126 degradation, which stabilizes IGF-IIR protein expression and eventually results in cardiac hypertrophy. HSF1 could be a valuable therapeutic target for cardiac diseases among hypertensive patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways are involved in influenza-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and hyperpermeability in PMVEC via phosphorylating ERM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenyue; Wu, Ying; Xuan, Zinan; Zhang, Shujing; Wang, Xudan; Hao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shu

    2014-11-04

    Severe influenza infections are featured by acute lung injury, a syndrome of pulmonary microvascular leak. A growing number of evidences have shown that the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) are critical target of influenza virus, promoting microvascular leak. It is reported that there are multiple mechanisms by which influenza virus could elicit increased pulmonary endothelial permeability, in both direct and indirect manners. Ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins, the linkers between plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton, have been reported to be involved in cell adhesion, motility and may modulate endothelial permeability. Studies have also shown that ERM is phosphorylated in response to various stimuli via p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK or PKC pathways. However, it is unclear that whether influenza infection could induce ERM phosphorylation and its relocalization. In the present study, we have found that there are cytoskeletal reorganization and permeability increases in the course of influenza virus infection, accompanied by upregulated levels of p-ERM. p-ERM's aggregation along the periphery of PMVEC upon influenza virus infection was detected via confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we sought to determine the role of p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways in ERM phosphorylation as well as their involvement in influenza virus-induced endothelial malfunction. The activation of p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways upon influenza virus stimulation were observed, as evidenced by the evaluation of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated MKK (p-MKK) in p38MAPK pathway, ROCK1 in Rho/ROCK pathway and phosphorylated PKC (p-PKC) in PKC pathway. We also showed that virus-induced ERM phosphorylation was reduced by using p38MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 (20 μM), Rho/ROCK inhibitor, Y27632 (20 μM), PKC inhibitor, LY317615 (10 μM). Additionally, influenza virus-induced F-actin reorganization and hyperpermeability were attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580, Y27632 and LY317615

  7. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  8. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  9. Social isolation stress induces ATF-7 phosphorylation and impairs silencing of the 5-HT 5B receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Toshio; Kim, Seungjoon; Nakai, Daisuke; Makino, Chieko; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Hiroo; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Chatton, Bruno; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2010-01-06

    Many symptoms induced by isolation rearing of rodents may be relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. However, identities of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to chronic social isolation stress remain elusive. The transcription factor ATF-7 is structurally related to ATF-2, which is activated by various stresses, including inflammatory cytokines. Here, we report that Atf-7-deficient mice exhibit abnormal behaviours and increased 5-HT receptor 5B (Htr5b) mRNA levels in the dorsal raphe nuclei. ATF-7 silences the transcription of Htr5B by directly binding to its 5'-regulatory region, and mediates histone H3-K9 trimethylation via interaction with the ESET histone methyltransferase. Isolation-reared wild-type (WT) mice exhibit abnormal behaviours that resemble those of Atf-7-deficient mice. Upon social isolation stress, ATF-7 in the dorsal raphe nucleus is phosphorylated via p38 and is released from the Htr5b promoter, leading to the upregulation of Htr5b. Thus, ATF-7 may have a critical role in gene expression induced by social isolation stress.

  10. Cordycepin Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Proliferation of Human Lung Cancer Cell Line H1975 via Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xue; Liang, Yan-Ni; Wang, Li; Song, Zhong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Li; Tang, Zhi-Shu

    2016-09-27

    Cordycepin is an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris with notable anticancer activity. Though the prominent inhibitory activity was reported in different kinds of cancer cell lines, the concrete mechanisms remain elusive. It was reported that cordycepin could be converted into tri-phosphates in vivo to confuse a number of enzymes and interfere the normal cell function. For the inhibitory mechanism of EGFR inhibitors and the structure similarity of ATP and tri-phosphated cordycepin, human lung cancer cell line H1975 was employed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cordycepin. The results showed that cordycepin could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that H1975 cells could be arrested at the G₀/G₁ phase after cordycepin treatment. The expression levels of apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 and phosphorylated expression levels of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 were all decreased compared with the control group stimulated with EGF. However, the protein expression levels of proapoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were increased. These results implied that cordycepin could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis via the EGFR signaling pathway. Our results indicated that there was potential to seek a novel EGFR inhibitor from cordycepin and its chemical derivatives.

  11. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chang-Hwan; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX) has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI-) 1 and fibronectin (FN) and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms. PMID:28337441

  12. A Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compound inhibits Fyn phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in natural killer cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzana, Ilaria; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; De Luca, Luciana; Rocca, Francesco La; Simeon, Vittorio; Tintori, Cristina; D'Alessio, Francesca; Teramo, Antonella; Zambello, Renato; Traficante, Antonio; Maietti, Maddalena; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are characterized by clonal proliferation of cytotoxic NK cells. Since there is no standard treatment to date, new therapeutic options are needed, especially for NK aggressive tumors. Fyn tyrosine kinase has a key role in different biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation, being also involved in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies. Our previous studies led us to identify 4c pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compound capable of inhibiting Fyn activation and inducing apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. Here we investigated the presence of Fyn and the effect of its inhibitor in NK malignant cells. Firstly, we showed Fyn over-expression in NK leukemic cells compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Subsequently, we demonstrated that 4c treatment reduced cell viability, induced caspase 3-mediate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in NK cells. Moreover, by inhibiting Fyn phosphorylation, 4c compound reduced Akt and P70 S6 kinase activation and changed the expression of genes involved in cell death and survival in NK cells. Our study demonstrated that Fyn is involved in the pathogenesis of NK leukemia and that it could represent a potential target for this neoplasm. Moreover, we proved that Fyn inhibitor pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compound, could be a started point to develop new therapeutic agents. PMID:27566560

  13. Collagen-induced binding to human platelets of platelet-derived growth factor leading to inhibition of P43 and P20 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Bryckaert, M.C.; Rendu, F.; Tobelem, G.; Wasteson, A.

    1989-03-15

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Collagen-induced binding of /sup 125/I-PDGF to human washed platelets was therefore investigated. It was found to be time-dependent, reaching a plateau at 20 degrees C after 30 min, collagen concentration-dependent, specifically inhibited by unlabeled PDGF, and saturable. Scatchard plot analysis showed a single class of sites with 3000 +/- 450 molecules bound/cell and an apparent KD of 1.2 +/- 0.2 10(-8) M. The effects of PDGF on collagen-induced phosphoinositide breakdown and protein phosphorylation were also investigated. At 50 ng/ml PDGF, a concentration which completely inhibited collagen-induced aggregation, the breakdown of (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) and (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) was observed, but the subsequent replenishment of (/sup 32/P)PIP2 was inhibited. The same PDGF concentration totally inhibited collagen-induced phosphatidic acid formation. PDGF also completely prevented phosphorylation of P43 and P20, as a result of protein kinase C activation consecutive to phosphoinositide metabolism. These results suggest that a specific PDGF receptor can be induced by collagen, and PDGF can effect the early events of collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting PIP2 resynthesis and P43 and P20 phosphorylation. It is concluded that PDGF might be involved in a negative feed-back control of platelet activation.

  14. Ilex latifolia Prevents Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-Induced Memory Impairment by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Tau Phosphorylation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-01

    Ilex latifolia Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), a Chinese bitter tea called "kudingcha," has been widely consumed as a health beverage and found to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of I. latifolia against amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in mice and neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Memory impairment in mice was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 15 nmol Aβ (25-35) and measured by the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of I. latifolia (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented Aβ (25-35)-induced memory loss. I. latifolia also prevented the decrease of glutathione concentrations, increased lipid peroxidation, expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and changes in apoptosis-associated proteins in the memory-impaired mouse brain. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 10 μM Aβ (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. The neuronal cell death, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of proapoptotic proteins caused by Aβ (25-35) in the cultured neurons were inhibited by treatment with I. latifolia (1-50 μg/mL). These results suggest that I. latifolia may have a possible therapeutic role in managing cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism might involve the antiapoptotic effects mediated by antioxidant activity and inhibition of p-tau formation.

  15. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our

  16. Regulation of extinction of cocaine-induced place preference by midkine is related to a differential phosphorylation of peroxiredoxin 6 in dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Pérez-García, Carmen; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Bollen, Silke; Rojo, Loreto; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2013-09-15

    The neurotrophic factors Midkine (MK) and Pleiotrophin (PTN) have been suggested to modulate drugs of abuse-induced effects. To test this hypothesis, cocaine (10 and 15mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was rendered in PTN knockout (PTN-/-), MK knockout (MK-/-) and wild type (WT+/+) mice, and then extinguished after repeated saline injections (distributed in 4 extinction sessions). Cocaine induced a similar CPP in all the three genotypes. We found a significantly increased percentage of MK-/- mice that did not extinguish cocaine CPP at the end of the extinction sessions. Particularly, 40% of MK-/- mice did not extinguish cocaine (15mg/kg)-induced CPP compared to WT+/+ and PTN-/- mice (∼0-6%). Interestingly, we found that a greater magnitude of extinction of CPP after the first extinction session (5 days after last administration of cocaine) correlates with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 in the dorsal striatum of MK-/- mice. On the other hand, a greater magnitude of CPP extinction correlates with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of aconitase 2 in the prefrontal cortex of WT+/+ mice. In contrast, a lower magnitude of CPP extinction correlates with increased phosphorylation of aconitase 2 in the prefrontal cortex of PTN-/- mice, suggesting that the correlation between the tyrosine phosphorylation levels of aconitase 2 and magnitude of CPP extinction depends on the genotype considered. The data demonstrate that MK is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP by mechanisms that may involve specific phosphorylation of striatal peroxiredoxin 6.

  17. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  18. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures are associated with Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity decrease and alpha subunit phosphorylation state in the mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Bárbara P; Funck, Vinícius R; Oliveira, Clarissa V; Pereira, Letícia M; Araújo, Stífani M; Zarzecki, Micheli S; Royes, Luiz Fernando F; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state of the catalytic α subunit are altered by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. PTZ (30, 45 or 60 g/kg, i.p.) was administered to adult male Swiss mice, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state were measured in the cerebral cortex 15 min after PTZ administration. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased after PTZ-induced seizures (60 mg/kg). Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated Ser943 at α subunit was increased after PTZ-induced seizures. A significant positive correlation between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and latency to myoclonic jerks and generalized seizures was found. Conversely, a strong negative correlation between Ser943 phosphorylation and latency to generalized seizures was detected. Given the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a major regulator of brain excitability, Ser943 at Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α subunit may represent a potentially valuable new target for drug development for seizure disorders.

  19. Akt attenuates apoptotic death through phosphorylation of H2A under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Although the essential role of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in cell survival signaling has been clearly established, the mechanism by which Akt mediates the cellular response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. We demonstrated that Akt attenuated neuronal apoptosis through direct association with histone 2A (H2A) and phosphorylation of H2A at threonine 17. At early time points during H2O2 exposure of PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons, when the cells can tolerate the level of DNA damage, Akt was activated and phosphorylated H2A, leading to inhibition of apoptotic death. At later time points, Akt delivered the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin 2 (Sirt 2) to the vicinity of phosphorylated H2A in response to irreversible DNA damage, thereby inducing H2A deacetylation and subsequently leading to apoptotic death. Ectopically expressed T17A-substituted H2A minimally interacted with Akt and failed to prevent apoptosis under oxidative stress. Thus Akt-mediated H2A phosphorylation has an anti-apoptotic function in conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in neurons and PC12 cells. PMID:26899247

  20. UDCA slows down intestinal cell proliferation by inducing high and sustained ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Krishna-Subramanian, S; Hanski, M L; Loddenkemper, C; Choudhary, B; Pagès, G; Zeitz, M; Hanski, C

    2012-06-15

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) attenuates colon carcinogenesis in humans and in animal models by an unknown mechanism. We investigated UDCA effects on normal intestinal epithelium in vivo and in vitro to identify the potential chemopreventive mechanism. Feeding of mice with 0.4% UDCA reduced cell proliferation to 50% and suppressed several potential proproliferatory genes including insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs-1). A similar transcriptional response was observed in the rat intestinal cell line IEC-6 which was then used as an in vitro model. UDCA slowed down the proliferation of IEC-6 cells and induced sustained hyperphosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 kinases which completely inhibited the proproliferatory effects of EGF and IGF-1. The hyperphosphorylation of ERK1 led to a transcriptional suppression of the Irs-1 gene. Both, the hyperphosphorylation of ERK as well as the suppression of Irs-1 were sufficient to inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells. ERK1/ERK2 inhibition in vitro or ERK1 elimination in vitro or in vivo abrogated the antiproliferatory effects of UDCA. We show that UDCA inhibits proliferation of nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells by inducing a sustained hyperphosphorylation of ERK1 kinase which slows down the cell cycle and reduces expression of Irs-1 protein. These data extend our understanding of the physiological and potentially chemopreventive effects of UDCA and identify new targets for chemoprevention.

  1. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 at Thr421/Ser424 and Dephosphorylation at Thr389 Regulates SP600125-Induced Polyploidization of Megakaryocytic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Di; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Shuo; Xing, Si-Ning; Zhao, Song; Chen, Cong-Qin; Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Pu, Fei-Fei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Ma, Dong-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one of the few cell types that become polyploid; however, the mechanisms by which these cells are designated to become polyploid are not fully understood. In this investigation, we successfully established two relatively synchronous polyploid cell models by inducing Dami and CMK cells with SP600125. We found that SP600125 induced the polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells, concomitant with the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389. The polyploidization was partially blocked by H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, through direct binding to S6K1, leading to dephosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and phosphorylation at Thr389, independent of PKA. Overexpression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of S6K1 further enhanced the inhibitory effect of LY294002 on the SP600125-induced polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells. SP600125 also induced the polyploidization of Meg-01 cells, which are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, without causing a significant change in S6K1 phosphorylation. Additionally, SP600125 induced the polyploidization of HEL cells, which are derived from a patient with erythroleukemia, and phosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 was detected. However, the polyploidization of both Meg-01 cells and HEL cells as a result of SP600125 treatment was lower than that of SP600125-induced Dami and CMK cells, and it was not blocked by H-89 despite the increased phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389 in both cell lines in response to H-89. Given that the Dami and CMK cell lines were derived from patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and expressed high levels of platelet-specific antigens, our data suggested that SP600125-induced polyploidization is cell-type specific, that these cell lines were more differentiated, and that phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 may play an important role in the SP600125

  2. Phosphorylation of FE65 Ser610 by serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 modulates Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein processing

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wan Ning Vanessa; Ngo, Jacky Chi Ki; Li, Wen; Chen, Yu Wai; Tam, Ka Ming Vincent; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Miller, Christopher C.J.; Lau, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting 36 million people worldwide. Genetic and biochemical research indicate that the excessive generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a major part of AD pathogenesis. FE65 is a brain-enriched adaptor protein that binds to APP. However, the role of FE65 in APP processing and the mechanisms that regulate binding of FE65 to APP are not fully understood. In the present study, we show that serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) phosphorylates FE65 on Ser610 and that this phosphorylation attenuates FE65 binding to APP. We also show that FE65 promotes amyloidogenic processing of APP and that FE65 Ser610 phosphorylation inhibits this effect. Furthermore, we found that the effect of FE65 Ser610 phosphorylation on APP processing is linked to a role of FE65 in metabolic turnover of APP via the proteasome. Thus FE65 influences APP degradation via the proteasome and phosphorylation of FE65 Ser610 by SGK1 regulates binding of FE65 to APP, APP turnover and processing. PMID:26188042

  3. Phosphorylated Heat Shock Protein 20 (HSPB6) Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-α-Induced Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Toyoda, Hidenori; Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Eisuke; Chiba, Naokazu; Okuda, Seiji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Kaneoka, Yuji; Kumada, Takashi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major malignancies in the world. Small heat shock proteins (HSPs) are reported to play an important role in the regulation of a variety of cancer cell functions, and the functions of small HSPs are regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. We previously reported that protein levels of a small HSP, HSP20 (HSPB6), decrease in vascular invasion positive HCC compared with those in the negative vascular invasion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether HSP20 is implicated in HCC cell migration and the invasion using human HCC-derived HuH7 cells. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-α-induced migration and invasion were suppressed in the wild-type-HSP20 overexpressed cells in which phosphorylated HSP20 was detected. Phospho-mimic-HSP20 overexpression reduced the migration and invasion compared with unphosphorylated HSP20 overexpression. Dibutyryl cAMP, which enhanced the phosphorylation of wild-type-HSP20, significantly reduced the TGF-α-induced cell migration of wild-type HSP20 overexpressed cells. The TGF-α-induced cell migration was inhibited by SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) inhibitor. In phospho-mimic-HSP20 overexpressed HuH7 cells, TGF-α-stimulated JNK phosphorylation was suppressed compared with the unphosphorylated HSP20 overexpressed cells. Moreover, the level of phospho-HSP20 protein in human HCC tissues was significantly correlated with tumor invasion. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that phosphorylated HSP20 inhibits TGF-α-induced HCC cell migration and invasion via suppression of the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:27046040

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2010-11-15

    Background and aims: B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-{kappa}B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Experiments were performed in human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in components of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalosome, in order to detect mediators of the non-canonical pathway of NF-{kappa}B activation, including nuclear RelB and p52 and phospho- and total NF-{kappa}B inducing kinase (NIK). BCL10 was silenced by siRNA and effects of mutations of specific phosphorylation sites of BCL10 (Ser138Gly and Ser218Gly) were determined. Results: By the non-canonical pathway, LPS exposure increased nuclear RelB and p52, and phospho-NIK, with no change in total NIK. Phosphorylation of BCL10 serine 138 was required for NIK phosphorylation, since mutation of this residue eliminated the increases in phospho-NIK and nuclear RelB and p52. Mutations of either serine 138 or serine 218 reduced RelA, p50, and phospho-I{kappa}B{alpha} of the canonical pathway. Effects of LPS stimulation and BCL10 silencing on NIK phosphorylation were demonstrated in confocal images. Conclusions: LPS induces activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-{kappa}B in human colonic epithelial cells, and the non-canonical pathway requires phosphorylations of BCL10 (serine 138) and NIK. These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P < 0.007; n = 6) and increased T495 phosphorylation by 147 ± 26% (P < 0.008; n = 6). One-day ANG II infusion had no significant effect. NO production in response to endothelin-1 was blunted in thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.01]. This was not due to reduced endothelin-1 receptor expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3)-induced NO production was also reduced in ANG II-infused rats (ANG II -0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.03), and this correlated with an impaired ability of PIP3 to increase S1177 phosphorylation. We conclude that in ANG II-induced hypertension NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation.

  6. Alpha-actinin-1 phosphorylation modulates pressure-induced colon cancer cell adhesion through regulation of focal adhesion kinase-Src interaction.

    PubMed

    Craig, David H; Haimovich, Beatrice; Basson, Marc D

    2007-12-01

    Physical forces including pressure, strain, and shear can be converted into intracellular signals that regulate diverse aspects of cell biology. Exposure to increased extracellular pressure stimulates colon cancer cell adhesion by a beta(1)-integrin-dependent mechanism that requires an intact cytoskeleton and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src. alpha-Actinin facilitates focal adhesion formation and physically links integrin-associated focal adhesion complexes with the cytoskeleton. We therefore hypothesized that alpha-actinin may be necessary for the mechanical response pathway that mediates pressure-stimulated cell adhesion. We reduced alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 expression with isoform-specific small interfering (si)RNA. Silencing of alpha-actinin-1, but not alpha-actinin-4, blocked pressure-stimulated cell adhesion in human SW620, HT-29, and Caco-2 colon cancer cell lines. Cell exposure to increased extracellular pressure stimulated alpha-actinin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and alpha-actinin-1 interaction with FAK and/or Src, and enhanced FAK phosphorylation at residues Y397 and Y576. The requirement for alpha-actinin-1 phosphorylation in the pressure response was investigated by expressing the alpha-actinin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation mutant Y12F in the colon cancer cells. Expression of Y12F blocked pressure-mediated adhesion and inhibited the pressure-induced association of alpha-actinin-1 with FAK and Src, as well as FAK activation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated reduction of alpha-actinin-1 eliminated the pressure-induced association of alpha-actinin-1 and Src with beta(1)-integrin receptor, as well as FAK-Src complex formation. These results suggest that alpha-actinin-1 phosphorylation at Y12 plays a crucial role in pressure-activated cell adhesion and mechanotransduction by facilitating Src recruitment to beta(1)-integrin, and consequently the association of FAK with Src, to enhance FAK phosphorylation.

  7. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. A Lipid Emulsion Reverses Toxic-Dose Bupivacaine-Induced Vasodilation during Tyrosine Phosphorylation-Evoked Contraction in Isolated Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Choi, Mun Hwan; Shin, Il-Woo; Kang, Sebin; Park, Miyeong; Hong, Jeong-Min; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of a lipid emulsion on toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in a model of tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded rat aortae and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanism. The effect of a lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of a local anesthetic during sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction was examined. In addition, the effects of various inhibitors, either bupivacaine alone or a lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine, on protein kinase phosphorylation induced by sodium orthovanadate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells was examined. A lipid emulsion reversed the vasodilation induced by bupivacaine during sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction. The lipid emulsion attenuated the bupivacaine-mediated inhibition of the sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of protein tyrosine, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), phospholipase C (PLC) γ-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results suggest that a lipid emulsion reverses toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation during sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction via the activation of a pathway involving either tyrosine kinase, JNK, Rho-kinase and MYPT1 or tyrosine kinase, PLC γ-1 and ERK, and this reversal is associated with the lipid solubility of the local anesthetic and the induction of calcium sensitization. PMID:28208809

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2B subunit in spinal cord contributes to remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia: the preventive effect of ketamine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical studies showed that intraoperative infusionof remifentanil has been associated with postoperative hyperalgesia. Previous reports suggested that spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may contribute to the development and maintenance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. In the present study, we used a rat model of postoperative pain to investigate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in spinal cord in the postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and the intervention of pretreatment with ketamine. Results Intraoperative infusion of remifentanil (0.04 mg/kg, subcutaneous) significantly enhanced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by the plantar incision during the postoperative period (each lasting between 2 h and 48 h), which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Correlated with the pain behavior changes, immunocytochemical and western blotting experiments in our study revealed that there was a marked increase in NR2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472 in the superficial dorsal horn after intraoperative infusion of remifentanil, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B at Tyr1472 in spinal dosal horn contributes to postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and supports the potential therapeutic value of ketamine for improving postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil. PMID:20042082

  10. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits differentiation-induced Rb phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmo, Michelle N.; Landry, Anne; Molgat, Andre S.D.; Gagnon, AnneMarie; Sorisky, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed to day 2 of differentiation. Clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, was reduced in the presence of MacCM (89%; n = 3; p < 0.001), and BrdU incorporation was impaired by 55% (n = 3; p < 0.01). Activation of ERK1/2 was not affected by MacCM, and neither was the expression of p27{sup kip1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), required for cell cycle progression, was impaired by MacCM (94% inhibition; n = 3; p < 0.01). Differentiation-dependent expression, nuclear localization, and DNA binding ability of C/EBP{beta} were not inhibited by MacCM. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the anti-adipogenic action of MacCM.

