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Sample records for 6b2 minimum wage

  1. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  2. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  3. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  4. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  5. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  6. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  7. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  8. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  9. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  10. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  11. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  12. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  13. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  14. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  15. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  16. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  17. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  18. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  19. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  20. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  1. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  2. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  3. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  4. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  5. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  6. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  7. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  8. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  9. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  10. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  11. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  12. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  13. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  14. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  15. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  16. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  17. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  18. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  19. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  20. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  1. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  2. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  3. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201.1101 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages...

  4. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  5. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  6. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  7. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  8. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that...

  9. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable...

  10. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable...

  11. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable...

  12. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that...

  13. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable...

  14. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable...

  15. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that...

  16. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that...

  17. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that...

  18. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    PubMed

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  19. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are...

  20. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are...

  1. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are...

  2. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are...

  3. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are...

  4. The Consequences of Indexing the Minimum Wage to Average Wages in the U.S. Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Even, William E.

    The consequences of indexing the minimum wage to average wages in the U.S. economy were analyzed. The study data were drawn from the 1974-1978 May Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 180 monthly CPS Outgoing Rotation Group files for 1979-1993 (approximate annual sample sizes of 40,000 and 180,000, respectively). The effects of indexing on the…

  5. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  6. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it.

  7. Researching the Minimum Wage: A Moral Economy for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neverow-Turk, Vara

    1991-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment that requires students to research and report on what it would be like to live on minimum wage. Explains that this assignment is not really any different than the traditional assignment, it is simply more obvious about its political content because it involves an inquiry into economics rather than literature or…

  8. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  9. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  10. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  11. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined...

  12. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  13. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage...

  14. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Service Contract Labor Standards 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage. No... working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair...

  15. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  16. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum...

  17. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  18. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum...

  19. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage...

  20. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the...

  2. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  3. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum...

  4. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  5. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 510 - Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the public...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 510 - Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the public...

  8. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum...

  9. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  10. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined...

  11. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  12. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined...

  13. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 510 - Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the public...

  15. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage...

  16. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  17. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum...

  18. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined...

  19. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined...

  20. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the...

  2. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  3. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices. PMID:25937790

  4. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  5. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  7. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  8. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  9. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  10. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  11. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  12. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable...

  13. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable...

  14. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable...

  15. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable...

  16. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable...

  17. STATE MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, A WEAPON IN THE WAR ON POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    CENSUS DATA SHOW THAT POVERTY IS OFTEN THE RESULT OF SERIOUS WAGE INADEQUACIES. IN 1964, NEARLY ONE-FIFTH OF THE MORE THAN 47.5 MILLION FAMILIES IN THE NATION HAD INCOMES UNDER $3,000. MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION HELPS TO ELIMINATE POVERTY BY SETTING A FLOOR FOR WAGES. FEWER THAN 30 MILLION OF THE MORE THAN 47 MILLION NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES IN…

  18. Urban-rural migration: uncertainty and the effect of a change in the minimum wage.

    PubMed

    Ingene, C A; Yu, E S

    1989-01-01

    "This paper extends the neoclassical, Harris-Todaro model of urban-rural migration to the case of production uncertainty in the agricultural sector. A unique feature of the Harris-Todaro model is an exogenously determined minimum wage in the urban sector that exceeds the rural wage. Migration occurs until the rural wage equals the expected urban wage ('expected' due to employment uncertainty). The effects of a change in the minimum wage upon regional outputs, resource allocation, factor rewards, expected profits, and expected national income are explored, and the influence of production uncertainty upon the obtained results are delineated." The geographical focus is on developing countries.

  19. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors.

  20. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  1. Minimum Wage Increases and the Working Poor. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.

    Most economists agree that the difficulties of targeting minimum wage increases to low-income families make such increases ineffective tools for reducing poverty. This paper provides estimates of the impact of minimum wage increases on the poverty gap and the number of poor families, and shows which factors are barriers to decreasing poverty…

  2. Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

    It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

  3. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  4. Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths. An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 1954-86, including the 1980s period of relative decline in the value of the minimum wage, a study found that a 10 percent increase in minimum wage reduced teen unemployment by less than 1 percent. In addition, no apparent effect on employment of adults aged 20-24 was found, and minimal differences appeared for sex and race. (SK)

  5. Minimum Wages and School Enrollment of Teenagers: A Look at the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Duncan D.; Turner, Mark D.; Pape, Andreas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates the effects of higher minimum wages on school enrollment using the Common Core of Data. Controlling for local labor market conditions and state and year fixed effects, finds some evidence that higher minimum wages reduce teen school enrollment in states where students drop out before age 18. (23 references) (Author/PKP)

  6. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  7. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  8. Minimum Wages and the Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1992 to 2005 March Current Population Survey (CPS), this study examines the relationship between minimum wage increases and the economic well-being of single mothers. Estimation results show that minimum wage increases were ineffective at reducing poverty among single mothers. Most working single mothers…

  9. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary...

  10. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary...

  11. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary...

  12. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary...

  13. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary...

  14. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects.

  15. The migratory impact of minimum wage legislation: Puerto Rico, 1970-1987.

    PubMed

    Santiago, C E

    1993-01-01

    "This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living."

  16. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  19. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.

  20. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. Methods. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (< 2500 g) and postneonatal mortality (28–364 days) by state and month from 1980 through 2011. All models included state and year fixed effects as well as state-specific covariates. Results. Across all models, a dollar increase in the minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. Conclusions. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year. PMID:27310355

  1. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2016-04-04

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The impact of minimum wages on population health: evidence from 24 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Otto

    2016-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e.g., diabetes, disease of the circulatory system, stroke). A 10% point increase of the Kaitz index is associated with significant declines in death rates and an increase in life expectancy of 0.44 years. Furthermore, I provide evidence for potential channels through which minimum wages impact population health by showing that more generous minimum wages impact outcomes such as poverty, the share of the population with unmet medical needs, the number of doctor consultations, tobacco consumption, calorie intake, and the likelihood of people being overweight.

  3. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES What are the General Provisions Governing the Employment of Messengers, Learners (Including Student..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners...

  4. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES What are the General Provisions Governing the Employment of Messengers, Learners (Including Student..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners...

  5. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES What are the General Provisions Governing the Employment of Messengers, Learners (Including Student..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners...

  6. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES What are the General Provisions Governing the Employment of Messengers, Learners (Including Student..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners...

  7. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES What are the General Provisions Governing the Employment of Messengers, Learners (Including Student..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners...

  8. Jobs Taken by Mothers Moving from Welfare to Work and the Effects of Minimum Wages on This Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Peter D.

    The potential effects of raising the minimum wage on the earnings of mothers moving from welfare to work were examined by analyzing the differences that existed in the late 1980s in the various states' minimum wage rates and data from three waves of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the years 1985-1990 (during which time 13 states…

  9. Marketing and Distribution: New Minimum Wage Legislation: Impact on Co-Op DE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husted, Stewart W.

    1978-01-01

    Impact on distributive education cooperative programs due to the legislation increasing the minimum wage effective January 1, 1978, indicates that the change could greatly restrict future cooperative placements, thereby reducing distributive education enrollments. Employer strategies (for example, reducing student work hours) to overcome wage…

  10. Time-Series Evidence of the Effect of the Minimum Wage on Youth Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The study finds that a 10 percent increase in the federal minimum wage (or the coverage rate) would reduce teenage (16-19) employment by about one percent, which is at the lower end of the range of estimates from previous studies. (Author/SSH)

  11. The Effects of Minimum Wages on Teenage Employment, Enrollment, and Idleness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    A study described the effects of minimum wages on teenagers by using individual-level panel data on school and work transitions of teenagers. Panel data from 1979-92 measuring transitions among alternative employment and enrollment activities of teenagers were obtained from matched Current Population Surveys data sets. Findings indicated that…

  12. The President's Veto of the Minimum Wage Bill: Impact on Poor and Minority Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac

    Restoration of an adequate minimum wage remains a critical ingredient in efforts to provide income security for poor and minority workers. The experience of recent years indicates that work does not provide economic security for many poor, Black, and Hispanic workers. National and minority unemployment rates have dropped during the economic…

  13. Minimum Wages and Teenagers' Enrollment--Employment Outcomes: A Multinominal Logit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Marcus, Alan J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the effect of minimum wage legislation on teenagers' education decisions is asymmetrical across family income classes, with the legislation inducing children from low-income families to reduce their levels of schooling and children from higher-income families to increase their educational attainment. (Author)

  14. Would a Higher Minimum Wage Help Poor Families Headed by Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda R.; Giannaros, Demetrios

    1990-01-01

    Studies suggest negative employment consequences if the minimum wage is increased. This may not affect poverty among households headed by women because the unemployment rate does not seem to play a statistically significant role in determining the poverty rate for this cohort. (Author)

  15. 20 CFR 641.873 - What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and benefits? 641.873 Section 641.873 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE...