  11. Human recombinant H2 relaxin induces AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Yoni; Nakabayashi, Koji; Deguchi, Masashi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-03-24

    Relaxin is essential for trophoblast development during pregnancy. Evidence shows that relaxin increases trophoblast cell migration capacity. Here, we show the effect of relaxin on protein kinase B (AKT) activation and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β) inactivation as well as on the proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells, a model of human extravillous trophoblast (EVT). HTR-8/SVneo cells were treated with different doses of human recombinant (rH2) relaxin in serum-deprived conditions and treated for increasing time with 1 ng/mL of rH2 relaxin. Western blot analysis was performed to detect pAKT, AKT, pGSK3β, GSK3β, and actin expression. Proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells was analyzed by MTS assay. rH2 relaxin treatment increased the ratio of pAKT/AKT, pGSK3β/GSK3β, and proliferation in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Furthermore, AKT and GSK3β activation by rH2 relaxin was inhibited by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. This study suggests that rH2 relaxin induces AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation as well as proliferation in HTR-8/SVneo cells.

  12. Hyperglycemia-induced vasculopathy in the murine vitelline vasculature: correlation with PECAM-1/CD31 tyrosine phosphorylation state.

    PubMed

    Pinter, E; Mahooti, S; Wang, Y; Imhof, B A; Madri, J A

    1999-05-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities as well as embryonic and perinatal lethality. In particular, a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities have been noted in children of diabetic mothers and in the offspring of diabetic animals. The vascular system is the first organ system to develop in the embryo and is critical for normal organogenesis. The organization of mesodermal cells into endothelial and hematopoietic cells and into a complex vascular system is, in part, mediated by a series of specific cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-factor interactions. PECAM-1 expression has been observed during the earliest stages of vasculogenesis, and changes in PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation have been associated with endothelial cell migration, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that exposure to hyperglycemia during gastrulation causes yolk sac and embryonic vasculopathy in cultured murine conceptuses and in the conceptuses of streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant mice. In addition, we correlate the presence of yolk sac and embryonic vasculopathy with the failure of PECAM-1 tyrosine dephosphorylation during the formation of blood islands/vessels from clusters of extra-embryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus using both in vitro and in vivo models. The importance of these findings in the development of vasculopathy in the offspring of diabetic mothers and the potential effects and benefits of glucose regulation during the periods of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis in embryonic development are discussed.

  13. B cell receptor-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase involves integrins and the Rap GTPases and is required for B cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kathy W K; Dang-Lawson, May; Lee, Rosaline L; Vong, Doris; Bulic, Anica; Buckbinder, Leonard; Gold, Michael R

    2009-08-21

    Signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR) promotes integrin-mediated adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. This results in B cell spreading, which enhances the ability of B cells to bind antigens and become activated. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell migration. In this report we show that BCR signaling and integrin signaling collaborate to induce the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK on key tyrosine residues, a modification that increases the kinase activity of Pyk2 and FAK. Activation of the Rap GTPases is critical for BCR-induced integrin activation as well as for BCR- and integrin-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We now show that Rap activation is essential for BCR-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and for integrin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Moreover Rap-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as actin dynamics, suggesting that Rap regulates Pyk2 and FAK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly B cell spreading induced by BCR/integrin co-stimulation or by integrin engagement was inhibited by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Pyk2 or FAK expression and by treatment with PF-431396, a chemical inhibitor that blocks the kinase activities of both Pyk2 and FAK. Thus Pyk2 and FAK are downstream targets of the Rap GTPases that play a key role in regulating B cell morphology.

  14. Exercise-induced metabolic fluctuations influence AMPK, p38-MAPK and CaMKII phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Adrien; Dekerle, Jeanne; Webborn, Nick; Watt, Peter; Bougault, Valérie; Daussin, Frédéric N

    2015-01-01

    During transition from rest to exercise, metabolic reaction rates increase substantially to sustain intracellular ATP use. These metabolic demands activate several kinases that initiate signal transduction pathways which modulate transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic fluctuations per se affect the signaling cascades known to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). On two separate occasions, nine men performed a continuous (30-min) and an intermittent exercise (30 × 1-min intervals separated by 1-min of recovery) at 70% of . Skeletal muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest and at +0 h and +3 h after each exercise. Metabolic fluctuations that correspond to exercise-induced variation in metabolic rates were determined by analysis of VO2 responses. During intermittent exercise metabolic fluctuations were 2.8-fold higher despite identical total work done to continuous exercise (317 ± 41 vs. 312 ± 56 kJ after intermittent and continuous exercise, respectively). Increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (˜2.9-fold, P < 0.01), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (˜2.7-fold, P < 0.01) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (˜4.2-fold, P < 0.01) occurred immediately in both exercises and to a greater extent after the intermittent exercise (condition x time interaction, P < 0.05). A single bout of intermittent exercise induces a greater activation of these signaling pathways regulating PGC-1α when compared to a single bout of continuous exercise of matched work and intensity. Chronic adaptations to exercise on mitochondria biogenesis are yet to be investigated. PMID:26359238

  15. [Hydrogen sulfide reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury and inhibits expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK in rats].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Min; Huang, Xin-Li; Dong, Ze-Fei; Ling, Yi-Ling

    2012-12-25

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) on p38 MAPK signaling pathway during acute lung injury (ALI) caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + NaHS group, LPS + PPG (cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor) group, NaHS group and PPG group. The rats were sacrificed 6 h after injection and lung tissues were obtained. The structure of lung tissues and the number of polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) was observed under optical microscope; the lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were tested; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression changes were detected by immunohistochemical staining; phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) protein expression was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that the lung injury in LPS group was observed, at the same time the MPO activity, the content of MDA, ICAM-1 and p-p38 MAPK protein expressions, the number of PMN were all higher than those in control group (all P < 0.05). Pre-injection of NaHS alleviated the changes induced by LPS, while pre-injection of PPG aggravated those alterations (all P < 0.05). ICAM-1 and p-p38 MAPK protein expressions in lung tissue were positively correlated (r = 0.923, P < 0.01). The results suggest that H2S may reduce LPS-induced ALI through inhibiting the conjugation of p38 MAPK and reducing the expression of ICAM-1.

  16. Cold-inducible RBM3 inhibits PERK phosphorylation through cooperation with NF90 to protect cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinzhou; Zelmer, Andrea; Kapfhammer, Josef P; Wellmann, Sven

    2016-02-01

    The cold-inducible RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is involved in the protection of neurons in hypoxic-ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders. RBM3 belongs to a small group of proteins whose synthesis increases during hypothermia while global protein production is slowed down. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying RBM3 action, we subjected hippocampal organotypic slice cultures from RBM3 knockout mice to various stressors and found exuberant signaling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) as compared with wild-type mice. Further, blocking RBM3 expression in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by specific small interfering RNAs increased phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α, whereas overexpression of RBM3 prevented PERK-eIF2α-CHOP signaling during ER stress induced by thapsigargin or tunicamycin. RBM3 did not affect expression of the ER stress sensor immunoglobulin binding protein/GRP78. However, based on affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry, coimmunoprecipitation, and proximity ligation assay, we revealed that nuclear factor 90 (NF90) is a novel protein interactor of PERK and that this interaction is essential for RBM3-mediated regulation of PERK activity, which requires an RNA-dependent interaction. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a central role of RBM3 in preventing cell death by inhibiting the PERK-eIF2α-CHOP ER stress pathway through cooperation with NF90.

  17. Adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclohexyl-adenosine induced phosphorylation of delta opioid receptor and desensitization of its signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun; Tao, Yi-min; Sun, Jian-feng; Wang, Yu-hua; Xu, Xue-jun; Chen, Jie; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-gen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To define the effect of adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) on delta opioid receptor (DOR)-mediated signal transduction. Methods: CHO cells stably expressing HA-tagged A1R and DOR-CFP fusion protein were used. The localization of receptors was observed using confocal microscope. DOR-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was measured using cyclic AMP assay. Western blots were employed to detect the phosphorylation of Akt and the DOR. The effect of A1R agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) on DOR down-regulation was assessed using radioligand binding assay. Results: CHA 1 μmol/L time-dependently attenuated DOR agonist [D-Pen2,5]enkephalin (DPDPE)-induced inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation with a t1/2=2.56 (2.09–3.31) h. Pretreatment with 1 μmol/L CHA for 24 h caused a right shift of the dose-response curve of DPDPE-mediated inhibition of cAMP accumulation, with a significant increase in EC50 but no change in Emax. Pretreatment with 1 μmol/L CHA for 1 h also induced a significant attenuation of DPDPE-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, CHA time-dependently phosphorylated DOR (Ser363), and this effect was inhibited by A1R antagonist 1,3-Dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) but not by DOR antagonist naloxone. However, CHA failed to produce the down-regulation of DOR, as neither receptor affinity (Kd) nor receptor density (Bmax) of DOR showed significant change after chronic CHA exposure. Conclusion: Activation of A1R by its agonist caused heterologous desensitization of DOR-mediated inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation and phosphorylation of Akt. Activation of A1R by its agonist also induced heterologous phosphorylation but not down-regulation of DOR. PMID:20562901

  18. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits the phosphorylation of hyaluronan synthase 2 induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Kasai, Kosuke; Nanashima, Naoki; Nozaka, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Manabu; Chiba, Mitsuru; Yoneda, Masahiko; Nakamura, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    The effect of 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), a hyaluronan synthase-suppressor, on O-linked β-Nacetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) was investigated in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and we found that MU stimulated O-GlcNAcylation of the cellular proteins. Since O-GlcNAcylation affects protein phosphorylation via Ser/Thr kinases, we examined the effect of MU on both the phosphorylation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronan production. The cells were cultured in the presence or absence of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and MU independently or in combination. The protein fraction of each cell culture was extracted and divided into 2 parts-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated fractions-by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The hyaluronan level in the medium was determined by an ELISA-like assay. Addition of MU decreased the level of hyaluronan in the medium and that of HAS2 in the phosphorylated protein fraction. On the contrary, the addition of TPA increased the levels of both of them. Interestingly, the combination of TPA and MU lowered the levels of them in treated cells as compared to those in untreated control cells. These results suggest that TPA activated protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates the phosphorylation of HAS2, and increased hyaluronan production. Further, MU may inhibit the phosphorylation of HAS2 by PKC through the stimulation of O-GlcNAcylation.

  19. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  20. Pectenotoxin-2 induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells via ATM and Chk1/2-mediated phosphorylation of cdc25C.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kim, Mun-Ock; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Kim, Se-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2010-07-01

    Although pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) is known to regulate the actin depolymerization and to induce apoptosis through downregulation of telomerase activity, little is known on its effect on the cell cycle regulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PTX-2 on G2/M arrest in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Treatment with PTX-2 significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced G2/M phase arrest through down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 expression, but also through phosphorylation of cdc25C. We found increased phosphorylation of ATM and Chk1/2 in a PTX-2 dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with PTX-2 increased H2O2 generation with correlated G2/M arrest. Our results showed that ATM- and Chk1/2-mediated phosphorylation of cdc25C plays a major role in G2/M arrest, but not in H2O2 generation induced by PTX-2 treatment. We also observed that PTX-2-induced cell cycle arrest was not restricted to p53 status in human breast cancer cells.

  1. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Guoping; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Jing; Gao, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Shen, Gang

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  2. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jiang, Mingyi; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan; Zhang, Aying

    2016-07-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes.

  3. Phosphorylation of P68 RNA Helicase by P38 MAP kinase contributes to colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that p68 phosphorylation at threonine residues correlates with cancer cell apoptosis under the treatments of TNF-α and TRAIL (Yang, L. Mol Cancer Res Vol 3, pp 355–63 2005). Results In this report, we characterized the role of p68 phosphorylation in apoptosis induction under the treatment of oxaliplatin in the colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that oxaliplatin treatment activates p38 MAP kinase, which subsequently phosphorylates p68 at T564 and/or T446. The phosphorylation of p68, at least partially, mediates the effects of the drug on apoptosis induction, as mutations at these two sites greatly reduce the cancer cell death. Conclusion Our studies reveal an important molecular mechanism that mediates the effects of anti-cancer drug, providing a potential strategy for improving cancer treatment. PMID:23110695

  4. Selective phosphorylation of the Dlg1AB variant is critical for TCR-induced p38 activation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines in CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Jillian; Silva, Oscar; Humphries, Lisa A; Tibbs, Michelle D; Miceli, M Carrie

    2014-09-15

    CD8(+) T cells respond to TCR stimulation by producing proinflammatory cytokines, and destroying infected or malignant cells through the production and release of cytotoxic granules. Scaffold protein Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1) specifies TCR-dependent functions by channeling proximal signals toward the activation of p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and/or p38-independent cytotoxic granule release. Two Dlg1 variants are expressed in CD8(+) T cells via alternative splicing, Dlg1AB and Dlg1B, which have differing abilities coordinate TCR-dependent functions. Although both variants facilitate p38-independent cytotoxicity, only Dlg1AB coordinates p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we identify TCR-induced Dlg1 tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory step required for Dlg1AB-mediated p38-dependent functions, including proinflammatory cytokine expression. We find that Dlg1AB but not Dlg1B is tyrosine phosphorylated by proximal tyrosine kinase Lck in response to TCR stimulation. Furthermore, we identify Dlg1 tyrosine 222 (Y222) as a major site of Dlg1 phosphorylation required for TCR-triggered p38 activation and NFAT-dependent expression of proinflammatory cytokines, but not for p38-independent cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data support a model where TCR-induced phosphorylation of Dlg1 Y222 is a key point of control that endows Dlg1AB with the ability to coordinate p38 activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. We propose blocking Dlg1AB phosphorylation as a novel therapeutic target to specifically block proinflammatory cytokine production but not cytotoxicity.

  5. Trivalent dimethylarsenic compound induces histone H3 phosphorylation and abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Miyazaki, Koichi; Kita, Kayoko; Ochi, Takafumi

    2009-12-15

    Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.

  6. AIF-mediated caspase-independent necroptosis requires ATM and DNA-PK-induced histone H2AX Ser139 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Baritaud, M; Cabon, L; Delavallée, L; Galán-Malo, P; Gilles, M-E; Brunelle-Navas, M-N; Susin, S A

    2012-01-01

    The alkylating DNA-damage agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induces a form of caspase-independent necroptosis implicating the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Following the activation of PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1), calpains, BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist), and BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), the apoptogenic form of AIF (tAIF) is translocated to the nucleus where, associated with Ser139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), it creates a DNA-degrading complex that provokes chromatinolysis and cell death by necroptosis. The generation of γH2AX is crucial for this form of cell death, as mutation of H2AX Ser139 to Ala or genetic ablation of H2AX abolish both chromatinolysis and necroptosis. On the contrary, reintroduction of H2AX-wt or the phosphomimetic H2AX mutant (H2AX-S139E) into H2AX−/− cells resensitizes to MNNG-triggered necroptosis. Employing a pharmacological approach and gene knockout cells, we also demonstrate in this paper that the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) mediate γH2AX generation and, consequently, MNNG-induced necroptosis. By contrast, H2AX phosphorylation is not regulated by ATR or other H2AX-related kinases, such as JNK. Interestingly, ATM and DNA-PK phosphorylate H2AX at Ser139 in a synergistic manner with different kinetics of activation. Early after MNNG treatment, ATM generates γH2AX. Further, DNA-PK contributes to H2AX Ser139 phosphorylation. In revealing the pivotal role of PIKKs in MNNG-induced cell death, our data uncover a milestone in the mechanisms regulating AIF-mediated caspase-independent necroptosis. PMID:22972376

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation by activating cytochrome c oxidase in human cultured neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellano-González, Gloria; Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O; Bessede, Alban; Marcal, Helder; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-02-16

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting energy impairment have been identified as features of many neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this energy impairment is the cause of the disease or the consequence of preceding impairment(s) is still under discussion, however a recovery of cellular bioenergetics would plausibly prevent or improve the pathology. In this study, we screened different natural molecules for their ability to increase intracellular adenine triphosphate purine (ATP). Among them, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol from green tea, presented the most striking results. We found that it increases ATP production in both human cultured astrocytes and neurons with different kinetic parameters and without toxicity. Specifically, we showed that oxidative phosphorylation in human cultured astrocytes and neurons increased at the level of the routine respiration on the cells pre-treated with the natural molecule. Furthermore, EGCG-induced ATP production was only blocked by sodium azide (NaN3) and oligomycin, inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO; complex IV) and ATP synthase (complex V) respectively. These findings suggest that the EGCG modulates CcO activity, as confirmed by its enzymatic activity. CcO is known to be regulated differently in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, EGCG treatment is acting differently on the kinetic parameters of the two cell types. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that EGCG promotes CcO activity in human cultured neurons and astrocytes. Considering that CcO dysfunction has been reported in patients having neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we therefore suggest that EGCG could restore mitochondrial function and prevent subsequent loss of synaptic function.

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation by activating cytochrome c oxidase in human cultured neurons and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-González, Gloria; Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J. William O.; Bessede, Alban; Marcal, Helder; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting energy impairment have been identified as features of many neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this energy impairment is the cause of the disease or the consequence of preceding impairment(s) is still under discussion, however a recovery of cellular bioenergetics would plausibly prevent or improve the pathology. In this study, we screened different natural molecules for their ability to increase intracellular adenine triphosphate purine (ATP). Among them, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol from green tea, presented the most striking results. We found that it increases ATP production in both human cultured astrocytes and neurons with different kinetic parameters and without toxicity. Specifically, we showed that oxidative phosphorylation in human cultured astrocytes and neurons increased at the level of the routine respiration on the cells pre-treated with the natural molecule. Furthermore, EGCG-induced ATP production was only blocked by sodium azide (NaN3) and oligomycin, inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO; complex IV) and ATP synthase (complex V) respectively. These findings suggest that the EGCG modulates CcO activity, as confirmed by its enzymatic activity. CcO is known to be regulated differently in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, EGCG treatment is acting differently on the kinetic parameters of the two cell types. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that EGCG promotes CcO activity in human cultured neurons and astrocytes. Considering that CcO dysfunction has been reported in patients having neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we therefore suggest that EGCG could restore mitochondrial function and prevent subsequent loss of synaptic function. PMID:26760769

  9. Bortezomib-induced heat shock response protects multiple myeloma cells and is activated by heat shock factor 1 serine 326 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shardule P.; Nooka, Ajay K.; Jaye, David L.; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib are highly active in multiple myeloma by affecting signaling cascades and leading to a toxic buildup of misfolded proteins. Bortezomib-treated cells activate the cytoprotective heat shock response (HSR), including upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Here we inhibited the bortezomib-induced HSR by silencing its master regulator, Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 silencing led to bortezomib sensitization. In contrast, silencing of individual and combination HSPs, except HSP40β, did not result in significant bortezomib sensitization. However, HSP40β did not entirely account for increased bortezomib sensitivity upon HSF1 silencing. To determine the mechanism of HSF1 activation, we assessed phosphorylation and observed bortezomib-inducible phosphorylation in cell lines and patient samples. We determined that this bortezomib-inducible event is phosphorylation at serine 326. Prior clinical use of HSP inhibitors in combination with bortezomib has been disappointing in multiple myeloma therapy. Our results provide a rationale for targeting HSF1 activation in combination with bortezomib to enhance multiple myeloma treatment efficacy. PMID:27487129

  10. Inhibition of demethylase KDM6B sensitizes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohit; Sehgal, Lalit; Havranek, Ondrej; Köhrer, Stefan; Khashab, Tamer; Jain, Neeraj; Burger, Jan A.; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Davis, R. Eric; Samaniego, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Histone methylation and demethylation regulate B-cell development, and their deregulation correlates with tumor chemoresistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, limiting cure rates. Since histone methylation status correlates with disease aggressiveness and relapse, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting histone 3 Lys27 demethylase KDM6B, in vitro, using the small molecule inhibitor GSK-J4. KDM6B is overexpressed in the germinal center B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and higher KDM6B levels are associated with worse survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. GSK-J4-induced apoptosis was observed in five (SU-DHL-6, OCI-Ly1, Toledo, OCI-Ly8, SU-DHL-8) out of nine germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Treatment with GSK-J4 predominantly resulted in downregulation of B-cell receptor signaling and BCL6. Cell lines expressing high BCL6 levels or CREBBP/EP300 mutations were sensitive to GSK-J4. Our results suggest that B-cell receptor-dependent downregulation of BCL6 is responsible for GSK-J4-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GSK-J4-mediated inhibition of KDM6B sensitizes germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to chemotherapy agents that are currently utilized in treatment regimens for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:27742770

  11. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, induce phosphorylation of Mdm2 and attenuate the p53 response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Pääjärvi, Gerd; Roudier, Emilie; Crisby, Milita; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2005-03-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, statins, are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs and have been shown to have anticancer effects in many models. We have investigated the effect of statins on Mdm2, a p53-specific ubiquitin ligase. It was found that pravastatin induced Mdm2 phosphorylation at Ser166 and at 2A10 antibody-specific epitopes in HepG2 cells, while mRNA levels were unchanged. Furthermore, pravastatin was found to induce phosphorylation of mTOR at Ser2448. Ser166 phosphorylation of Mdm2 was abrogated by an inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, but not by the PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. Ser166 phosphorylation of Mdm2 has been associated to active Mdm2 and has been shown to increase its ubiquitin ligase activity and lead to increased p53 degradation. Our data show that statins attenuated the p53 response to DNA damage. Thus, in HepG2 cells pravastatin and simvastatin pretreatment attenuated the p53 response to DNA damage induced by 5-fluorouracil and benzo(a)pyrene. Similar attenuation was induced when p53 stabilization was induced by the inhibitor of nuclear export, leptomycin B. Furthermore, in the DNA-damaged cells, half-lives of Mdm2 and p53 were decreased by statins, indicating a more rapid formation of p53/Mdm2 complexes and facilitated p53 degradation. The induction of p53 responsive genes and apoptosis was attenuated. Mdm2 and p53 were also studied in vivo in rat liver employing immunohistochemistry, and it was found that constitutive Mdm2 expression was changed in livers of pravastatin-treated rats. We also show that the p53 response to a challenging dose of diethylnitrosamine was attenuated in hepatocytes in situ and in primary cultures of hepatocytes by pravastatin pretreatment. Taken together, these data indicate that statins induce an mTOR-dependent Ser166 phosphorylation of Mdm2, and this effect may attenuate the duration and intensity of the p53 response to DNA damage in hepatocytes.

  12. Critical role for free radicals on sprint exercise-induced CaMKII and AMPKα phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Dorado, Cecilia; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, José A L

    2013-03-01

    The extremely high energy demand elicited by sprint exercise is satisfied by an increase in O2 consumption combined with a high glycolytic rate, leading to a marked lactate accumulation, increased AMP-to-ATP ratio, and reduced NAD(+)/NADH.H(+) and muscle pH, which are accompanied by marked Thr(172) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α phosphorylation during the recovery period by a mechanism not fully understood. To determine the role played by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) on Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation in response to cycling sprint exercise, nine voluntary participants performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) on two occasions: one 2 h after the ingestion of placebo and another after the intake of antioxidants (α-lipoic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E) in a double-blind design. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before, immediately postsprint, and 30 and 120 min postsprint. Performance and muscle metabolism were similar during both sprints. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was similarly reduced (84%) and the AMP-to-ATP ratio was similarly increased (×21-fold) immediately after the sprints. Thr(286) Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylations were increased after the control sprint (with placebo) but not when the sprints were preceded by the ingestion of antioxidants. Ser(485)-AMPKα1/Ser(491)-AMPKα2 phosphorylation, a known inhibitory mechanism of Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, was increased only with antioxidant ingestion. In conclusion, RNOS play a crucial role in AMPK-mediated signaling after sprint exercise in human skeletal muscle. Antioxidant ingestion 2 h before sprint exercise abrogates the Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation response observed after the ingestion of placebo by reducing CaMKII and increasing Ser(485)-AMPKα1/Ser(491)-AMPKα2 phosphorylation. Sprint performance, muscle metabolism, and AMP-to-ATP and NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratios are not affected by the acute

  13. Anticancer drugs induce hypomethylation of the acetylcholinesterase promoter via a phosphorylated-p38-DNMT1-AChE pathway in apoptotic hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, Qiliang; Gao, Ning; Yang, Yang; Ye, Weiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Gening; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, plays an essential role in eliminating excessive, damaged or harmful cells. Previous work has demonstrated that anticancer drugs induce cell apoptosis by inducing cytotoxicity. In recent years, several reports demonstrated modulated expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a variety of tumors. In this study, we showed that the expression of DNMT1 was decreased and the methylation of CpGs in the promoter of AChE was reduced in anticancer drugs-induced apoptotic hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Silencing of DNMT1 expression by AZA or RNA interference (RNAi) restored AChE production and inhibition of AChE expression by RNAi protected HCC cells from anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the regulation of AChE by DNMT1 was involved in the phosphorylated p38 pathway in anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining showed that P-p38, DNMT1 and AChE were aberrantly expressed in a subset of HCC tumors. Taken together, we demonstrated the regulation of AChE by DNMT1 and further, we found that this regulation was involved in the phosphorylated p38 pathway in anticancer drugs-induced apoptosis.

  14. Cholecystokinin action on layer 6b neurons in somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Leeyup; Moore, Scott D.; Cox, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Layer 6b in neocortex is a distinct sublamina at the ventral portion of layer 6. Corticothalamic projections arise from 6b neurons, but few studies have examined the functional properties of these cells. In the present study we examined the actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) on layer 6b neocortical neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques. We found that the general CCK receptor agonist CCK8S (sulfated CCK octapeptide) strongly depolarized the neurons, and this action persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting a postsynaptic site of action. The excitatory actions of CCK8S were mimicked by the selective CCKB receptor agonist CCK4, and attenuated by the selective CCKB receptor antagonist L365260, indicating a role for CCKB receptors. Voltage clamp recordings revealed that CCK8S produced a slow inward current associated with a decreased conductance with a reversal potential near the K+ equilibrium potential. In addition, intracellular cesium also blocked the inward current, suggesting the involvement of a K+ conductance, likely Kleak. Our data indicate that CCK, acting via CCKB receptors, produces a long-lasting excitation of layer 6b neocortical neurons, and this action may play a critical role in modulation of corticothalamic circuit activity. PMID:19497313

  15. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section 21.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  16. Dopamine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B (Tyr1472) is essential for ERK1/2 activation and processing of novel taste information.

    PubMed

    David, Orit; Barrera, Iliana; Chinnakkaruppan, Adaikkan; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the heterosynaptic interaction between glutamatergic and neuromodulatory synapses is highly important for revealing brain function in health and disease. For instance, the interaction between dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission is vital for memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation, and it is known to converge on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK signaling in neurons. Previous studies suggest that dopamine induces N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor phosphorylation at the NR2B Y1472 subunit, influencing receptor internalization at the synaptic plasma membrane. However, it is unclear whether this phosphorylation is upstream to and/or necessary for ERK1/2 activation, which is known to be crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B at Y1472 is correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine and necessary for it as well. We find that dopamine receptor D1, but not D2, activates ERK1/2 and leads to NR2BY1472 phosphorylation in the mature hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, our results indicate that NR2B Y1472 phosphorylation is necessary for ERK1/2 activation. Importantly, application of dopamine or the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 to hippocampal slices from NR2B F1472 mutant mice did not result in ERK1/2 activation, suggesting this site is not only correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine stimulation, but also necessary for it. In addition, NR2B F1472 mice show impairment in learning of attenuation of taste neophobia but not associative taste learning. Our study shows that the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission converge on the NMDA receptor itself, at the Y1472 site of the NR2B subunit, and that this convergence is essential for ERK1/2 activation in the mature brain and for processing new sensory information in the cortex.

  17. The myeloid 7/4-antigen defines recently generated inflammatory macrophages and is synonymous with Ly-6B

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Marcela; Thomas, Benjamin; Stacey, Martin; Gordon, Siamon; Taylor, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the inflammation-associated 7/4-antigen, which is highly expressed on neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, some activated macrophages, as well as on bone marrow myeloid-restricted progenitors. The high expression on inflammatory cells is suggestive of a role in inflammation and makes the 7/4-antigen a potential target for the manipulation of inflammatory cells. Consistent with this, the 7/4-antibody mediates specific depletion of 7/4-expressing neutrophils and monocytes. We have identified the 7/4-antigen as a 25- to 30-kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein synonymous with the Ly-6B.2 alloantigen. We characterized the expression of Ly-6B during the inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan. During the later stages of an experimental, acute, self-resolving inflammatory response, we found that Ly-6B is differentially expressed on macrophages. Ly-6B-expressing macrophages also express more MHCII, CIITA, CCR2, Ly-6C, and CD62L than the Ly-6B-negative macrophages, which in turn, express more of the resident tissue macrophage marker SIGN-R1 and higher CD11b and F4/80. Ly-6B-expressing macrophages incorporate more BrdU than their Ly-6B-negative contemporaries when fed during the resolution phase of the acute inflammatory response. Thus, Ly-6B expression on mature macrophages defines a subset of recently generated inflammatory macrophages that retain monocytic markers and is hence a surrogate marker of macrophage turnover in inflammatory lesions. The definition of the 7/4:Ly-6B antigen will allow further characterization and specific modulation of Ly-6B-expressing cells in vivo. PMID:20400676

  18. The Heat Stress Factor HSFA6b Connects ABA Signaling and ABA-Mediated Heat Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress response (HSR) is a conserved mechanism developed to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) via a heat shock factor (HSF)-dependent mechanism. Signaling by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquired thermotolerance as well. Analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray databases revealed that the expression of HSFA6b, a class A HSF, extensively increased with salinity, osmotic, and cold stresses, but not heat. Here, we show that HSFA6b plays a pivotal role in the response to ABA and in thermotolerance. Salt-inducible HSFA6b expression was down-regulated in ABA-insensitive and -deficient mutants; however, exogenous ABA application restored expression in ABA-deficient, but not -insensitive plants. Thus, ABA signaling is required for proper HSFA6b expression. A transcriptional activation assay of protoplasts revealed that ABA treatment and coexpression of an ABA signaling master effector, ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN1, could activate the HSFA6b promoter. In addition, HSFA6b directly bound to the promoter of DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2A and enhanced its expression. Analysis of ABA responses in seed germination, cotyledon greening, and root growth as well as salt and drought tolerance in HSFA6b-null, overexpression, and dominant negative mutants revealed that HSFA6b is a positive regulator participating in ABA-mediated salt and drought resistance. Thermoprotection tests showed that HSFA6b was required for thermotolerance acquisition. Our study reveals a network in which HSFA6b operates as a downstream regulator of the ABA-mediated stress response and is required for heat stress resistance. This new ABA-signaling pathway is integrated into the complex HSR network in planta. PMID:27493213

  19. GHRP-6 induces CREB phosphorylation and growth hormone secretion via a protein kinase Csigma-dependent pathway in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunlei; Ye, Fei; Xu, Tongjiang; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Xiaodan; Wang, Heping; Wan, Feng; Lei, Ting

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the effect of GHRP-6, a known GHSs receptor agonist, on the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the underly mechanism. GH3 cells were cultured and subjected to different treatments as follows: GHRP-6, GHRP-6 plus GHRH, phorbol ester (PMA), an activator of PKC, alone or in combination with GHRP-6, Gö6983, a general inhibitor of PKCs, in the presence or absence of GHRP-6, rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKCs, alone or plus GHRP-6. The cells were transiently transfected with PKCsigma-specific siRNA and then treated with GHRP-6. GH level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of phosphor-CREB, PKCsigma, PKCtheta and phosphor-PKCsigma was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that GHRP-6 stimulated GH secretion in both time- and dose-dependent manners and enhanced the effect of GHRH on GH secretion. GHRP-6 was also found to induce CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, GH secretion was enhanced by the PKC activator PMA and reduced by the PKC inhibitors (Gö6983, rottlerin) and knockdown of PKCsigma. PKCsigma could be activated by GHRP-6. It is concluded that PKC, especially PKCsigma, mediates CREB phosphorylation and GHRP-6-induced GH secretion.

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced podocyte apoptosis via promoting MEKK1 phosphorylation at Ser280 in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Shuanggang; Zhao, Min; Chen, Jing; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Shengyang; Qi, Mengyuan; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be associated with podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism of ER signaling in podocyte apoptosis hasn't been fully understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was associated with podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to examine whether and how Cdk5 activity plays a role in ER stress induced podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that along with induction of Cdk5 and apoptosis, GRP78 and its two sensors as well as CHOP and cleaved caspase-12 were induced in high glucose treated podocytes. These responses were attenuated by treated salubrinal. The ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, also up-regulated the kinase activity and protein expression of Cdk5 in podocytes accompanied with the increasing of GRP78. On the other hand, Cdk5 phosphorylates MEKK1 at Ser280 in tunicamycin treated podocytes, and together, they increase the JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, disruption of this pathway can decrease the podocyte apoptosis induced by tunicamycin. Therefore, our study proved that Cdk5 may play an important role in ER stress induced podocyte apoptosis through MEKK1/JNK pathway in diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Nuclear c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation induces chromatin structural changes through histone modifications that include H4K16 hypoacetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Kazumasa; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Kubota, Sho; Morinaga, Takao; Horiike, Yasuyoshi; Yuki, Ryuzaburo; Takahashi, Akinori; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2011-12-10

    c-Abl tyrosine kinase, which is ubiquitously expressed, has three nuclear localization signals and one nuclear export signal and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. c-Abl plays important roles in cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. Recently, we developed a pixel imaging method for quantitating the level of chromatin structural changes and showed that nuclear Src-family tyrosine kinases are involved in chromatin structural changes upon growth factor stimulation. Using this method, we show here that nuclear c-Abl induces chromatin structural changes in a manner dependent on the tyrosine kinase activity. Expression of nuclear-targeted c-Abl drastically increases the levels of chromatin structural changes, compared with that of c-Abl. Intriguingly, nuclear-targeted c-Abl induces heterochromatic profiles of histone methylation and acetylation, including hypoacetylation of histone H4 acetylated on lysine 16 (H4K16Ac). The level of heterochromatic histone modifications correlates with that of chromatin structural changes. Adriamycin-induced DNA damage stimulates translocation of c-Abl into the nucleus and induces chromatin structural changes together with H4K16 hypoacetylation. Treatment with trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, blocks chromatin structural changes but not nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation by c-Abl. These results suggest that nuclear c-Abl plays an important role in chromatin dynamics through nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation-induced heterochromatic histone modifications.

  2. SB203580 Modulates p38 MAPK Signaling and Dengue Virus-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing MAPKAPK2, HSP27, and ATF2 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sreekanth, Gopinathan Pillai; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Sirimontaporn, Aunchalee; Panaampon, Jutatip; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes organ injuries, and the liver is one of the most important sites of DENV infection, where viral replication generates a high viral load. The molecular mechanism of DENV-induced liver injury is still under investigation. The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38 MAPK, have roles in the hepatic cell apoptosis induced by DENV. However, the in vivo role of p38 MAPK in DENV-induced liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, in a mouse model of DENV infection. Both the hematological parameters, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, were improved by SB203580 treatment and liver transaminases and histopathology were also improved. We used a real-time PCR microarray to profile the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Tumor necrosis factor α, caspase 9, caspase 8, and caspase 3 proteins were significantly lower in the SB203580-treated DENV-infected mice than that in the infected control mice. Increased expressions of cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10, and chemokines including RANTES and IP-10 in DENV infection were reduced by SB203580 treatment. DENV infection induced the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, and its downstream signals including MAPKAPK2, HSP27 and ATF-2. SB203580 treatment did not decrease the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but it significantly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKAPK2, HSP27, and ATF2. Therefore, SB203580 modulates the downstream signals to p38 MAPK and reduces DENV-induced liver injury. PMID:26901653

  3. The Co-chaperone BAG2 Mediates Cold-Induced Accumulation of Phosphorylated Tau in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Cesar Augusto Dias; Santiago, Fernando Enrique; de Oliveira, Adriele Silva Alves; Oliveira, Fernando Augusto; Almeida, Maria Camila; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro

    2016-05-01

    Inclusions of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders classified as "tauopathy," of which Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form. Dysregulation of tau phosphorylation disrupts neuron structure and function, and hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates to form neurotoxic inclusions. The abundance of ubiquitin in tau inclusions suggests a defect in ubiquitin-mediated tau protein degradation by the proteasome. Under the temperature of 37 °C, the co-chaperone BAG2 protein targets phosphorylated tau for degradation via by a more-efficient, ubiquitin-independent pathway. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, cold exposure induces the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. The SH-SY5Y cell line differentiates into neuron-like cells on treatment with retinoic acid and is an established model for research on the effects of cold on tau phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BAG2 mediates the cold-induced accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. Our findings show that cold exposure causes a decrease in BAG2 expression in undifferentiated cells. Conversely, BAG2 expression is increased in differentiated cells exposed to cold. Further, undifferentiated cells exposed to cold had an increased proportion of p-tau to total tau, suggesting an accumulation of p-tau that is consistent with decreased levels of BAG2. Overexpression of BAG2 in cold-exposed undifferentiated cells restored levels of p-tau to those of 37 °C undifferentiated control. Interestingly, although BAG2 expression increased in differentiated cells, this increase was not accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of p-tau to total tau. Further, overexpression of BAG2 in cold exposed differentiated cells showed no significant difference in p-tau levels compared to 37 °C controls. Taken together, these data show that expression of BAG2 is differently regulated in a differentiation-dependent context. Our results suggest that

  4. Rikkunshito prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy through the suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) phosphorylation in spinal cord of mice.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Junzo; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Sakai, Akane; Nakanishi, Yuki; Kai, Misa; Ikegami, Megumi; Ikeda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the major side effect caused by paclitaxel, a microtubule-binding antineoplastic drug. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy causes a long-term negative impact on the patient's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is still unknown, and there is no established treatment. Ghrelin is known to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in the spinal dorsal horn. Rikkunshito (RKT), a kampo medicine, increases the secretion of ghrelin in rodents and humans. Thus, RKT may attenuate paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by inhibiting phosphorylated NFκB (pNFκB) in the spinal cord. We found that paclitaxel dose-dependently induced mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Paclitaxel increased the protein levels of spinal pNFκB, but not those of spinal NFκB. NFκB inhibitor attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia suggesting that the activation of NFκB mediates paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia. RKT dose-dependently attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Ghrelin receptor antagonist reversed the RKT-induced attenuation of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. RKT inhibited the paclitaxel-induced increase in the protein levels of spinal pNFκB. Taken together, the present study indicates that RKT exerts an antihyperalgesic effect in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by suppressing the activation of spinal NFκB.

  5. Rikkunshito prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy through the suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) phosphorylation in spinal cord of mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Junzo; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Sakai, Akane; Nakanishi, Yuki; Kai, Misa; Ikegami, Megumi; Ikeda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the major side effect caused by paclitaxel, a microtubule-binding antineoplastic drug. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy causes a long-term negative impact on the patient's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is still unknown, and there is no established treatment. Ghrelin is known to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in the spinal dorsal horn. Rikkunshito (RKT), a kampo medicine, increases the secretion of ghrelin in rodents and humans. Thus, RKT may attenuate paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by inhibiting phosphorylated NFκB (pNFκB) in the spinal cord. We found that paclitaxel dose-dependently induced mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Paclitaxel increased the protein levels of spinal pNFκB, but not those of spinal NFκB. NFκB inhibitor attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia suggesting that the activation of NFκB mediates paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia. RKT dose-dependently attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Ghrelin receptor antagonist reversed the RKT-induced attenuation of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. RKT inhibited the paclitaxel-induced increase in the protein levels of spinal pNFκB. Taken together, the present study indicates that RKT exerts an antihyperalgesic effect in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by suppressing the activation of spinal NFκB. PMID:28182729

  6. Human enhancer of filamentation 1-induced colorectal cancer cell migration: Role of serine phosphorylation and interaction with the breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3 protein.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rama; Lemoine, Antoinette; Bertoglio, Jacques; Raingeaud, Joël

    2015-07-01

    Human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) is a member of the p130Cas family of docking proteins involved in integrin-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization associated with cell migration. Elevated expression of HEF1 promotes invasion and metastasis in multiple cancer cell types. To date, little is known on its role in CRC tumor progression. HEF1 is phosphorylated on several Ser/Thr residues but the effects of these post-translational modifications on the functions of HEF1 are poorly understood. In this manuscript, we investigated the role of HEF1 in migration of colorectal adeno-carcinoma cells. First, we showed that overexpression of HEF1 in colo-carcinoma cell line HCT116 increases cell migration. Moreover, in these cells, HEF1 increases Src-mediated phosphorylation of FAK on Tyr-861 and 925. We then showed that HEF1 mutation on Ser-369 enhances HEF1-induced migration and FAK phosphorylation as a result of protein stabilization. We also, for the first time characterized a functional mutation of HEF1 on Arg-367 which mimics the effect of Ser-369 to Ala mutation. Finally through mass spectrometry experiments, we identified BCAR3 as an essential interactor and mediator of HEF1-induced migration. We demonstrated that single amino acid mutations that prevent formation of the HEF1-BCAR3 complex impair HEF1-mediated migration. Therefore, amino-acid substitutions that impede Ser-369 phosphorylation stabilize HEF1 which increases the migration of CRC cells and this latter effect requires the interaction of HEF1 with the NSP family adaptor protein BCAR3. Collectively, these data reveal the importance of HEF1 expression level in cancer cell motility and then support the utilization of HEF1 as a biomarker of tumor progression.

  7. The involvement of c-Myc in the DNA double-strand break repair via regulating radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM and DNA-PKcs activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fengmei; Fan, Rong; Chen, Qiu; He, Yongming; Song, Man; Shang, Zengfu; Zhang, Shimeng; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-08-01

    Deregulation of c-Myc often occurs in various human cancers, which not only contributes to the genesis and progression of cancers but also affects the outcomes of cancer radio- or chemotherapy. In this study, we have investigated the function of c-Myc in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) induced by γ-ray irradiation. A c-Myc-silenced Hela-630 cell line was generated from HeLa cells using RNA interference technology. The DNA DSBs were detected by γ-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We found that the capability of DNA DSB repair in Hela-630 cells was significantly reduced, and the repair kinetics of DSB was delayed as compared to the control Hela-NC cells. Silence of c-myc sensitized the cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The phosphorylated c-Myc (Thr58/pSer62) formed the consistent co-localisation foci with γ-H2AX as well as the phosphorylated DNA-PKcs/S2056 in the irradiated cells. Moreover, depression of c-Myc largely attenuated the ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and decreased the in vitro kinase activity of DNA-PKcs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that c-Myc protein functions in the process of DNA double-strand break repair, at least partially, through affecting the ATM phosphorylation and DNA-PKcs kinase activity. The overexpression of c-Myc in tumours can account for the radioresistance of some tumour cell types.

  8. The increase of cell-membranous phosphatidylcholines containing polyunsaturated fatty acid residues induces phosphorylation of p53 through activation of ATR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu Hannah; Zhao, Chunying; Ma, Zhongmin Alex

    2010-01-01

    Summary The G1 phase of the cell cycle is marked by the rapid turnover of phospholipids. This turnover is regulated by CTP:phosphocholine-cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and group VIA Ca2+-independent-phospholipase A2 (iPLA2). We previously reported that inhibition of iPLA2 arrests cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle by activating the p53-p21 checkpoint. Here we further characterize the mechanism of p53 activation. We show that specific inhibition of iPLA2 induces a time dependent phosphorylation of Ser15 in p53 in the absence of DNA damage. This phosphorylation requires the kinase ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad-3-related (ATR) but not the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase. Moreover, we identify in cell membranes a significant increase of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing chains of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of PCs containing saturated fatty acids in response to inhibition of iPLA2. The time course of phosphorylation of Ser15 in p53 correlates with increasing levels of PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. We further demonstrate that the PCs with linoleic acid in their sn-2 position (18:2n6) induce phosphorylation of Ser15 in p53 in an ATR-dependent manner. Our findings establish that cells can regulate the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids through iPLA2-mediated deacylation of PCs. Disruption of this regulation increases the proportions of PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and activates the ATR-p53 signalling pathway. PMID:18032786

  9. Enzymatic analysis of isomeric trithymidylates containing ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. II. Phosphorylation by phage T4 polynucleotide kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Liuzzi, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1989-04-15

    Phage T4 polynucleotide kinase proved incapable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of thymidylyl-(3'----5')-thymidine containing either a cis-syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (d-T less than p greater than T) or a 6-4'-(pyrimidin-2'-one)pyrimidine photoproduct (d-T(p)-T), and similarly the UV-modified compounds of (dT)3 bearing either photoproduct at their 5'-end (d-T less than p greater than TpT and d-T(p)TpT). In contrast, the 3'-structural isomers of these trinucleotides (d-TpT less than p greater than T and d-TpT(p)T) were phosphorylated at the same rate as the parent compound. These phosphorylatable lesion-containing oligonucleotides are quantitatively released from UV-irradiated poly(dA):poly(dT) by enzymatic hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphatase. By combining this digestion regimen with phosphorylation by polynucleotide kinase and (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP, pyrimidine dimers were quantitated at the fmol level following exposure of poly(dA):poly(dT) and herring sperm DNA to biologically relevant UV fluences. The rate of dimer induction in the synthetic polymer, approximately 10 dimers/10(6) nucleotides/Jm-2, was in close agreement with that obtained by conventional methods. Dimers were induced at one-fourth of this rate in the natural DNA. Further treatment of the phosphorylated oligonucleotides derived from irradiated herring sperm DNA with nuclease P1 released the labeled 5'-nucleotide, thus permitting analysis of the nearest-neighbor bases 5' to the lesions. We observed a ratio for pyrimidine-to-purine bases of almost 6:1, implicating tripyrimidine stretches as hotspots for UV-induced DNA damage.

  10. Puerarin suppresses production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 microglial cells through regulating MAPK phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation and NF-κB translocation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gao-Ming; Yu, Chao; Yang, Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Microglial cells play a critical role in mediating central nervous system inflammatory processes. Activated microglial cells induced by proinflammatory factor, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), release many kinds of neurotoxic cytokines including reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Puerarin, extracted from kudzu root, possesses the characteristic of neuroprotection, antioxidation and anticancer. In the present study, we observed that LPS induced over-production of nitric oxide (NO) and increased the level of intracellular ROS in N9 microglial cells, but it was inhibited by puerarin. Furthermore, treatment with puerarin on N9 cells suppressed the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS which is implicated in intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) level, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We also observed that the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 in N9 cells induced by LPS were inhibited by puerarin, otherwise the down-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation level of protein in N9 cell induced by LPS was up-regulated by pretreatment with puerarin. These results indicate that puerarin effectively inhibits microglia activation induced by LPS through inhibiting expression of iNOS, production of NO and ROS which was mediated via regulating O-GlcNAcylation, phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB translocation.