  16. 20 CFR 641.873 - What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and benefits? 641.873 Section 641.873 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE...

  17. [Will inpatient care still be financeable? Effects of the minimum wage to operators].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    Due to demographic and social developments nursing service will continueto be a growth industry in the long run. The requirement for this is the political volition of a sufficient funding. A minimum wage in nursing service tends to increase prices of the offered services. Stated justifications for a minimum wage are wage dumping protection (inter alia against the background of the upcoming opening of the single market in 2011) as well as raising rivals' costs. Protection is focused on the 266,000 non-skilled workers in basic care owing to the strong tightening of the labour market for caregivers. Operative minimum wages will lead to adjustments by optimising operations, intensification of work, and rationalisation of workflow by increased employment of capital as well as technical substitution of relatively expensive non-skilled workers. In addition there will be increased pressure on prices for nursing services and private co-payments. There will be an increased supply and demand for illegal services. Suppliers who had been tied to collective contracts so far will achieve a relative advantage in competition.

  18. 29 CFR 516.11 - Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under section 13(a) (2), (3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay...

  19. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section...

  20. 29 CFR 516.11 - Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under section 13(a) (2), (3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay...

  1. 29 CFR 516.11 - Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under section 13(a) (2), (3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay...

  2. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section...

  3. 29 CFR 516.11 - Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under section 13(a) (2), (3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay...

  4. 29 CFR 516.11 - Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under section 13(a) (2), (3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay...

  5. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section...

  6. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section...

  7. 29 CFR 4.2 - Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... and Procedures § 4.2 Payment of minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... employees shall pay any employees engaged in such work less than the minimum wage specified in section...

  8. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  9. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relate to the individuals' productivity; (2) The prevailing wages of experienced employees not disabled... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to... (see § 525.12(h)) or the productivity of experienced nondisabled workers employed in the vicinity...

  10. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relate to the individuals' productivity; (2) The prevailing wages of experienced employees not disabled... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to... (see § 525.12(h)) or the productivity of experienced nondisabled workers employed in the vicinity...

  11. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  12. The Unexpected Long-Run Impact of the Minimum Wage: An Educational Cascade. NBER Working Paper No. 16355

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Neglected, but significant, the long-run consequence of the minimum wage--which was made national policy in the United States in 1938--is its stimulation of capital deepening. This took two forms. First, the engineered shortage of low-skill, low-paying jobs induced teenagers to invest in additional human capital--primarily by extending their…

  13. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247

  14. Youth Employment and the Minimum Wage. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This congressional hearing contains testimony about the problem of youth unemployment and about the relationship between youth employment opportunities and the minimum wage. A special focus is the administration's proposal for the enactment of a youth employment opportunity wage, under which youth below the age of 20 could be paid 75 percent of…

  15. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of employees are subject to treatment under Tier 1 regardless of the average hourly wage rate for the... and in vivo diagnostic substances. 2836 1 Biological products, except diagnostic substances. 284 1... air purification equipment. 3568 1 Mechanical power transmission equipment, not elsewhere...

  17. Michigan Minimum Wage: Act 154, Public Act of 1964, As Amended and Act 390, Public Act of 1978. Legal Modules for Vocational Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.

    Intended for use by cooperative education program coordinators, this module deals with the rights of cooperative education program enrollees as they are specified by Michigan minimum wage legislation. Specifically, the module deals with two Michigan laws--Act 154 of Public Act of 1964, as amended and Act 390 of Public Act of 1978. Designed to be a…

  18. Associations between state minimum wage policy and health care access: a multi-level analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor survey.

    PubMed

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Martin, Diane P; Ralston, James D; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Minimum wage policies have been advanced as mechanisms to improve the economic conditions of the working poor. Both positive and negative effects of such policies on health care access have been hypothesized, but associations have yet to be thoroughly tested. To examine whether the presence of minimum wage policies in excess of the federal standard of $5.15 per hour was associated with health care access indicators among low-skilled adults of working age, a cross-sectional analysis of 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data was conducted. Self-reported health insurance status and experience with cost-related barriers to needed medical care were adjusted in multi-level logistic regression models to control for potential confounding at the state, county, and individual levels. State-level wage policy was not found to be associated with insurance status or unmet medical need in the models, providing early evidence that increased minimum wage rates may neither strengthen nor weaken access to care as previously predicted.

  19. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  20. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  1. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  2. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  3. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  4. Minimum Wage Fairness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2013-11-19

    04/02/2014 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure made in Senate. (consideration: CR S2043) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Minimum Wage Fairness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2014-04-08

    04/30/2014 Motion by Senator Reid to reconsider the vote by which cloture was not invoked on the motion to proceed to the measure (Record Vote No. 117) entered in Senate. (consideration: CR S2527-2528, S2535-2543, S2543-2546, S2546-2547, S2548-2549) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Messengers, Learners (Excluding Student... requesting authorization for employment of messengers and/or learners at subminimum wages, on the official...(s) for which learners are requested; (2) The occupations/industry in which the messenger(s)...

  7. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Messengers, Learners (Excluding Student... requesting authorization for employment of messengers and/or learners at subminimum wages, on the official...(s) for which learners are requested; (2) The occupations/industry in which the messenger(s)...

  8. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Messengers, Learners (Excluding Student... requesting authorization for employment of messengers and/or learners at subminimum wages, on the official...(s) for which learners are requested; (2) The occupations/industry in which the messenger(s)...

  9. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Messengers, Learners (Excluding Student... requesting authorization for employment of messengers and/or learners at subminimum wages, on the official...(s) for which learners are requested; (2) The occupations/industry in which the messenger(s)...

  10. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Messengers, Learners (Excluding Student... requesting authorization for employment of messengers and/or learners at subminimum wages, on the official...(s) for which learners are requested; (2) The occupations/industry in which the messenger(s)...

  11. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its obligation under § 655.122(l), an employer must offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a... prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in...

  12. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research.

  13. The dependency of tunnel magnetoresistance ratio on nanoscale thicknesses of Co2Fe6B2 free and pinned layers for Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Su; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Lee, Du-Yeong; Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-04-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of a cobalt-iron-boron (CoFeB)-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve is extremely sensitive to both nanoscale Co2Fe6B2 free- and pinned-layer thicknesses. The TMR ratio peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness of 1.05 nm, while it peaks at a Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness of 1.59 nm, achieving 104%. The amount of tantalum diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier (originated from a tantalum seed) decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 free-layer thickness, while the amount of palladium diffused from a [Co/Pd]n SyAF layer decreases with increasing Co2Fe6B2 pinned-layer thickness, determining the crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier and the TMR ratio. In addition, the TMR ratio tended to decrease when the Co2Fe6B2 free layer and the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer switched characteristics from interface-perpendicular anisotropic to in-plane anisotropic.

  14. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state.

  15. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage...

  16. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage...

  17. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage...

  18. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage...

  19. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  20. 29 CFR 5.31 - Meeting wage determination obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.31 Meeting wage determination obligations. (a) A contractor or subcontractor performing work subject to a Davis-Bacon wage determination may discharge his minimum...

  1. Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Erin; Nguyen, Ha T; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed.

  2. Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2013-03-05

    03/05/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1132) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2012-07-26

    07/26/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5492) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Miller, George [D-CA-11

    2013-03-06

    02/26/2014 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Bishop (NY). Petition No: 113-7. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 2/26/2014, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Education and the Workforce from the consideration of H.R.1010. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 113-7: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial.

  6. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Service Contract Labor... wage determination specifying the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid to service... performance of a contract for services subject to the Act is unknown at the time of solicitation,...

  7. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Service Contract Labor... wage determination specifying the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid to service... to be employed on the contract. Based upon the information provided on the e98, the Department...

  8. Helping Low-Wage Workers: Policies for the Future. Summary of Presentations at the Urban Institute Conference (Washington, DC, May 6-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    Stagnant or declining wages for less-educated workers make policies to upgrade the job market options for low wage workers an urgent priority. One in three low wage workers lives in a low income family. The link between low basic skills and low wages is strong. No single standard of minimum skill requirements applies to all middle income jobs, and…

  9. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  10. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at the time work is...: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum Travel... Department of Labor (Department) is issuing this Notice to announce the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

  11. Wage Differentiation and Long-Term Unemployment. An International Comparison. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmann, Lutz

    The relationship between wage differentiation and long-term unemployment was examined in a study that considered data regarding long-term unemployment and minimum wages in the United States, Japan, and 10 member nations of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Data regarding wages and unemployment in the 11 countries were…

  12. Wage theft as a neglected public health problem: an overview and case study from San Francisco's Chinatown District.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Meredith; Salvatore, Alicia L; Chang, Charlotte; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San; Lee, Pam Tau; Tom, Alex; Bhatia, Rajiv; Krause, Niklas

    2014-06-01

    Wage theft, or nonpayment of wages to which workers are legally entitled, is a major contributor to low income, which in turn has adverse health effects. We describe a participatory research study of wage theft among immigrant Chinatown restaurant workers. We conducted surveys of 433 workers, and developed and used a health department observational tool in 106 restaurants. Close to 60% of workers reported 1 or more forms of wage theft (e.g., receiving less than minimum wage [50%], no overtime pay [> 65%], and pay deductions when sick [42%]). Almost two thirds of restaurants lacked required minimum wage law signage. We discuss the dissemination and use of findings to help secure and enforce a wage theft ordinance, along with implications for practice.

  13. Wage Theft as a Neglected Public Health Problem: An Overview and Case Study From San Francisco’s Chinatown District

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Chang, Charlotte; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San; Lee, Pam Tau; Tom, Alex; Bhatia, Rajiv; Krause, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Wage theft, or nonpayment of wages to which workers are legally entitled, is a major contributor to low income, which in turn has adverse health effects. We describe a participatory research study of wage theft among immigrant Chinatown restaurant workers. We conducted surveys of 433 workers, and developed and used a health department observational tool in 106 restaurants. Close to 60% of workers reported 1 or more forms of wage theft (e.g., receiving less than minimum wage [50%], no overtime pay [> 65%], and pay deductions when sick [42%]). Almost two thirds of restaurants lacked required minimum wage law signage. We discuss the dissemination and use of findings to help secure and enforce a wage theft ordinance, along with implications for practice. PMID:24825200

  14. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  15. Youth Employment Opportunity Wage Act of 1984. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a congressional hearing to examine S. 2687, the Youth Employment Opportunity Wage Act. (This bill would permit employers to pay youth a wage of 75 percent of the statutory minimum wage during the summer. The bill has a sunset provision.) Testimony includes statements from U.S. Senators and Representatives and from individuals representing…

  16. Mandating insurance offers for low-wage workers: an evaluation of labor market effects.

    PubMed

    Wolaver, Amy; McBride, Timothy; Wolfe, Barbara

    2003-10-01

    Employing a simultaneous model of part-time status, health insurance offers, and wages, we examine the impacts on employment and health insurance coverage of nondiscrimination rules in the tax code governing employer-sponsored health insurance. Using 1988 and 1993 Employee Benefits Supplements to the Current Population Surveys and variations in health insurance premiums and minimum wages, we find that health insurance coverage among low-wage primary earners is increased by at most 31 percent by the policy, at a cost of an estimated 0.8-5.4-percentage-point decrease in full-time employment for low-wage workers.

  17. Geospatial Analysis of Construction Labor Wage Rates in the United States of America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    construction project is subject to the requirements of the Davis- Bacon Act (DBA). The DBA is a federal law that sets minimum wages, called prevailing...2  The Davis- Bacon Act .................................................................................................................. 5...22  Davis- Bacon Act

  18. Rural hospital wages and the area wage index.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Howard, Hilda A

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities.

  19. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  20. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  1. The Wages of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  2. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  3. Wage Determination and Discrimination among Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Joseph F.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzed determinants of wage rates of older workers and the large discrepancies existing between wage earned by Whites, non-Whites, men, and women. Human capital and geographic variables were important wage determinants. Differences in variables cannot completely explain the wage differentials of race and sex. (Author)

  4. Youth Opportunity Wage Act of 1981. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S.348 (March 24-25).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains transcripts of United States Senate hearings of March, 1981, on the Youth Opportunity Wage Act of 1981. The proposed Act would set a lower minimum wage for work performed by youth under the age of 20; and extend the allowable lower wages to be paid in other industries besides the food service and retail industries where they…

  5. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  6. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  7. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  8. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  9. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  10. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval,...

  11. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval, when...

  12. Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio Comparison of MgO-Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction Spin Valve Between Top and Bottom Co2Fe6B2 Free Layer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-09-01

    For the perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve with a nanoscale-thick bottom Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, which has been used as a common p-MTJ structure, the Pt atoms of the Pt buffer layer diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier. This transformed the MgO tunneling barrier from a body-centered cubic (b.c.c) crystallized layer into a mixture of b.c.c, face-centered cubic, and amorphous layers and rapidly decreased the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. The p-MTJ spin valve with a nanoscale-thick top Co2Fe6B2 free layer could prevent the Pt atoms diffusing into the MgO tunneling barrier during ex situ annealing at 400 °C because of non-necessity of a Pt buffer layer, demonstrating the TMR ratio of ~143 %.

  13. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may...

  14. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... § 779.508 Eighteen-year minimum. To protect young workers from hazardous employment, the Act...

  15. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... § 779.508 Eighteen-year minimum. To protect young workers from hazardous employment, the Act...

  16. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  17. Stall in Women's Real Wage Growth Slows Progress in Closing the Wage Gap. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Since 1979, the wage gap between women and men has narrowed significantly, falling by more than 10 percent overall. The closing of the wage gap has slowed considerably in the 1990's, however, with women's real wages (adjusted for inflation) stagnating in recent year and men's wages continuing to decline. The lack of growth in both women's and…

  18. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  19. Undocumented Migration and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Gentsch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Prior work has documented the remarkable decline in the real wages of Mexican immigrant workers in the United States over the past several decades. Although some of this trend might be attributable to the changing characteristics of the migrants themselves, we argue that a more important change was the circumstances under within Mexican immigrants competed for jobs in the United States. After 1986 a growing share of Mexican immigrants were undocumented, discrimination against them was mandated by federal law, and enforcement efforts rose in intensity. We combined data from the Mexican Migration Project with independent estimates of the percentage undocumented among Mexicans living in the United States to estimate a series of regression models to test this hypothesis. Controlling for individual characteristics helps to explain the decline in the wages of immigrants, but does not eliminate the trend, which is only explained fully when the percentage undocumented is added to the model. A key date is 1986, confirmed by a Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis, when undocumented hiring was criminalized and undocumented migration revived after IRCA's legalization programs ended. As the percentage undocumented rose to new heights in the face of employer sanctions, immigrant wages fell below what we would have observed under the former policy regime. Using newly available data from Warren and Warren (2013), we examined how variation in the percentage undocumented by state and year from 1990 through 2009 affected immigrant wages and confirmed a strong negative effect, but the addition of an interaction term to the model indicated that the negative effect was confined largely to undocumented migrants, whose wage penalty rose from 8% to 18% as the percentage undocumented rose from its observed minimum to maximum.

  20. Undocumented Migration and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Gentsch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has documented the remarkable decline in the real wages of Mexican immigrant workers in the United States over the past several decades. Although some of this trend might be attributable to the changing characteristics of the migrants themselves, we argue that a more important change was the circumstances under within Mexican immigrants competed for jobs in the United States. After 1986 a growing share of Mexican immigrants were undocumented, discrimination against them was mandated by federal law, and enforcement efforts rose in intensity. We combined data from the Mexican Migration Project with independent estimates of the percentage undocumented among Mexicans living in the United States to estimate a series of regression models to test this hypothesis. Controlling for individual characteristics helps to explain the decline in the wages of immigrants, but does not eliminate the trend, which is only explained fully when the percentage undocumented is added to the model. A key date is 1986, confirmed by a Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis, when undocumented hiring was criminalized and undocumented migration revived after IRCA's legalization programs ended. As the percentage undocumented rose to new heights in the face of employer sanctions, immigrant wages fell below what we would have observed under the former policy regime. Using newly available data from Warren and Warren (2013), we examined how variation in the percentage undocumented by state and year from 1990 through 2009 affected immigrant wages and confirmed a strong negative effect, but the addition of an interaction term to the model indicated that the negative effect was confined largely to undocumented migrants, whose wage penalty rose from 8% to 18% as the percentage undocumented rose from its observed minimum to maximum. PMID:27134328

  1. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    PubMed Central

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  2. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap.

    PubMed

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates.

  3. Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio Comparison of MgO-Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction Spin Valve Between Top and Bottom Co2Fe6B2 Free Layer Structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-12-01

    For the perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve with a nanoscale-thick bottom Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, which has been used as a common p-MTJ structure, the Pt atoms of the Pt buffer layer diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier. This transformed the MgO tunneling barrier from a body-centered cubic (b.c.c) crystallized layer into a mixture of b.c.c, face-centered cubic, and amorphous layers and rapidly decreased the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. The p-MTJ spin valve with a nanoscale-thick top Co2Fe6B2 free layer could prevent the Pt atoms diffusing into the MgO tunneling barrier during ex situ annealing at 400 °C because of non-necessity of a Pt buffer layer, demonstrating the TMR ratio of ~143 %.

  4. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  5. Care homes may close due to cost of national living wage.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    In April this year, a compulsory national living wage (NLW) for people over the age of 25 was introduced across the UK. The NLW increases minimum hourly pay from £6.70 to £7.20, a figure that is due to rise to £9 by 2020.