  11. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  12. Phosphorylation of a constrained azacyclic FTY720 analog enhances anti-leukemic activity without inducing S1P receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Alison N.; McMonigle, Ryan J.; Tessier, Jérémie; Fransson, Rebecca; Perryman, Michael S.; Chen, Bin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Selwan, Elizabeth; Barr, Sarah A.; Kim, Seong M.; Roy, Saurabh G.; Liu, Gang; Fallegger, Daniel; Sernissi, Lorenzo; Brandt, Cordelia; Moitessier, Nicolas; Snider, Ashley J.; Clare, Simon; Müschen, Markus; Huwiler, Andrea; Kleinman, Michael T.; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of poor outcomes in relapsed leukemia patients underscores the need for novel therapeutic approaches. The FDA-approved immunosuppressant FTY720 limits leukemia progression by activating protein phosphatase 2A and restricting nutrient access. Unfortunately, FTY720 cannot be re-purposed for use in cancer patients due to on-target toxicity associated with S1P receptor activation at the elevated, anti-neoplastic dose. Here we show that the constrained azacyclic FTY720 analog SH-RF-177 lacks S1P receptor activity but maintains anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo. SH-RF-177 was not only more potent than FTY720, but killed via a distinct mechanism. Phosphorylation is dispensable for FTY720’s anti-leukemic actions. However, chemical biology and genetic approaches demonstrated that the sphingosine kinase 2- (SPHK2) mediated phosphorylation of SH-RF-177 led to engagement of a pro-apoptotic target and increased potency. The cytotoxicity of membrane-permeant FTY720 phosphonate esters suggests that the enhanced potency of SH-RF-177 stems from its more efficient phosphorylation. The tight inverse correlation between SH-RF-177 IC50 and SPHK2 mRNA expression suggests a useful biomarker for SH-RF-177 sensitivity. In summary, these studies indicate that FTY720 analogs that are efficiently phosphorylated but fail to activate S1P receptors may be superior anti-leukemic agents compared to compounds that avoid cardiotoxicity by eliminating phosphorylation. PMID:27573555

  13. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 inhibits NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 and its interactions with Fyn in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Min; Ba, Maowen; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Zhang, Hongli; Qiu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    The augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) dependent on Fyn kinase has been associated with levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID). CP-101,606, one selective NR2B subunit antagonist, can improve dyskinesia. Yet, the accurate action mechanism is less well understood. In the present study, the evidences were investigated. Valid 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats were treated with l-dopa intraperitoneally for 22 days to induce LID rat model. On day 23, rats received either CP-101,606 (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle with each l-dopa dose. On the day of 1, 8, 15, 22, and 23 during l-dopa treatment, we determined abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in rats. The levels of NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 (pNR2B-Tyr1472) and interactions of NR2B with Fyn in LID rat model were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results showed that CP-101,606 attenuated l-dopa-induced AIMs. In agreement with behavioral analysis, CP-101,606 reduced the augmented pNR2B-Tyr1472 and its interactions with Fyn triggered during the l-dopa administration in the lesioned striatum of parkinsonian rats. Moreover, CP-101,606 also decreased the level of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at threonine-286 hyperphosphorylation (pCaMKII-Thr286), which was the downstream signaling amplification molecule of NMDAR overactivation and closely associated with LID. However, the protein level of NR2B and Fyn had no difference under the above conditions. These data indicate that the inhibition of the interactions of NR2B with Fyn and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to the CP-101,606-induced downregulation of NMDAR function and provide benefit for the therapy of LID.

  14. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress

    PubMed Central

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Kaufer, Benedikt B.; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  15. beta1-integrin mediates asbestos-induced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in a rat pleural mesothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Berken, Antje; Abel, Josef; Unfried, Klaus

    2003-11-20

    Integrin-mediated signalling has been implicated in asbestos-induced carcinogenesis. In studies here, we examined signal transduction events associated with integrin-directed cell reactions triggered by crocidolite asbestos in the pleural mesothelial cell line 4/4 RM-4. Crocidolite fibres induced a significant time- and dose-dependent activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2. ERK activation was specifically inhibited by integrin-blocking agents, that are integrin-binding peptides containing the sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), and monoclonal antibodies against the integrin beta1-chain. Integrin-dependent activation of ERK1/2 in response to asbestos appeared to be independent of focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK (FAK) since FAK autophosphorylation remained unaffected in crocidolite-exposed mesothelial cells. Instead, we observed striking similarities in the kinetics of asbestos-induced ERK1/2 responses and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) at serine 473, a possible target residue for integrin-linked kinase. As with ERK activation, asbestos-induced AKT stimulation was significantly blocked by both the RGD-peptide and the beta1-integrin antibodies. These studies are the first to establish that in mesothelial cells ERK1/2 and AKT are simultaneously phosphorylated upon asbestos exposure in a beta1-integrin-dependent manner.

  16. Inhibition of the ERK phosphorylation plays a role in terbinafine-induced p21 up-regulation and DNA synthesis inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.-Y.; Hsu, S.-P.; Liang, Y.-C.; Kuo, M.-L.; Ho, Y.-S.; Lee, W.-S.

    2008-05-15

    Previously, we showed that terbinafine (TB) induces cell-cycle arrest in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) through an up-regulation of the p21 protein. The aim of this study is to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying TB-induced increase of p21 protein. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the mRNA levels of p21 and p53 were increased in the TB-treated HUVEC. The p21 promoter activity was also increased by TB treatment. Transfection of HUVEC with p53 dominant negative (DN) abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 promoter activity and protein level, suggesting that the TB-induced increase of p21 is p53-dependent. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TB decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Over-expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-1, the immediate upstream activator kinase of ERK, abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 and p53 protein and decrease of thymidine incorporation. The ERK inhibitor (PD98059) enhanced the TB-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation into HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that the decrease of ERK activity plays a role in the TB-induced up-regulation of p21 in HUVEC. On the other hand, pretreatment of the cells with geranylgeraniol (GGOH), farnesol (FOH), or Ras inhibitor peptide did not affect the TB-induced decrease of thymidine incorporation. Taken together, our results suggest that TB might cause a decrease of MEK, which in turn up-regulates p53 through the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, and finally causes an increase of p21 expression and cell-cycle arrest.

  17. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM.

  18. Protein kinase C phosphorylates topoisomerase II: topoisomerase activation and its possible role in phorbol ester-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sahyoun, N.; Wolf, M.; Besterman, J.; Hsieh, T.S.; Sander, M.; LeVine H. III; Chang, K.J.; Cuatrecasas, P.

    1986-03-01

    DNA topoisomerase II from Drosophila was phosphorylated effectively by protein kinase C. With a K/sub m/ of about 100 nM, the reaction was rapid, occurring at 4/sup 0/C as well as at 30/sup 0/C and requiring as little as 0.6 ng of the protein kinase per 170 ng of topoisomerase. About 0.85 mol of phosphate could be incorporated per mol of topoisomerase II, with phosphoserine as the only phospho amino acid produced. The reaction was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine and was stimulated by phorbol esters. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, was also able to phosphorylate the topoisomerase. Phosphorylation of topoisomerase II by protein kinase C resulted in appreciable activation of the topoisomerase, suggesting that it may represent a possible target for the regulation of nuclear events by protein kinase C. This possibility is supported by the finding that the phorbol ester-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells was blocked by the topoisomerase II inhibitors novobiocin and 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA), but not by the inactive analog o-AMSA.

  19. Melatonin rescues 3T3-L1 adipocytes from FFA-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser307.

    PubMed

    She, Meihua; Hou, Hongjie; Wang, Zongbao; Zhang, Chi; Laudon, Moshe; Yin, Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Melatonin is biosynthesized in the pineal gland and secreted into the bloodstream. Evidences indicate a role of melatonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant adipocytes. Following a preincubation with melatonin or vehicle for 30 min, insulin resistant cells of 3T3-L1 adipocytes were induced by palmitic acids (300 μM, 6 h). Our results showed that palmitic acids inhibited both the basal and insulin-stimulated uptake of [(3)H]-2-Deoxyglucose, down-regulated the levels of IRS-1 and GLUT-4. However, compared to the vehicle group, melatonin pre-treatment increased significantly the uptake of [(3)H]-2-Deoxyglucose as well as the level of GLUT-4, and decreased phosphorylated IRS-1 (Ser307) although total IRS-1 did not change significantly. These data suggest that palmitic acids impair insulin signal via down-regulating the expressions of IRS-1 and GLUT-4; whereas melatonin can ameliorate insulin sensitivity by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation in IRS-1 and increasing GLUT-4 expressions in insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We conclude that melatonin regulates the insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis via inhibiting Ser-phosphorylation and improving function of IRS-1.

  20. Intrathecal administration of rapamycin inhibits the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8 and attenuates STZ-induced painful diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Wan-You; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Qing-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Cheng; He, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Han-Bing

    2016-04-21

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation and protein synthesis, and it is specifically inhibited by rapamycin. In chronic pain conditions, mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis is crucial for neuronal hyperexcitability and synaptic plasticity. The tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a major role in action potential initiation and propagation and cellular excitability in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons. In this study, we investigated if mTOR modulates the phosphorylation of Nav1.8 that is associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioral hypersensitivity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ) at 60mg/kg. After the onset of PDN, the rats received daily intrathecal administrations of rapamycin (1μg, 3μg, or 10μg/day) for 7 days; other diabetic rats received the same volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Herein, we demonstrate a marked increase in protein expression of total mTOR and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) together with the up-regulation of phosphor-Nav1.8 (p-Nav1.8) prior to the mechanical withdrawal threshold reaching a significant reduction in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Furthermore, the intrathecal administration of rapamycin, inhibiting the activity of mTOR, suppressed the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8, reduced the TTX-R current density, heightened the voltage threshold for activation and lowered the voltage threshold for inactivation and relieved mechanical hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. An intrathecal injection (i.t.) of rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation and enhanced the functional availability of DRG Nav1.8 attenuated STZ-induced hyperalgesia. These results suggest that rapamycin is a potential therapeutic intervention for clinical PDN.

  1. MC1R variant allele effects on UVR-induced phosphorylation of p38, p53, and DDB2 repair protein responses in melanocytic cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu Shyan; Ainger, Stephen A; Leonard, J Helen; Sturm, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Variant alleles of the human melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) reduce the ability of melanocytes to produce the dark pigment eumelanin, with R alleles being most deficient. Cultured melanocytes of MC1R R/R variant genotype give reduced responses to [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH) ligand stimulation and lower levels of DNA repair than MC1R wild-type strains. p38 controls xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-C recruitment to DNA damage sites through regulating ubiquitylation of the DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) protein, and p53 is implicated in the nuclear excision repair process through its regulation of XP-C and DDB2 protein expression. We report the effects of MC1R ligand treatment and UVR exposure on phosphorylation of p38 and p53, and DDB2 protein expression in MC1R variant strains. Wild-type MC1R melanocyte strains grown together with keratinocytes in coculture, when treated with NDP-MSH and exposed to UVR, gave synergistic activation of p38 and p53 phosphorylation, and were not replicated by R/R variant melanocytes, which have lower basal levels of phosphorylated forms of p38. Minor increases in p38 phosphorylation status in R/R variant melanocyte cocultures could be attributed to the keratinocytes alone. We also found that MC1R wild-type strains regulate DDB2 protein levels through p38, but MC1R R/R variant melanocytes do not. This work confirms the important functional role that the MC1R receptor plays in UVR stress-induced DNA repair.

  2. Ischemia in Tumors Induces Early and Sustained Phosphorylation Changes in Stress Kinase Pathways but Does Not Affect Global Protein Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, D. R.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gillette, Michael A.; Clauser, Karl R.; Qiao, Jana W.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas A.; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Davies, Sherri R.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R. Thomas; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W.; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D.; Mills, Gordon B.; Smith, Richard D.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein abundance and phosphorylation convey important information about pathway activity and molecular pathophysiology in diseases including cancer, providing biological insight, informing drug and diagnostic development, and guiding therapeutic intervention. Analyzed tissues are usually collected without tight regulation or documentation of ischemic time. To evaluate the impact of ischemia, we collected human ovarian tumor and breast cancer xenograft tissue without vascular interruption and performed quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics after defined ischemic intervals. Although the global expressed proteome and most of the >25,000 quantified phosphosites were unchanged after 60 min, rapid phosphorylation changes were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome, representing activation of critical cancer pathways related to stress response, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Both pan-tumor and tissue-specific changes were observed. The demonstrated impact of pre-analytical tissue ischemia on tumor biology mandates caution in interpreting stress-pathway activation in such samples and motivates reexamination of collection protocols for phosphoprotein analysis. PMID:24719451

  3. The Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Munc18c Induces a Switch in Binding Specificity from Syntaxin 4 to Doc2β*

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Jenna L.; Oh, Eunjin; Bennett, Sara M.; Meroueh, Samy O.; Thurmond, Debbie C.

    2008-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is mediated by syntaxin 4-based SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein complexes and the Sec1/Munc18 protein Munc18c. Our laboratory recently reported that Munc18c-syntaxin 4 complexes are further regulated by the competitive binding of the double C2 domain protein Doc2β to Munc18c, although the underlying mechanism for this is unknown. Because the Doc2β binding region of Munc18c contained residue Tyr-219 and this residue becomes phosphorylated in response to glucose stimulation, we hypothesized that the mechanism would involve Munc18c phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses using detergent lysates prepared from pervanadate-treated MIN6 beta cells revealed that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c corresponded to a 60% decrease in Munc18c-syntaxin 4 association with a coordinate 2-fold increase in Munc18c-Doc2β binding. In vitro binding assays identified syntaxin 4 residues 118-194 as sufficient to confer its interaction with Munc18c; residues 118-194 contain the Hc α-helix and flexible linker region controlling transition of syntaxins between closed and open conformations. When overexpressed in MIN6 cells, this Hc-linker region functioned as a competitive inhibitor of endogenous syntaxin 4-Munc18c binding, increased syntaxin 4 binding to VAMP2, and significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated secretion. Molecular modeling of these new interactions yielded the predictions 1) that Tyr-219 of Munc18c remains buried under basal conditions in a conformation that is favorable for interaction with “closed” syntaxin 4 and 2) that stimulation leads to changes in syntaxin 4 contacts to facilitate exposure of Munc18c Tyr-219 for phosphorylation and Doc2β binding. PMID:18541526

  4. Protein Kinase RNA-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase-Mediated Bcl-2 Protein Phosphorylation Contributes to Evodiamine-Induced Apoptosis of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Shin; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Yen-Chou; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer mechanism of evodiamine (EVO) against the viability of human A498 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro study showed that EVO decreased the viability of A498 cells with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics such as hypodiploid cells, DNA ladders, chromatin-condensed cells, and cleaved caspase (Casp)-3/poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Pharmacological studies using chemical inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) indicated that phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein participated in EVO-induced cell death of A498 cells, and application of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (SP), inhibited EVO-induced cleavage of the Casp-3/PARP proteins and chromatin condensation according to Giemsa staining. EVO disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with increased protein levels of the phosphorylated Bcl-2 protein (p-Bcl-2) was prevented by JNK inhibitors in A498 cells. A structure-activity relationship study showed that a methyl group at position 14 in EVO was important for its apoptotic effects and increased p-Bcl-2 protein in A498 cells. Furthermore, significant increases in the phosphorylated endoplasmic reticular stress protein, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK at Thr980), by EVO were detected in A498 cells, and the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, significantly suppressed EVO-induced apoptosis, p-JNK, p-PERK, and cleaved PARP proteins. The in vivo study showed that EVO significantly reduced RCC growth elicited by a subcutaneous injection of A498 cells, and an increased protein level of p-PERK was observed according to an immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis by EVO was also demonstrated in other RCC cells such as 786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the anti-RCC effect of EVO via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and activation of JNK and PERK to induce Bcl-2

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris autoimmune globulin induces Src-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylation of plakophilin 3 and its detachment from desmoglein 3.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Nicola; AlShwaimi, Emad; McCullough, Michael; Prime, Stephen S

    2014-03-01

    The cell adhesion molecule plakophilin 3 (Pkp3) plays an essential role in the maintenance of skin integrity and is targeted in certain autoimmune conditions. In one example, we have shown that Pkp3 is instrumental in mediating the discohesive effects of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), a life-threatening autoimmune disease that targets intercellular adhesion in the epidermis. In the present study, we determine the effect of PV autoimmune globulin (PV IgG) on Pkp3 in an in-vitro model of PV. We demonstrate that Pkp3 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated as early as 30 min upon binding of PV IgG to keratinocyte surface and eventually detaches from its binding partner desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In parallel, Pkp3 is depleted from the membrane (Triton X-soluble) fraction and accumulates in the cytoplasm within 240 min of incubation with PV IgG. Inhibition of Pkp3 phosphorylation by a Src inhibitor attenuates the discohesive effects of PV IgG. Taken together, the data demonstrate that activation of Src-kinase signalling is crucial for PV acantholysis and acts, at least in part, via phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Pkp3.

  6. PLD2 has both enzymatic and cell proliferation-inducing capabilities, that are differentially regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Henkels, Karen M.; Short, Stephen; Peng, Hong-Juan; Fulvio, Mauricio Di; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) overexpression in mammalian cells results in cell transformation. We have hypothesized that this is due to an increase of de novo DNA synthesis. We show here that overexpression of PLD2-WT leads to an increased DNA synthesis, as measured by the expression levels of the proliferation markers PCNA, p27KIP1 and phospho-histone-3. The enhancing effect was even higher with phosphorylation-defficient PLD2-Y179F and PLD2-Y511F mutants. The mechanism for this did not involve the enzymatic activity of the lipase, but, rather, the presence of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45, as silencing with siRNA for CD45 abrogated the effect. The two Y→F mutants had in common a YxN consensus site that, in the phosphorylated counterparts, could be recognized by SH2-bearing proteins, such as Grb2. Even though Y179F and Y511F cannot bind Grb2, they could still find other protein partners, one of which, we have reasoned, could be CD45 itself. Affinity purified PLD2 is indeed activated by Grb2 and deactivated by CD45 in vitro. We concluded that phosphorylated PLD2, aided by Grb2, mediates lipase activity, whereas dephosphorylated PLD2 mediates an induction of cell proliferation, and the specific residues involved in this newly discovered regulation of PLD2 are Y179 and Y511. PMID:19715678

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tau Peptides for the Investigation of Conformational Changes Induced by Specific Phosphorylation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Neha S; Kukic, Predrag; Lippens, Guy; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2017-01-01

    The Tau protein plays an important role due to its biomolecular interactions in neurodegenerative diseases. The lack of stable structure and various posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation at various sites in the Tau protein pose a challenge for many experimental methods that are traditionally used to study protein folding and aggregation. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can help around deciphering relationship between phosphorylation and various intermediate and stable conformations of the Tau protein which occur on longer timescales. This chapter outlines protocols for the preparation, execution, and analysis of all-atom MD simulations of a 21-amino acid-long phosphorylated Tau peptide with the aim of generating biologically relevant structural and dynamic information. The simulations are done in explicit solvent and starting from nearly extended configurations of the peptide. The scaled MD method implemented in AMBER14 was chosen to achieve enhanced conformational sampling in addition to a conventional MD approach, thereby allowing the characterization of folding for such an intrinsically disordered peptide at 293 K. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the simulation trajectories to establish correlations with NMR data (i.e., chemical shifts and NOEs). Finally, in-depth discussions are provided for commonly encountered problems.

  8. Treatment of colon cancer cells using the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide system induces apoptosis, modulation of the proteome, and Hsp90beta phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Luc; Samson, Michel; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Rossi, Bernard; Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie; Baudoin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) gene, associated with the 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) prodrug, is one of the most widely used suicide systems in gene therapy. Introduction of the CD gene within a tumor induces, after 5FC treatment of the animal, a local production of 5-fluorouracil resulting in intratumor chemotherapy. Destruction of the gene-modified tumor is then followed by the triggering of an antitumor immune reaction resulting in the regression of distant wild-type metastasis. The global effects of 5FC on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells expressing the CD gene were analyzed using the proteomic method. Application of 5FC induced apoptosis and 19 proteins showed a significant change in 5FC-treated cells compared with control cells. The up-regulated and down-regulated proteins include cytoskeletal proteins, chaperones, and proteins involved in protein synthesis, the antioxidative network, and detoxification. Most of these proteins are involved in resistance to anticancer drugs and resistance to apoptosis. In addition, we show that the heat shock protein Hsp90beta is phosphorylated on serine 254 upon 5FC treatment. Our results suggest that activation of Hsp90beta by phosphorylation might contribute to tumor regression and tumor immunogenicity. Our findings bring new insights into the mechanism of the anticancer effects induced by CD/5FC treatment.

  9. The role of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 phosphorylation in H2O2-induced cell death and Golgi morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guang; Zhang, Weiwei; Quan, Moyuan; Chen, Yang; Qu, Hui; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on cell viability and survival, as well as changes in the distribution of Golgi apparatus and in the level of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65). Cell viability of cultured N2a cells treated with H2O2 was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analyses. Cells labeled by indirect immunofluorescence were observed under confocal microscope to detect any Golgi morphological alterations; electron microscopy of Golgi apparatus was also done. Expression of GRASP65 and phospho-GRASP65 was examined by immunoblotting. H2O2 treatment reduced the cell viability and raised the cell mortality of N2a cells in a time-dependent manner. Notable changes were only observed in the distribution and morphology of Golgi apparatus at 6 h after H2O2 treatment. The expression of GRASP65 showed no significant changes at different time points; the phosphorylated GRASP65 level was significantly increased after H2O2 treatment, peaked at 3 h, and finally dropped at 6 h. Taken together, GRASP65 phosphorylation may have a critical role in inducing cell death at the early stage after H2O2 treatment, while its role in H2O2-induced Golgi morphological changes may be complex.

  10. EA-6B high-lift wing modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Allison, D. O.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Langley has accomplished the computational design and experimental verification of EA-6B aircraft wing modifications for improved high lift capability. The modifications are comparatively simple, and attempt to improve low speed high lift performance while maintaining high speed cruise efficiency. Several two- and three-dimensional low speed and transonic computational techniques were employed, together with extensive wind tunnel tests. The modified inboard and outboard edge slat/flap system sections yielded efficiency improvements that were verified by three-dimensional wind tunnel experiments to amount to an 11-percent wing-body lift coefficient enhancement at low speed.

  11. Overexpression of KAI1 induces autophagy and increases MiaPaCa-2 cell survival through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Hua

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. {yields} Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. {yields} This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.

  12. Activation of mTOR signaling leads to orthopedic surgery-induced cognitive decline in mice through β-amyloid accumulation and tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenzhen; Lu, Keliang; Wang, Jiawan; Wu, Anshi; Yue, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a serious complication following surgery, however, the mechanism of POCD remains to be elucidated. Previous evidence has revealed that POCD may be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative processes. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been reported to be crucial in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the implications of mTOR in POCD remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, western blotting and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the expression of mTOR and any associated downstream targets; contextual fear conditioning was used to estimate the learning and memory ability of mice. Using an animal model of orthopedic surgery, it was found that surgical injury impaired hippocampal‑dependent memory and enhanced the levels of phosphorylated mTOR at Serine‑2448, phosphorylated 70‑kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) at Threonine‑389 with accumulation of β‑amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau at Serine-396, compared with the control group. Pretreatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, restored the abnormal mTOR/p70S6K signaling induced by surgery, attenuated the accumulation of Aβ and reduced the phosphorylation of tau protein. Rapamycin also reversed the surgery‑induced cognitive dysfunction. The results of the present study suggested that the surgical stimulus activated mTOR/p70S6K signaling excessively, and that the inhibition of mTOR signaling with rapamycin may prevent postoperative cognitive deficits, partly through attenuating the accumulation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein.