  6. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  7. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  8. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  9. Emerging Two-Tier Wage Systems: Employment Opportunity or Wage Attack?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    1987-01-01

    Two challenges to "Equal pay for equal work" are subminimum wages and workfare. There is no evidence that either two-tiered wage system would permanently increase employment. Instead the results may be (1) less union strength; (2) lower wages in general; (3) layoff of workers in the higher tiers; and (4) more discrimination against Black youth.…

  10. 75 FR 68416 - Administrative Wage Garnishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... parallels the existing operational regulations of other agencies to effectuate the collection of non-tariff... enactment of the DCIA, agencies were required to obtain a court judgment before garnishing the wages of non... administrative garnishment of non-Federal wages. Whenever the Financial Management Service collects such a...

  11. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  12. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  13. The Impact of Obesity on Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between body weight and wages have found mixed results. This paper uses a larger data set and several regression strategies in an attempt to generate more consistent estimates of the effect of weight on wages. Differences across gender, race, and ethnicity are explored. This paper finds that weight lowers wages…

  14. Bobbing for Widgets: Compensating Wage Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Catherine; McInnes, Melayne Morgan; Solnick, Sara; Ensminger, Jean; Fryer, Roland; Heiner, Ronald; Samms, Gavin; Sieberg, Katri; Wilson, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe a classroom game that introduces the concept of compensating wage differentials by allowing students to negotiate over the assignment of jobs and wages. Two jobs are designed so that neither job requires special skills, but one is significantly more unpleasant than the other. By varying the job titles and duties, students can…

  15. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  16. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  17. Immigrant qualifications: recognition and relative wage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B J; Iredale, R R

    1993-01-01

    "One aim of this study is to examine the labor market outcomes of immigrants relative to the Australian born.... In particular, this article examines both the extent of formal nonrecognition of overseas qualifications and the indirect implications for wage outcomes of a lack of full recognition of qualifications. Immigrant relative wage analysis...is the subject of the second part of this article...."

  18. Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

  19. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  20. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  1. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  2. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  3. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  4. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  5. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  6. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  7. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  8. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  9. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  10. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  11. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... wage limitation. Payments made by an employer to you as an employee in a calendar year that are more than the annual wage limitation are not wages. The annual wage limitation is: Calendar year...

  13. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... § 531.59 The tip wage credit. In determining compliance with the wage payment requirements of the Act... such employee in the workweek for which the wage payment is made. This credit is in addition to...

  14. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  15. Relative Wage Determination Among Industries: Some Theoretical and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    This report is concerned with cyclical variation in the relative wages of industries. The determination of relative wages is investigated in three different contexts. The first area deals with a broad overview of the relative wage model where the basic elements are introduced. Second, a more complete relative wage model is developed in the context…

  16. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    PubMed

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  17. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    PubMed

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  18. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.261 Special wage schedules for leader and...

  19. Geographic wage indexing for CETA and Medicare.

    PubMed

    Greene, R

    1980-09-01

    The tailoring of grants-in-aid to wage levels in the localities which receive them enjoys growing popularity among Federal policymakers; two ongoing programs illustrate the flexibility of this technique.

  20. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    PubMed

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management.

  1. 20 CFR 667.272 - What wage and labor standards apply to participants in activities under title I of WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... periodic increases, as trainees or employees who are similarly situated in similar occupations by the same... applicable law, but may not be less than the higher of the rate specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)) or the applicable State or local minimum wage law....

  2. 20 CFR 667.272 - What wage and labor standards apply to participants in activities under title I of WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... periodic increases, as trainees or employees who are similarly situated in similar occupations by the same... applicable law, but may not be less than the higher of the rate specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)) or the applicable State or local minimum wage law....

  3. 20 CFR 641.565 - What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Standards Act of 1938; the State or local minimum wage for the most nearly comparable covered employment; or... opportunity to receive physical examinations annually. (A) Physical examinations are a fringe benefit, and not... report of the results of the examination. Participants may, at their option, provide the grantee...

  4. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John

    2011-07-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one's own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading.

  5. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed Central

    Mirowsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one’s own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading. PMID:24156083

  6. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  7. 48 CFR 222.404 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute wage determinations. 222.404 Section 222.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction...

  8. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History.

    PubMed

    Grafova, Irina B; Stafford, Frank P

    2009-04-01

    Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, never smokers, former smokers, and future quitters reveals that there is no observed wage gap between former smokers and those who have never smoked. There is, however, a wage gap between those smokers who will continue smoking and three other groups of individuals: (1) those smokers who will quit smoking in the future, (2) those smokers who have quit smoking already, and (3) those who never smoked. The wage gap between smokers and non-smokers, observed in the 1986 cross-section, is largely driven by those who persist as smokers, 1986-2001. These results support the hypothesis that the cross-sectional wage differential is not driven by smoking per se, but may be driven by a non-causal explanation. One plausible interpretation is that a common factor such as myopia, leads to reduced investment in both health capital or firm-specific or other human capital.

  9. Age and disability: explaining the wage differential.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda; Munley, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995-2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

  10. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  11. Women and Work in Appalachia: The Waging War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Leslie

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the low wages and dead-end jobs most Appalachian women workers face and explores nontraditional employment options which offer higher wages, benefits, security, and a chance for truly meeting a family's needs. (DS)

  12. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages.

  13. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  14. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  15. Rural Low-Wage Employment Rises among Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert; Parker, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the percentage of low-wage workers in rural areas was higher than in urban areas or in 1979. The share of women and minorities in low-wage work stabilized, but the share of White men increased. Low-wage work increased in higher-skilled occupations, and the share of college educated low-wage workers increased significantly since 1979. (TD)

  16. 5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys. 532.207... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys. (a) Wage surveys shall be conducted on a 2-year cycle at annual intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made...

  17. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  18. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  19. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  20. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  1. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  2. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  3. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  4. 17 CFR 256.920 - Salaries and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salaries and wages. 256.920... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.920 Salaries and wages. (a) This account shall include salaries... and appropriately referenced to detailed records subdividing salaries and wages by departments...

  5. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  6. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  7. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  8. 17 CFR 256.920 - Salaries and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salaries and wages. 256.920... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.920 Salaries and wages. (a) This account shall include salaries... and appropriately referenced to detailed records subdividing salaries and wages by departments...

  9. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employs any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker must pay the wages owed such worker when due. In... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment...

  10. 5 CFR 532.227 - Agency wage committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... having the largest number of wage employees covered by exclusive recognition in the Department of Defense... largest number of wage employees by exclusive recognition in the agency. (c) Recommendations of agency... establish an agency wage committee for the purpose of considering matters relating to the conduct of...

  11. 5 CFR 532.227 - Agency wage committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... having the largest number of wage employees covered by exclusive recognition in the Department of Defense... largest number of wage employees by exclusive recognition in the agency. (c) Recommendations of agency... establish an agency wage committee for the purpose of considering matters relating to the conduct of...

  12. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  13. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... conclusion that wage rate is not based upon an entry level position. (See also § 525.10(c).) (h) A prevailing... such as file clerk or general office clerk, requiring the same general skill levels. (g) The...

  14. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... conclusion that wage rate is not based upon an entry level position. (See also § 525.10(c).) (h) A prevailing... such as file clerk or general office clerk, requiring the same general skill levels. (g) The...

  15. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  16. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  17. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  18. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  19. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  20. The Employment and Wages of Legalized Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.; Tienda, Marta

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants using the Legalization Application Processing System file which is based on individual records of amnesty applicants and draws comparisons with sample of foreign-born population from Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986, and 1988. Among demographic differences of total foreign-born…

  1. Comparable Wages, Inflation, and School Finance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    A Comparable Wage Index (CWI) is an attractive mechanism for measuring geographic variations in the cost of education. A CWI measures uncontrollable variations in educator pay by observing systematic variations in the earnings of comparable workers who are not educators. Together, the 2000 census and the Occupational Employment Statistics survey…

  2. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  3. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service employees which the Act requires to be specified in contracts and bid solicitations subject to.... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most... contracts is often different and the geographic scope of the underlying survey data for the...

  4. Local Clerical and Custodial Wage Administration Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakos, Estelle

    Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), Illinois, collected salary-related data for clerical and custodial personnel, in order to establish a compatible wage structure, provide business management course information, and improve secretarial career counseling. Limiting data sampling to the geographical boundries of the Moraine Valley District…

  5. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  6. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  7. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  8. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  9. Wages, health benefits, and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Doty, Michelle M; Ho, Alice

    2004-10-01

    Employer-based health insurance provides the majority of U.S. workers with access to health care and protection against devastating financial losses. Millions of workers, however, do not receive health benefits from their employers, and few sources of affordable coverage exist outside the employer-based system. This study, based on data from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, finds a deep divide in the U.S. labor force and an urgent need for expanding access to comprehensive and affordable coverage to working Americans and their families. According to the authors, higher-wage workers are more likely than their lower-paid counterparts to have health insurance and health-related benefits, such as paid sick leave, and to use preventive care services. Low-wage workers, meanwhile, are much more likely to forgo needed health care because of cost and to report problems paying medical bills.