  13. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  14. Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT(2C)Rs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT(2C)R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT(2C)Rs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum.

  15. Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) induces anti-apoptotic effects on macrophages through Akt and Bad phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Son, Dain; Na, Yi Rang; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2014-02-28

    PDGF-C, which is abundant in the malignant breast tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in cell growth and survival. Because tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to cancer malignancy, macrophage survival mechanisms are an attractive area of research into controlling tumor progression. In this study, we investigated PDGF-C-mediated signaling pathways involved in anti-apoptotic effects in macrophages. We found that the human malignant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 produced high quantities of PDGF-C, whereas benign MCF-7 cells did not. Recombinant PDGF-C induced PDGF receptor α chain phosphorylation, followed by Akt and Bad phosphorylation in THP-1-derived macrophages. MDA-MB-231 culture supernatants also activated macrophage PDGF-Rα. PDGF-C prevented staurosporine-induced macrophage apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Finally, TAMs isolated from the PDGF-C knockdown murine breast cancer cell line 4T1 and PDGF-C knockdown MDA-MB-231-derived tumor mass showed higher rates of apoptosis than the respective WT controls. Collectively, our results suggest that tumor cell-derived PDGF-C enhances TAM survival, promoting tumor malignancy.

  16. Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chunxia; Yi, Bin; Bai, Li; Xia, Yongzhi; Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng; Feng, Hua

    2010-07-02

    Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

  17. Characterization of the Inductively Heated Plasma Source IPG6-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma facilities have been established using the Inductively heated Plasma Generator 6 (IPG6). The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160 m3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control over a wide range. Intended fields of research include basic investigation into thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. those found in fusion devices or during atmospheric re-entry of spacecraft. After moving the IPG6-B facility to the Baylor Research and Innovation Collaborative (BRIC) it was placed back into operation during the summer of 2014. Initial characterization in the new lab, using a heat flux probe, Pitot probe and cavity calorimeter, has been conducted for Air, Argon and Helium. The results of this characterization are presented.

  18. Alpha-chaconine, a potato glycoalkaloid, induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells through caspase-3 activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2006-06-01

    Although alpha-chaconine, one of the two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, have shown cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells, the exact mechanism of this action of alpha-chaconine is not completely understood. In this study, we found that alpha-chaconine induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by using flow cytometric analysis. We also found that caspase-3 activity and the active form of caspase-3 were increased 12 h after alpha-chaconine treatment. Caspase inhibitors, N-Ac-DEVD-CHO and Z-VAD-fmk, prevented alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis, whereas alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis was potentiated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. However, pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 and SB203580, inhibitors of PI3K and p38, respectively, BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox had no effect on the alpha-chaconine-induced cell death. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced by the treatment with alpha-chaconine. Moreover, alpha-chaconine-induced caspase-3 activity was further increased by the pretreatment with PD98059. Thus, the results indicate that alpha-chaconine induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells through inhibition of ERK and, in turn, activation of caspase-3.

  19. Caveolin-1 Mediates Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Apoptosis via Downregulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Phosphorylation in Laryngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qingsheng; Meng, Cuida; Shen, Yannan; Ji, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhou, Sheng; Jia, Lili; Wang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound therapy has been found to be a potential tool in the management of malignant tumors in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism underlying low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis in HEp-2 cells. We found that low-intensity ultrasound significantly induced apoptosis, and the expression level of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) was dramatically increased after ultrasound treatment of HEp-2 cells. After inhibiting the expression level of Cav-1 using siRNA transfection, we found that the cellular apoptosis induced by low-intensity ultrasound was significantly suppressed. In addition, inhibition of Cav-1 expression promoted phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), suggesting that the STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis via Cav-1 regulation. Our results indicate that Cav-1/STAT3 signaling pathway may mediate low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis, and this technology could potentially be used clinically for the treatment of cancers.

  20. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  1. Direct binding of MEK1 and MEK2 to AKT induces Foxo1 phosphorylation, cellular migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Procaccia, Shiri; Ordan, Merav; Cohen, Izel; Bendetz-Nezer, Sarit; Seger, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Crosstalk between the ERK cascade and other signaling pathways is one of the means by which it acquires its signaling specificity. Here we identified a direct interaction of both MEK1 and MEK2 with AKT. The interaction is mediated by the proline rich domain of MEK1/2 and regulated by phosphorylation of Ser298 in MEK1, or Ser306 in MEK2, which we identified here as a novel regulatory site. We further developed a blocking peptide, which inhibits the interaction between MEK and AKT, and when applied to cells, affects migration and adhesion, but not proliferation. The specific mechanism of action of the MEK-AKT complex involves phosphorylation of the migration-related transcription factor FoxO1. Importantly, prevention of the interaction results in a decreased metastasis formation in a breast cancer mouse model. Thus, the identified interaction both sheds light on how signaling specificity is determined, and represents a possible new therapeutic target for metastatic cancer. PMID:28225038

  2. Deoxycholate induced tetramer of αA-crystallin and sites of phosphorylation: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and femtosecond solvation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Mojumdar, Supratik Sen; Choudhury, Aparajita; Banerjee, Rajat; Das, Kali Pada; Sasmal, Dibyendu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2012-04-01

    Structure and dynamics of acrylodan labeled αA-crystallin tetramer formed in the presence of a bile salt (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) has been studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and femtosecond up-conversion techniques. Using FCS it is shown that, the diffusion constant (Dt) of the αA-crystallin oligomer (mass ˜800 kDa) increases from ˜35 μm2 s-1 to ˜68 μm2 s-1. This corresponds to a decrease in hydrodynamic radius (rh) from ˜6.9 nm to ˜3.3 nm. This corresponds to about 10-fold decrease in molecular mass to ˜80 kDa and suggests formation of a tetramer (since mass of αA-crystallin monomer is ˜20 kDa). The steady state emission maximum and average solvation time (<τs>) of acrylodan labeled at cysteine 131 position of αA-crystallin is markedly affected on addition of NaDC, while the tryptophan (trp-9) becomes more exposed. This suggests that NaDC binds near the cys-131 and makes the terminal region of αA-crystallin exposed. This may explain the enhanced auto-phosphorylation activity of αA-crystallin near the terminus of the 173 amino acid protein (e.g., at the threonine 13, serine 45, or serine 169 and 172) and suggests that phosphorylation at ser-122 (close to cys-131) is relatively less important.

  3. 8-Prenylnaringenin promotes recovery from immobilization-induced disuse muscle atrophy through activation of the Akt phosphorylation pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Rie; Horikawa, Hitomi; Lin, Pei-Yi; Tsukumo, Nao; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Terao, Junji

    2016-12-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a prenylflavonoid that originates from hop extracts and is thought to help prevent disuse muscle atrophy. We hypothesized that 8-PN affects muscle plasticity by promoting muscle recovery under disuse muscle atrophy. To test the promoting effect of 8-PN on muscle recovery, we administered an 8-PN mixed diet to mice that had been immobilized with a cast to one leg for 14 days. Intake of the 8-PN mixed diet accelerated recovery from muscle atrophy, and prevented reductions in Akt phosphorylation. Studies on cell cultures of mouse myotubes in vitro demonstrated that 8-PN activated the PI3K/Akt/P70S6K1 pathway at physiological concentrations. A cell-culture study using an inhibitor of estrogen receptors and an in vivo experiment with ovariectomized mice suggested that the estrogenic activity of 8-PN contributed to recovery from disuse muscle atrophy through activation of an Akt phosphorylation pathway. These data strongly suggest that 8-PN is a naturally occurring compound that could be used as a nutritional supplement to aid recovery from disuse muscle atrophy.

  4. Bioinformatic analyses reveal a distinct Notch activation induced by STAT3 phosphorylation in the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen; Zhang, Chuanbao; Ren, Xiufang; Jiang, Yang; Han, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Cai, Jinquan; Li, Mingyang; Wang, Kuanyu; Liu, Yanwei; Hu, Huimin; Li, Qingbin; Yang, Pei; Bao, Zhaoshi; Wu, Anhua

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of malignant glioma. The Cancer Genome Atlas divides the gene expression-based classification of GBM into classical, mesenchymal, neural, and proneural subtypes, which is important for understanding GBM etiology and for designing effective personalized therapy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a critical transcriptional activator in tumorigenesis, is persistently phosphorylated and associated with an unfavorable prognosis in GBM. Although a set of specific targets has been identified, there have been no systematic analyses of STAT3 signaling based on GBM subtype. METHODS This study compared STAT3-associated messenger RNA, protein, and microRNA expression profiles across different subtypes of GBM. RESULTS The analyses revealed a prominent role for STAT3 in the mesenchymal but not in other GBM subtypes, which can be reliably used to classify patients with mesenchymal GBM into 2 groups according to phosphorylated STAT3 expression level. Differentially expressed genes suggest an association between Notch and STAT3 signaling in the mesenchymal subtype. Their association was validated in the U87 cell, a malignant glioma cell line annotated as mesenchymal subtype. Specific associated proteins and microRNAs further profile the STAT3 signaling among GBM subtypes. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest a prominent role for STAT3 signaling in mesenchymal GBM and highlight the importance of identifying signaling pathways that contribute to specific cancer subtypes.

  5. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  6. Mevastatin ameliorates sphingosine 1‐phosphate‐induced COX‐2/PGE2‐dependent cell migration via FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih‐Kai; Lin, Chih‐Chung; Hsiao, Li‐Der

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P), an important inflammatory mediator, has been shown to regulate COX‐2 production and promote various cellular responses such as cell migration. Mevastatin, an inhibitor of 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl‐CoA reductase (HMG‐CoA), effectively inhibits inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying S1P‐evoked COX‐2‐dependent cell migration, which is modulated by mevastatin in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Experimental Approach The expression of COX‐2 was determined by Western blotting, real time‐PCR and promoter analyses. The signalling molecules were investigated by pretreatment with respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs. The interaction between COX‐2 promoter and transcription factors was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effect of mevastatin on HTSMC migration and leukocyte counts in BAL fluid and COX‐2 expression induced by S1P was determined by a cell migration assay, cell counting and Western blot. Key Results S1P stimulated mTOR activation through the Nox2/ROS and PI3K/Akt pathways, which can further stimulate FoxO1 phosphorylation and translocation to the cytosol. We also found that S1P induced CREB activation and translocation via an mTOR‐independent signalling pathway. Finally, we showed that pretreatment with mevastatin markedly reduced S1P‐induced cell migration and COX‐2/PGE2 production via a PPARγ‐dependent signalling pathway. Conclusions and Implications Mevastatin attenuates the S1P‐induced increased expression of COX‐2 and cell migration via the regulation of FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation by PPARγ in HTSMCs. Mevastatin could be beneficial for prevention of airway inflammation in the future. PMID:26359950

  7. Akt-phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD) inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis by blocking Fas-associated death domain (FADD) association with death receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifeng; Jayarama, Shankar; Ganesh, Lakshmy; Mordi, David; Carr, Ryan; Kanteti, Prasad; Hay, Nissim; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2010-07-16

    MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies.

  8. Melatonin Attenuates Aortic Endothelial Permeability and Arteriosclerosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of MLCK- and MLCP-Dependent MLC Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song-tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-qin; Wang, Chang-jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The development of diabetic macrovascular complications is a multifactorial process, and melatonin may possess cardiovascular protective properties. This study was designed to evaluate whether melatonin attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial permeability by suppressing the myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/myosin light-chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) system via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway or by suppressing the myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit phosphorylation (p-MYPT)/p-MLC system in diabetes mellitus (DM). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, high-fat diet, DM, and DM + melatonin groups. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. The DM significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which were attenuated by melatonin therapy to various extents. Importantly, the aortic endothelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was dramatically reversed following treatment with melatonin. Our findings further indicated that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia enhanced the expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which were partly associated with decreased membrane type 1 expression, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and increased p38 expression. However, these changes in protein expression were also significantly reversed by melatonin. Thus, our results are the first to demonstrate that the endothelial hyperpermeability induced by DM is associated with increased expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which can be attenuated by melatonin at least partly through the ERK/p38 signaling pathway.

  9. Ketamine plus imipramine treatment induces antidepressant-like behavior and increases CREB and BDNF protein levels and PKA and PKC phosphorylation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Ferraro, Ana K; Vitto, Marcelo F; Cesconetto, Patrícia; Souza, Claúdio T; Quevedo, João

    2011-08-01

    A growing body of evidence has pointed to the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression. The present study investigated the possibility of synergistic interactions between antidepressant imipramine with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Wistar rats were acutely treated with ketamine (5 and 10mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20mg/kg) and then subjected to forced swimming tests. The cAMP response element bindig (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels and protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala by imunoblot. Imipramine at the dose of 10mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5mg/kg did not have effect on the immobility time; however, the effect of imipramine (10 and 20mg/kg) was enhanced by both doses of ketamine. Ketamine and imipramine alone or in combination at all doses tested did not modify locomotor activity. Combined treatment with ketamine and imipramine produced stronger increases of CREB and BDNF protein levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, and PKA phosphorylation in the hippocampus and amygdala and PKC phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. The results described indicate that co-administration of antidepressant imipramine with ketamine may induce a more pronounced antidepressant activity than treatment with each antidepressant alone. This finding may be of particular importance in the case of drug-resistant patients and could suggest a method of obtaining significant antidepressant actions whilst limiting side effects.

  10. Expression of a phosphorylated substrate domain of p130Cas promotes PyMT-induced c-Src-dependent murine breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingshe; Kumbrink, Joerg; Lin, Bor-Tyh; Bouton, Amy H; Yang, Shi; Toselli, Paul A; Kirsch, Kathrin H

    2013-12-01

    Elevated expression of p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1) in human breast tumors is a marker of poor prognosis and poor overall survival. p130Cas is a downstream target of the tyrosine kinase c-Src. Signaling mediated by p130Cas through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) and interaction with effector molecules directly promotes tumor progression. We previously developed a constitutively phosphorylated p130Cas SD molecule, Src*/SD (formerly referred to as Src*/CasSD), which acts as decoy molecule and attenuates the transformed phenotype in v-crk-transformed murine fibroblasts and human breast cancer cells. To test the function of this molecule in vivo, we established mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-long terminal repeat-Src*/SD transgenic mice in which mammary gland development and tumor formation were analyzed. Transgenic expression of the Src*/SD molecule under the MMTV-long terminal repeat promoter did not interfere with normal mammary gland development or induce tumors in mice observed for up to 11 months. To evaluate the effects of the Src*/SD molecule on tumor development in vivo, we utilized the MMTV-polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) murine breast cancer model that depends on c-Src. PyMT mice crossed with Src*/SD mice displayed accelerated tumor formation. The earlier onset of tumors can be explained by the interaction of the Src* domain with PyMT and targeting the fused phosphorylated SD to the membrane. At membrane compartments, it might integrate membrane-associated active signaling complexes leading to increased proliferation measured by phospho-Histone H3 staining. Although these results were unexpected, they emphasize the importance of preventing the membrane association of Src*/SD when employed as decoy molecule.

  11. Expression of a phosphorylated substrate domain of p130Cas promotes PyMT-induced c-Src-dependent murine breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingshe; Kumbrink, Joerg; Kirsch, Kathrin H.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated expression of p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1) in human breast tumors is a marker of poor prognosis and poor overall survival. p130Cas is a downstream target of the tyrosine kinase c-Src. Signaling mediated by p130Cas through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) and interaction with effector molecules directly promotes tumor progression. We previously developed a constitutively phosphorylated p130Cas SD molecule, Src*/SD (formerly referred to as Src*/CasSD), which acts as decoy molecule and attenuates the transformed phenotype in v-crk-transformed murine fibroblasts and human breast cancer cells. To test the function of this molecule in vivo, we established mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-long terminal repeat-Src*/SD transgenic mice in which mammary gland development and tumor formation were analyzed. Transgenic expression of the Src*/SD molecule under the MMTV-long terminal repeat promoter did not interfere with normal mammary gland development or induce tumors in mice observed for up to 11 months. To evaluate the effects of the Src*/SD molecule on tumor development in vivo, we utilized the MMTV-polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) murine breast cancer model that depends on c-Src. PyMT mice crossed with Src*/SD mice displayed accelerated tumor formation. The earlier onset of tumors can be explained by the interaction of the Src* domain with PyMT and targeting the fused phosphorylated SD to the membrane. At membrane compartments, it might integrate membrane-associated active signaling complexes leading to increased proliferation measured by phospho-Histone H3 staining. Although these results were unexpected, they emphasize the importance of preventing the membrane association of Src*/SD when employed as decoy molecule. PMID:23825155

  12. Chaos under canvas: a Salmonella enteritidis PT 6B outbreak.

    PubMed

    Brugha, R F; Howard, A J; Thomas, G R; Parry, R; Ward, L R; Palmer, S R

    1995-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT 6B food poisoning, the first reported of this recently described phage type, resulted in illness among 46 of 49 members of a camping group in North Wales, 33 of whom were hospitalized. Epidemiological evidence (P < 0.0001) indicated that a lemon meringue pie was the vehicle of infection. Fresh shell eggs, stored after purchase at ambient temperature, appear to be the most likely source of infection, with multiplication during preparation and subsequent storage of the pie a significant contributory factor. Campers may be at greater risk than others and should consider the use of cold boxes for the transport and storage of eggs, and avoid the preparation of lightly cooked egg products under these basic conditions.

  13. Different magnitudes of tensile strain induce human osteoblasts differentiation associated with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Chengtao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical factors are related to periprosthetic osseointegration following total hip arthroplasty. However, osteoblast response to strain in implanted femurs is unclear because of the absence of accurate stress-measuring methods. In our study, finite element analysis was performed to calculate strain distribution in implanted femurs. 0.8-3.2% tensile strain was then applied to human osteoblasts. Higher magnitudes of strain enhanced the expression of osteocalcin, type I collagen, and Cbfa1/Runx2. Lower magnitudes significantly increased ALP activity. Among these, type I collagen expression increased with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a strain-magnitude-dependent manner. Our study marks the first investigation of osteoblast response at different magnitudes of periprosthetic strain. The results indicate that the functional status of human osteoblasts is determined by strain magnitude. The strain distribution in the proximal region of implanted femur should be improved for osseointegration.

  14. Phosphorylation-Induced Motor Shedding Is Required at Mitosis for Proper Distribution and Passive Inheritance of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jarom Yan-Ming; Steen, Judith Arunodhaya; Schwarz, Thomas Lewis

    2016-08-23

    While interphase mitochondria associate with microtubules, mitotic mitochondria dissociate from spindle microtubules and localize in the cell periphery. Here, we show that this redistribution is not mediated by mitochondrial active transport or tethering to the cytoskeleton. Instead, kinesin and dynein, which link mitochondria to microtubules, are shed from the mitochondrial surface. Shedding is driven by phosphorylation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic targets by CDK1 and Aurora A. Forced recruitment of motor proteins to mitotic mitochondria to override this shedding prevents their proper symmetrical distribution and disrupts the balanced inheritance of mitochondria to daughter cells. Moreover, when mitochondria with bound dynein bind to the mitotic spindle, they arrest cell-cycle progression and produce binucleate cells. Thus, our results show that the regulated release of motor proteins from the mitochondrial surface is a critical mitotic event.

  15. NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472 in spinal dorsal horn contributed to N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced pain hypersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Cao, Jing; Yang, Xian; Suo, Zhan-Wei; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yan-Ni; Yang, Hong-Bin; Hu, Xiao-Dong

    2011-11-01

    Calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype glutamate receptors (NMDARs) regulates the intracellular trafficking of NMDARs, leading to long-lasting modification of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission that is involved in development, learning, and synaptic plasticity. The present study investigated the contribution of such NMDAR-dependent synaptic trafficking in spinal dorsal horn to the induction of pain hypersensitivity. Our data showed that direct activation of NMDARs by intrathecal NMDA application elicited pronounced mechanical allodynia in intact mice, which was concurrent with a specific increase in the abundance of NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B at the postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched fraction. Selective inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDARs (NR2BR) by ifenprodil dose dependently attenuated the mechanical allodynia in NMDA-injected mice, suggesting the importance of NR2BR synaptic accumulation in NMDA-induced pain sensitization. The NR2BR redistribution at synapses after NMDA challenge was associated with a significant increase in NR2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a catalytic site by Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that has been shown to prevent NR2B endocytosis. Intrathecal injection of a specific SFKs inhibitor, PP2, to block NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation eliminated NMDA-induced NR2BR synaptic expression and also attenuated the mechanical allodynia. These data suggested that activation of spinal NMDARs was able to accumulate NR2BR at synapses via SFK signaling, which might exaggerate NMDAR-dependent nociceptive transmission and contribute to NMDA-induced nociceptive behavioral hyperresponsiveness.

  16. Reversal of SIN-1-induced eNOS dysfunction by the spin trap, DMPO, in bovine aortic endothelial cells via eNOS phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amlan; Gopalakrishnan, Bhavani; Druhan, Lawrence J; Wang, Tse-Yao; De Pascali, Francesco; Rockenbauer, Antal; Racoma, Ira; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Zweier, Jay L; Cardounel, Arturo J; Villamena, Frederick A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nitric oxide (NO) derived from eNOS is mostly responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and its decreased bioavailability is characteristic of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED). Because 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), a commonly used spin trap, can control intracellular nitroso-redox balance by scavenging ROS and donating NO, it was employed as a cardioprotective agent against ED but the mechanism of its protection is still not clear. This study elucidated the mechanism of protection by DMPO against SIN-1-induced oxidative injury to bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Experimental Approach BAEC were treated with SIN-1, as a source of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−), and then incubated with DMPO. Cytotoxicity following SIN-1 alone and cytoprotection by adding DMPO was assessed by MTT assay. Levels of ROS and NO generation from HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type and mutant eNOS cDNAs, tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability, eNOS activity, eNOS and Akt kinase phosphorylation were measured. Key Results Post-treatment of cells with DMPO attenuated SIN-1-mediated cytotoxicity and ROS generation, restoration of NO levels via increased in eNOS activity and phospho-eNOS levels. Treatment with DMPO alone significantly increased NO levels and induced phosphorylation of eNOS Ser1179 via Akt kinase. Transfection studies with wild-type and mutant human eNOS confirmed the dual role of eNOS as a producer of superoxide anion (O2−) with SIN-1 treatment, and a producer of NO in the presence of DMPO. Conclusion and Implications Post-treatment with DMPO of oxidatively challenged cells reversed eNOS dysfunction and could have pharmacological implications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24405159

  17. Bisdemethoxycurcumin protects endothelial cells against t-BHP-induced cell damage by regulating the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 and Akt.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Bo; Gao, Jian-Li; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Hoi, Pui-Man; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2011-02-01

    Curcuminoids are the major active components extracted from Curcuma longa and are well known for their antioxidant effects. Previous studies have reported that the antioxidant properties of curcuminoids are mainly attributed to their free radical scavenging abilities. However, whether there are other mechanisms besides the non-enzymatic process and how they are involved, still remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin (Cur3) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), focusing on the effect of Cur3 on the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The pre-treatment with Cur3 inhibited t-BHP-induced cell damage dose-dependently, which was evident by the increased cell viability and the corresponding decrease in lactate dehydrogenase release. The pre-treatment with Cur3 also attenuated t-BHP-induced cell morphological changes and apoptosis. MAPKs, including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), as well as PI3K/Akt have been reported to be involved in proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation under various stress stimulations. The pre-treatment with Cur3 decreased t-BHP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased t-BHP-induced Akt phosporylation but did not affect the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. In addition, the Cur3-induced increase in cell viability was attenuated by the treatment with wortmannin or LY294002, the upstream inhibitors of Akt, and was enhanced by the treatment with 2-[2'-amino-3'-methoxyphenyl]-oxanaphthalen-4-one (PD98059), an upstream inhibitor of ERK1/2. These results suggest that the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways could be involved in the protective effects of Cur3 against t-BHP-induced damage in HUVECs.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS induces death of alveolar epithelial L2 cells that is associated with cellular shrinkage, transgelin expression and myosin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusuke; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Noritake, Kanako; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gaseous molecule that causes death to humans exposed to high concentrations. H2S is absorbed into the body through the alveolar epithelium and other tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism underling acute lung injury caused by the inhalation of high concentrations of H2S. Rat lung epithelium-derived L2 cells were exposed to a H2S donor, NaHS, at concentrations of 2-4 mM for 1-6 hr. NaHS caused shrinkage and death of the cells without caspase activation. An actin-binding protein, transgelin, was identified as one of the NaHS-inducible proteins in the cells. NaHS increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, indicating that actomyosin-mediated cellular contractility and/or motility could be increased after NaHS exposure. The administration of ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, accelerated cell death after NaHS exposure. Based on these data, we conclude that the increase in MLC phosphorylation in response to NaHS exposure is a cellular protective reaction against NaHS toxicity. Enhancements in smooth muscle cell properties such as transgelin expression and actomyosin-mediated contractility/motility might be involved in cell survival after NaHS exposure.