  10. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements.

    PubMed

    Basu, B

    1998-09-01

    "This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment."

  11. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  12. Fixed Wages, Layoffs, Unemployment Compensation, and Welfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    feasibility and optimality of alternative employment contracts. For the case where layoffs are prohibited, they demonstrate that both the fixed wage--constant...society’s point of view. In the case with layoffs , they show that the competitive mechanism leads to a less than optimal number of layoffs , and...demonstrate that unemployment insurance with less than complete experience rating lowers the cost of layoffs to the firm and encourages labor mobility. In the

  13. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  14. Ageing, productivity and wages in Austria☆

    PubMed Central

    Mahlberg, Bernhard; Freund, Inga; Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Prskawetz, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Current demographic developments in industrialized countries and their consequences for workforce ageing challenge the sustainability of intergenerational transfers and economic growth. A shrinking share of the young workforce will have to support a growing share of elderly, non-working people. Therefore, the productivity of the workforce is central to a sustainable economic future. Using a new matched employer–employee panel dataset for Austrian firms for the period 2002–2005, we study the relationship between the age structure of employees, labour productivity and wages. These data allow us to account, simultaneously, for both socio-demographic characteristics of employees and firm heterogeneity, in order to explain labour productivity and earnings. Our results indicate that firm productivity is not negatively related to the share of older employees it employs. We also find no evidence for overpayment of older employees. Our results do not show any association between wages and the share of older employees. Furthermore, we find a negative relationship between the share of young employees and labour productivity as well as wages, which is more prevalent in the industry and construction sector. PMID:23734070

  15. Gender-Based Wage Differentials in a Predominantly Female Profession: Observations from Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cheryl, Bland; Gates, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Despite numerous studies examining nursing wages, very little attention has focused on nursing wage differentials. We build on previous research by modeling nursing wages and examining male-female wage differences within the context of the current nursing shortage. Our results show that male nurses do earn a wage premium, largely explained by…

  16. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  17. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  18. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as...) If wages, fringe benefits, or periodic increases provided for in a collective bargaining...

  19. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as...) If wages, fringe benefits, or periodic increases provided for in a collective bargaining...

  20. The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

    2004-09-01

    We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.

  1. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through...

  2. Ideological Wage Inequalities? The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems "within" professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional…

  3. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  4. 77 FR 33490 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Were Reported Through Kone, Inc., Riverton, IL; Notice of Affirmative...., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages were reported through KONE Inc.,...

  5. CETA and Sex Related Wage Differentials: The Boston Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, Pawan K.; Jantzen, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the CETA program on the sexual wage differential of participants. The sources of sex-related wage differentials among CETA Title I (now Title IIB) participants before and after program participation are analyzed in order to examine the impact of training on the earnings gap. (CT)

  6. The Effect of International Competition on Union and Nonunion Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Stewart, James B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the impact of international competition on union and nonunion wages found that international competition was a significant determinant and that the net negative effect of a given import share of union and nonunion wages decreased sharply in absolute magnitude as the percentage of organized workers increased. (Author)

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... periodic rate (and not an overtime rate) for the current payroll period or at a predetermined fixed... other wages is less than the aggregate of the amounts determined under the table provided in section... weekly wage table for married person ($2.50 per week for 5 weeks) 12.50 Less: Tax previously withheld...

  8. 26 CFR 1.105-4 - Wage continuation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “wage continuation plan” means an accident or health plan, as defined in § 1.105-5, under which wages...) which are not normal working days for the particular employee. Also, section 105(d) does not apply to... absent from work on a Friday and the succeeding Monday (two working days) on account of a personal...

  9. 26 CFR 1.105-4 - Wage continuation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “wage continuation plan” means an accident or health plan, as defined in § 1.105-5, under which wages...) which are not normal working days for the particular employee. Also, section 105(d) does not apply to... absent from work on a Friday and the succeeding Monday (two working days) on account of a personal...

  10. 26 CFR 1.105-4 - Wage continuation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “wage continuation plan” means an accident or health plan, as defined in § 1.105-5, under which wages...) which are not normal working days for the particular employee. Also, section 105(d) does not apply to... absent from work on a Friday and the succeeding Monday (two working days) on account of a personal...

  11. Wage Inequality and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Five Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    1999-01-01

    Using 1940-90 Censuses, a study of changes in male wage inequality and skill premiums shows that relative demand for most skilled workers rose steadily over the years. The pace of industrial change, especially in blue-collar manufacturing, was inversely related to the overall growth in wage inequality. (SK)

  12. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data shall...-scale survey. Information concerning pay adjustments of general application in effect for jobs matched in each establishment which participated in the preceding full-scale survey shall be obtained....

  13. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the number of hours deemed to constitute a normal work week or work day. (v) Optional treatment of... wages constituted a single wage payment for the regular payroll period. The withholding method used by... his services as an employee equal to $3,000,000 on June 30, 2007. Unrelated company U pays D sick...

  19. 75 FR 135 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 1 (Monday, January 4, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 135] [FR Doc No: E9-31180] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings AGENCY: Civilian Personnel Management Service (Wage and Salary Division), DoD. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a contract. (b)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed or working upon the site of the work will... relationship which may be alleged to exist between the Contractor and such laborers and mechanics. Any wage... mechanics are considered wages paid to such laborers or mechanics, subject to the provisions of paragraph...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  2. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  3. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  4. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  5. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  6. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  7. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  8. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 31.3121(a)-1 Section 31.3121(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1 Wages....

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 31.3306(b)-1 Section 31.3306(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law...

  13. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  14. Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth: A Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzler, Isabelle Katz; Ellis, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways to close the gap between the courts' approach to applying Federal law to sex-based and race-based wage discrimination and the law's potential to change wage inequities. Discusses the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Explores ways the court applies these laws. (JS)

  15. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  16. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain...

  17. Desperate Measures: Strikes and Wages in Post-Accord America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Jake

    2006-01-01

    Using previously unreleased data on nearly every authorized work stoppage that occurred between 1984 and 2002, this paper tests whether the positive wage-strike relationship held following the breakdown of the post-war labor-capital accord. Unlike in decades past, these findings indicate a complete decoupling of the wage-strike relationship. Even…

  18. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  19. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  20. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., contracting agencies may select and obtain a wage determination using WDOL. (See § 4.4(c).) Although the WDOL... subsequent issuance of wage determinations for one or more composite localities. (4) In no event may a... thereon pursuant to section 4(c) of the Act is warranted, shall file its request for such hearing...

  1. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  2. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  3. Wages and Productivity in Mexican Manufacturing. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    A study examined determinants of wages and productivity in Mexico from 1993 and 1999 using two national surveys. In 1993, 7,619 employees from 575 firms were interviewed. In 1999, 6,259 employees from 722 firms were interviewed. Findings indicate that wage premiums and productivity increased with years of schooling, but workers had higher benefits…

  4. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2010-01-01

    This article employs a unique method of inferring the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to offer new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the United States on workers' wages. We estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants,…

  5. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  6. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  7. Male-Female Wage Differentials: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, B. F.; Traynham, Earle C.

    This paper reviews some of the past literature on male-female wage differentials in order to determine the early hypotheses which are the historical roots of the current theoretical and empirical work analyzing male-female wage differentials. Part 1 reviews the discrimination hypotheses, which emphasize differences in the labor market conditions…

  8. Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes.

  9. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY.

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-05-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual's log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young.

  10. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual’s log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young. PMID:25798025

  11. The reservation wages of Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    There exists a lot of research on the reservation wages of the unemployed as a determinant of unemployment duration. Little is known about the reservation wages of those who are not in the labor force but might be potential labor force returnees, such as Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries. The main objective of this article is to assess what can be learned from the subjective reservation wages of DI beneficiaries. Using the New Beneficiary Data System (NBDS), the article assesses the magnitudes of reservation wages compared to the last wage earned and the benefit amount, as well as the determinants of reservation wages in a regression framework. The NBDS is unique in that it provides the reservation wages and the work history of DI beneficiaries before and after joining the DI rolls. The article has several noteworthy results and policy implications: *Data show that a significant portion of beneficiaries report being likely to accept a job if offered one. Based on the NBDS, 13 percent of DI beneficiaries who did not work since joining the rolls in 1981-1982 reported in 1991 that they would be willing to work if offered a job and provided their reservation wages. *DI beneficiaries do not appear to price themselves out of the labor market. Half of them would want a wage that is 80 percent or less of the last wage earned before receiving DI. It is estimated that approximately 7 percent of long-term DI beneficiaries may potentially return-to-work if they search for jobs and have a wage offer distribution with a mean at 80 percent of their last wage. *The nonlabor income in addition to the benefit is positively and significantly associated with the reservation wage, while the benefit amount per se is not. However, this result needs to be treated with caution given that nonlabor income is endogenous to the model. *Heterogeneity exists between persons still under the DI program and those that have moved to the Old-Age program. The subsamples of

  12. The earnings of informal carers: wage differentials and opportunity costs.

    PubMed

    Heitmueller, Axel; Inglis, Kirsty

    2007-07-01

    A substantial proportion of working age individuals in Britain are looking after sick, disabled or elderly people, often combining their work and caring responsibilities. Previous research has shown that informal care is linked with substantial opportunity costs for the individual due to forgone wages as a result of non-labour market participation. In this paper we show that informal carers exhibit further disadvantages even when participating. Using the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) we decompose wage differentials and show that carers can expect lower returns for a given set of characteristics, with this wage penalty varying along the pay distribution and by gender. Furthermore, opportunity costs from forgone wages and wage penalties are estimated and found to be substantial.

  13. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provide them with an opportunity to overcome the initial learning curve. The persons observed shall be... of machines are not available, a second work measurement should be conducted. (i) Each worker with...

  14. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provide them with an opportunity to overcome the initial learning curve. The persons observed shall be... of machines are not available, a second work measurement should be conducted. (i) Each worker with...

  15. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provide them with an opportunity to overcome the initial learning curve. The persons observed shall be... of machines are not available, a second work measurement should be conducted. (i) Each worker with...

  16. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provide them with an opportunity to overcome the initial learning curve. The persons observed shall be... of machines are not available, a second work measurement should be conducted. (i) Each worker with...

  17. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provide them with an opportunity to overcome the initial learning curve. The persons observed shall be... of machines are not available, a second work measurement should be conducted. (i) Each worker with...

  18. Education Act Extends Sex Discrimination and Minimum Wage Provisions. Legislative Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    This brief presents highlights from the recently enacted Education Amendments which include comprehensive higher education provisions, authorization for greatly increased funding, and limitations on court-ordered busing. The act also establishes within HEW a National Institute of Education, whose prime purpose is to find ways to make educational…

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... classification is listed for an industry, employees in that group must pay the Tier 1 rates. Important: In.... 2043 a Cereal breakfast foods. 2044 1 Rice milling. 2045 1 Prepared flour mixes and doughs. 2046 1...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 Electrical appliances, television and radio sets. 5065 1 Electronic parts and equipment, not..., television, consumer electronics, and music stores. 5731 a Radio, television, and consumer electronics stores... service and repair shops. 7629 1 Electrical and electronic repair shops, not elsewhere classified. 763...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 Electrical appliances, television and radio sets. 5065 1 Electronic parts and equipment, not..., television, consumer electronics, and music stores. 5731 a Radio, television, and consumer electronics stores... service and repair shops. 7629 1 Electrical and electronic repair shops, not elsewhere classified. 763...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 Electrical appliances, television and radio sets. 5065 1 Electronic parts and equipment, not..., television, consumer electronics, and music stores. 5731 a Radio, television, and consumer electronics stores... service and repair shops. 7629 1 Electrical and electronic repair shops, not elsewhere classified. 763...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 Electrical appliances, television and radio sets. 5065 1 Electronic parts and equipment, not..., television, consumer electronics, and music stores. 5731 a Radio, television, and consumer electronics stores... service and repair shops. 7629 1 Electrical and electronic repair shops, not elsewhere classified. 763...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 Electrical appliances, television and radio sets. 5065 1 Electronic parts and equipment, not..., television, consumer electronics, and music stores. 5731 a Radio, television, and consumer electronics stores... service and repair shops. 7629 1 Electrical and electronic repair shops, not elsewhere classified. 763...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concrete products. 321 2 Flat glass. 3211 2 Flat glass. 322 1 Glass and glassware, pressed or blown. 3221 1... 3 Pottery products, not elsewhere classified. 327 1 Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products. 3271 2 Concrete block and brick. 3272 1 Concrete products, except block and brick. 3273 1 Ready-mixed...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products made from fabrics and similar materials. 231 3 Men's and boys' suits, coats, and overcoats. 2311 3 Men's and boys' suits, coats, and overcoats. 232 2 Men's and boys' furnishings, work clothing, and allied garments. 2321 2 Men's and boys' shirts except work shirts. 2322 1 Men's and boys' underwear...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products made from fabrics and similar materials. 231 3 Men's and boys' suits, coats, and overcoats. 2311 3 Men's and boys' suits, coats, and overcoats. 232 2 Men's and boys' furnishings, work clothing, and allied garments. 2321 2 Men's and boys' shirts except work shirts. 2322 1 Men's and boys' underwear...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 510 - Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Corporation. 3 Puerto Rico Industrial Development Bank. 3 Recreational Development Company. 2 Right to Work.... 2 Culebra Conservation and Development Authority. 3 Government Development Bank of Puerto Rico. 1... Rico. 1 Institute of Puerto Rican Culture. 2 Corporation for the Development and Administration...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 510 - Government Corporations Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Corporation. 3 Puerto Rico Industrial Development Bank. 3 Recreational Development Company. 2 Right to Work.... 2 Culebra Conservation and Development Authority. 3 Government Development Bank of Puerto Rico. 1... Rico. 1 Institute of Puerto Rican Culture. 2 Corporation for the Development and Administration...

  10. Impact of a private sector living wage intervention on depressive symptoms among apparel workers in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Setting Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. Participants The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. Interventions In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15–16 months postintervention. Primary outcome measures Workers’ depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Results Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6±9.3 vs 14.7±11.6, p=0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β=−5.4, 95% CI −8.5 to −2.3, p=0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Conclusions Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced

  11. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.

  12. The employment and wages of legalized immigrants.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Tienda, M

    1993-01-01

    "This article analyzes the employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants [in the United States] using the Legalization Application Processing System (LAPS) file, an administrative file based on the individual records of amnesty applicants, and draws comparisons with a sample of the foreign-born population from the Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986 and 1988. Compared to the total foreign-born population, the legalized immigrant population differs in four important respects that bear on labor market position: 1) a younger age structure; 2) a less balanced gender composition; 3) a greater representation of Latin Americans; and 4) few years of U.S. residence. LAPS data reveal high rates of labor force participation among legalized immigrants, which exceeded the rates of the foreign-born population by approximately 5 and 17 percent for men and women, respectively."

  13. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  14. 5 CFR 532.307 - Determinating whether a dominant industry exists in a wage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... local wage survey committee shall, before a full-scale wage survey is scheduled to begin, notify all... opportunity to make such recommendations. (b)(1) Before conducting a full-scale wage survey an occupational... full-scale wage survey to begin, whether the principal types of appropriated or nonappropriated...

  15. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  16. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  17. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  18. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  19. 76 FR 28195 - Medicare Program; Hospice Wage Index for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ...; Hospice Wage Index for Fiscal Year 2012 Correction In proposed rule document 2011-10689 appearing on pages... Wage Index for Rural Areas Wage CBSA code Nonurban area index 1 Alabama 0.8000 2 Alaska 1.3073 3... rural areas of Massachusetts, so the wage index value used is the average of the contiguous Counties....

  20. Low-Wage Jobs and Workers: Trends and Options for Change. Research Findings. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Displaced Homemakers Network, Washington, DC.

    This study was conducted to determine how many workers are in low-wage jobs; their characteristics and changes in their characteristics over time; the characteristics of the low-wage jobs; gender, sex, and racial factors influencing participation in low-wage jobs; and the relationship of low-wage work to family poverty and welfare receipt. The…

  1. 29 CFR 4.165 - Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specifying higher monetary wages or fringe benefits than those contained in an applicable determination. However, if an applicable wage determination contains a wage or fringe benefit provision for a class of... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general. 4.165...

  2. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4... Wage Determination Procedures § 4.54 Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. (a... within which a wage or fringe benefit determination is applicable is, therefore, defined in each...

  3. Labor Market Dropouts and Trends in the Wages of Black and White Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    2003-01-01

    When discouraged unemployed black males are accounted for, real wage growth for black men over 1969-98 is reduced by about 40% and black-white wage convergence by about one-third. An important source of selection bias is the changing gap between wages of workers and potential wages of nonworkers. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  4. 29 CFR 1.6 - Use and effectiveness of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness of wage determinations. (a)(1) Project wage determinations initially issued shall be effective for... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and effectiveness of wage determinations. 1.6 Section 1... the period of its effectiveness it is void. Accordingly, if it appears that a wage determination...

  5. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  6. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  7. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  8. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  9. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  10. 77 FR 41247 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... 3206-AM59 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for... Washington, DC, Federal Wage System (FWS) special wage schedule for printing and lithographic positions. Printing and lithographic employees in the Washington, DC, wage area will now be paid from the...

  11. 76 FR 53045 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... 3206-AM49 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... Monmouth, New Jersey, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine...

  12. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men.

  13. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-02-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  14. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  15. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... committee members, consideration shall be given to the requirement in the prevailing rate law for labor and... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A...

  16. The Aggregate Supply Curve: Keynes and Downwardly Sticky Money Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Keynes's explanation of both the rationale underlying downwardly sticky money wages and the consequences this phenomenon has for macroeconomic theory are reviewed. An aggregate supply curve appropriate to today's economy is then interpreted. (Author/RM)

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall...

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall...

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... laborer or mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the...

  2. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  3. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  4. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  5. 26 CFR 1.199-2 - Wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage limitation. 1.199-2 Section 1.199-2... generate both DPGR and non-DPGR. X's taxable year ends on April 30, 2011. For X's taxable year ending April 30, 2011, X has $3,000 of paragraph (e)(1) wages reported on 2010 Forms W-2. All of X's...

  6. Correlation of the structural properties of a Pt seed layer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features of full Heusler-based Co2FeAl/MgO/Co2Fe6B2 junctions via a 12-inch scale Si wafer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kyo-Suk; Lee, Du-Yeong; Shim, Tae-Hun; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-10-01

    We elucidated the interfacial-perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (i-PMA) features of full Heusler-based Co2FeAl/MgO/Co2Fe6B2 magnetic-tunnel-junctions as functions of the structural properties of the Pt seed layer including its thickness and ex situ annealing temperature. All of the samples were prepared in a 12-inch silicon wafer process for real industry applications. The observations of the M-H loops emphasize that a thinner Pt seed layer and a high ex situ annealing temperature enhance the surface roughness of the seed layer, providing better i-PMA characteristics. HR-TEM images of the samples were evaluated to understand the structural effects of thin and thick Pt seed layers.

  7. Wage differentials in Jordan: effects on integrated labour market.

    PubMed

    Share, M A

    1987-06-01

    The emigration of Jordanian workers has benefited the country by reducing the scale of unemployment that existed in the 1960s and early 1970s. In addition, workers' remittances have had a favorable effect on the Jordanian balance of payments and contributed to increases in wage rates and demands for labor. Any shortages of labor resulting from the emigration flow appear to have been offset by the importation of workers from neighboring countries. A sample survey encompassing 495 foreign workers in Jordan and 518 Jordanian workers indicates that immigrant workers' wages are below those of Jordanian workers and considerably below the wages that Jordanian workers earn abroad. The average monthly wage for the Jordanians in the sample was JD 193.03 compared to JD 132.93 for the immigrants--a 45% difference. Over half of the immigrants surveyed earned under JD 99/month, while only 26% of the Jordanian workers were in this low income category. In part this wage differential is caused by the high proportions of immigrant workers employed in the clerical and unskilled occupational groups, where they are paid only half the wages earned by Jordanians engaged in the same occupations. A similar differential was observed in the average amount of monthly remittances to home countries: in 1982, Jordanians working abroad remitted an average of JD 77.5/worker compared with JD 59/worker remitted by foreign workers employed in Jordan. On balance, it appears that Jordan is a net gainer from the process of labor import and export.

  8. The labor market effects of California's minimum nurse staffing law.

    PubMed

    Munnich, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement statewide minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in general hospitals. In spite of years of work to establish statewide staffing regulations, there is little evidence that the law was effective in attracting more nurses to the hospital workforce or improving patient outcomes. This paper examines the effects of this legislation on employment and wages of registered nurses. By using annual financial data from California hospitals, I show that nurse-to-patient ratios in medical/surgical units increased substantially following the staffing mandate. However, survey data from two nationally representative datasets indicate that the law had no effect on the aggregate number of registered nurses or the hours they worked in California hospitals, and at most a modest effect on wages. My findings suggest that offsetting changes in labor demand due to hospital closures, combined with reclassification of workers within hospitals, and mitigated the employment effects of California's staffing regulation. This paper cautions that California's experience with minimum nurse staffing legislation may not be generalizable to states considering similar policies in very different hospital markets.

  9. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  10. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  11. The Impact of Wages on the Probability of Completing an Apprenticeship or Traineeship. NCVER Monograph Series 04/2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Mlotkowski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of this research is the impact of wages on the decision not to continue with an apprenticeship or traineeship. The approach taken is to model three wages relevant to apprentices and trainees: the wage during training; the expected wage in alternative employment; and, the expected wage on completion. The results of these models…

  12. 76 FR 60720 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non... Department of Labor (Department) recently postponed the effective date of the Wage Methodology for the... new prevailing wage methodology set forth in the Wage Rule, as to the prevailing wages that...

  13. 76 FR 14679 - Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for Purposes of the H-2B Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Wage Library (OWL), which is available at http://wwwforeignlaborcert.doleta.gov/wages.cfm . GDOL has informed USCIS that it relied on the OWL wage rates in proposing the prevailing wage rates described in... published on the OWL. Since, according to Guam DOL, the wages for these occupations actually declined...

  14. Minimum Conflict Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awen, Ed; And Others

    Computer technology is discussed as a tool for facilitating the implementation of the mainstreaming process. Minimum conflict mainstreaming/merging (MCM) is defined as an approach which utilizes computer technology to circumvent such structural obstacles to mainstreaming as transportation scheduling, screening and assignment of students, testing,…

  15. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  16. The effects of competition on community-based nursing wages.

    PubMed

    Zarnett, Dara; Coyte, Peter C; Nauenberg, Eric; Doran, Diane; Laporte, Audrey

    2009-02-01

    In 1997, Ontario implemented a competitive bidding process for purchasing home care services, with the twin objectives of lowering costs and increasing service quality. The authors of this study performed regression analyses to ascertain the relationship between measures of competition, profit status of providers and nursing wages for community-based RNs and LPNs between 1995/1996 and 2000/2001. Using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index as a measure of competition, we observed that only RN wages significantly increased as competition in home care increased. Furthermore, for-profit agencies paid significantly lower RN wages than their not-for-profit counterparts. By contrast, LPN wages declined over the sample period and did not differ markedly across provider types. The relative distribution of for-profit and not-for-profit agencies changed dramatically over the study period, with large increases in the number and volume of for-profit contracts. The results indicate that (a) greater competition in the home care sector resulted in upward pressure on RN wages independent of the profit status of the provider and (b) the increase appears to have been constrained by the increased presence of for-profit providers over the study period. The results highlight the role of profit status in provider behaviour, even in the context of publicly funded home care services. This finding has implications for both provider mix and the remuneration of nurses.

  17. Associations between Wage System and Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Persson, Roger; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Piece rate and performance based wage systems are common in the construction industry. Construction workers are known to have an increased risk of pain and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the association between wage system and (1) physical exertion, (2) time pressure, (3) pain, and (4) fatigue. The participants comprised 456 male Danish construction workers working on one of three different wage systems: group based performance wage, individually based performance wage, and time based wage system. The statistical analyses indicated differences between the wage systems in relation to physical exertion (ηp = 0.05) and time pressure (ηp = 0.03) but not to pain or fatigue. Workers on group based performance wage scored higher (i.e., worse) than workers on individual performance based wage and workers with an hourly/monthly wage. In conclusion, group performance based wage was associated with higher levels of physical exertion and time pressure. Accordingly, group performance based wage can be viewed as a factor that has the potential to complicate prevention of MSD among construction workers. Since performance based wage systems are common in many countries across the world, more attention should be paid to the health effects of these types of payment. PMID:26605083

  18. [Agreement and asymmetry. Population and wages vis vis a vis the globalization of the economy].

    PubMed

    Jusidman, C

    1991-01-01

    The free flow of labor and services across national borders will be 1 of the most difficult problems of future negotiations for integration of the markets of the US, Mexico, and Canada. The free flow of products and increasingly of capital have been accepted in general terms, and land and natural resources are entering the globalization process through external investment. In the trilateral free trade treaty between Mexico, the US, and Canada, the US is particularly interested in access to the service markets of Canada and Mexico. Mexico would like freer access to the other markets, and to protect its migrant workers. Canada needs foreign labor for its agricultural production. All 3 countries would potentially benefit from more flexible population movement. Mexico, Canada, and the US have very different structures, population dynamics, and labor markets. Mexico's population growth rate is the highest and its active population is increasing the most rapidly. Mexico must generate 1 million new jobs annually, the US requires 2.1 million, and Canada around 230,000. The 3 countries, with about 360 million inhabitants in 1991, must create 3.4 million new jobs annually. Because of differences in occupational and activity structures, levels of skill, salaries, productivity, and cultures of work in the 3 countries, it is clear that the new jobs correspond to different labor markets, making predictions about average salaries difficult. The 1990 average minimum wage in the US was about 10 times that of Mexico, while the average minimum in the manufacturing sector as about 7 times greater. The degree to which the trilateral treaty can contribute to reducing the differential is an important question. 3 possible scenarios suggest themselves. If current restrictions on mobility of workers are maintained, wage disparities will probably continue unless there is a very great foreign investment in activities throughout Mexico that require significant labor inputs. This would probably

  19. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  20. 75 FR 34170 - Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the... workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Circuit, Plymouth, Minnesota,...

  1. 29 CFR 4.56 - Review and reconsideration of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... review a wage determination or its applicability after the opening of bids in the case of a competitively... request for reconsideration, review the data sources relied upon as a basis for the wage...

  2. 29 CFR 4.56 - Review and reconsideration of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... review a wage determination or its applicability after the opening of bids in the case of a competitively... request for reconsideration, review the data sources relied upon as a basis for the wage...

  3. 29 CFR 4.56 - Review and reconsideration of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... review a wage determination or its applicability after the opening of bids in the case of a competitively... request for reconsideration, review the data sources relied upon as a basis for the wage...

  4. 29 CFR 4.56 - Review and reconsideration of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... review a wage determination or its applicability after the opening of bids in the case of a competitively... request for reconsideration, review the data sources relied upon as a basis for the wage...

  5. Microfinance, wage employment and housework: a gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R

    1999-08-01

    This paper examines the loan-use pattern of women involved in wage employment and their benefits from such loans in Bangladesh. The effects of wage employment on gender relations and how these women balance loan use, wage employment, and housework were also explored. The study was conducted among women enrolled in the Ayesha Abed Foundation (AAF) of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) in Jamalpur district, central Bangladesh. The AAF was established to generate employment and income for poor rural women. Data were gathered through survey, interviews, and focus-group discussions. Findings revealed that women wage earners avail themselves of the BRAC loans for consumption, asset accumulation, land purchase, and other productive purposes. About 53% of their loans were used by others and only 34 out of 341 women in the sample actually used the loans themselves. The loans were repaid by sewing or subsistence work, mainly in the subcenters (52%), through income from rickshaw pulling by their husbands (24%), and by selling vegetables, eggs, or milk. Furthermore, findings showed that the household work of women wage earners is generally taken up by other women in the family and has resulted in more men taking part in household responsibilities. In conclusion, wage employment plays an important factor in the promotion of the economic and social empowerment of women. Economic empowerment is observed in the greater degree of control women have over the money they earn. Social empowerment is manifested in the expanding mobility of women, whereby they are able to interact with other women and generate support systems.

  6. Why Wait? The Effect of Marriage and Childbearing on the Wages of Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…

  7. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  8. Unemployment Rates and Starting Salaries: Are Australian Graduates at the Whim of the Wage Curve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an inverse relationship between wage levels and regional unemployment rates, commonly referred to as the wage curve, is well established in the economic literature and was described by Card (1995) as being "close to an empirical law of economics". This microeconomic wage-unemployment relationship, first identified by…

  9. 29 CFR 4.167 - Wage payments-medium of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments-medium of payment. 4.167 Section 4.167 Labor... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.167 Wage payments—medium of payment. The wage payment requirements... the period in which it was earned, are not proper mediums of payment under the Act. If, as...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.33 - Recovery of wages due; injunctions; penalties for willful violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.33 Recovery of wages due; injunctions; penalties for willful... paid to an employee to meet the equal pay standard, and of any wages that the employer should have paid... Commission may supervise payment of the back wages and may bring suit for back pay and an equal amount...

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Construction Wage...

  12. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a...

  13. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a...

  14. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a...

  15. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a...

  16. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a...

  17. Wage Differentials by Field of Study--The Case of German University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Barbara S.; Goerlitz, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Using data on German university graduates, this paper analyzes wage differentials by field of study at labor market entry and five to six years later. At both points of time, graduates from arts/humanities have lower average monthly wages compared to other fields. Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions show that these wage differentials can be explained…

  18. 29 CFR 4.167 - Wage payments-medium of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage payments-medium of payment. 4.167 Section 4.167 Labor... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.167 Wage payments—medium of payment. The wage payment requirements... the period in which it was earned, are not proper mediums of payment under the Act. If, as...

  19. 29 CFR 4.50 - Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4.50... Determination Procedures § 4.50 Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. The Administrator specifies the... Agreement—(Successorship). Determinations that set forth the wage rates and fringe benefits,...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a)...

  1. Continuous Training and Wages: An Empirical Analysis Using a Comparison-Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlitz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Using German linked employer-employee data, this paper investigates the short-term impact of on-the-job training on wages. The applied estimation approach was first introduced by Leuven and Oosterbeek (2008). Wages of employees who intended to participate in training but did not do so because of a random event are compared to wages of training…

  2. 24 CFR 965.101 - Preemption of State prevailing wage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... apprentice or trainee wage rate based thereon is applicable, the total wage rate determined under State law, including fringe benefits (if any) and basic hourly rate, shall be compared to the total wage rate... from the comparison with the rate determined by the Secretary of HUD. (b) Whenever paragraph (a)(1)...

  3. 24 CFR 965.101 - Preemption of State prevailing wage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... apprentice or trainee wage rate based thereon is applicable, the total wage rate determined under State law, including fringe benefits (if any) and basic hourly rate, shall be compared to the total wage rate... from the comparison with the rate determined by the Secretary of HUD. (b) Whenever paragraph (a)(1)...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6334-2 - Wages, salary, and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages, salary, and other income. 301.6334-2....6334-2 Wages, salary, and other income. (a) In general. Under section 6334 (a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income are exempt from levy....

  5. 26 CFR 301.6334-2 - Wages, salary, and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages, salary, and other income. 301.6334-2....6334-2 Wages, salary, and other income. (a) In general. Under section 6334 (a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income are exempt from levy....

  6. 26 CFR 521.110 - Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.110 Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration. Under Article X (1) of the convention any wage, salary, similar compensation...

  7. 26 CFR 521.110 - Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.110 Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration. Under Article X (1) of the convention any wage, salary, similar compensation...

  8. 26 CFR 521.110 - Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.110 Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration. Under Article X (1) of the convention any wage, salary, similar compensation...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6334-2 - Wages, salary, and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wages, salary, and other income. 301.6334-2....6334-2 Wages, salary, and other income. (a) In general. Under section 6334 (a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income are exempt from levy....

  10. 26 CFR 301.6334-2 - Wages, salary, and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wages, salary, and other income. 301.6334-2....6334-2 Wages, salary, and other income. (a) In general. Under section 6334 (a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income are exempt from levy....

  11. 26 CFR 301.6334-2 - Wages, salary, and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wages, salary, and other income. 301.6334-2....6334-2 Wages, salary, and other income. (a) In general. Under section 6334 (a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income are exempt from levy....

  12. 26 CFR 521.110 - Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.110 Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration. Under Article X (1) of the convention any wage, salary, similar compensation...

  13. 26 CFR 521.110 - Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, pensions and... Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.110 Government wages, salaries, pensions and similar remuneration. Under Article X (1) of the convention any wage, salary,...

  14. High Skills, High Wages. Washington's Comprehensive Plan for Workforce Training and Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    In Washington, urban centers enjoy rising wages and low employment; rural areas have stagnating wages and high unemployment. Most family-wage job opportunities are in occupations that require some postsecondary education but not a four-year degree. The shortage is most severe in the supply of skilled workers with vocational training. Technology…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Wages of Hispanic, Black, and Anglo Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Cordelia

    This paper details the factors contributing to the wage structure of Hispanic men and compares the wages of Black and Anglo men. The major finding is that controlling for differences in observable personal characteristics--such as education and work experience--substantially reduces the wage differences between Hispanics and Anglos. For example,…

  16. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(3)-1 - Withholding on basis of cumulative wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., B requests that Y Co. withhold on the basis of his cumulative wages with respect to his wages to be paid on October 12 and thereafter. Y Co. adds the $300 in wages to be paid to B on October 12 to the... year. Example. On July 1, 1970, Y Co. employs B, a single person claiming one exemption. Y Co. pays...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(3)-1 - Withholding on basis of cumulative wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., B requests that Y Co. withhold on the basis of his cumulative wages with respect to his wages to be paid on October 12 and thereafter. Y Co. adds the $300 in wages to be paid to B on October 12 to the... year. Example. On July 1, 1970, Y Co. employs B, a single person claiming one exemption. Y Co. pays...

  18. 29 CFR 4.167 - Wage payments-medium of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wage payments-medium of payment. 4.167 Section 4.167 Labor... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.167 Wage payments—medium of payment. The wage payment requirements... the period in which it was earned, are not proper mediums of payment under the Act. If, as...

  19. 29 CFR 4.167 - Wage payments-medium of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Wage payments-medium of payment. 4.167 Section 4.167 Labor... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.167 Wage payments—medium of payment. The wage payment requirements... the period in which it was earned, are not proper mediums of payment under the Act. If, as...

  20. 5 CFR 532.271 - Special wage schedules for National Park Service positions in overlap areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special wage schedules for National Park... wage schedules for National Park Service positions in overlap areas. (a)(1) The Department of the Interior shall establish special schedules for wage employees of the National Park Service whose...