  19. Heat shock in Escherichia coli alters the protein-binding properties of the chaperonin groEL by inducing its phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sherman MYu; Goldberg, A L

    1992-05-14

    When bacterial or eukaryotic cells are exposed to high temperatures or other harsh conditions, they respond by synthesis of a specific set of heat-shock proteins. Certain heat-shock proteins such as groEL, called 'chaperonins', can prevent misfolding and promote the refolding and proper assembly of unfolded polypeptides generated under harmful conditions. We report here a new aspect of the heat-shock response in Escherichia coli: at high temperatures a fraction of groEL becomes modified covalently, altering its interaction with unfolded proteins. The heat-modified form can be eluted with ATP from an unfolded protein more easily than normal groEL. The critical heat-induced modification seems to be phosphorylation, which is reversed on return to low temperature. Treatment of the modified groEL with phosphatases caused its apparent size, charge and binding properties to resemble those of the unmodified form. Thus during heat shock some groEL is reversibly phosphorylated, which allows its ATP-dependent release from protein substrates in the absence of its usual cofactor (groES), and probably promotes the repair of damaged polypeptides.

  20. Regulation of mATG9 trafficking by Src- and ULK1-mediated phosphorylation in basal and starvation-induced autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changqian; Ma, Kaili; Gao, Ruize; Mu, Chenglong; Chen, Linbo; Liu, Qiangqiang; Luo, Qian; Feng, Du; Zhu, Yushan; Chen, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy requires diverse membrane sources and involves membrane trafficking of mATG9, the only membrane protein in the ATG family. However, the molecular regulation of mATG9 trafficking for autophagy initiation remains unclear. Here we identified two conserved classic adaptor protein sorting signals within the cytosolic N-terminus of mATG9, which mediate trafficking of mATG9 from the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network (TGN) via interaction with the AP1/2 complex. Src phosphorylates mATG9 at Tyr8 to maintain its endocytic and constitutive trafficking in unstressed conditions. In response to starvation, phosphorylation of mATG9 at Tyr8 by Src and at Ser14 by ULK1 functionally cooperate to promote interactions between mATG9 and the AP1/2 complex, leading to redistribution of mATG9 from the plasma membrane and juxta-nuclear region to the peripheral pool for autophagy initiation. Our findings uncover novel mechanisms of mATG9 trafficking and suggest a coordination of basal and stress-induced autophagy. PMID:27934868

  1. 1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium iodide (NH125) induces phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2): a cautionary note on the anticancer mechanism of an eEF2 kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zehan; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M; Bui, Mai-Ha; Soni, Niru B; Warrior, Usha; Johnson, Eric F; Donnelly, Jennifer B; Glaser, Keith B

    2011-12-23

    Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) relays growth and stress signals to protein synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). 1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium iodide (NH125) is a widely accepted inhibitor of mammalian eEF2K and an efficacious anti-proliferation agent against different cancer cells. It implied that eEF2K could be an efficacious anticancer target. However, eEF2K siRNA was ineffective against cancer cells including those sensitive to NH125. To test if pharmacological intervention differs from siRNA interference, we identified a highly selective small molecule eEF2K inhibitor A-484954. Like siRNA, A-484954 had little effect on cancer cell growth. We carefully examined the effect of NH125 and A-484954 on phosphorylation of eEF2, the known cellular substrate of eEF2K. Surprisingly, NH125 increased eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas A-484954 inhibited the phosphorylation as expected for an eEF2K inhibitor. Both A-484954 and eEF2K siRNA inhibited eEF2K and reduced eEF2 phosphorylation with little effect on cancer cell growth. These data demonstrated clearly that the anticancer activity of NH125 was more correlated with induction of eEF2 phosphorylation than inhibition of eEF2K. Actually, induction of eEF2 phosphorylation was reported to correlate with inhibition of cancer cell growth. We compared several known inducers of eEF2 phosphorylation including AMPK activators and an mTOR inhibitor. Interestingly, stronger induction of eEF2 phosphorylation correlated with more effective growth inhibition. We also explored signal transduction pathways leading to NH125-induced eEF2 phosphorylation. Preliminary data suggested that NH125-induced eEF2 phosphorylation was likely mediated through multiple pathways. These observations identified an opportunity for a new multipathway approach to anticancer therapies.

  2. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol.

  3. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 μM) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKCα because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKCα was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 μM). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKCα but not AKT.

  4. Metabolic rewiring in cancer cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ): Activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and sensitization to oxidative cell death induced by mitochondrial targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    André, Fanny; Trinh, Anne; Balayssac, Stéphane; Maboudou, Patrice; Dekiouk, Salim; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Quesnel, Bruno; Idziorek, Thierry; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cell metabolism is largely controlled by oncogenic signals and nutrient availability. Here, we highlighted that the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), an intracellular protein influencing many signaling pathways, reprograms cancer cell metabolism to promote proliferation. We provided evidence that GILZ overexpression induced a significant increase of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as evidenced by the augmentation in basal respiration, ATP-linked respiration as well as respiratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of glucose, glutamine and fatty acid oxidation reduced the activation of GILZ-induced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At glycolysis level, GILZ-overexpressing cells enhanced the expression of glucose transporters in their plasmatic membrane and showed higher glycolytic reserve. (1)H NMR metabolites quantification showed an up-regulation of amino acid biosynthesis. The GILZ-induced metabolic reprograming is present in various cancer cell lines regardless of their driver mutations status and is associated with higher proliferation rates persisting under metabolic stress conditions. Interestingly, high levels of OXPHOS made GILZ-overexpressing cells vulnerable to cell death induced by mitochondrial pro-oxidants. Altogether, these data indicate that GILZ reprograms cancer metabolism towards mitochondrial OXPHOS and sensitizes cancer cells to mitochondria-targeted drugs with pro-oxidant activities.

  5. Phosphorylation of the chromatin remodeling factor DPF3a induces cardiac hypertrophy through releasing HEY repressors from DNA.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huanhuan; Schlesinger, Jenny; Schoenhals, Sophia; Tönjes, Martje; Dunkel, Ilona; Meierhofer, David; Cano, Elena; Schulz, Kerstin; Berger, Michael F; Haack, Timm; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Bulyk, Martha L; Sauer, Sascha; Sperling, Silke R

    2016-04-07

    DPF3 (BAF45c) is a member of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. Two isoforms have been described, namely DPF3a and DPF3b. The latter binds to acetylated and methylated lysine residues of histones. Here, we elaborate on the role of DPF3a and describe a novel pathway of cardiac gene transcription leading to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Upon hypertrophic stimuli, casein kinase 2 phosphorylates DPF3a at serine 348. This initiates the interaction of DPF3a with the transcriptional repressors HEY, followed by the release of HEY from the DNA. Moreover, BRG1 is bound by DPF3a, and is thus recruited to HEY genomic targets upon interaction of the two components. Consequently, the transcription of downstream targets such as NPPA and GATA4 is initiated and pathological cardiac hypertrophy is established. In human, DPF3a is significantly up-regulated in hypertrophic hearts of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or aortic stenosis. Taken together, we show that activation of DPF3a upon hypertrophic stimuli switches cardiac fetal gene expression from being silenced by HEY to being activated by BRG1. Thus, we present a novel pathway for pathological cardiac hypertrophy, whose inhibition is a long-term therapeutic goal for the treatment of the course of heart failure.

  6. Hypoxia-Like Signatures Induced by BCR-ABL Potentially Alter the Glutamine Uptake for Maintaining Oxidative Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sontakke, Pallavi; Koczula, Katarzyna M.; Jaques, Jennifer; Wierenga, Albertus T. J.; Brouwers-Vos, Annet Z.; Pruis, Maurien; Günther, Ulrich L.; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions. This coincided with an upregulation of glucose importers SLC2A1/3, hexokinases and HIF1 and 2. NMR-based metabolic profiling was performed in CB CD34+ cells transduced with BCR-ABL versus controls, both cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Lactate and pyruvate levels were increased in BCR-ABL-expressing cells even under normoxia, coinciding with enhanced glutaminolysis which occurred in an HIF1/2-dependent manner. Expression of the glutamine importer SLC1A5 was increased in BCR-ABL+ cells, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES. Oxygen consumption rates also decreased upon BPTES treatment, indicating a glutamine dependency for oxidative phosphorylation. The current study suggests that BCR-ABL-positive cancer cells make use of enhanced glutamine metabolism to maintain TCA cell cycle activity in glycolytic cells. PMID:27055152

  7. Saw palmetto extract suppresses insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and induces stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Carroll, Julie M; Mallinson, Rebecca A; Roberts, Charles T; Roselli, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stromal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for prostate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling pathways activated by the binding of IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) are the ERK arm of the MAPK cascade and the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) cascade. We tested the hypothesis that SPE suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in the P69 prostate epithelial cell line by inhibiting IGF-I signaling. Treatment with 150 microg/ml SPE for 24 h decreased IGF-I-induced proliferation of P69 cells and induced cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), an index of apoptosis. Treatment of serum-starved P69 cells with 150 microg/ml SPE for 6 h reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt (assessed by Western blot) and Akt activity (assessed by an Akt kinase assay). Western blot analysis showed that SPE reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the adapter protein insulin receptor substrate-1 and decreased downstream effects of Akt activation, including increased cyclin D1 levels and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and p70(s6k). There was no effect on IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK, IGF-IR, or Shc. Treatment of starved cells with SPE alone induced phosphorylation the proapoptotic protein JNK. SPE treatment may relieve symptoms of BPH, in part, by inhibiting specific components of the IGF-I signaling pathway and inducing JNK activation, thus mediating antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate epithelia.

  8. Effects of Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal on Fast Spiking Neurons in Mouse Cortical Layer 6B

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Fast spiking (FS) GABAergic neurons are thought to be involved in the generation of high-frequency cortical rhythms during the waking state. We previously showed that cortical layer 6b (L6b) was a specific target for the wake-promoting transmitter, hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx). Here, we have investigated whether L6b FS cells were sensitive to hcrt/orx and other transmitters associated with cortical activation. Recordings were thus made from L6b FS cells in either wild-type mice or in transgenic mice in which GFP-positive GABAergic cells are parvalbumin positive. Whereas in a control condition hcrt/orx induced a strong increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous synaptic currents, in the presence of TTX, it had no effect at all on miniature synaptic currents. Hcrt/orx effect was thus presynaptic although not by an action on glutamatergic terminals but rather on neighboring cells. In contrast, noradrenaline and acetylcholine depolarized and excited these cells through a direct postsynaptic action. Neurotensin, which is colocalized in hcrt/orx neurons, also depolarized and excited these cells but the effect was indirect. Morphologically, these cells exhibited basket-like features. These results suggest that hcrt/orx, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and neurotensin could contribute to high-frequency cortical activity through an action on L6b GABAergic FS cells. PMID:27235100

  9. GSK3 inactivation is involved in mitochondrial complex IV defect in transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1-induced senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Yong-Hak; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Hwang, Sung-Chul; Seong Hwang, Eun; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2012-09-10

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF {beta}1) induces Mv1Lu cell senescence by persistently producing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) through decreased complex IV activity. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of TGF {beta}1 on mitochondrial complex IV activity. TGF {beta}1 progressively phosphorylated the negative regulatory sites of both glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) {alpha} and {beta}, corresponding well to the intracellular ROS generation profile. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, did not alter this GSK3 phosphorylation (inactivation), whereas pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 by SB415286 significantly increased mitochondrial ROS, implying that GSK3 phosphorylation is an upstream event of the ROS generation. GSK3 inhibition by SB415286 decreased complex IV activity and cellular O{sub 2} consumption rate and eventually induced senescence of Mv1Lu cell. Similar results were obtained with siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK3. Moreover, we found that GSK3 not only exists in cytosol but also in mitochondria of Mv1Lu cell and the mitochondrial GSK3 binds complex IV subunit 6b which has no electron carrier and is topologically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Involvement of subunit 6b in controlling complex IV activity and overall respiration rate was proved with siRNA-mediated knockdown of subunit 6b. Finally, TGF {beta}1 treatment decreased the binding of the subunit 6b to GSK3 and subunit 6b phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK3 inactivation is importantly involved in TGF {beta}1-induced complex IV defects through decreasing phosphorylation of the subunit 6b, thereby contributing to senescence-associated mitochondrial ROS generation.

  10. Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ji-Hyun; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seo, Dong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor κB, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo. PMID:26539049

  11. Zinc sulfate inhibited inflammation of Der p2-induced airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chia-Ju; Chiou, Ya-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Inflammation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is believed to be important in causing airway hyperresponsiveness. However, zinc has been reported to be implicated in many kinds of cell inflammation. Little is known about the effect of zinc treatment on Der p2 (group II Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-induced inflammation from ASMCs. This study investigated effects and mechanisms of zinc in Der p2-treated ASMCs. Der p2-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with various concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄) 6 μM, 12 μM, 24 μM, and 96 μM. The proteins and mRNAs of cytokines in ASMCs were examined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Intracellular zinc was stained with Zinquin fluorescence. The cell signaling protein expression was detected by Western blot. Der p2 was used to induce interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production of ASMCs. However, we found that 24 μM ZnSO₄ reduced these inflammatory mediators production of Der p2-treated primary ASMCs. Der p2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation were suppressed by supplementation of 24 μM ZnSO₄. Zinc is an anti-inflammatory agent that reduces inflammation of Der p2-treated ASMCs through the suppression of the ERK and NF-κB pathway. The results may be helpful for the development of effective treatments.

  12. Ischemia in tumors induces early and sustained phosphorylation changes in stress kinase pathways but does not affect global protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, DR; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gillette, Michael; Clauser, Karl; Qiao, Jana; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Davies, Sherri; Ruggles, Kelly; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R. T.; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narcisco; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W.; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D.; Mills, Gordon; Smith, Richard D.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-07-01

    Advances in quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have sparked efforts to characterize the proteomes of tumor samples to provide complementary and unique information inaccessible by genomics. Tumor samples are usually not accrued with proteomic characterization in mind, raising concerns regarding effects of undocumented sample ischemia on protein abundance and phosphosite stoichiometry. Here we report the effects of cold ischemia time on clinical ovarian cancer samples and patient-derived basal and luminal breast cancer xenografts. Tumor tissues were excised and collected prior to vascular ligation, subjected to accurately defined ischemia times up to 60 min, and analyzed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics using isobaric tags and high-performance, multidimensional LC-MS/MS. No significant changes were detected at the protein level in each tumor type after 60 minutes of ischemia, and the majority of the >25,000 phosphosites detected were also stable. However, large, reproducible increases and decreases in protein phosphorylation at specific sites were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome starting as early as 5 minutes post-excision. Early and sustained activation of stress response, transcriptional regulation and cell death pathways were observed in common across tumor types. Tissue-specific changes in phosphosite stability were also observed suggesting idiosyncratic effects of ischemia in particular lineages. Our study provides insights into the information that may be obtained by proteomic characterization of tumor samples after undocumented periods of ischemia, and suggests caution especially in interpreting activation of stress pathways in such samples as they may reflect sample handling rather than tumor physiology.

  13. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist reduces L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Lu; Yang, Xinxin; Ma, Yaping; Wu, Na; Liu, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) has been used as an effective drug for treating dopamine depletion-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term administration of L-DOPA produces motor complications. L-DOPA has also been found to modify the two key signaling cascades, protein kinase A/dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), in striatal neurons, which are thought to play a pivotal role in forming motor complications. In the present study, we tested the possible effect of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist on L-DOPA-stimulated abnormal behavioral and signaling responses in vivo. Intermittent L-DOPA administration for 3 weeks induced motor fluctuation in a rat model of PD induced by intrastriatal infusion of dopamine-depleting neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). A single injection of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 had no effect on L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation. However, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 significantly attenuated abnormal behavioral responses to L-DOPA in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Similarly, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 influence the L-DOPA-induced alteration of DARPP-32 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation status in striatal neurons. These data provide evidence for the active involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of L-DOPA action during PD therapy.

  14. 8-Amino-adenosine induces loss of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt kinase: role in induction of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Ma, Chunguang; Gandhi, Varsha; Platanias, Leonidas C; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2005-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a slowly proliferating B-cell malignancy that accumulates apoptosis-resistant and replication-quiescent cell populations, posing a challenge for current chemotherapeutics that target rapidly replicating cells. Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in need of new therapeutic approaches. The purine nucleoside analogue, 8-amino-adenosine (8-NH2-Ado), exhibits potent activity in preclinical studies, inducing apoptosis in several multiple myeloma cell lines. This cytotoxic effect requires phosphorylation of 8-NH2-Ado to its triphosphate form, 8-amino-ATP, and results in a concomitant loss of endogenous ATP levels. Here, we show the novel effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of key cellular signaling molecules. Multiple myeloma cells treated with 8-NH2-Ado exhibit a dramatic loss of phosphorylation of several important signaling proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt kinase. Cells depleted of ATP independent of 8-NH2-Ado do not exhibit the same decrease in phosphorylation of vital cellular proteins. Therefore, the significant shifts in endogenous ATP pools caused by 8-NH2-Ado treatment cannot account for the changes in phosphorylation levels. Instead, 8-NH2-Ado may influence the activity of select regulatory protein kinases and/or phosphatases, with preliminary data suggesting that protein phophatase 2A activity is affected by 8-NH2-Ado. The distinctive effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins is a novel phenomenon for a nucleoside analogue drug and is unique to 8-NH2-Ado among this class of drugs. The kinetics of 8-NH2-Ado-mediated changes in phosphorylation levels of critical prosurvival and apoptosis-regulating proteins suggests that the modulation of these proteins by dephosphorylation at early time points may be an important mechanistic step in 8-NH2-Ado-induced apoptosis.

  15. The prototoxin LYPD6B modulates heteromeric α3β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not α7 homomers

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Vanessa; George, Andrew A.; Nishi, Rae; Whiteaker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prototoxins are a diverse family of membrane-tethered molecules expressed in the nervous system that modulate nicotinic cholinergic signaling, but their functions and specificity have yet to be completely explored. We tested the selectivity and efficacy of leukocyte antigen, PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor) domain-containing (LYPD)-6B on α3β4-, α3α5β4-, and α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To constrain stoichiometry, fusion proteins encoding concatemers of human α3, β4, and α5 (D and N variants) subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested with or without LYPD6B. We used the 2-electrode voltage-clamp method to quantify responses to acetylcholine (ACh): agonist sensitivity (EC50), maximal agonist-induced current (Imax), and time constant (τ) of desensitization. For β4–α3–α3–β4–α3 and β4–α3–β4–α3–α3, LYPD6B decreased EC50 from 631 to 79 μM, reduced Imax by at least 59%, and decreased τ. For β4–α3–α5D–β4–α3 and β4–α3–β4–α–α5D, LYPD6B decreased Imax by 63 and 32%, respectively. Thus, LYPD6B acted only on (α3)3(β4)2 and (α3)2(α5D)(β4)2 and did not affect the properties of (α3)2(β4)3, α7, or (α3)2(α5N)(β4)2 nAChRs. Therefore, LYPD6B acts as a mixed modulator that enhances the sensitivity of (α3)3(β4)2 nAChRs to ACh while reducing ACh-induced whole-cell currents. LYPD6B also negatively modulates α3β4 nAChRs that include the α5D common human variant, but not the N variant associated with nicotine dependence.—Ochoa, V., George, A. A., Nishi, R., Whiteaker, P. The prototoxin LYPD6B modulates heteromeric α3β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not α7 homomers. PMID:26586467

  16. Modification in hydrophobic packing of HAMP domain induces a destabilization of the auto-phosphorylation site in the histidine kinase CpxA.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marlet; Duclert-Savatier, Nathalie; Betton, Jean-Michel; Alzari, Pedro M; Nilges, Michael; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2016-10-01

    The histidine kinases belong to the family of two-component systems, which serves in bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses. Most of the histidine kinases are homodimers, in which the HAMP and DHp domains assemble into an elongated helical region flanked by two CA domains. Recently, X-ray crystallographic structures of the cytoplasmic region of the Escherichia coli histidine kinase CpxA were determined and a phosphotransferase-defective mutant, M228V, located in HAMP, was identified. In the present study, we recorded 1 μs molecular dynamics trajectories to compare the behavior of the WT and M228V protein dimers. The M228V modification locally induces the appearance of larger voids within HAMP as well as a perturbation of the number of voids within DHp, thus destabilizing the HAMP and DHp hydrophobic packing. In addition, a disruption of the stacking interaction between F403 located in the lid of the CA domain involved in the auto-phosphorylation and R296 located in the interacting DHp region, is more often observed in the presence of the M228V modification. Experimental modifications R296A and R296D of CpxA have been observed to reduce also the CpxA activity. These observations agree with the destabilization of the R296/F403 stacking, and could be the sign of the transmission of a conformational event taking place in HAMP to the auto-phosphorylation site of histidine kinase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 670-682, 2016.

  17. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions.

  18. Inhibition of the processing of miR-25 by HIPK2-Phosphorylated-MeCP2 induces NOX4 in early diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyung Jung; Kato, Mitsuo; Deshpande, Supriya; Zhang, Erli; Sadhan, Das; Lanting, Linda; Wang, Mei; Natarajan, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylated methyl-CpG binding protein2 (p-MeCP2) suppresses the processing of several microRNAs (miRNAs). Homeo-domain interacting protein kinase2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates MeCP2, a known transcriptional repressor. However, it is not known if MeCP2 and HIPK2 are involved in processing of miRNAs implicated in diabetic nephropathy. p-MeCP2 and HIPK2 levels were significantly increased, but Seven in Absentia Homolog1 (SIAH1), which mediates proteasomal degradation of HIPK2, was decreased in the glomeruli of streptozotocin injected diabetic mice. Among several miRNAs, miR-25 and its precursor were significantly decreased in diabetic mice, whereas primary miR-25 levels were significantly increased. NADPH oxidase4 (NOX4), a target of miR-25, was significantly increased in diabetic mice. Protein levels of p-MeCP2, HIPK2, and NOX4 were increased in high glucose (HG)- or TGF-β-treated mouse glomerular mesangial cells (MMCs). miR-25 (primary, precursor, and mature) and mRNA levels of genes indicated in the in vivo study showed similar trends of regulation in MMCs treated with HG or TGF-β. The HG- or TGF-β-induced upregulation of p-MeCP2, NOX4 and primary miR-25, but downregulation of precursor and mature miR-25, were attenuated by Hipk2 siRNA. These results demonstrate a novel role for the SIAH1/HIPK2/MeCP2 axis in suppressing miR-25 processing and thereby upregulating NOX4 in early diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27941951

  19. Transcriptional response elements in the promoter of CYP6B1, an insect P450 gene regulated by plant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rebecca A; Niamsup, Hataichanoke; Berenbaum, May R; Schuler, Mary A

    2003-02-17

    Papilio polyxenes, a lepidopteran continually exposed to toxic furanocoumarins in its hostplants, owes its tolerance to these compounds to the transcriptional induction of the CYP6B1 gene encoding a P450 capable of metabolizing linear furanocoumarins, such as xanthotoxin, at high rates. Transient expression of various lengths of wild-type and mutant CYP6B1v3 promoter in lepidopteran Sf9 cells defines a positive element (XRE-xan) from -136 to -119 required for both basal and xanthotoxin-inducible transcription and a negative element from -228 to -146 that represses basal transcription. Fusion of the CYP6B1v3 XRE-xan element to the Drosophila melanogaster Eip28/29 core promoter indicates that the XRE-xan functions in conjunction with its own core promoter but not with a heterologous core promoter. Sequence searches of the CYP6B1v3 proximal promoter region revealed a number of putative elements (XRE-AhR, ARE, OCT-1, EcRE, C/EBP, Inr) sharing sequence similarity with those in other regulated vertebrate and insect promoters. Mutation of TGAC nucleotides shared by the overlapping EcRE/ARE/XRE-xan indicates that this sequence is essential for basal and regulated transcription of this gene. Mutagenesis in the non-overlapping region of the EcRE indicates it modulates basal transcription. These findings are incorporated into a working model for regulation of this toxin-inducible promoter.

  20. Validation of the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Clitocybe nuda by Assessment of Glucose Transporter 4 and Gluconeogenesis and AMPK Phosphorylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Chen, Mei-Hsing; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of extract of Clitocybe nuda (CNE) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by injection of STZ. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into five groups and given orally CNE (C1: 0.2, C2: 0.5, and C3: 1.0 g/kg body weight) or metformin (Metf) or vehicle for 4 weeks. STZ induction decreased in the levels of insulin, body weight, and the weight of skeletal muscle, whereas the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin nonenzymatically (percent HbA1c), and circulating triglyceride (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, resp.) were increased. CNE decreased the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, whereas it increased the levels of insulin and leptin compared with the vehicle-treated STZ group. STZ induction caused a decrease in the protein contents of skeletal muscular and hepatic phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK) and muscular glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Muscular phospho-AMPK contents were increased in C2-, C3-, and Metf-treated groups. CNE and Metf significantly increased the muscular proteins of GLUT4. Liver phospho-AMPK showed an increase in all CNE- and Metf-treated groups combined with the decreased hepatic glucose production by decreasing phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed to attenuating diabetic state. The study indicated that the hypoglycemic properties of CNE were related to both the increased muscular glucose uptake and the reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. CNE exerts hypolipidemic effect by increasing gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and decreasing expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2. Therefore, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by CNE in STZ-induced

  1. 16 CFR 1101.43 - Section 6(b)(4)(A) exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Section 6(b)(4)(A) exception. 1101.43 Section 1101.43 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... of Section 6(b)(4) § 1101.43 Section 6(b)(4)(A) exception. (a) Statutory provision. Section...

  2. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  3. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  4. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  5. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  6. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  7. 16 CFR 1101.43 - Section 6(b)(4)(A) exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Section 6(b)(4)(A) exception. 1101.43 Section 1101.43 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Statutory Exceptions of Section 6(b)(4) § 1101.43 Section...

  8. Apigenin Attenuates Atherogenesis through Inducing Macrophage Apoptosis via Inhibition of AKT Ser473 Phosphorylation and Downregulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qun; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Tang, Jing; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Sun, Xue-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage survival is believed to be a contributing factor in the development of early atherosclerotic lesions. Dysregulated apoptosis of macrophages is involved in the inflammatory process of atherogenesis. Apigenin is a flavonoid that possesses various clinically relevant properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and antitumor activities. Here we showed that apigenin attenuated atherogenesis in apoE (-/-) mice in an in vivo test. In vitro experiments suggested that apigenin induced apoptosis of oxidized low density lipoprotein- (OxLDL-) loaded murine peritoneal macrophages (MPMs). Proteomic analysis showed that apigenin reduced the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). PAI-2 has antiapoptotic effects in OxLDL-loaded MPMs. Enhancing PAI-2 expression significantly reduced the proapoptosis effects of apigenin. Molecular docking assay with AutoDock software predicted that residue Ser473 of Akt1 is a potential binding site for apigenin. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Akt1 wild type weakened the proapoptosis effect of apigenin in OxLDL-loaded MPMs. Collectively, apigenin executes its anti-atherogenic effects through inducing OxLDL-loaded MPMs apoptosis. The proapoptotic effects of apigenin were at least partly attributed to downregulation of PAI-2 through suppressing phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473.

  9. Suppression of phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation by cinnamaldehyde inhibits antigen-induced extracellular calcium influx and degranulation in mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Wang, Xiaoyu; Katagiri, Tatsuo; Wang, Ping; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2011-12-16

    Antigen-IgE-mediated mucosal mast-cell activation is critical in the development of food allergies. Cinnamaldehyde, a major constituent of Cinnamomi cortex, dose-dependently inhibited the antigen-IgE-induced degranulation of mucosal-type bone-marrow derived mast cells (mBMMCs) and RBL-2H3 cells. Cinnamaldehyde also suppressed the elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) level that is induced by the extracellular Ca(2+) influx in antigen-IgE-stimulated mBMMCs. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ1, which is a crucial activation switch for the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in mast cells, was attenuated by cinnamaldehyde. Together, our results demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and the degranulation of mucosal mast cells by inhibiting the activity of the IgE receptor-PLCγ-Ca(2+) influx pathway. These findings suggest that cinnamaldehyde may have therapeutic potential in mucosal mast cell-related allergic diseases, such as food allergies.

  10. Dexmedetomidine Dose-Dependently Attenuates Ropivacaine-Induced Seizures and Negative Emotions Via Inhibiting Phosphorylation of Amygdala Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ming-Zhu; Wu, Huang-Hui; Yin, Jun-Bin; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Mei, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Xia; Shen, Xue-Feng; Kaye, Alan David; Chen, Guo-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Ropivacaine (Ropi), one of the newest and safest amino amide local anesthetics, is linked to toxicity, including the potential for seizures, changes in behavior, and even cardiovascular collapse. Dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been widely used in anesthesia and critical care practice. To date, the underlying mechanisms of the effects of Dex premedication on Ropi-induced toxicity have not been clearly identified. In the current study, we investigated the effects of increasing doses of Dex premedication on 50% convulsive dose (CD50) of Ropi. With increasing doses of intraperitoneal (i.p.) Dex 10 min prior to each i.p. RopiCD50, the latency and duration of seizure activity were recorded. Open-field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test were used to measure negative behavioral emotions such as depression and anxiety. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were utilized to investigate phosphorylation-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on 2 h and in the central amygdala (CeA) on 24 h after convulsion in mice. The results of our investigation demonstrated that Dex dose-dependently increased RopiCD50, prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of each RopiCD50-induced seizure, improved the negative emotions revealed by both OF and EPM test, and inhibited p-ERK expression in the BLA and the CeA.

  11. Green tea catechins inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro through suppression of VE-cadherin phosphorylation and inactivation of Akt molecule.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng-Yao; Nguyen, Nhan; Meydani, Mohsen

    2003-10-10

    Studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain forms of cancer and angiogenesis. The mechanism of inhibition of angiogenesis by green tea or its catechins, however, has not been well-established. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adhesive molecule located at the site of intercellular contact, is involved in cell-cell recognition during vascular morphogenesis. The extracellular domain of VE-cadherin mediates initial cell adhesion, whereas the cytosolic tail binding with beta-catenin is required for interaction with the cytoskeleton and junctional strength. Therefore, the cadherin-catenin adhesion system is implicated in cell recognition, differentiation, growth and migration of capillary endothelium. Using tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) in culture as an in vitro model of angiogenesis, we reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation is inhibited by anti-VE-cadherin antibody and dose-dependently by green tea catechins. We also demonstrated here that inhibition of tube formation by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea catechins, is in part mediated through suppression of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of Akt activation during VEGF-induced tube formation. These findings indicate that VE-cadherin and Akt, known downstream proteins in VEGFR-2-mediated cascade, are the new-targeted proteins by which green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis.

  12. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via suppression of NF-{kappa}B p65 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nawa, Yuko; Miura, Naoki; Shrestha, Binita; Tancharoen, Salunya; Sameshima, Hisayo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2009-03-06

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages by activating NF-{kappa}B, which contributes to the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6. 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide formed from starch and glycogen, exhibits anti-oxidant activity and enhances insulin secretion. This study examined the effects of 1,5-AF on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Before LPS challenge, mice were pretreated with 1,5-AF (38.5 mg/kg). We found that 1,5-AF pretreatment attenuated cytokine release into the serum, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Furthermore, pretreatment with 1,5-AF (500 {mu}g/ml) attenuated cytokine release, and 1,5-AF directly inhibited the nuclear translocalization of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. This inhibition was responsible for decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation on Ser536 of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit, which is a posttranslational modification involved in the non-canonical pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,5-AF occurs via inactivation of NF-{kappa}B.

  13. Cold- and salinity stress-induced bipolar pea DNA helicase 47 is involved in protein synthesis and stimulated by phosphorylation with protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Ajay Amar; Pradhan, Arun; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2005-10-01

    Helicases are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acid; this is very sensitive to the abiotic stresses that reduce plant growth and productivity. However, the molecular targets responsible for this sensitivity have not been well studied. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of cold- and salinity stress-induced pea DNA helicase 47 (PDH47). The transcript of PDH47 was induced in both shoots and roots under cold (4 degrees C) and salinity (300 mm NaCl) stress, but there was no change in response to drought stress. Tissue-specific differential regulation was observed under heat (37 degrees C) stress. ABA treatment did not alter expression of PDH47 in shoots but induced its mRNA in roots, indicating a role for PDH47 in both the ABA-independent and ABA-dependent pathways in abiotic stress. The purified recombinant protein (47 kDa) contains ATP-dependent DNA and RNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. With the help of photoaffinity labeling, PDH47 was labeled by [alpha-32P]-ATP. PDH47 is a unique bipolar helicase that contains both 3' to 5' and 5' to 3' directional helicase activities. Anti-PDH47 antibodies immunodeplete the activities of PDH47 and inhibit in vitro translation of protein. Furthermore, the PDH47 protein showed upregulation of protein synthesis. The activities of PDH47 are stimulated after phosphorylation by protein kinase C at Ser and Thr residues. Western blot analysis and in vivo immunostaining, followed by confocal microscopy, showed PDH47 to be localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. The discovery of cold- and salinity stress-induced DNA helicase should make an important contribution to a better understanding of DNA metabolism and stress signaling in plants. Its bipolar helicase activities may also be involved in distinct cellular processes in stressed conditions.

  14. Murine T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin 2 correlates with a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity and the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y H; Buchholz, M J; Nordin, A A

    1993-01-01

    The addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to anti-CD3-activated murine G0 phase T cells results in an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a single 97-kDa protein. The degree of tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the amount of rIL-2 added and correlated with the extent of DNA synthesis. IL-2 treatment resulted in a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity without detectable modification of its level of tyrosine phosphorylation and gel mobility. When G0 T cells were activated by phorbol dibutyrate in the absence of IL-2, the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expressed failed to induce a proliferative signal, and neither the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein nor the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity was detected. Northern analysis of the total RNA extracted from these cells showed the accumulation of IL-2R alpha chain-specific mRNA but neither c-myc nor cdc2 mRNA was expressed. The addition of 100 nM rIL-2 to T cells activated by phorbol dibutyrate was able to induce a proliferative response, and under these conditions tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein, the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity, and specific mRNA for IL-2R alpha chain, c-myc, and cdc2 were detected. Unstimulated G0 T cells responded to 100 nM rIL-2 in the same manner as phorbol dibutyrate-activated cells. Irrespective of the signal-transducing structures involved, the IL-2-induced proliferative response closely correlates with an increase in p56lck kinase activity along with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7682694

  15. Antineoplastic copper coordinated complexes (Casiopeinas) uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and induce mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiac mitochondria and cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Silva-Platas, Christian; Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Carrancá, Mariana; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Bernal-Ramírez, Judith; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; González, Lorena N; Rojo, Rocío; Martínez, Luis Enrique; Valiente-Banuet, Juan; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Bravo-Gómez, María Elena; García, Noemí; Carvajal, Karla; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    Copper-based drugs, Casiopeinas (Cas), exhibit antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Unfortunately, the clinical use of these novel chemotherapeutics could be limited by the development of dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas cardiotoxicity and anticancer activity are not completely understood. Here, we explore the potential impact of Cas on the cardiac mitochondria energetics as the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas-induced cardiotoxicity. To explore the properties on mitochondrial metabolism, we determined Cas effects on respiration, membrane potential, membrane permeability, and redox state in isolated cardiac mitochondria. The effect of Cas on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was also evaluated in isolated cardiomyocytes by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Cas IIIEa, IIgly, and IIIia predominately inhibited maximal NADH- and succinate-linked mitochondrial respiration, increased the state-4 respiration rate and reduced membrane potential, suggesting that Cas also act as mitochondrial uncouplers. Interestingly, cyclosporine A inhibited Cas-induced mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Similarly to isolated mitochondria, in isolated cardiomyocytes, Cas treatment decreased the Δψm and cyclosporine A treatment prevented mitochondrial depolarization. The production of H2O2 increased in Cas-treated mitochondria, which might also increase the oxidation of mitochondrial proteins such as adenine nucleotide translocase. In accordance, an antioxidant scavenger (Tiron) significantly diminished Cas IIIia mitochondrial depolarization. Cas induces a prominent loss of membrane potential, associated with alterations in redox state, which increases mPTP opening, potentially due to thiol-dependent modifications of the pore, suggesting that direct or indirect inhibition of mPTP opening might

  16. [HPV DNA vaccines expressing recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 fusion protein inhibit tumor growth and angiogenic activity].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Ke-Jia; Zhu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Xing

    2007-11-01

    This paper was to study the angiogenic inhibitory effect and the potential antitumor effect of the constructed recombinant DNA vaccine CRT/HPV6bE7 in vivo. The C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated respectively with recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 DNA plamids. The inhibitory effects on angiogenesis of generated vaccines in vivo were evaluated by a bFGF-induced angiogenesis assay using the Matrigel kit. To investigate the potential antitumor effect, the mean tumor weights, sizes and tumor appearing times were measured in C57BL/6 mice treated with HPV6bE7-expressing B16 cells. The results indicated that the recombinants CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 showed strong anti-angiogenic effects in bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 DNA vaccines could significantly inhibit the tumor growth in tumor challenge experiment, and CRT180/HPV6bE7 was superior to other vaccines in delaying tumor formation time, limiting tumor size and weight in tumor protection experiment. In conclusion, recombinant CRT180/HPV6bE7 DNA could elicit a most efficient anti-angiogenic effect and inhibit tumor growth in mice inoculated with DNA vaccines. The antiangiogenic activity of CRT were suggested residing in a domain between CRT 120-180 aa.

  17. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 promotes transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via control of linker phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Velden, Jos L J van der; Alcorn, John F; Guala, Amy S; Badura, Elsbeth C H L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W

    2011-04-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a key mediator of lung remodeling and fibrosis. Epithelial cells are both a source of and can respond to TGF-β1 with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We recently determined that TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung epithelial cells requires the presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1. Because TGF-β1 signals via Smad complexes, the goal of the present study was to determine the impact of JNK1 on phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad3-dependent transcriptional responses in lung epithelial cells. Evaluation of JNK1-deficient lung epithelial cells demonstrated that TGF-β1-induced terminal phosphorylation of Smad3 was similar, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase sites in the linker regions of Smad3 was diminished, in JNK1-deficient cells compared with wild-type cells. In comparison to wild-type Smad3, expression of a mutant Smad3 in which linker mitogen-activated protein kinase sites were ablated caused a marked attenuation in JNK1 or TGF-β1-induced Smad-binding element transcriptional activity, and expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibronectin-1, high-mobility group A2, CArG box-binding factor-A, and fibroblast-specific protein-1, genes critical in the process of EMT. JNK1 enhanced the interaction between Smad3 and Smad4, which depended on linker phosphorylation of Smad3. Conversely, Smad3 with phosphomimetic mutations in the linker domain further enhanced EMT-related genes and proteins, even in the absence of JNK1. Finally, we demonstrated a TGF-β1-induced interaction between Smad3 and JNK1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Smad3 phosphorylation in the linker region and Smad transcriptional activity are directly or indirectly controlled by JNK1, and provide a putative mechanism whereby JNK1 promotes TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  18. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  19. RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.

    PubMed

    Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts.

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation, hyperactivation and progesterone-induced acrosome reaction are enhanced in IVF media: an effect that is not associated with an increase in protein kinase A activation.

    PubMed

    Moseley, F L C; Jha, K N; Björndahl, Lars; Brewis, I A; Publicover, S J; Barratt, C L R; Lefièvre, L

    2005-07-01

    Sperm capacitation is a prerequisite for successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) and therefore a focus of sperm preparation in IVF laboratories. The technology of IVF is, therefore, potentially valuable in advancing our understanding of the molecular processes that occur during sperm capacitation. We have investigated sperm capacitation induced by a commercial IVF medium compared to that occurring in standard capacitating medium (CM) typically used in a nonclinical setting. Percoll-washed spermatozoa were resuspended in Cook Sydney IVF medium, Cook Sydney IVF sperm buffer, Earle's balanced salt medium (capacitating medium) or a modified Earle's balanced salt medium [non-capacitating medium (NCM)] for up to 120 min at 37 degrees C and, if applicable, in the presence of 5% CO2 in air. Sperm protein kinase A (PKA) activity, PKA-dependent serine/threonine phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation, hyperactivation and progesterone-induced acrosome reaction were evaluated. IVF medium was shown to accelerate sperm capacitation (compared with capacitating medium) as determined by tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm hyperactivation and progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. This effect was not associated with enhanced activation of PKA or increased levels of serine/threonine phosphorylation. In contrast, IVF sperm buffer (used for sperm preparation) did not stimulate sperm capacitation when incubated for up to 90 min. We have shown that different capacitating media vary strikingly in their efficacy and that this difference reflects activation of a pathway other than the well-characterized activation of soluble adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/PKA.

  1. Increased sensitivity to alcohol induced changes in ERK Map kinase phosphorylation and memory disruption in adolescent as compared to adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Marina; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-04-21

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain development that is accompanied by increased probability of risky behavior, such as alcohol use. Emerging research indicates that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the behavioral effects of acute ethanol as compared to adults but the neurobiological mechanisms of this effect remain to be fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate effects of acute ethanol on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. We also sought to determine if age-specific effects of ethanol on p-ERK1/2 are associated with ethanol-induced behavioral deficits on acquisition of the hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition (NOR) test. Adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice were administered acute ethanol (0 0.5, 1, or 3g/kg, i.p.). Brains were removed 30-min post injection and processed for analysis of p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity (IR). Additional groups of mice were administered ethanol (0 or 1g/kg) prior to the NOR test. Analysis of p-ERK1/2 IR showed that untreated adolescent mice had significantly higher levels of p-ERK1/2 IR in the nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala (BLA), central amygdala (CeA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as compared to adults. Ethanol (1g/kg) selectively reduced p-ERK1/2 IR in the dentate gyrus and increased p-ERK1/2 IR in the BLA only in adolescent mice. Ethanol (3g/kg) produced the same effects on p-ERK1/2 IR in both age groups with increases in CeA and mPFC, but a decrease in the dentate gyrus, as compared to age-matched saline controls. Pretreatment with ethanol (1g/kg) disrupted performance on the NOR test specifically in adolescents, which corresponds with the ethanol-induced inhibition of p-ERK1/2 IR in the hippocampus. These data show that adolescent mice have differential expression of basal p-ERK1/2 IR in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. Acute ethanol produces a unique set of changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the adolescent

  2. Regulation of CD3-induced phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) tyrosine phosphorylation by CD4 and CD45 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, S B; Deans, J P; Ledbetter, J A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of the signal transduction cascade in T cells through the T-cell receptor (CD3) coincides with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) pathway. activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) occurs through tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells following surface ligation of CD3 receptors with CD3-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Here we show that cross-linking of CD4 molecules with CD3 augments the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1, while co-ligation of CD3 with CD45 (a receptor tyrosine phosphatase) results in reduced PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Mobilization of intracellular calcium correlated with the extent of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that PLC gamma 1 enzymatic activity in T cells may be regulated by its phosphorylation state. The time-course of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells stimulated by soluble anti-CD3 was transient and closely paralleled that of calcium mobilization, while the kinetics in cells stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 were prolonged. The PI-PLC pathway in T cells was not stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 2, a homologue of PLC gamma 1, demonstrating the strict regulation of PLC gamma isoform usage in CD3-stimulated T cells. A 35,000/36,000 MW tyrosine phosphorylated protein in T cells formed stable complexes with PLC gamma 1, and its tyrosine phosphorylation was co-regulated with that of PLC gamma 1 by CD4 and CD45 receptors. Enzymatic activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1 occurs during growth factor stimulation of fibroblasts, where PLC gamma 1 exists in multi-component complexes. The observation that PLC gamma 1 exists in complexes with unique tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in T cells suggests that haematopoietic lineage-specific proteins associated with PLC gamma 1 may play roles in cellular signalling. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:1533389

  3. Contrasting features of ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation at the ERK1/2-dependent site in the rat brain in status epilepticus induced by kainic acid in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Yoko; Nairn, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro. However, studies examining ERK1/2 activity and its substrate phosphorylation in parallel are scarce especially in seizure models. We have been studying the phosphorylation state of the presynaptic protein, synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent and -independent sites in various types of seizure models and showed that ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I was indeed under control of ERK1/2 activity in vivo. To further expand our study, here we examined the effects of prolonged seizure activity on ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation by using status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA-SE) in rats in vivo. In KA-SE, robust ERK1/2 activation was observed in the hippocampus, a representative limbic structure, with lesser activation in the parietal cortex, a representative non-limbic structure. In contrast, the phosphorylation level of synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent phospho-site 4/5 was profoundly decreased, the extent of which was much larger in the hippocampus than in the parietal cortex. In addition, phosphorylation at other ERK1/2-independent phospho-sites in synapsin I also showed an even larger decrease. All these changes disappeared after recovery from KA-SE. These results indicate that the phosphorylation state of synapsin I is dynamically regulated by the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. The contrasting features of robust ERK1/2 activation yet synapsin I dephosphorylation may be indicative of an irreversible pathological outcome of the epileptic state in vivo. PMID:26320550

  4. Ubiquitylation, phosphorylation and Orc2 modulate the subcellular location of Orc1 and prevent it from inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tapas; Ghosh, Soma; Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have suggested that the activity of the mammalian origin recognition complex (ORC) is regulated by cell-cycle-dependent changes in its Orc1 subunit. Here, we show that Orc1 modifications such as mono-ubiquitylation and hyperphosphorylation that occur normally during S and G2-M phases, respectively, can cause Orc1 to accumulate in the cytoplasm. This would suppress reassembly of pre-replication complexes until mitosis is complete. In the absence of these modifications, transient expression of Orc1 rapidly induced p53-independent apoptosis, and Orc1 accumulated perinuclearly rather than uniformly throughout the nucleus. This behavior mimicked the increased concentration and perinuclear accumulation of endogenous Orc1 in apoptotic cells that arise spontaneously in proliferating cell cultures. Remarkably, expression of Orc1 in the presence of an equivalent amount of Orc2, the only ORC subunit that did not induce apoptosis, prevented induction of apoptosis and restored uniform nuclear localization of Orc1. This would promote assembly of ORC-chromatin sites, such as occurs during the transition from M to G1 phase. These results provide direct evidence in support of the regulatory role proposed for Orc1, and suggest that aberrant DNA replication during mammalian development could result in apoptosis through the appearance of ‘unmodified’ Orc1. PMID:16537645

  5. Role of phosphorylated histone H3 serine 10 in DEN-induced deregulation of Pol III genes and cell proliferation and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    The products of Pol III genes (RNA polymerase III-dependent genes), such as tRNAs and 5S rRNA, are elevated in both transformed and tumor cells suggesting that they play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. An increase in Brf1 (TFIIIB-related factor 1), a subunit of TFIIIB, augments Pol III gene transcription and is sufficient for cell transformation and tumor formation. We have demonstrated that enhancement of Brf1 and Pol III gene expression is associated with the occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. This suggests that Brf1 may be a key molecule during HCC development. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a chemical carcinogen, has been used to induce HCC in rodents. To determine the role of Brf1 and the epigenetic-regulating events in cell proliferation and transformation, hepatocytes were treated with DEN. The results indicate that DEN increases proliferation and transformation of AML-12 cells. DEN enhanced Brf1 expression and tRNALeu and 5S rRNA transcription, as well as H3S10ph (phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 10). Interestingly, DEN-induced Pol III gene transcription and H3S10ph in tumor cells of liver are significantly higher than in non-tumor cells. Inhibition of H3S10ph by H3S10A attenuates the induction of Brf1 and Pol III genes. Further analysis indicates that H3S10ph occupies the promoters of Brf1 and Pol III genes to modulate their expression. Blocking H3S10ph represses cell proliferation and transformation. These results demonstrate that DEN induces H3S10ph, which mediate Brf1 expression, including but not limited Brf1-dependent genes, to upregulate Pol III gene transcription, resulting in an increase in cell proliferation and transformation. PMID:23774401

  6. CP-154,526 Modifies CREB Phosphorylation and Thioredoxin-1 Expression in the Dentate Gyrus following Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Camejo, Daymi M; Almela, Pilar; Jiménez, Ana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Sevilla, Francisca; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts as neuro-regulator of the behavioral and emotional integration of environmental and endogenous stimuli associated with drug dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a functional protein controlling the redox status of several proteins, which is involved in addictive processes. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the rewarding properties of morphine by using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We also investigate the effects of the CRF1R antagonist, CP-154,526, on the morphine CPP-induced activation of CRF neurons, CREB phosphorylation and Trx expression in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dentate gyrus (DG) of the mice brain. CP-154,526 abolished the acquisition of morphine CPP and the increase of CRF/pCREB positive neurons in PVN. Moreover, this CRF1R antagonist prevented morphine-induced CRF-immunoreactive fibers in DG, as well as the increase in pCREB expression in both the PVN and DG. In addition, morphine exposure induced an increase in Trx-1 expression in DG without any alterations in PVN. We also observed that the majority of pCREB positive neurons in DG co-expressed Trx-1, suggesting that Trx-1 could activate CREB in the DG, a brain region involved in memory consolidation. Altogether, these results support the idea that CRF1R antagonist blocked Trx-1 expression and pCREB/Trx-1 co-localization, indicating a critical role of CRF, through CRF1R, in molecular changes involved in morphine associated behaviors.

  7. Long-term treatment with fasudil improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension via inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Bei, Yihua; Hua-Huy, Thông; Duong-Quy, Sy; Nguyen, Viet-Ha; Chen, Weihua; Nicco, Carole; Batteux, Frédéric; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) considerably worsens prognosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). RhoA/Rho-kinases (ROCK) pathway is implicated in high pulmonary vascular tone and pulmonary fibrosis but the effect of ROCK inhibitors on PH associated with PF is not known. We therefore aimed to determine whether long-term treatment with fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, could attenuate PF and PH induced by bleomycin in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a single dose of intratracheal bleomycin (3.3 U/kg) to induce PF. Treatment with fasudil (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was given intraperitoneally for 7, 14 or 21 days until mice underwent hemodynamic measurements. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and RV/(LV + S) ratio were assessed. Lung inflammatory cells profiles, including macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes B and lymphocytes T were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lung fibrosis was evaluated by histological and biochemical methods. Pulmonary arteriole muscularization and medial wall thickness (MWT) were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA. Bleomycin induced severe PF and PH in mice, associated with an increased RhoA/ROCK activity in the lung. Fasudil reduced lung inflammation and lung collagen content, and attenuated the increased RVSP, RV hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular remodeling in bleomycin-intoxicated mice. Fasudil inhibited the increased activity of RhoA/ROCK pathway, and partly altered bleomycin-associated activation of TGF-β1/Smad pathway, via inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation. The efficacy of long-term treatment with fasudil suggests that the blockade of RhoA/ROCK pathway may be a promising therapy for patients with ILD-associated PH.

  8. Stress- and mitogen-induced phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein Hsp25 by MAPKAP kinase 2 is not essential for chaperone properties and cellular thermoresistance.

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, U; Jakob, U; Engel, K; Buchner, J; Gaestel, M

    1994-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) show a very rapid stress- and mitogen-dependent phosphorylation by MAPKAP kinase 2. Based on this observation, phosphorylation of sHsps was thought to play a key role in mediating thermoresistance immediately after heat shock, before the increased synthesis of heat shock proteins becomes relevant. We have analysed the phosphorylation dependence of the chaperone and thermoresistance-mediating properties of the small heat shock protein Hsp25. Surprisingly, overexpression of Hsp25 mutants, which are not phosphorylated in the transfected cells, confers the same thermoresistant phenotype as overexpression of wild type Hsp25, which is either mono- or bis-phosphorylated at serine residues 15 and 86 within the cells. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylated Hsp25 shows the same oligomerization properties and the same chaperone activity as the nonphosphorylated protein. No differences between phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated Hsp25 are detected in preventing thermal aggregation of unfolding proteins and assisting refolding of denatured proteins. The results suggest that chaperone properties of the small heat shock proteins contribute to the increased cellular thermoresistance in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Images PMID:7905823

  9. Temporal changes in ERK phosphorylation are harmonious with 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K, during clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy in the rat gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Koichiro; Higashi, Seiichiro; Natsume, Midori; Kawahata, Keiko; Nakazato, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for clenbuterol (CB)-dependent fast-type myofibril enlargement; however, its contribution to translation control is unclear. ERK mediates translational regulation through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and (or) mTORC1-independent pathways. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ERK in translational control during CB-induced muscular hypertrophy by measuring time-dependent changes in the phosphorylation statuses of ERK, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K; an indicator of mTORC1 activity), 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and other related signaling molecules in rat gastrocnemius muscles. Five-day administration of CB induced phenotypes associated with muscular hypertrophy (significant increases in wet weight and isometric ankle flexion torque in the gastrocnemius muscle), but was not accompanied by elevated ERK or p70S6K phosphorylation. One-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1. In contrast, 3-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K. In addition, positive correlations were observed between ERK and 4E-BP1 on days 1 and 3, whereas a correlation between ERK and p70S6K was only observed on day 1. eEF2 phosphorylation was unchanged on both days 1 and 3. These findings suggest that ERK accelerates the initiation of translation, but does not support the involvement of ERK in translational elongation. Furthermore, ERK may play a major role in promoting translational initiation by mediating the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, and may contribute to the initial activation of mTORC1 during CB administration.

  10. The prototoxin LYPD6B modulates heteromeric α3β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not α7 homomers.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Vanessa; George, Andrew A; Nishi, Rae; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Prototoxins are a diverse family of membrane-tethered molecules expressed in the nervous system that modulate nicotinic cholinergic signaling, but their functions and specificity have yet to be completely explored. We tested the selectivity and efficacy of leukocyte antigen, PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor) domain-containing (LYPD)-6B on α3β4-, α3α5β4-, and α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To constrain stoichiometry, fusion proteins encoding concatemers of human α3, β4, and α5 (D and N variants) subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested with or without LYPD6B. We used the 2-electrode voltage-clamp method to quantify responses to acetylcholine (ACh): agonist sensitivity (EC50), maximal agonist-induced current (Imax), and time constant (τ) of desensitization. For β4-α3-α3-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α3-α3, LYPD6B decreased EC50 from 631 to 79 μM, reduced Imax by at least 59%, and decreased τ. For β4-α3-α5D-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α-α5D, LYPD6B decreased Imax by 63 and 32%, respectively. Thus, LYPD6B acted only on (α3)3(β4)2 and (α3)2(α5D)(β4)2 and did not affect the properties of (α3)2(β4)3, α7, or (α3)2(α5N)(β4)2 nAChRs. Therefore, LYPD6B acts as a mixed modulator that enhances the sensitivity of (α3)3(β4)2 nAChRs to ACh while reducing ACh-induced whole-cell currents. LYPD6B also negatively modulates α3β4 nAChRs that include the α5D common human variant, but not the N variant associated with nicotine dependence.

  11. Simvastatin induces insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes by suppressing insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression and GSK-3β phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; Kokkola, Tarja

    2016-11-11

    Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent data indicates that simvastatin increases the risk of new-onset diabetes by impairing both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, systematic evaluation of mechanistic pathways is lacking. We aimed to explore the effects of simvastatin on glucose uptake and underlying mechanisms using L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. We performed our experiments at basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, at normal (5.5 mM) and high (16.7 mM) glucose. We showed that simvastatin inhibited glucose uptake at all conditions. We also found out that pravastatin, another widely used statin with different physicochemical properties, did not inhibit glucose uptake. The effect of simvastatin was reversed with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not with farnesyl pyrophosphate, implying that reduced protein geranylgeranylation has a role in simvastatin-induced insulin resistance. Simvastatin also decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and downregulated GLUT4. In conclusion, our data indicate that simvastatin decreased both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through inhibiting the critical steps in IR/IRS-1/AKT signaling cascade, and by hindering GLUT4 function and normal regulation of glycogen synthesis, contributing to insulin resistance.

  12. The human chemokine receptor CCRL2 suppresses chemotaxis and invasion by blocking CCL2-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei-Ping; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Bi-Yun; Hu, Xi-Chun; Shao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Ou, Zhou-Luo

    2015-11-01

    The human chemokine receptor CCRL2 is a member of the atypical chemokine receptor family. CCRL2 is unable to couple with G-proteins and fails to induce classical chemokine signaling for the highly conserved DRYLAIV motif essential for signaling has been changed to QRYLVFL. We investigated whether CCRL2 is involved in the chemotaxis, invasion, and proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Firstly, expression of CCRL2 was determined in six breast cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Then, we established stable cell lines overexpressing CCRL2 to explore the function of CCRL2 in chemotaxis and invasion by transwell assays, and the signaling downstream was further investigated. The effect of CCRL2 on proliferation was detected by colony formation assays and tumor xenograft study. We found that stable overexpression of CCRL2 in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells attenuated the chemotaxis and invasion stimulated by its ligand CCL2. CCRL2 inhibits p38 MAPK (p38) phosphorylation and up-regulates the expression of E-cadherin. This effect was eliminated by the inhibitor of p38 MAPK. CCRL2 inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that CCRL2 functions as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer cells.

  13. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) induces apoptosis via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system impairment and the caspase cascade pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoli; Gan, Jing; Wang, Qian; Shi, Zhenqiang; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-11-30

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is the most toxic chloropropanols compounds in foodstuff which mainly generated during thermal processing. Kidney is one of the primary target organs for 3-MCPD. Using human embryonic kidney cell (HEK293FT) as an in vitro model, we found that 3-MCPD caused concentration-dependent increase in cytoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and MTT assays. HEK293FT cell treated with 3-MCPD suffered the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, especially the reduced amount of mRNA expression and protein synthesis of electron transport chain complex II, complex IV, and complex III. More importantly, energy release (ATP synthesis) was significantly inhibited by 3-MCPD resulting from the down regulation expressions of ATP synthase (ATP6 and ATP8), as well as the loss of transmembrane potential required for synthesis of ATP. The decreased ratio of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors Bax/Bcl-2 and the cytochrome-c release from mitochondria to cytosol followed by the activation of apoptotic initiators caspase 9 and apoptotic executioners (caspase 3, caspase 6 and caspase 7) leading to apoptosis. The activation of caspase 8 and caspase 2 implied that there were probably other factors to induce the caspase-dependent apoptosis.

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus induces phosphorylation of mTOR at ser2448 in CD8 T cells from nasal washes of infected infants.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A P Duarte; de Freitas, D Nascimento; Antuntes Fernandes, K E; D'Avila da Cunha, M; Antunes Fernandes, J L; Benetti Gassen, R; Fazolo, T; Pinto, L A; Scotta, M; Mattiello, R; Pitrez, P M; Bonorino, C; Stein, R T

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific CD8(+) T cell responses do not protect against reinfection. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) impairs memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation. Our hypothesis was that RSV inhibits the formation of CD8(+) T cells memory responses through mTOR activation. To explore this, human and mouse T cells were used. RSV induced mTOR phosphorylation at Ser2448 in CD8 T cells. mTOR activation by RSV was completely inhibited using rapamycin. RSV-infected children presented higher mTOR gene expression on nasal washes comparing to children infected with metapneumovirus and rhinovirus. In addition, RSV-infected infants presented a higher frequency of CD8(+) pmTORser2448(+) T cells in nasal washes compared to RSV-negative infants. Rapamycin treatment increased the frequency of mouse CD8 RSV-M282-90 pentamer-positive T cells and the frequency of RSV-specific memory T cells precursors. These data demonstrate that RSV is activating mTOR directly in CD8 T cells, indicating a role for mTOR during the course of RSV infection.

  15. CD50 (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) stimulation induces calcium mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation through p59fyn and p56lck in Jurkat T cell line

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The leukocyte differentiation antigen, CD50, has been recently identified as the intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), the third counter-receptor of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). This molecule seems to be specially involved in the adhesion events of the initial phases of the immune response. To characterize the role of CD50 in leukocyte interactions, the different molecular events induced after cross-linking of CD50 on T cell-derived Jurkat cell line have been analyzed. When cells were incubated with anti-CD50 mAbs and cross- linked with polyclonal goat anti-mouse immunoglobulins, a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was observed. This increase in [Ca2+]i was mainly due to the uptake of extracellular Ca2+. This Ca2+ flux involved tyrosine phosphorylations and was further increased by CD3 costimulation. These data, together with those obtained by phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays, suggested the involvement of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) in CD50 transduction pathways. By using specific antisera, the presence of p56lck and p59fyn protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) was clearly demonstrated in the CD50 immunoprecipitates. These findings suggest that the interaction of CD50 with its natural ligand (LFA-1) may result in T lymphocyte activation events, in which CD50 could play a very active role after antigen triggering. PMID:7515097

  16. Studies on the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation: effects of specific F0 modifiers on ligand-induced conformation changes of F1.

    PubMed

    Matsuno-Yagi, A; Yagi, T; Hatefi, Y

    1985-11-01

    Aurovertin is a fluorescent antibiotic that binds to the catalytic beta subunits of the mitochondrial F1-ATPase and inhibits ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. ATP, ADP, and membrane energization in submitochondrial particles (SMP) alter the fluorescence of F1-bound aurovertin. These fluorescence changes are considered to be in response to the conformation changes of F1-ATPase. This paper shows that the ATP-induced fluorescence change of aurovertin bound to SMP or complex V (purified ATP synthase complex F0-F1) is inhibited when these preparations are pretreated with oligomycin or N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). This inhibition is not seen with isolated F1-ATPase. These and other results have suggested that modifications of the DCCD-binding protein in the membrane sector (F0) of the ATP synthase complex are communicated to F1, thereby altering the binding characteristics of ATP to the beta subunits. By analogy, it is proposed that modifications (e.g., protonation/deprotonation) of the DCCD-binding protein effected by protonic energy alter the conformation of F1 and bring about the substrate/product binding changes that appear to be essential features of the mechanism and regulation of oxidative phosphorylation.

  17. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, exerts antiangiogenic effect via blocking VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR/Flk-1 of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Yun; Yang, Yong . E-mail: anticancer_drug@yahoo.com.cn; Lu, Na; You, Qi-dong; Wang, Sen; Gao, Ying; Chen, Yan; Guo, Qing-Long . E-mail: valianty@hotmail.com

    2007-09-14

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin expressed and purified in Escherichia coli with an additional nine-amino acid sequence and forming another his-tag structure, was approved by the SFDA in 2005 for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. But its mechanism of action has not been illustrated before. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic activities of endostar in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that endostar suppressed the VEGF-stimulated proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Endostar blocked microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings in vitro. Moreover, it could inhibit the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and affect the growth of vessels in tumor. We further found the antiangiogenic effects of endostar were correlated with the VEGF-triggered signaling. Endostar suppressed the VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR/Flk-1(VEGFR-2) as well as the overall VEGFR-2 expression and the activation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and AKT in HUVECs. Collectively, these data indicated the relationship between endostar and VEGF signal pathways and provided a molecular basis for the antiangiogenic effects of endostar.

  18. Effect of the oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol on hypoxia-inducible factor-regulated gene expression in bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A J; Kind, K L; Thompson, J G

    2004-01-01

    In cattle embryos, development to the blastocyst stage is improved in the presence of 10 micro;m 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, coincident with an increase in glycolytic activity following embryonic genome activation. The present study examined redox-sensitive gene expression and embryo development in response to the addition of DNP post-compaction. 2,4-Dinitrophenol increased the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and 2alpha (HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha) mRNA. Although HIF1alpha protein remained undetectable in bovine blastocysts, HIF2alpha protein was localised within the nucleus of trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocysts cultured in the presence or absence of DNP, with a slight increase in staining evident within the ICM in blastocysts cultured in the presence of DNP. However, the expression of GLUT1 and VEGF mRNA, genes known to be regulated by HIFs, was unaffected by the addition of DNP to the culture. Although the development of Grade 1 and 2 blastocysts was unaltered by the addition of DNP post compaction in the present study, a significant increase in the proportion of ICM cells was observed. Results indicate that 10 microm DNP improves the quality of bovine embryos, coincident with increased HIF2alpha protein localisation within ICM cells and increased HIFalpha mRNA levels. Therefore, the results demonstrate redox-regulated expression of HIF2.

  19. Corepressor SMRT promotes oxidative phosphorylation in adipose tissue and protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Sungsoon; Suh, Jae Myoung; Atkins, Annette R.; Hong, Suk-Hyun; Leblanc, Mathias; Nofsinger, Russell R.; Yu, Ruth T.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The ligand-dependent competing actions of nuclear receptor (NR)-associated transcriptional corepressor and coactivator complexes allow for the precise regulation of NR-dependent gene expression in response to both temporal and environmental cues. Here we report the mouse model termed silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT)mRID1 in which targeted disruption of the first receptor interaction domain (RID) of the nuclear corepressor SMRT disrupts interactions with a subset of NRs and leads to diet-induced superobesity associated with a depressed respiratory exchange ratio, decreased ambulatory activity, and insulin resistance. Although apparently normal when chow fed, SMRTmRID1 mice develop multiple metabolic dysfunctions when challenged by a high-fat diet, manifested by marked lipid accumulation in white and brown adipose tissue and the liver. The increased weight gain of SMRTmRID1 mice on a high-fat diet occurs predominantly in fat with adipocyte hypertrophy evident in both visceral and s.c. depots. Importantly, increased inflammatory gene expression was detected only in the visceral depots. SMRTmRID1 mice are both insulin-insensitive and refractory to the glucose-lowering effects of TZD and AICAR. Increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed, accompanied by increased leptin and decreased adiponectin levels. Aberrant storage of lipids in the liver occurred as triglycerides and cholesterol significantly compromised hepatic function. Lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue was associated with reduced thermogenic capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively, these studies highlight the essential role of NR corepressors in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and describe an essential role for SMRT in regulating the progression, severity, and therapeutic outcome of metabolic diseases. PMID:21300871

  20. Pneumococcus with the "6E" cps Locus Produces Serotype 6B Capsular Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert L; Geno, K Aaron; Saad, Jamil S; Nahm, Moon H

    2016-04-01

    Genetic studies of serogroup 6 isolates ofStreptococcus pneumoniaeidentified putative serotype 6E. Although its capsular polysaccharide structure has not been elucidated, putative serotype 6E is described in an increasing number of studies as a potentially new serotype. We show here that SPEC6B, which is widely used as a target strain for serotype 6B opsonophagocytosis assays, has the genetic features of the putative serotype 6E but produces capsular polysaccharide identical to 6B capsular polysaccharide as determined by one-dimensional (1D) and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Thus, putative serotype 6E is a mere genetic variant of serotype 6B. Also, SPEC6B is appropriate as a target strain for serotype 6B opsonophagocytosis assays. This example illustrates the difficulties of assigning new bacterial serotypes based on genetic findings alone.

  1. β-Amyloid Oligomers Induce Phosphorylation of Tau and Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate via c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling: Suppression by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Yang, Fusheng; Rosario, Emily R.; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Beech, Walter; Gant, Dana J.; Chen, Ping Ping; Hudspeth, Beverly; Chen, Cory; Zhao, Yongle; Vinters, Harry V.; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Both insulin resistance (type II diabetes) and β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate the role of Aβ oligomer-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation leading to phosphorylation and degradation of the adaptor protein insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). IRS-1 couples insulin and other trophic factor receptors to downstream kinases and neuroprotective signaling. Increased phospho-IRS-1 is found in AD brain and insulin-resistant tissues from diabetics. Here, we report Aβ oligomers significantly increased active JNK and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser616) and tau (Ser422) in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas JNK inhibition blocked these responses. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) similarly inhibited JNK and the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and tau in cultured hippocampal neurons. Feeding 3xTg-AD transgenic mice a diet high in saturated and omega-6 fat increased active JNK and phosphorylated IRS-1 and tau. Treatment of the 3xTg-AD mice on high-fat diet with fish oil or curcumin or a combination of both for 4 months reduced phosphorylated JNK, IRS-1, and tau and prevented the degradation of total IRS-1. This was accompanied by improvement in Y-maze performance. Mice fed with fish oil and curcumin for 1 month had more significant effects on Y-maze, and the combination showed more significant inhibition of JNK, IRS-1, and tau phosphorylation. These data indicate JNK mediates Aβ oligomer inactivation of IRS-1 and phospho-tau pathology and that dietary treatment with fish oil/DHA, curcumin, or a combination of both has the potential to improve insulin/trophic signaling and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:19605645

  2. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S.; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46’s function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  3. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46's role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-28

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46's function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled