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Sample records for 6be uk enclosing

  1. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  2. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  3. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  4. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  5. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  6. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  7. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  8. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  9. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. 177.600 Section 177.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  11. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  12. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  13. Device removes hydrogen gas from enclosed spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, W. N.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxidant galvanic cell removes small amounts of hydrogen gas continually released from equipment, such as vented silver-zinc batteries, in enclosed compartments where air venting is not feasible. These cells are used in satellite compartments.

  14. Simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco, and investigation of resonant states of 6Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelham, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    An ongoing study is presented into the resonant states of 6Be via simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco to investigate the results of ``Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus'' a paper by K.Y. Chae [1]. In this paper the d(7Be,t)6Be reaction was studied to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may be used to increase our knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It was concluded that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to account for the observed triton energy spectrum. This will be further investigated by simulating the various reaction mechanisms with Fresco to try to reproduce and explain these results. Preliminary Results will be presented.

  15. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of being... space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a power ventilation...

  16. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of being... space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a power ventilation...

  17. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of being... space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a power ventilation...

  18. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of being... space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a power ventilation...

  19. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of being... space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a power ventilation...

  20. Reaction propagation along an enclosed conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, P. J.; Swisdak, M. M., Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Tests were conducted to study the likelihood of explosive reaction propagation along an enclosed explosive handling conveyor. An initiation scheme was selected and tests conducted which insured a high order detonation over the entire length of an explosive increment. A full scale mockup of a 125-foot enclosed section of conveyor was constructed. A 50-foot increment of explosive was detonated. A 25-foot air gap and a 50-foot acceptor increment were also present. The acceptor did not detonate, nor even react violently. A small amoung of self-extinguishing burning was also observed.

  1. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  2. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  3. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  4. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  5. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  6. A joint acceptance function for enclosed spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, G. H.; Pollard, H. F.

    1980-12-01

    A method is proposed for quantifying the geometric coupling between the acoustic modes of an enclosure and the vibratory motion of the enclosing surfaces. A dimensionless quantity, called the joint acceptance function, is defined which gives the coupling efficiency of an enclosing surface within a range from zero to unity. The joint acceptance function is based on an integral solution to the wave equation which requires a knowledge of the Green function for an enclosed space. Section 2 of the paper is devoted to methods of generating Green functions for enclosed spaces as series expansions in terms of orthogonal eigenfunctions. Computer generated Green functions are shown to compare favorably with those obtained from experiments performed on a hard walled, rectangular box. Section 3 of the paper describes the method of calculating the joint acceptance function for arbitrarily shaped enclosures. Two applications of this function are presented: (a) a rectangular enclosure with surfaces vibrating as simply supported plates, and (b) a practical case involving the reduction of noise in a tractor cabin.

  7. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  8. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  9. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  10. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  11. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  12. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  13. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  14. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  15. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  16. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  17. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  18. Microinjection of Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Laurinda A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Marina; Ratzan, William J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    The mammalian oocyte develops within a complex of somatic cells known as a follicle, within which signals from the somatic cells regulate the oocyte, and signals from the oocyte regulate the somatic cells. Because isolation of the oocyte from the follicle disrupts these communication pathways, oocyte physiology is best studied within an intact follicle. Here we describe methods for quantitative microinjection of follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, thus allowing the introduction of signaling molecules as well as optical probes into the oocyte within its physiological environment.

  19. Carbon fiber behavior in an enclosed volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of single carbon fibers existing in an enclosed space such as a room of a building. Three general phenomena were explored: the concentration decay rate of a fiber-charged room, the degree of uniform mixing of fibers within a room, and the effects of fibers being redisseminated off deposition surfaces within a room. The results were required in understanding the ratio of total indoor fiber exposure to total outdoor fiber exposure, a quantity essential to risk analysis. Results indicate that decay rate is predictable within acceptable limits and that homogeneous mixing can always be assumed. Some factors of redissemination are identified and effects discussed.

  20. UK-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcroberts, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    The launch of the UK-4 satellite (United Kingdom) and its expected operations in the upper ionosphere are discussed. The satellite is designed to study radio noise, low frequency radio waves, electron temperature, and count low energy charged particles.

  1. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A

    2013-11-26

    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  2. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE AND TIN SHEETING. - Sig Sautelle Circus Training House, South Main Street (State Route 11), Homer, Cortland County, NY

  4. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH ON PHOTO RIGHT AND DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 6. VIEW OF UTILITY TUNNEL, DRYDOCK NO., 4 (CAGE ENCLOSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF UTILITY TUNNEL, DRYDOCK NO., 4 (CAGE ENCLOSES ACCESS TO SEWAGE PIT) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 4, West of State Route 92, West of Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  10. 12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULLDOWN STAIRCASE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULL-DOWN STAIRCASE TO ATTIC. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS MOUNTED BELOW WINDOWS AND HEATING SYSTEM PIPES ABOVE - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10600, 4 Quadrants, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  12. 17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO 18-FOOT LOCK, LOOKING EAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. 18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM 50-FOOT LOCK TO ELEVATOR, LOOKING WEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  14. 12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #3. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  15. Metal contamination in water, sediment and biota from a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    PubMed

    Aly, Walid; Williams, Ian D; Hudson, Malcolm D

    2013-05-01

    This study identifies and quantifies the spatial variations of metal contamination in water, sediment and biota: the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and the Mermaid's glove sponge (Haliclona oculata), within a heavily anthropogenically impacted semi-enclosed estuarine-coastal area with a low ability to disperse and flush contaminants (Poole Harbour, UK). The results showed that metal contamination was detected in all environmental compartments. Water was polluted with As, and Hg sediment metals were mostly within "the possible effect range" in which adverse effects occasionally occurs. Cockles had considerable concentrations of Ni, Ag and Hg in areas close to pollution sources, and sponges accumulate Cu and Zn with very high magnitude. A systematic monitoring approach that includes biological monitoring techniques, which covers all embayments, is needed, and an integrated management of the semi-enclosed coastal zones should be based on the overall hydrological characteristics of these sensitive areas and their ability to self-restore which is different than open coastal zones. PMID:23014922

  16. Hygrometer for Detecting Water in Partially Enclosed Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Surma, Jan; Parks, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A portable hygrometer has been devised to implement a pre-existing technique for detecting water trapped in partially enclosed volumes that may be difficult to reach and cannot be examined directly. The technique is based on the fact that eventually the air in such a volume becomes saturated or nearly so. The technique is straightforward: One measures the relative humidity and temperature of both the ambient air and a sample of air from the enclosed volume. If the relative humidity of the sample is significantly greater than that of the ambient air and/or if the sample is at or close to the dew point, then it can be concluded that water is trapped in the volume. Of course, the success of this technique depends on the existence of an access hole through which one can withdraw some air from the enclosed volume.

  17. Field evaluation of ventilation system performance in enclosed parking garages

    SciTech Connect

    Ayari, A.M.; Grot, D.A.; Krarti, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a field study to determine the ventilation requirements and the contaminant levels in existing enclosed parking garages. The testing was conducted in seven parking garages with different sizes, traffic flow patterns, vehicle types, and locations. In particular, the study compares the actual ventilation rates measured using the tracer gas technique with the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. In addition, the field test evaluated the effectiveness of the existing ventilation systems in maintaining acceptable contaminant levels within enclosed parking garages.

  18. Interior view of the enclosed area, note the twolightover singlepanel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the enclosed area, note the two-light-over single-panel door to the main warehouse area, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office area taken from the main warehouse area showing the metal sash windows, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  20. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRYWAY SHOWING STAIR LANDING AND OPEN FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  2. NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 1800 FEET SOUTH OF TRACK. Looking southeast - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Observation Tower, South of west end of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 13. Enclosed porch at lower level of Clubhouse outside the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Enclosed porch at lower level of Clubhouse outside the original Clubhouse bar. Camera pointed S. Dark grated window on right is also seen from other side in photo WA-201-2-9. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  4. 15. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED AREAS AT BACK OF TUNNEL IS A HOUSING FOR CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE TESTING ON AIRCRAFT MODELS IN A VORTEX. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  5. 7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND CASEMENT WINDOW INTO ATTIC AT PEAK OF GABLE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  6. DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  8. 11. INTERIOR OF WEST SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH IN OPPOSITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF WEST SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH IN OPPOSITE VIEW FROM CA-167-A-8. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  9. 3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE BOXES WITHIN AND BETWEEN MODULAR WORK AREAS. LEADED GLOVES WERE AFFIXED TO PORTS ALONG THE CHAINVEYOR PATHWAY TO ALLOW OPERATOR ACCESS. (1/25/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed east porch. Dining room visible through open door at center, with door to living room visible in background. Kitchen is highly altered. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  12. Double gallbladder completely enclosed in a cystogastric fold of peritoneum

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Surendran, Sudarshan; Jetti, Raghu; Kumar, Naveen; Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Double gallbladder is one of the rare congenital anomalies of the gallbladder. Failure to detect an accessory gallbladder hampers diagnosis and treatment of cholecystitis, which might result in recurrent attacks of cholecystitis. In addition, presence of peritoneal folds extending from the stomach and duodenum to the gallbladder is very rare. Here we report the presence of a double gallbladder enclosed in a cystogastric fold of the peritoneum. During cadaveric dissection, we observed a cystogastric peritoneal fold that extended from the lesser curvature of the stomach and the first part of the duodenum to the gallbladder. The left end of the peritoneal fold merged with the lesser omentum. It enclosed two gallbladders: the main gallbladder and a small accessory gallbladder. The accessory gallbladder was a small pouch with its fundus attached to the main gallbladder by fibrous tissue, and its duct opened into the main cystic duct. PMID:24987550

  13. Low-frequency oscillations of the level of enclosed sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, G. K.

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the variable surface level of a small enclosed basin that is related to the problem of interpreting satellite altimetric data, which assist in observations only of a deviation of a marine basin from unknown average condition needed to be calculated for the reconstruction of the sea-level topography. The reconstruction of unknown average condition becomes especially uncertain for the enclosed basins with significant level oscillations due to a variable water balance and requires the attraction of a priori physical concepts. This work reveals the general principles of response of the sea level to the low-frequency changes of the water exchange through the boundary of the basin with a rather arbitrary morphology.

  14. Algebraic area enclosed by random walks on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Jean

    2015-10-01

    We compute the moments ≤ft<{A}2k\\right> of the area enclosed by an N-steps random walk on a 2D lattice. We consider separately the cases where the walk comes back to the origin or not. We also compute, for both cases, the characteristic function ≤ft<{{{e}}}{{i} B A}\\right> at order 1/{N}2.

  15. Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E

    2016-05-01

    Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty. PMID:27250165

  16. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus using a radioactive 7Be beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K. Y.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Smith, Michael Scott; Champagne, A. E.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Visser, D. W.; Das, Jiban; Guimaraes, V.; Jones, K. L.; Pain, S. D.; Thomas, J. S.; Johnson, M. S.; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction is important for understanding stellar burning and solar neutrino production. Previous measurements have found a surprisingly large rise in the cross section at low energies that could be due to a low energy resonance in the 3He + 3He (6Be) system or electron screening. In the 6Be nucleus, however, no excited states have been observed above the first 2+ state at Ex = 1:67 MeV up to 23 MeV, even though several are expected. The d(7Be,t)6Be reaction has been studied for the first time to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may affect our understanding of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV radioactive 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It appears that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to explain the observed triton energy spectrum.

  18. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  19. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  20. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  1. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  2. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  3. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  4. Fracture of Pipes Due to Freezing of Water Enclosed Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwake, Shigeyoshi; Inaba, Hideo; Saito, Hakaru; Tokura, Ikuo

    Pressure rise due to freezing of water enclosed in metal pipes has been simulated for the case of various ambient temperatures, -10 to -30°C and heat transfer conditions, taking drop in freezing temperature due to the pressure rise and the change in volume caused by freezing into account. For three kinds of different materials, the pressure change occurring in pipes have been analyzed under the relation of the tangential stresses on the inner surface of the pipes. The dimensionless parameters have been proposed to correlate the calculated results and it has found that the criterion for the fracture of pipes can be expressed as a function mainly of the modified Fourier and Biot numbers and the ratio of the wall thickness and the inner diameter of the pipes. It has also shown that the fracture Fourier number can be increased and the dimensionless maximum pressures in pipes can be reduced by introducing voids inside pipes.

  5. An analysis of influenza outbreaks in institutions and enclosed societies.

    PubMed

    Finnie, T J R; Copley, V R; Hall, I M; Leach, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the reported attack ratio arising from outbreaks of influenza in enclosed societies. These societies are isolated from the wider community and have greater opportunities for contact between members which would aid the spread of disease. While the particular kind of society (prison, care home, school, barracks, etc.) was not a significant factor in an adjusted model of attack ratio, a person's occupation within the society was. In particular, children and military personnel suffer a greater attack ratio than other occupational types (staff, prisoners, etc.). There was no temporal trend in final attack ratio nor, with the exception of 1918, do pandemic years show abnormal attack ratios. We also observed that as community size increases, the attack ratio undergoes steep nonlinear decline. This statistical analysis draws attention to how the organization of such societies, their size and the occupations of individuals within them affect the final attack ratio. PMID:23570654

  6. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  7. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  8. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  9. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  10. Annual hypoxia dynamics in a semi-enclosed Mediterranean gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountoura, K.; Zacharias, I.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study the hypoxia dynamics in a fjord-like gulf, the Amvrakikos Gulf, in the Mediterranean Sea and highlight the factors which control the development of hypoxia. Bimonthly physicochemical data were collected in order to describe the hypoxic conditions and a three-dimensional model was used to describe the hydrodynamic circulation and explain the variations in hypoxic conditions. According to our results, the horizontal intrusion of well oxygenated open seawater can lead to the oxygenation of the deepest water in this semi-enclosed gulf. The key factor in determining the success of this horizontal intrusion is the density difference between the gulf's deepest area and the open sea outside the gulf. When the well oxygenated open seawater is denser than the bottom water in the gulf, it inflows into the gulf near the bottom and slowly re-oxygenates the isolated deep waters through mixing and diffusion, as the water travels eastward. However, when the gulf's deep water is denser than the open sea's water, the inflow stops. This, in combination with the eutrophic conditions which characterize the Amvrakikos, causes the re-establishment of hypoxic/anoxic conditions.

  11. Cyclic Pursuit Based Formation Control for Cooperative Target-enclosing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Shinji; Hori, Yutaka; Kim, Tae-Hyoung

    This paper studies a formation stability analysis scheme of a distributed cooperative control for target-enclosing operations by multiple homogeneous dynamic agents. To this end, we first present an on-line path generator design method based on a cyclic pursuit scheme. Then, we provide the stability condition which the developed path generator should satisfy. This condition is derived based on a simple stability analysis method for hierarchical large-scale linear systems with a generalized frequency variable. The formation control scheme combined with a cyclic pursuit based distributed on-line path generator satisfying the derived stability condition guarantees the required global convergence property with theoretical rigor. Further, in order to show its distinctive features clearly, we present how to analyze global formation stability for a class of multi-agent systems where each agent is modeled as a second-order system and is locally stabilized by the PID controller. A simulation example illustrates distinctive features of the proposed method and the achievement of a desired pursuit pattern.

  12. A Glove Box Enclosed Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Reevr, E, M; Robino, C.V.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes an inert atmosphere enclosed gas-tungsten arc welding system which has been assembled in support of the MC2730, MC2730A and MC 3500 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Enhanced Surveillance Program. One goal of this program is to fabricate welds with microstructures and impurity levels which are similar to production heat source welds previously produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mound Facility. These welds will subsequently be used for high temperature creep testing as part of the overall component lifetime assessment. In order to maximize the utility of the welding system, means for local control of the arc atmosphere have been incorporated and a wide range of welding environments can easily be evaluated. The gas-tungsten arc welding system used in the assembly is computer controlled, includes two-axis and rotary motion, and can be operated in either continuous or pulsed modes. The system can therefore be used for detailed research studies of welding impurity effects, development of prototype weld schedules, or to mimic a significant range of production-like welding conditions. Fixturing for fabrication of high temperature creep test samples have been designed and constructed, and weld schedules for grip-tab and test welds have been developed. The microstructure of these welds have been evaluated and are consistent with those used during RTG production.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 63.1016 Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. (a) Use of...

  14. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All...

  15. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All...

  16. 46 CFR 45.113 - Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. 45.113 Section 45.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.113 Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. (a)...

  17. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels. PMID:19761471

  18. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  19. Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames Studied in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Dennis P.

    1999-01-01

    In practical combustion systems, the flame is often anchored at the inlet where the fuel is injected into an air duct. This type of system is found in powerplant combustors, gas turbine combustors, and the jet engine afterburner. Despite its successful use, this configuration is vulnerable to adverse flow conditions that can cause the flame to literally lift off from the inlet or even blowout. Poor flame stability is, of course, unwanted, especially where safety has a high priority. Our understanding of the mechanisms that control flame stability is incomplete in part because the interaction of buoyant (i.e., gravity-induced) convection makes it difficult to interpret normal-gravity results. However, a comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity results can provide a clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on flame stability. Therefore, a joint microgravity study on the stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) was carried out by researchers at The University of Iowa and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The microgravity tests were conducted in the Microgravity Glovebox (MGBX), during the STS-87 space shuttle mission in late 1997, using hardware designed and produced at Lewis. The primary objective of the ELF investigation was to determine the mechanisms controlling the stability of round, laminar, gas-jet diffusion flames in a coflow air duct. The study specifically focused on the effect of buoyancy on the flame characteristics and velocities at the lift-off, reattachment, and blowout of the flame. When the fuel or air velocity is increased to a critical value, the flame base abruptly jumps downstream, and the flame is said to have reached its lift-off condition. Flow conditions are such that the flame cannot be maintained at the burner rim despite the presence of both fuel and oxygen. When the velocity is further increased, the flame eventually extinguishes at its blowout condition. In contrast, if the velocity is reduced, the flame base

  20. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  1. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W. ); Koepfinger, J.L. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities.

  2. Drug assessment: UK style.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Before medicines can be marketed in the UK, they are subject to a system of licensing and the granting of a marketing authorisation that describes the conditions and patient groups for which the medicinal product can be used within the terms of its licence.(1) The licensing process involves an assessment of data relating to the efficacy, safety and quality of the product. However, the marketing authorisation does not determine whether, or how, it will be used in clinical practice. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) and the All Wales Medicines Strategy Group (AWMSG) publish recommendations on the use of medicines for health services in the United Kingdom. In this article we review their remit, work processes and the status of guidance published in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:24336496

  3. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  4. UK Parkinson's Excellence Network: empowering service improvement across the UK.

    PubMed

    Burn, David

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's UK, together with leading Parkinson's professionals, has set up the UK Parkinson's Excellence Network to bring together the passion and expertise of leading clinicians with the strategic leadership and resources of Parkinson's UK underpinned by the voice of people affected by Parkinson's. Launched in London in February 2015, the Excellence Network aims to drive sustainable improvements in health and social care services. It will provide a more strategic approach to clinical development so that Parkinson's services across health and social care can be transformed to provide the best quality care across the UK. PMID:26107314

  5. Network-topology Independent Cooperative Target-enclosing Behavior by Swarms of Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hiroki; Namerikawa, Toru

    This paper deals with cooperative target-enclosing problem for swarms of vehicles with dynamic network-topology. First, we introduce a dynamic network topology that depends on relative distance between the vehicles. Secondly, we propose the target-enclosing strategy based on consensus seeking with dynamic network-topology. In proposed strategy, at least one vehicle has to acquire the states of target-object. Furthermore, we prove that convergence speed of each vehicle is independent of network-topology. To analyze the convergence of target-enclosing behavior under dynamic network topology, algebraic graph theory and matrix theory are utilized. Finally, numerical simulation results and experimental results are provided that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei

    2015-05-15

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ∼0.3 eV/Å to ∼0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  7. Two-proton decay of the 6Be ground state and the double isobaric analog of 11Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charity, R. J.; Elson, J. M.; Komarov, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Manfredi, J.; Shane, R.; Egorova, I. A.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Hagino, K.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Gade, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Kilbrun, M.; Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Lynch, W. G.; Mocko, M.; Lobastov, S. P.; Rodgers, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Wallace, M. S.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Hudan, S.; Metelko, C.; Famino, M. A.; Marley, S. T.; Shetty, D. V.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; van Goethem, M. J.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2013-03-01

    Two-proton decay is discussed in a number of light isobaric multiplets. For the lightest two-proton emitter, 6Be, the momentum correlations between the three decay products were measured and found to be consistent with quantum-mechanical three-cluster-model calculations. Two-proton decay was also found for two members of the A=8 and A=11 quintets. Finally, a third member of the A=11 sextet, the double isobaric analog of the halo nucleus 11Li in 11B was observed by its two-proton decay.

  8. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  9. Evaluation of an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of mobile handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Mathew, J Itty; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile handheld devices used in health care settings may become contaminated with health care-associated pathogens. We demonstrated that an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device was effective in rapidly reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and with longer exposure times, Clostridium difficile spores, on glass slides and reducing contamination on in-use mobile handheld devices. PMID:26921014

  10. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. 153.217 Section 153.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel...

  11. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths,...

  12. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths,...

  13. ENCLOSED AQUATIC MULTIPSECIES TEST SYSTEM FOR TESTING MIBROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS WITH NON-TARGET SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enclosed test system was developed in which multiple species of aquatic animals and plants were tested experimentally for adverse non-target effects of wild-type and genetically altered microbial pest control agents (MPCAs). our different types of model MPCAs were tested in th...

  14. Creating a parameterized model of a CMOS transistor with a gate of enclosed layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S. M.; Atkin, E. V.; Ivanov, P. Y.

    2016-02-01

    The method of creating a parameterized spice model of an N-channel transistor with a gate of enclosed layout is considered. Formulas and examples of engineering calculations for use of models in the computer-aided Design environment of Cadence Vitruoso are presented. Calculations are made for the CMOS technology with 180 nm design rules of the UMC.

  15. Community Space and Cultural Transmission: Formation and Schooling in English Enclosed Convents in the Seventeenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In the first seventy five years of the seventeenth century twenty two enclosed convents for English women were founded in exile where more than 1950 women were professed. In order to lead the strict religious life following the requirements of the Council of Trent for enclosure for women religious, these foundations required specialised buildings…

  16. 46 CFR 28.340 - Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The fan motor must comply with 46 CFR 111.105-23. (c) Alternative standards. A vessel less than 65... ABYC H-2 and 33 CFR part 183, subpart K, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces....

  17. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  18. Location Representation in Enclosed Spaces: What Types of Information Afford Young Children an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. "Nature," 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify…

  19. Fluoride in UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Davies, Helen; Smith, Jennifer

    2003-10-01

    Fluoride concentrations in eastern UK rivers (the Humber, Tweed, Wear, Great Ouse and Thames) are described based on information collected within the Land-Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) and by the Environment Agency (EA) of England and Wales. The results show varied fluoride concentrations across the region, with a range from <0.01 to >10 mg l(-1); and mean, median and range in mean concentrations of 0.30, 0.21 and 0.05-3.38 mg l(-1) (excluding one outlier point), respectively. Within the main rivers and tributaries, the mean fluoride concentration varied from approximately 0.5 to over 2 mg l(-1) and the highest values occurred within the Don basin (Don, Dearne and Rother) and parts of the Trent basin (upper Tame and mid-upper Derbyshire Derwent) in highly industrialised and urbanised areas (Sheffield and Rotherham in the Don basin; Birmingham and Derby on the Trent). For localised inputs to the rivers, fluoride concentrations were slightly higher, and considerably higher in one outlier case. Correspondingly, the other rivers examined typically had mean fluoride concentrations between approximately 0.2 and 0.5 mg l(-1), but fluoride concentrations were lower in the headwater areas. As there is much less information on fluoride levels in upland areas, extensive data collected as part of an acid waters survey are used to show that fluoride concentrations are generally less than 0.1 mg l(-1) for the upland UK. The data are summarised in terms of both fluoride concentrations and flux, and the values are cross-referenced to other determinands collected within LOIS. The high positive correlation with boron and negative correlation with flow show the importance of point source (sewage) inputs of fluoride, while strong positive correlations between fluoride and barium indicate the relative importance of vein mineralisation in the bedrock in supplying fluoride to the waters of the Yorkshire Ouse and its tributaries. There seems to be some process that limits the fluoride

  20. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  1. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  2. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  3. Experiment and prediction of fire extinguishment with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Yang, Lijun

    2013-02-01

    The correlation between oxygen concentration and fire temperature when fire was extinguished with water mist was theoretically studied. The Semenov theory was applied to analyze the critical condition when fire was extinguished with water mist, from which the correlation could be obtained. The water mist experiments were carried out by varying the fire size, atomizer number, ceiling height, system pressure, and pre-burn time in an enclosed room. The oxygen concentration near the edge of the liquid pool and the fire temperature above the center of the liquid pool were measured. A comparison of the experimental data with the correlation was made under different conditions. The results showed that fire extinguishment was a stochastic process which could be affected by many factors. This theoretical model could predict the correlation between fire temperature and oxygen concentration when fire was extinguished with water mist in an enclosed room and it can also be treated as a critical condition for fire extinguishment.

  4. A simplified real time method to forecast semi-enclosed basins storm surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, D.; Di Risio, M.; De Girolamo, P.

    2015-11-01

    Semi-enclosed basins are often prone to storm surge events. Indeed, their meteorological exposition, the presence of large continental shelf and their shape can lead to strong sea level set-up. A real time system aimed at forecasting storm surge may be of great help to protect human activities (i.e. to forecast flooding due to storm surge events), to manage ports and to safeguard coasts safety. This paper aims at illustrating a simple method able to forecast storm surge events in semi-enclosed basins in real time. The method is based on a mixed approach in which the results obtained by means of a simplified physics based model with low computational costs are corrected by means of statistical techniques. The proposed method is applied to a point of interest located in the Northern part of the Adriatic Sea. The comparison of forecasted levels against observed values shows the satisfactory reliability of the forecasts.

  5. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  6. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  7. Glovebox enclosed dc plasma source for the determination of metals in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.F.

    1986-01-15

    The direct current plasma source of a Beckman Spectraspan IIIB emission spectrometer was enclosed in a glovebox at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in December 1982. Since that time, the system has been used for the routine determination of alloy and impurity metals in plutonium. This paper presents the systematic steps involved in developing the glovebox and gives information regarding performance of the plasma in the glovebox and the effectiveness of containment of plutonium. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the performance of an industrial benchtop enclosing hood.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjian Kevin; Guffey, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Plain benchtop enclosing hoods are assumed to be highly effective in protecting workers from airborne contaminants, but there is little research published to support or rebut that assumption. The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of a 36 in. wide, 30 in. high, and 40 in. deep benchtop enclosing hood. The study consisted of two parts: (1) investigating the effects of hood face velocity (five levels: 111, 140, 170, 200, and 229 ft/min) and wind tunnel cross-draft velocity (five levels: 14, 26, 36, 46, and 57 ft/min) on a plain benchtop enclosing hood, and (2) studying the effects of specific interventions (no-intervention, collar flange, bottom flange, cowling, and sash) added onto the same enclosing hood. A tracer gas method was used to study the hood's performance inside a 9 ft high, 12 ft wide, and 40 ft long wind tunnel. Freon-134a concentrations were measured at the mouth and nose of an anthropometrically scaled, heated, breathing manikin holding a source between its hands while standing at the enclosing hood's face. Roughly 3 L/min of pure Freon-134a mixed with 9 L/min of helium was released from the source during all tests. Results showed that hood face velocity, wind tunnel cross-draft velocity, and interventions had statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) on the concentrations measured at the manikin's breathing zone. Lower exposures were associated with higher face velocities and higher cross-draft velocities. The highest exposures occurred when the face velocity was at the lowest test value (111 ft/min), and the cross-draft velocity was at its lowest test value (14 ft/min). For the effects of interventions to the hood face, the results showed that flanges and the cowling failed to consistently reduce exposures and often exacerbated them. However, the customized sash reduced exposures to less than the detection limit of 0.1 ppm, so a similar sash should be considered when feasible. The hood face velocity should be at least 150

  10. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  11. UK partnership targets lung cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Cancer Research UK has joined with two major pharmaceutical companies to launch a large multiarm clinical trial, dubbed the National Lung Matrix trial, to test the effectiveness of promising experimental therapies in treating rare forms of advanced lung cancer. PMID:25002593

  12. Competing two enzymatic reactions realizing one-step preparation of cell-enclosing duplex microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of cell-enclosing microcapsules in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields is widely recognized. In this study, we developed a method enabling the preparation of microcapsules with a liquid core in one step using two enzymatic reactions, both of which consume H2 O2 competitively. The microcapsule membrane prepared in this study is composed of the hydrogel obtained from an alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (Alg-Ph). The cell-enclosing microcapsules with a hollow core were obtained by extruding an aqueous solution of Alg-Ph containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP), catalase, and cells into a co-flowing stream of liquid paraffin containing H2 O2 . Formation of the microcapsule membrane progressed from the surface of the droplets through HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of Ph moieties by consuming H2 O2 supplied from the ambient liquid paraffin. A hollow core structure was induced by catalase-catalyzed decomposition of H2 O2 resulting in the center region being at an insufficient level of H2 O2 . The viability of HeLa cells was 93.1% immediately after encapsulation in the microcapsules with about 250 µm diameter obtained from an aqueous solution of 2.5% (w/v) Alg-Ph, 100 units mL(-1) HRP, 9.1 × 10(4) units mL(-1) catalase. The enclosed cells grew much faster than those in the microparticles with a solid core. In addition, the thickness of microcapsule membrane could be controlled by changing the concentrations of HRP and catalase in the range of 13-48 µm. The proposed method could be versatile for preparing the microcapsules from the other polymer derivatives of carboxymetylcellulose and gelatin. PMID:23955874

  13. Polydiacetylene-enclosed near-infrared fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots for bioimaging and sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jing; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ya-Chi; Chen, Chuan-Pin; Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2014-05-20

    Semiconducting polymer dots (P-dots) recently have emerged as a new type of ultrabright fluorescent probe with promising applications in biological imaging and detection. With the increasing desire for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescing probes for in vivo biological measurements, the currently available NIR-emitting P-dots are very limited and the leaching of the encapsulated dyes/polymers has usually been a concern. To address this challenge, we first embedded the NIR dyes into the matrix of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-co-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] (PF-BT-DBT) polymer and then enclosed the doped P-dots with polydiacetylenes (PDAs) to avoid potential leakage of the entrapped NIR dyes from the P-dot matrix. These PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dots not only emitted much stronger NIR fluorescence than conventional organic molecules but also exhibited enhanced photostability over CdTe quantum dots, free NIR dyes, and gold nanoclusters. We next conjugated biomolecules onto the surface of the resulting P-dots and demonstrated their capability for specific cellular labeling without any noticeable nonspecific binding. To employ this new class of material as a facile sensing platform, an easy-to-prepare test paper, obtained by soaking the paper into the PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dot solution, was used to sense external stimuli such as ions, temperature, or pH, depending on the surface functionalization of PDAs. We believe these PDA-coated NIR-fluorescing P-dots will be very useful in a variety of bioimaging and analytical applications. PMID:24749695

  14. Analysis of nonstationary signals and fields with the use of enclosed semi-Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Lutsenko, V. I.; Masalov, S. A.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the possibility to describe the signals scattered by various physical objects such as underlying surfaces of land and sea, the segments of "clear sky," and processes of various physical natures, such as fluctuations of the refractive index of the troposphere and electromagnetic and acoustic radiation of a lithospheric nature, by enclosed semi-Markov processes is investigated. This approach makes it possible to construct statistic models for a broad class of signals and processes. In some cases, statistics based on atomic functions and WA systems of the Kravchenko-Rvachev functions show the best results.

  15. Demonstration of an area-enclosing guided-atom interferometer for rotation sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Saijun; Su, Edward; Prentiss, Mara

    2007-10-26

    We demonstrate area-enclosing atom interferometry based on a moving guide. Light pulses along the free-propagation direction of a magnetic guide are applied to split and recombine the confined atomic matter-wave, while the atoms are translated back and forth along a second direction in 50 ms. The interferometer is estimated to resolve 10 times the earth rotation rate per interferometry cycle. We demonstrate a "folded figure 8" interfering configuration for creating a compact, large-area atom gyroscope with multiple-turn interfering paths. PMID:17995327

  16. Demonstration of an Area-Enclosing Guided-Atom Interferometer for Rotation Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Saijun; Su, Edward; Prentiss, Mara

    2007-10-26

    We demonstrate area-enclosing atom interferometry based on a moving guide. Light pulses along the free-propagation direction of a magnetic guide are applied to split and recombine the confined atomic matter-wave, while the atoms are translated back and forth along a second direction in 50 ms. The interferometer is estimated to resolve 10 times the earth rotation rate per interferometry cycle. We demonstrate a ''folded figure 8'' interfering configuration for creating a compact, large-area atom gyroscope with multiple-turn interfering paths.

  17. Masquerading as self? Endoparasitic Strepsiptera (Insecta) enclose themselves in host-derived epidermal bag.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Ross, Larry D; Johnston, J Spencer

    2003-06-24

    We report here the case of a metazoan parasite, a strepsipteran, that manipulates host epidermal tissue and wraps itself within it; which probably camouflages the endoparasite and is recognized as "self" by the host. This mechanism is one of immune avoidance among parasitoid insects. The host-derived epidermal "bag" might have enabled Strepsiptera to radiate to disparate hosts compared with the relatively few taxa (596 species) described so far. They have been recorded as parasitizing 34 families belonging to seven orders of Insecta. We also report a mechanism of insect ecdysis between the first- and second-instar larva, while enclosed in the bag. PMID:12788973

  18. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  19. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  20. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  1. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  2. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  3. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  4. Who thinks what about e‐cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To establish how frequently different types of stakeholders were cited in the UK media debate about e‐cigarette regulation, their stances towards different forms of e‐cigarette regulation, and what rationales they employed in justifying those stances. Methods Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of 104 articles about e‐cigarette regulation published in eight UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Results Reporting on e‐cigarette regulation grew significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the sample period. Governments and regulatory bodies were the most frequently cited stakeholders and uniformly supported regulation, while other stakeholders did not always support regulation. Arguments for e‐cigarette regulation greatly outnumbered arguments against regulation. Regulating purchasing age, restricting marketing and regulating e‐cigarettes as medicine were broadly supported, while stakeholders disagreed about prohibiting e‐cigarette use in enclosed public spaces. In rationalizing their stances, supporters of regulation cited child protection and concerns about the safety of e‐cigarette products, while opponents highlighted the potential of e‐cigarettes in tobacco cessation and questioned the evidence base associating e‐cigarette use with health harms. Conclusions In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e‐cigarettes in UK‐wide and Scottish national newspapers. Almost all commentators supported e‐cigarette regulation, but there was disagreement about whether e‐cigarette use should be allowed in enclosed public spaces. This appeared to be linked to whether commentators emphasized the harms of vapour and concerns about renormalizing smoking or emphasized the role of e‐cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. PMID:26802534

  5. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  6. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  7. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  8. Application of RADTRAN to estimation of doses to persons in enclosed spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code for transportation risk analysis can be used to estimate doses to persons in enclosed volumes. This application was developed in response to a need to examine consequences of a hypothetical container leak during accident-free transportation by cargo air. The original problem addressed tritium containers, but the method can be applied to any gaseous or suspended particulate material potentially released in an airplane or other enclosed area (e.g., warehouse) under accident-free conditions. Such leakage can occur during shipment of any radioactive gas or material with a gaseous phase. Atmospheric dispersion is normally modeled in RADTRAN as a series of downwind isopleths each of which is assigned a dilution factor (also known as time-integrated concentration or X/Q value). These values are located in look-up tables in RADTRAN and are normally taken from externally performed Gaussian dispersion calculations. The dilution factors are used to estimate inhalation dose to persons in the specified downwind areas.

  9. Influence of Buoyant Convection on the Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Jia, Kezhong; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen. Lea-Der

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. There have been numerous studies of flame stability. Relatively few studies have investigated the stability of flames with an oxidizer co-flow, compared with the number of studies on (nearly) free jet diffusion flames. The air flow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. In normal gravity, however, the effects of the air flow on flame stability are often complicated by the presence of buoyant convection. A comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames can provide clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) research, described at the following URL site: http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm, is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flames.

  10. UK report on waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.

    1995-09-01

    Arising jointly from the National and European Union requirements for more intensive attention to be paid to the environment, the United Kingdom (UK) has taken many strides forward in protecting the environment from pollution and preventing harm to human health arising from the handling, transport and disposal of wastes. Major adjustments are taking place in Europe following the opening up of the Eastern European countries. The consequences of the illegal movement of wastes and its mistreatment and disposal are now recognised within the European Union. The UK as a member State is well aware of the consequences which arise from the lack of proper waste management. This paper discusses waste management and legislation pertaining to waste management in the United Kingdom.

  11. Coastal upwelling and downwelling forcing of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. D.; Largier, J. L.; Torres, R.; Sheridan, M.; Trasviña, A.; Souza, A.; Pazos, Y.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-05-01

    Semi-enclosed bays in upwelling regions are exposed to forcing related to winds, currents and buoyancy over the shelf. The influence of this external forcing is moderated by factors such as connectivity to the open ocean, shelter by surrounding topography, dimensions of the bay, and freshwater outflows. Such bays, preferred locations for ports, mariculture, marine industry, recreational activities and coastal settlement, present a range of characteristics, understanding of which is necessary to their rational management. Observations in such a semi-enclosed bay, the Ria de Vigo in Spain, are used to characterize the influence of upwelling and downwelling pulses on its circulation. In this location, near the northern limit of the Iberian upwelling system, upwelling events dominate during a short summer season and downwelling events the rest of the year. The ria response to the external forcing is central to nutrient supply and resultant plankton productivity that supports its high level of cultured mussel production. Intensive field studies in September 2006 and June 2007 captured a downwelling event and an upwelling event, respectively. Data from eight current profiler moorings and boat-based MiniBat/ADCP surveys provided an unprecedented quasi-synoptic view of the distribution of water masses and circulation patterns in any ria. In the outer ria, circulation was dominated by the introduction of wind-driven alongshore flow from the external continental shelf through the ria entrances and its interaction with the topography. In the middle ria, circulation was primarily related to the upwelling/downwelling cycle, with a cool, salty and dense lower layer penetrating to the inner ria during upwelling over the shelf. A warmer, lower salinity and less dense surface layer of coastal waters flowed inward during downwelling. Without external forcing, the inner ria responded primarily to tides and buoyancy changes related to land runoff. Under both upwelling and downwelling

  12. The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet)

    PubMed Central

    May, Sean

    2000-01-01

    UK CropNet currently provides a range of databases (and database-mining tools) to the plant community that are all freely accessible through our website (http://ukcrop.net/). Recent upgrades have meant that we can now expand the range of available facilities (e.g. addition of new databases) whilst also strengthening and improving access to existing services (e.g. providing a BLAST search facility against sequences in our databases). This article will briefly outline these and other new developments in our service. PMID:11119312

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Algebraic areas enclosed by 2D Brownian curves in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Jean

    1999-05-01

    We study closed Brownian trajectories when the Brownian particle is subjected to a random potential. For a Poissonian icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> repulsive potential, the enclosed algebraic area, A, is a Gaussian variable that scales like t3/4 when t, the length of the curve, goes to infinity. This is intermediate between the situations where the particle is allowed to wander (i) everywhere on the plane (A~t) and (ii) only on a bounded domain (A~t1/2). For the Lloyd model, we show that the probability distribution, P(A), is the same as in the absence of disorder. This surprising result is related to some peculiarities of the Cauchy law.

  14. Persistence of benz(a)anthracene degradation products in an enclosed marine ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Hinga, K.R.; Pilson, M.E.Q.

    1987-07-01

    Carbon-14-labeled benz(a)anthracene was introduced into an enclosed marine ecosystem that had planktonic primary production and a heterotrophic benthos. Benz(a)anthracene, labeled CO/sub 2/, and operationally defined fractions of labeled degradation products were followed in water and sediments for 202 days. The major fraction of intermediate degradation products was sufficiently water soluble so as not to be readily extractable with organic solvents and at the end was still slowly decaying to CO/sub 2/. Both the parent benz(a)anthracene and degradation products found in the sediment appear to become protected from further alteration after about 2 months and may persist indefinitely. 41 references, 4 figures.

  15. Spicules and the Effect of Rigid Rods on Enclosing Membrane Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, D. R.; Turner, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Membrane tubes (spicules) arise in cells, or artificial membranes, in the nonlinear deformation regime due to, e.g., the growth of microtubules, actin filaments, or sickle hemoglobin fibers towards a membrane. We calculate the axial force f exerted by the tube, and its average radius, taking into account steric interactions between the fluctuating membrane and the enclosed rod. We find a smooth crossover of the axial force between ftilde σ and ftilde σ as the membrane tension σ increases and the tube radius shrinks. This crossover occurs around the most physiologically relevant membrane tensions. Our work may be important in (i) interpreting experiments in which axial force is related to the tube radius or membrane tension, and (ii) constructing dynamical theories for biopolymer growth in narrow tubes where these fluctuation effects control the tube radius.

  16. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  17. Calculation of fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenyu

    2010-12-01

    The fire extinguishment time is a major factor to evaluate the efficiency of fire extinguishment with water mist. In this paper the fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room is calculated. Before adding water mist, the chemical kinetics plays the role in combustion, where a dimensionless math model is established by using the Semenov theory. After adding water mist, the diffusion plays the role instead. Then another math model containing water mist and dominated by oxygen concentration is established. The fire temperature is integrated from Tm to extinguishment temperature TB and the extinguishment time can be obtained. The calculated values are compared with the experimental data under different conditions. The results show that this model can predict the fire extinguishment time accurately. Besides, this model also can be used to determine the critical water mist flux and evaluate which fire extinguishment mechanisms dominate the extinguishment.

  18. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Monaco, C

    1992-03-01

    Totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) are used to evacuate the crews of mobile offshore drilling units in emergencies. The small size and flat bottom of the TEMPSC predispose most occupants to seasickness, even in relatively calm waters. This paper discusses efforts required to improve the well-being of occupants in terms of reducing seasickness, dehydration, hypothermia, anxiety, and the other factors that contribute to loss of comfort and the will to survive. Specific recommendations include the provision of climatic control to regulate temperature, remove odors and provide fresh air; potable water, electrolytes, and survival rations; and an ample supply of motion sickness bags. Overcrowding should be avoided. Anti-motion-sickness drug therapy to control vomiting should be administered in two ways: initial injection of intramuscular scopolamine for fast action followed by a transdermal ear patch for long-term protection. Leadership and seasickness management should be requisite survival training for all oil rig workers. PMID:1567325

  19. Physical assembly of Ag nanocrystals on enclosed surfaces in monocrystalline Si

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Michael S.; Theodore, N. David; Wei, Chao-Chen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Growth of thin crystals on external substrate surfaces by many different methods is a well-known technique, but its extension to inner, enclosed surfaces of large defects in monocrystalline materials has not yet been reported. The literature on thin film growth and defects in materials can be leveraged to fabricate new structures for a variety of applications. Here we show a physical process of nucleation and evolution of nanocrystalline silver inside voids in monocrystalline silicon. We found that the Ag growth is hetero-epitaxial using a coincident site lattice. Alignment of Ag and Si atomic planes is uniformly observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and macroscopically by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. PMID:25376502

  20. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  1. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  2. Numerical Simulation And Experimental Investigation Of The Lift-Off And Blowout Of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuturmilli, Rajasekhar; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Lea-Der

    2003-01-01

    Enclosed flames are found in many industrial applications such as power plants, gas-turbine combustors and jet engine afterburners. A better understanding of the burner stability limits can lead to development of combustion systems that extend the lean and rich limits of combustor operations. This paper reports a fundamental study of the stability limits of co-flow laminar jet diffusion flames. A numerical study was conducted that used an adaptive mesh refinement scheme in the calculation. Experiments were conducted in two test rigs with two different fuels and diluted with three inert species. The numerical stability limits were compared with microgravity experimental data. Additional normal-gravity experimental results were also presented.

  3. Analysis of enclosed internal-combustion-engine operation with water as the working fluid. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, C.R.

    1983-09-01

    It is desirable to develop a totally enclosed system that contains an internal combustion engine and all the accessories required to produce at least 480 hp-hr of work. The system must perform underwater without external support and must release nothing but heat to the water. Most prior development has dealt with systems very similar to air breathing engines. Fuel, oxygen and a diluent gas such as nitrogen are ingested through the same kinds of intake devices used in the atmosphere. The intent is to imitate open air operation as much as possible in order to reduce hardware development. The exhaust gases are cleansed primarily of the water and carbon dioxide products of combustion and perhaps secondarily of other components such as unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and compounds produced by reactions involving the diluent.

  4. Compact metamaterial-enclosed wireless sensors with subtle perception of internal physical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Huang, Haiyu Harry; Hung, Cheng-Hsien

    2015-11-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a metamaterial/metasurface-enclosed electrically small antenna (ESA), perfectly matched to the input stage of a radio-frequency circuitry. By tailoring the effective-medium properties of a low-profile metamaterial/metasurface cloak, the electromagnetic power can be maximally delivered to a 50 Ω load in a narrow frequency window, efficiently utilizing the available design volume. This ESA system, although having a small modal volume, is highly resonant, and its resonance frequency is sensitively shifted by material and volume perturbations within the cloaked region. We envision that this cloaked ESA system may make efficient and miniaturized wireless sensor nodes, probing internal information (e.g., liquid-level sensor) for various medical, environmental, and industrial applications.

  5. Seeing through Walls at the Nanoscale: Microwave Microscopy of Enclosed Objects and Processes in Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Ievlev, Anton V; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2016-03-22

    Noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid-solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging. PMID:26866377

  6. Almost enclosed buckyball joints: synthesis, complex formation, and computational simulations of pentypticene-extended tribenzotriquinacene.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stefan; Bredenkötter, Björn; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Bureekaew, Sareeya; Schmid, Rochus; Volkmer, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    We report the synthesis of a tribenzotriquinacene-based (TBTQ) receptor (3) for C60 fullerene, which is extended by pentiptycene moieties to provide an almost enclosed concave ball bearing. The system serves as a model for a self-assembling molecular rotor with a flexible and adapting stator. Unexpectedly, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigations reveal a surprisingly low complex stability constant of K1 =213±37 M(-1) for [C60 ⊂3], seemingly inconsistent with the previously reported TBTQ systems. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted for three different [C60 ⊂TBTQ] complexes to resolve this. Because of the dominating dispersive interactions, the binding energies increase with the contact area between guest and host, however, only for rigid host structures. By means of free-energy calculations with an explicit solvent model it can be shown that the novel flexible TBTQ receptor 3 binds weakly because of hampering entropic contributions. PMID:25234364

  7. Iron geochemistry in surface sediments of a temperate semi-enclosed bay, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Huang, Xiang-Li; Yang, Gui-Peng; Chen, Liang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe) speciation and microbial reducible Fe(III) oxides (MR-Fe(III)) in surface sediments of semi-enclosed Jiaozhou Bay were quantified to reveal Fe geochemistry in the settings subjected to anthropogenic perturbations. Results indicate that sedimentary Fe in the bay is mainly of natural weathering source, without appreciable anthropogenic Fe inputs, as indicated by a generally good linear coupling of total Fe to aluminum. Among the three highly reactive Fe(III) (Fe(III)HR) pools, well crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)wc) were always the predominant phase, followed by poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)pc), and amorphous Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)am) were only of minor importance. The dominance of non-sulfidized Fe(II) over sulfidized Fe in the sediments points to the importance of microbial iron(III) reduction (MIR) in the free sulfide-starved conditions. High riverine inputs of TOC leads to outliers in the Fe(III)HR versus total organic carbon (TOC) ratio compared the rest of the bay. OM-dependent MIR as the common driving force has rendered all Fe(II)-bearing phases linearly coupled to TOC. MR-Fe(III) in the surface sediments covered all Fe(III)am and a fraction of less reactive Fe(III) phases, while Fe(III)wc was at most a minor contributor. Highly reactive Fe appears to be enriched to some extent in the temperate semi-enclosed bay, as in the wet-tropical counterparts.

  8. RF Exposure Analysis for Multiple Wi-Fi Devices In Enclosed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Rhodes, Bryan A.; deSilva, B. Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.; Keiser, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Wi-Fi devices operated inside a metallic enclosure have been investigation in the recent years. A motivation for this study is to investigate wave propagation inside an enclosed environment such as elevator, car, aircraft, and spacecraft. There are performances and safety concerned that when the RF transmitters are used in the metallic enclosed environments. In this paper, the field distributions inside a confined room were investigated with multiple portable Wi-Fi devices. Computer simulations were performed using the rigorous computational electromagnetics (CEM). The method of moments (MoM) was used to model the mutual coupling among antennas. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was applied for the multiple reflections off the ground and walls. The prediction of the field distribution inside such environment is useful for the planning and deployment of a wireless radio and sensor system. Factors that affect the field strengths and distributions of radio waves in confined space were analyzed. The results could be used to evaluate the RF exposure safety in confined environment. By comparing the field distributions for various scenarios, it was observed that the Wi-Fi device counts, spacing and relative locations in the room are important factors in such environments. The RF Keep Out Zone (KOZ), where the electric field strengths exceed the permissible RF exposure limit, could be used to assess the RF human exposure compliance. As shown in this study, it s possible to maximize or minimize field intensity in specific area by arranging the Wi-Fi devices as a function of the relative location and spacing in a calculated manner.

  9. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  10. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website. PMID:26278648

  11. Environmental enforcement in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stott, David

    2009-03-01

    In the UK, the Environment Agency is responsible for enforcement of environmental legislation and offences committed under such laws and regulations. Under the current regime, if deemed serious enough, offenders are taken to court. In the past eight years, there have been approximately 1600 cases (including approximately 800 prosecutions) per year with 61% being for illegal disposal of wastes and a further 26% being for water pollution incidents. The level of fine has been relatively small at around pound sterling 6700 per conviction for water offences and pound sterling 3700 for waste offences. This is possibly due to a lack of awareness of the damage caused in environmental offending by the courts. New legislation in the form of the Regulatory Enforcement and Sanctions Act 2008 is likely to change the way offences are assessed and treated by the Agency and a proportion of cases will be dealt with by the Agency itself, with appeals being handled by a Tribunal and only the most serious cases going to the criminal courts. The efficacy of this approach has yet to be tested in the UK but may speed up the process and lead to more appropriate sanctions being levied. PMID:19280025

  12. An Introduction to ESERO-UK, the UK Space Education Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Allan; Mather, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the UK branch of the European Space Education Resource Office (ESERO-UK), also known as the UK Space Education Office. It is a teaching project designed to use space to enthuse primary and secondary students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The office is funded by the European Space…

  13. Decay of {sup 6}Be populated in the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,{sup 3}H) charge-exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Papka, P.; Nemulodi, F.; Bark, R. A.; Kheswa, N. Y.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Lieder, E. O.; Lieder, R. M.; Madiba, T. E.; Mullins, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Shirinda, O.; Singo, T. D.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Fox, S. P.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Molnar, J.; Nyako, B. M.; Timar, J.

    2010-05-15

    A complete kinematic measurement of the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,{sup 3}H)alphapp reaction is performed at E{sub lab}=50 MeV, to investigate the cluster structure of {sup 6}Be. The energy and angular distributions of the breakup particles, emitted from the ground and first excited states of {sup 6}Be, are compared to three-body resonance and two-body sequential decay calculations. The results indicate a rather pure three-body configuration of the 2{sup +} state of {sup 6}Be but they are not conclusive regarding the decay mode of the 0{sup +} state. No branching ratio between sequential and three-body decay paths could be extracted. Excitations above the 2{sup +} state were populated at E{sub x}=1.67-23 MeV. Decay through {sup 5}Li-p and {sup 2}He-{sup 4}He channels is identified in the continuum of {sup 6}Be, and the reaction mechanism is discussed.

  14. Reef fish dynamic response to climatic variability in a warm eastern Mediterranean semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Giamali, Ch.; Karakitsios, V.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the effects of global warming on fish populations reveal that the resulting hypoxia-based habitat compression due to the expansion of the oxygen minimum zone may lead to the restriction of fish depth distributions to the oxygenated near-surface layer1. Here we postulate that similar phenomena may have affected the fish distribution in the early Pliocene Heraklion semi-enclosed sea (Crete, eastern Mediterranean). Fish otoliths from Voutes section are systematically identified and the data is examined from a palaeoecologic perspective in response to the Pliocene climatic variability. Bregmaceros and Diaphus taaningi otoliths' relative abundances are used as reliable palaeoclimatic indicators2. The Voutes section sediments contain a very rich fish fauna. Diaphus spp., Bregmaceros sp., Sardinella maderensis, Phosichthyidae and Sternoptychyidae form the pelagic component. Mesopelagic taxa belong mostly to Myctophids. The benthopelagic and benthic component of the fish fauna is very well diversified and is comprised of Gobiids, such as Gobius cf. niger, Callogobius sp., Lesueurigobius aff. sanzoi, and Aphya sp., as well as Gadiculus labiatus, Laemonema sp., Oblada melanura, Parascombrus mutinensis, Barbourisia rufa, Blennius sp., Ammodytes sp., Solea aff. solea. The presence of Oligopus sp., Spratelloides sp., and Brotula cf. mutlibarbata in the middle part of the section indicate the development of a reef in the study area. The palaeoecologic analysis of the surface, intermediate and deep water faunal groups indicate that the pelagic fish populations in the semi-enclosed early Pliocene Heraklion basin directly reflect the climatic variability. However, the intermediate and deep water fish did not respond to climate change in the same manner. Indeed, two dysoxic events are recorded in this section, where the pelagic component of the fauna is almost exclusively comprised of Bregmaceros sp., few Myctophids are present, and the benthic and benthopelagic

  15. The role of dams in the water stability and oxygenation of semi-enclosed bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos; Kountoura, Krystallia

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that dams were constructed in order to provide significant domestic and economic benefits. Apart from the advantages of these constructions, such as the hydroelectric power production, the flooding control and the storage of water for irrigation, there are also important impacts. Among the most serious of them upstream, is the conversion from a river system to a lake, the sediment transport and changes in the river's temperature and oxygen. However due to the irregular discharge resulting from the dams operation, there are also changes in biodiversity and in bio-geochemical cycle of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus thereby causing changes in temperature, turbidity, stratification, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and heavy metals, downstream. In order to determine how the existence of dams affects both the water stability and the dissolved oxygen conditions, we studied the enclosed bay of Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece. The gulf receives freshwater inputs from north by two rivers along which there are three dams. Before the dams, the maximum discharges into the Amvrakikos Gulf were during late winter and spring months. During autumn and early winter stratification was weak and mixing could take place within the entire gulf. After the dams construction, the rivers have been discharging large amounts of freshwater into the gulf in accordance to the Public Power Corporation's needs. Due to the fact that large volumes of fresh water discharged into the system during summer and autumn, much later than would occur without the presence of dams, the water column is characterized by stratification during those periods. As a consequence, the pycnocline which is characterized by high static stability, prevents both the mixing between the surface and the bottom layer and the oxygenation of the isolated water near the bottom. On the other hand due to the limited hydropower needs during spring, the volume of fresh water which discharged into the system is

  16. Modeling water renewal times in semi-enclosed seas; application in Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamou, A. I.; Papadonikolaki, G.; Nikiforakis, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water renewal of semi-enclosed coastal lagoons is vital for oxygen supply and the removal of pollution. There are various indicators of how fast the water is renewed via transport and mixing; the most common terms being used are the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the residence time (RT). In the present work a computational determination of HRT and RT was performed for the Amvrakikos Gulf, a preserved ecosystem by national and international directives. The Amvrakikos Gulf is located in the north-western coast of Greece is one of the largest semi-enclosed embayments in the country being about 40 km long and 15 km wide. It is the largest wetland system in Greece consisting of the shallow marine waters of the Gulf, the deltas of Louros and Arachthos rivers and a lagoon system composed of 3 large and over 20 smaller lagoons. Water renewal of the Amvrakikos Gulf is of major importance since it is made exclusively via a narrow channel connecting the Gulf with the Ionian Sea that has a 3.0 km length, width ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 km and depth from 2.0 to 13.0 m. Computations were made using a 3-D integrated model that consists of the hydrodynamic sub-model FLOW-3DL and the water quality sub-model QUAL-3DL. FLOW-3DL; these models that have been developed in the NTUA involve the 3-D non-steady state continuity and momentum equations and the convection-diffusion equation for the concentration of a conservative pollutant expressed in layer formulation. A space-staggered computational grid was used that covered the area of the Amvrakikos Gulf and a small part of the Ionian Sea and consisted of 84x50 control volumes with constant resolution equal to 500 m and 7 layers in the direction of the depth. Calculations were performed for various environmental characteristics for tidal and wind hydrodynamic forcing, taking into account the input flow rates from the rivers Louros and Arachthos.

  17. In vitro study of using calcium phosphate cement as immunoisolative device to enclose insulinoma/agarose microspheres as bioartificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kai-Chiang, Yang; Ching-Yao, Yang; Chang-Chin, Wu; Tzong-Fu, Kuo; Feng-Huei, Lin

    2007-12-15

    In this study, the feasibility of using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as immunoisolative device to enclose insulinoma/agarose microspheres as bioartificial pancreas was evaluated. We fabricated a chamber by CPC and utilized X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope and Mercury intrusion porosimetry to identify the characters of the CPC chamber. The nominal molecular weight cut-off and cytotoxicity of CPC chamber were also evaluated. An insulinoma cell line (RIN-m5F) was chosen as insulin source and encapsulated in agarose microspheres and then enclosed in preformed CPC chamber. Insulin secretion was analyzed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay to evaluate the function of insulinoma enclosed in CPC chamber. Results showed that the CPC chamber was non-cytotoxicity to insulinoma and can block the penetration of molecules which molecular weight larger than 12.4 kDa. Insulinoma inside the CPC chamber can secrete insulin in stable level for 30 days. This study indicated that we may use CPC as immunoisolative material to enclose insulinoma/agarose microspheres as bioartificial pancreas. PMID:17514757

  18. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of... Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1037 Alternative means of emission limitation:...

  20. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  1. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches. PMID:25390647

  2. DFTr optimization and DFTr-MD studies of glucose, ten explicit water molecules enclosed by an implicit solvent, COSMO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DFTr optimization studies are carried out on alpha/beta-glucose surrounded by ten explicit water molecules and the glucose/water super-molecule completely enclosed by an implicit solvation model, COSMO. Twenty one starting configurations of the explicit waters were first optimized empirically with t...

  3. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  4. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  6. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  7. The Geomatics.org.UK Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  8. Implementing Critical Skills in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M.; Wilkinson, J. E.; Mcphee, A.; McQueen, I.; McConnell, F.; Baron, S.

    2006-01-01

    Cooperative learning, which is a relatively new form of pedagogy developed in North America, has recently been introduced into a number of schools in the UK. One such form of this pedagogy is referred to as Critical Skills. Two systematic evaluations of pilot projects which have implemented Critical Skills in UK schools have recently been…

  9. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  10. Sustainable psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Sucharita; Maughan, Daniel; Lingwood, Susie; Davison, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Demands on our mental health services are growing as financial pressures increase. In addition, there are regular changes to service design and commissioning. The current political mantra is ‘more and more, of better quality, for less and less, please’. We suggest that mental health services need to actively respond to these constraints and that clinical transformation is needed to move towards a more sustainable system of healthcare. Emphasis on prevention, patient empowerment and leaner, greener services is required alongside more extensive use of technologies. Focusing on these areas will make mental health services more responsive to the challenges we face and serve to future-proof psychiatry in the UK. Services need to be delivered to provide maximum benefit to the health of our patients, but also to our society and the environment. PMID:25505629

  11. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  12. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare. PMID:22442931

  13. Spatially uniform but temporally variable bacterioplankton in a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    PubMed

    Meziti, Alexandra; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Karayanni, Hera

    2015-07-01

    Studies focusing on the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterioplankton communities within littoral areas undergoing direct influences from the coast are quite limited. In addition, they are more complicated to resolve compared to communities in the open ocean. In order to elucidate the effects of spatial vs. temporal variability on bacterial communities in a highly land-influenced semi-enclosed gulf, surface bacterioplankton communities from five coastal sites in Igoumenitsa Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) were analyzed over a nine-month period using 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing. Temporal differences were more pronounced than spatial ones, with lower diversity indices observed during the summer months. During winter and early spring, bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 representatives, while this pattern changed in May when they were abruptly replaced by members of Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. Additionally, correlation analysis showed high negative correlations between the presence of SAR11 OTUs in relation to temperature and sunlight that might have driven, directly or indirectly, the disappearance of these OTUs in the summer months. The dominance of SAR11 during the winter months further supported the global distribution of the clade, not only in the open-sea, but also in coastal systems. This study revealed that specific bacteria exhibited distinct succession patterns in an anthropogenic-impacted coastal system. The major bacterioplankton component was represented by commonly found marine bacteria exhibiting seasonal dynamics, while freshwater and terrestrial-related phylotypes were absent. PMID:25976032

  14. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  15. An outbreak of Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Speer, Brian; Wellehan, James F X; Bradway, Daniel S; Wright, Lewis; Reavill, Drury; Barr, Bradd C; Childress, April; Shivaprasad, H L; Chin, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    A total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. Histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a Sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. By immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue cysts in muscle did not react with polyclonal antisera against Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum, or with a monoclonal antibody to S. neurona. Transmission electron microscopy on sarcocyst tissue cyst walls from 2 birds was morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis calchasi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of partial 18S ribosomal RNA from muscle tissue cysts and brain schizonts from 3 birds was consistent with a clade containing S. calchasi and Sarcocystis columbae but could not distinguish these closely related Sarcocystis species. However, PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 RNA segment in the brain from 2 birds and muscle from 2 birds specifically identified the isolates as S. calchasi. The current report documents that multiple psittacine species are susceptible intermediate hosts of S. calchasi, and that infection can cause encephalitis resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in psittacine aviaries. PMID:24081928

  16. Scalable learning method for feedforward neural networks using minimal-enclosing-ball approximation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Deng, Zhaohong; Luo, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2016-06-01

    Training feedforward neural networks (FNNs) is one of the most critical issues in FNNs studies. However, most FNNs training methods cannot be directly applied for very large datasets because they have high computational and space complexity. In order to tackle this problem, the CCMEB (Center-Constrained Minimum Enclosing Ball) problem in hidden feature space of FNN is discussed and a novel learning algorithm called HFSR-GCVM (hidden-feature-space regression using generalized core vector machine) is developed accordingly. In HFSR-GCVM, a novel learning criterion using L2-norm penalty-based ε-insensitive function is formulated and the parameters in the hidden nodes are generated randomly independent of the training sets. Moreover, the learning of parameters in its output layer is proved equivalent to a special CCMEB problem in FNN hidden feature space. As most CCMEB approximation based machine learning algorithms, the proposed HFSR-GCVM training algorithm has the following merits: The maximal training time of the HFSR-GCVM training is linear with the size of training datasets and the maximal space consumption is independent of the size of training datasets. The experiments on regression tasks confirm the above conclusions. PMID:27049545

  17. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  18. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  19. Stardust is enclosed in a canister before moving to Launch Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility keep watch as an overhead crane lowers the Stardust spacecraft, enclosed in a protective canister, onto a transporter. Stardust is being moved to Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for launch preparations. The spacecraft is targeted for liftoff on Feb. 6 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  20. Trapping of fine sediment in a semi-enclosed bay, Palau, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Victor, Steven; Wolanski, Eric; Richmond, Robert H.

    2003-08-01

    Airai Bay, Palau, is a small (3 km 2), semi-enclosed, mangrove-fringed, meso-tidal, coral lagoon on the southeast coast of Palau. It drains a small catchment area (26 km 2) of highly erodible soils in an area with high annual rainfall (3.7 m). River floods are short-lived and the sediment load is very large, with suspended fine sediment concentration exceeding 1500 mg l -1. The resulting river plume is about 2 m thick. The brackish water residence time is about 7 days; during this period the plume remains a distinct surface feature even after river runoff has ceased. About 98% of the riverine fine sediment settles in Airai Bay, of which about 15-30% is deposited in the mangroves during river floods. This mud remains trapped in Airai Bay because the bay is protected from ocean swells and the tidal currents and locally generated wind waves are too small to resuspend the mud in quantity. The mud is smothering coral reefs, creating a phase shift from coral to fleshy algae dominance, and is even changing habitats by creating mud banks. The persistence of Airai Bay marine resources may not be possible without improved soil erosion control in the river catchment.

  1. Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Primary Productivity in the Semi-Enclosed Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, R.; Nishi, S.; Taniguchi, M.; Tominaga, O.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge is an alternative nutrient pathway and can drive primary production in coastal seas. However, very little is known about an exact relationship between input of groundwater and response of primary production. To clarify the relationship, we conducted the field survey in the semi-enclosed coastal bay in Japan (Obama Bay). There are abundant amounts of groundwater resources in the basin. Firstly, we conducted 222Rn continuous measurement along the coast in March 2013 to obtain the spatial difference of groundwater impact. As a result, 222Rn activity clearly showed that groundwater discharge concentrates in the western part of the bay head. We thus conducted in-situ measurements of primary productivity using stable 13C tracer method and environmental parameters (ex. 222Rn activity, light intensity, temperature and nutrient concentrations) at 6 stations within the western bay head in July and August 2013. Primary productivity within the western bay head changed from 11.0 to 49.5 μg C L-1 hr-1 in July and from 9.3 to 32.4 μg C L-1 hr-1 in August. Moreover, there was significant relationship between primary productivity and 222Rn concentration in both months. Although light intensity and water temperature were different in each station and month, concentrations of nutrients limited primary productivity. These results showed that nutrient supply from SGD would affect crucial impact on primary productivity in Obama Bay.

  2. Pollution of PM10 in an underground enclosed loading dock in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualqumboz, M. S.; Mohammed, N. I.; Malakahmad, A.; Nazif, A. N.; Albattniji, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    The enclosed nature of underground loading docks results in accumulation of motor vehicles emissions. Thus, concentration of numerous harmful air pollutants including PM10 particles can increase and reach dangerous levels. This paper aims to study short-term and long-term exposure of PM10 particles inside an underground loading dock located in Malaysia. In addition, the correlation with indoor temperature, relative humidity and vehicles flow will be measured. The concentrations of PM10 were measured for three consecutive weeks using the real-time air quality monitoring instrument AQM60. Series of statistical tests and multiple linear regression analysis were applied on the data using SPSS software and MATLAB R2013a. The results illustrated that PM10 daily average concentration was in compliance with the Malaysian guideline of 150 µg/m3. Actually, 95% of instantaneous PM10 concentration readings were below 75 μg/m3. In addition, significant correlation were found between PM10 concentration and indoor temperature, relative humidity and the previous concentration. The multiple R and R2 were 0.91 and 0.83, respectively. PM10 concentration was also correlated with motor vehicles flow. In conclusion, health effects of long-term exposure to small repetitive doses of air pollutant inside underground facilities should be studied and appropriate control measures need to be implemented.

  3. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    PubMed

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated. PMID:20358453

  4. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-11-15

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  5. A Fast Hyperplane-Based Minimum-Volume Enclosing Simplex Algorithm for Blind Hyperspectral Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang; Chi, Chong-Yung; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Chan, Tsung-Han

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral unmixing (HU) is a crucial signal processing procedure to identify the underlying materials (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. A well-known blind HU criterion, advocated by Craig in early 1990's, considers the vertices of the minimum-volume enclosing simplex of the data cloud as good endmember estimates, and it has been empirically and theoretically found effective even in the scenario of no pure pixels. However, such kind of algorithms may suffer from heavy simplex volume computations in numerical optimization, etc. In this work, without involving any simplex volume computations, by exploiting a convex geometry fact that a simplest simplex of N vertices can be defined by N associated hyperplanes, we propose a fast blind HU algorithm, for which each of the N hyperplanes associated with the Craig's simplex of N vertices is constructed from N-1 affinely independent data pixels, together with an endmember identifiability analysis for its performance support. Without resorting to numerical optimization, the devised algorithm searches for the N(N-1) active data pixels via simple linear algebraic computations, accounting for its computational efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations and real data experiments are provided to demonstrate its superior efficacy over some benchmark Craig-criterion-based algorithms in both computational efficiency and estimation accuracy.

  6. Field Assessment of Enclosed Cab Filtration System Performance Using Particle Counting Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, John A.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Noll, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Enclosed cab filtration systems are typically used on mobile mining equipment to reduce miners’ exposure to airborne dust generated during mining operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently worked with a mining equipment manufacturer to examine a new cab filtration system design for underground industrial minerals equipment. This cab filtration system uses a combination of three particulate filters to reduce equipment operators’ exposure to dust and diesel particulates present in underground industrial mineral mines. NIOSH initially examined this cab filtration system using a two-instrument particle counting method at the equipment company’s manufacturing shop facility to assess several alternative filters. This cab filtration system design was further studied on several pieces of equipment during a two- to seven-month period at two underground limestone mines. The two-instrument particle counting method was used outside the underground mine at the end of the production shifts to regularly test the cabs’ long-term protection factor performance with particulates present in the ambient air. This particle counting method showed that three of the four cabs achieved protection factors greater than 1,000 during the field studies. The fourth cab did not perform at this level because it had a damaged filter in the system. The particle counting measurements of submicron particles present in the ambient air were shown to be a timely and useful quantification method in assessing cab performance during these field studies. PMID:23915268

  7. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  8. Non-linear dynamics of annular creeping flow enclosed by an elastic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Shai; Gat, Amir

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the fluid-structure-interaction problem of longitudinal annular flow about a varying cross-section centre-body enclosed by an elastic membrane. The gap between the centre-body and membrane wall may be initially filled with a thin fluid layer or devoid of it. We employ elastic shell theory and the lubrication approximation and obtain a forced nonlinear diffusion equation governing the problem. In the case of an advancing liquid front in an initially unpenetrated interface (viscous peeling) the governing equation degenerates into a forced porous medium equation, for which several closed-form solutions can be obtained. Based on self-similarity we define propagation laws for the fluid-elastic interaction which in turn provide the basis for numerical investigation of compound solutions such as pulse trains and other waveforms. The presented interaction between viscosity and elasticity may be applied to fields such as soft-robotics and micro-scale or larger swimmers by allowing for the time-dependent control of a compliant boundary.

  9. The UK Space & Planetary Robotics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Barnes, D.; Buckland, R.; Welch, C.; Garry, J.; Zarnecki, J.; Gebbie, J.; Green, A.; Smith, M.; Hall, D.; McInnes, C.; Winfield, A.; Nehmzhow, U.; Ball, A.

    A number of academic engineering research groups around the UK have become increasingly interested in the applications of robotics or robotics techniques to solving problems in space engineering. Although these groups have sprung up independently and have worked in essentially independent areas, they are seeking to form themselves into a network offering a diverse range of expertise within the UK with the capability of developing complete space robotic systems. Space robotics is an area in which the UK has dabbled in the past, but for the first time, the UK offers a solid base of expertise in mobile robotics and associated space engineering which would enable the UK to contribute to European space robotics projects funded by ESA and/ or national agencies. To that end, following the inaugural meeting of the Space & Planetary Robotics Network, an extended group of interested parties will be putting forward an application to EPSRC for Network funding.

  10. 76 FR 17448 - Subpart A (“General Provisions”) and Subpart B (“Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355). Signed at... Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment''); Extension of the Office of... Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment''). DATES: Comments must...

  11. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  12. Peculiar Deepwater Slope Morphology in the Semi-enclosed Mio-Pliocene Dacian Basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fongngern, R.; Steel, R.; Olariu, C.; Krezsek, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shelf margin clinoforms (400-500 m high) are the prominent building blocks of the Mio-Pliocene (8.5-4.1 Ma) Western Dacian Basin, a foreland of the Southern Carpathians of Romania. The Dacian Basin was a semi-enclosed elongate, para-Tethyan seaway that underwent several brackish to freshwater transitions while being connected to the Black Sea. 3-D seismic and well data show that the basin infill was dominated by coeval multidirectional clinoform progradation, dominantly from NE to SW and from SSE to NNW. The deepwater clinoform slopes were spectacularly irregular, with closely spaced canyons and channel-levee systems giving a ';sawtooth' appearance in both strike sections and horizontal slices. The canyons are approximately 1-2.5 km wide, 50-200 m deep and normally host slope channels. Slope channels range in width from 100-900 m and depth from 25 to 50 m. Most slope channels connected to an indented (valleyed or upper- slope scarred) shelf edge. The irregularity of the slope morphology differs from most open marine slopes which can be irregular downdip of the main shelf-edge fairway but becomes smoother laterally from the transport axis. It is likely that line-sourced hyperpycnal flows from multiple steep, Carpathian shelf-edge rivers were responsible for building and maintaining the unusual slope stratigraphy. The high frequency of river-flood underflows that would have been generated in the reduced salinity Dacian Basin also caused large volumes of river-derived sediments to be transported to the aggradational basin floor. Additional processes that might have contributed to the unusual slope stratigraphy are high-frequency base level changes and earthquake-generated slope failures that would have been common in the Dacian Basin during the studied interval.

  13. Molecular dynamics study of the behavior of nitromethanes enclosed inside carbon nanotube containers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Se Won; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2016-07-01

    We utilized molecular dynamics (MD) to investigate the behavior of nitromethane molecules (NMs) enclosed inside carbon nanotube (CNT) containers sealed with buckybowl caps. Two different sizes of CNT containers, i.e., (10,10) and (20,20), were employed to contain the energetic NMs. After loading the NMs into these containers, MD simulations were carried out at different loading densities. The loading density was changed from 0.4 to 2.0 g/cc. At low loading densities, NMs preferentially resided near the surface of the CNT wall (orienting themselves in the cylindrical direction) and near the buckybowl caps (orienting themselves in the principal-axis direction). This behavior suggests the buckybowl caps and the CNT wall have attractive interactions with the NMs. The distribution of the NMs inside the containers did not change upon increasing the temperature from ambient to 100 °C. However, the positional preference of the NMs found at ambient temperature to 100 °C was not the same as that observed at 1000 °C due to the increased thermal motions of the NMs. The size of the CNT container had a significant effect on the fluidity of the NMs. From 25 to 100 °C, the NMs inside the (10,10) CNT container were only mobile at low loading densities. On the other hand, in the (20,20) CNT container, the NMs showed good mobility up to a loading density of 1.6 g/cc. Graphical Abstract Attractive interactions between the nitromethanes and the buckybowl caps as well as the carbon nanotube wall. PMID:27262575

  14. Lagrangian Model of a Surface Advected River Plume in Marginal and Enclosed Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, A.; Zavialov, P.

    2012-04-01

    Freshwater discharges represent an important constituent in the mass, momentum, and vorticity budgets of the inland and enclosed seas. They are also a major pathway for nutrients and pollutants into the seas. Therefore, it is important to elaborate means for predicting the behavior of the plume under specific forcing conditions. We developed a Lagrangian particle tracking model that simulates a distribution of a surface advected river plume. The model combines deterministic and stochastic approaches for representing convection-diffusion and turbulent processes and is computationally unpretentious. Further, we applied the model to simulate the plumes at different spatial scales. The simulation results under idealized external forcing were verified against the findings from previous studies. The model runs with realistic shore lines, winds and discharge configurations for the Mzymta River plume at the eastern part of the Black Sea coast, with the area smaller than 50 km2, as well as the extensive Ob-Yenisey plume in the Kara Sea, whose area is of order 10000 km2. The simulated variability of the both plumes at the scales from synoptic to seasonal showed good agreement with the in-situ measurements and satellite images. Using the model, we also studied the general aspects of the plume dynamics. The dependence of the spatial extent of a plume of small size river on the wind stress and Coriollis parameter was investigated. We identified three distinctive regimes of the plume evolution depending on the wind direction with respect to the shoreline and the river mouth geometry. The dependence on the Coriollis parameter exhibited a characteristic "M-shaped" pattern indicating that under otherwise equal conditions, the plumes are best developed in the tropical regions. This dependence, however, is largely offset by a much stronger dependence on the wind stress.

  15. Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatharis, Sofie; Tsirtsis, George; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Chi, Thang Do; Mouillot, David

    2007-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblage structure to terrestrial nutrient inputs was examined for the Gulf of Kalloni in the Northern Aegean Sea, a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem. The study was focused on a typical annual cycle, and emphasis was placed on the comparative analysis between blooms developing after significant nutrient inputs from the watershed, and naturally occurring blooms. Baseline information was collected on a monthly basis from a network of stations located in the oligotrophic open sea and the interior and more productive part of the embayment. Intensive sampling was also carried out along a gradient in the vicinity of a river which was the most important source of freshwater and nutrient input for the Gulf. Phytoplankton assemblage structure was analyzed from 188 samples using diversity indices (Shannon and Average Taxonomic Distinctness), multivariate plotting methods (NMDS), multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Three characteristic assemblages were recognized: (1) an autumn assemblage developed under nutrient depleted conditions, having low diversity due to the dominance of two small diatoms, (2) a winter bloom of the potentially toxic species Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha occurring immediately after a nutrient peak and characterized by very low diversity, and (3) a naturally occurring early summer bloom of centric diatoms with relatively high diversity. The results of the study support the view that moderate nutrient inputs may have a beneficial effect on the functioning of coastal ecosystems, stimulating the taxonomic diversity through the growth of different taxonomic groups and taxa. On the other hand, a sudden pulse of high nutrient concentrations may greatly affect the natural succession of organisms, have a negative effect on the diversity through the dominance of a single species, and can increase the possibility of a harmful algal bloom development.

  16. Experiences of non-UK-qualified doctors working within the UK regulatory framework: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Slowther, A; Lewando Hundt, GA; Purkis, J; Taylor, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the experience of non-UK-qualified doctors in working within the regulatory framework of the General Medical Council (GMC) document Good Medical Practice. Design Individual interviews and focus groups. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Non-UK-qualified doctors who had registered with the GMC between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2008, doctors attending training/induction programmes for non-UK-qualified doctors, and key informants involved in training and support for non-UK-qualified doctors. Main outcome measures Themes identified from analysis of interview and focus group transcripts. Results Information and support for non-UK qualified doctors who apply to register to work in the UK has little reference to the ethical and professional standards required of doctors working in the UK. Recognition of the ethical, legal and cultural context of UK healthcare occurs once doctors are working in practice. Non-UK qualified doctors reported clear differences in the ethical and legal framework for practising medicine between the UK and their country of qualification, particularly in the model of the doctor–patient relationship. The degree of support for non-UK-qualified doctors in dealing with ethical concerns is related to the type of post they work in. European doctors describe similar difficulties with working in an unfamiliar regulatory framework to their non-European colleagues. Conclusions Non-UK-qualified doctors experience a number of difficulties related to practising within a different ethical and professional regulatory framework. Provision of information and educational resources before registration, together with in-practice support would help to develop a more effective understanding of GMP and its implications for practice in the UK. PMID:22408082

  17. Production of cell-enclosing hollow-core agarose microcapsules via jetting in water-immiscible liquid paraffin and formation of embryoid body-like spherical tissues from mouse ES cells enclosed within these microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-01-01

    We developed agarose microcapsules with a single hollow core templated by alginate microparticles using a jet-technique. We extruded an agarose aqueous solution containing suspended alginate microparticles into a coflowing stream of liquid paraffin and controlled the diameter of the agarose microparticles by changing the flow rate of the liquid paraffin. Subsequent degradation of the inner alginate microparticles using alginate lyase resulted in the hollow-core structure. We successfully obtained agarose microcapsules with 20-50 microm of agarose gel layer thickness and hollow cores ranging in diameter from ca. 50 to 450 microm. Using alginate microparticles of ca. 150 microm in diameter and enclosing feline kidney cells, we were able to create cell-enclosing agarose microcapsules with a hollow core of ca. 150 microm in diameter. The cells in these microcapsules grew much faster than those in alginate microparticles. In addition, we enclosed mouse embryonic stem cells in agarose microcapsules. The embryonic stem cells began to self-aggregate in the core just after encapsulation, and subsequently grew and formed embryoid body-like spherical tissues in the hollow core of the microcapsules. These results show that our novel microcapsule production technique and the resultant microcapsules have potential for tissue engineering, cell therapy and biopharmaceutical applications. PMID:17705234

  18. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  19. Learning from UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Government is wise to examine other health care systems as it strives to improve the quality of care and address rising costs to both governments and individuals. Focus is currently on the United Kingdom, whose National Health Service (NHS) stands out as one that delivers good care at a reasonable price to all who need it. The Australian and UK systems have many similarities: universal access, tax payer support, no or low cost at point of delivery, and good population health outcomes. They also face similar pressures on services from aging, increasingly unwell yet expectant populations.However, there are also differences, largely in the way that health care is funded, organised and delivered. The NHS is a huge system for 60 million people in four home countries with diverging policies. Within England, the system is managed through 10 strategic health authorities, each responsible for about 5 million people and having the right to interpret national policy. Population based health care, including tertiary care, is funded locally via primary care trusts. PMID:19283244

  20. Lessons from UK Digitization research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Eamon T.

    2002-08-01

    The paper describes the findings and approach of Ex NEAR HORIZONS, which as part of a series of trials, aimed to explore the performance characteristics and potential operational benefits of a number of technology inserts for the UK Digitization Programme. Although the exercise contained 5 discrete options (hypotheses) for improvement in Command, Control, Communications, Computing and Information (C4I) this paper explores only two of these: a web-based approach and the provision of technology to support distributed and co-located collaborative team working. Despite the commercial world moving towards an information exchange model based on publish and subscribe, the trial found that, although the concept was well received, the implications for changes in organsiation and process were substantial. When working collaboratively in a distributed environment, the findings indicate difficulties in gaining an initial shared understanding of the situation and to exercise command. The participants were a wide range of regular British Army Officers, not only to provide broad views on current military benefits but also to move away from the traditional trials, which tend to expose a single HQ, with prescriptive processes and organizations to the technology. The innovative trial was considered to have been very successful, gathering a considerable body of valuable data and identifying clear paths for exploitation of information technologies to support the military decision- maker. The paper extrapolates the findings of the trial to provide comment on the potential difficulties facing the concept of Network Centric Warfare.

  1. UK organisation of access care.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed. PMID:25751543

  2. Behavior in normal and reduced gravity of an enclosed liquid/gas system with nonuniform heating from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Schiller, D. N.; Disimile, P.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature and velocity fields have been investigated for a single-phase gas system and a two-layer gas-and-liquid system enclosed in a circular cylinder being heated suddenly and nonuniformly from above. The transient response of the gas, liquid, and container walls was modelled numerically in normal and reduced gravity (10 to the -5 g). Verification of the model was accomplished via flow visualization experiments in 10 cm high by 10 cm diameter plexiglass cylinders.

  3. 3D modelling of the transport and fate of riverine fine sediment exported to a semi-enclosed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Lewis, Stephen; Legat, Vincent; Deleersnijder, Eric; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of suspended sediment exported by rivers is crucial for the management of sensitive marine ecosystems. Sediment transport and fate can vary considerably depending on the geophysical characteristics of the offshore environment (i.e. open, semi-enclosed and enclosed systems and the nature of the continental shelf). In this presentation, we focus on a semi-enclosed setting in the Great Barrier Reef, NE Australia. In this system, the large tropical Burdekin River discharges to a long and narrow continental shelf containing numerous headlands and embayments. Using a new 3D sediment model we developed and SLIM 3D, a Finite Element 3D model for coastal flows, we highlight the key processes of sediment transport for such a system. We validate the model with available measured data from the region. Wind direction and speed during the high river flows are showed to largely control the dynamics and final fate of the sediments. Most (71%) of the sediment load delivered by the river is deposited and retained near the river mouth. The remaining sediment is transported further afield in riverine freshwater plumes. The suspended sediment transported longer distances in the freshwater plumes can reach sensitive marine ecosystems. These results are compared to previous studies on the Burdekin River sediment fate and differences are analysed. The model suggests that wind-driven resuspension events will redistribute sediments within an embayment but have little influence on transporting sediments from bay to bay.

  4. Predicting transient particle transport in enclosed environments with the combined computational fluid dynamics and Markov chain method.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Lin, C-H; Long, Z; Chen, Q

    2014-02-01

    To quickly obtain information about airborne infectious disease transmission in enclosed environments is critical in reducing the infection risk to the occupants. This study developed a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Markov chain method for quickly predicting transient particle transport in enclosed environments. The method first calculated a transition probability matrix using CFD simulations. Next, the Markov chain technique was applied to calculate the transient particle concentration distributions. This investigation used three cases, particle transport in an isothermal clean room, an office with an underfloor air distribution system, and the first-class cabin of an MD-82 airliner, to validate the combined CFD and Markov chain method. The general trends of the particle concentrations vs. time predicted by the Markov chain method agreed with the CFD simulations for these cases. The proposed Markov chain method can provide faster-than-real-time information about particle transport in enclosed environments. Furthermore, for a fixed airflow field, when the source location is changed, the Markov chain method can be used to avoid recalculation of the particle transport equation and thus reduce computing costs. PMID:23789964

  5. UK now claims world's top discovery rate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    UK explorers are a bit more cheerful these days even though no one has discovered a giant field or anything elephant-sized. The reason is a benign tax regime and a growing confidence among industry explorers. This last has resulted in discovery of many smaller fields - particularly gas, some potentially commercial. It is claimed that the UK's discovery rate is now the highest in the world.

  6. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes. PMID:10163432

  7. Dynamics of air temperature, velocity and ammonia emissions in enclosed and conventional pig housing systems.

    PubMed

    Song, J I; Park, K-H; Jeon, J H; Choi, H L; Barroga, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig's growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to

  8. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  9. Large eddy simulation and measurements of turbulent enclosed rotor-stator flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séverac, Éric; Poncet, Sébastien; Serre, Éric; Chauve, Marie-Pierre

    2007-08-01

    Turbulent flows are studied in an actual enclosed rotor-stator configuration with a rotating hub and a stationary shroud. Besides its fundamental importance—the disk boundary layer is one of the simplest platforms for investigating the underlying structure of three-dimensional boundary layers—this cavity models more complex configurations relevant to rotating machinery. Large eddy simulation is performed using a spectral vanishing viscosity technique that is shown leading to stable discretizations without sacrificing the formal accuracy of the spectral approximation. Numerical results and velocity measurements have been favorably compared for a large range of rotational Reynolds numbers (105⩽Re=Ωb2/ν⩽106) in an annular cavity of curvature parameter Rm=(b+a)/(b-a)=1.8 and of aspect ratio G =(b-a)/h=5, where a and b are, respectively, the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. In the detailed picture of the flow structure that emerges, the turbulence is confined mainly in the boundary layers including in the Stewartson layer along the external cylinder. For Reynolds numbers Re ⩾105, the stator boundary layer is turbulent over most of the cavity. On the other hand, the rotor layer becomes progressively turbulent from the outer radial locations, although the rotating hub is shown to destabilize the inner part of the boundary layers. The isosurface maps of the Re =106, the flow is fully turbulent and the anisotropy invariant map highlights turbulence structuring, which can be either a "cigar-shaped" structuring aligned on the tangential direction or a "pancake-shaped" structuring depending on the axial location. The reduction of the structural parameter a1 (the ratio of the magnitude of the shear stress vector to twice the turbulence kinetic energy) under the typical limit 0.15, as well as the misalignment between the shear stress vector and the mean velocity gradient vector, highlight the three-dimensional nature of both

  10. Wave-current interaction: Effect on the wave field in a semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2013-10-01

    The effect on waves of the Wave-Current Interaction (WCI) process in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Venice (northern region of the Adriatic Sea) was investigated using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. COAWST relies on the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System), the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), and the CSTMS (Community Sediment Transport Modeling System) routines. The two-way data transfer between circulation and wave models was synchronous via MCT (Model Coupling Toolkit), with ROMS providing: current field, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. For coupling, the 3-D current profiles were averaged using a formulation which integrated the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wavenumber. COAWST system was implemented on a parent grid (with horizontal resolution of 2.0 km) covering the whole Adriatic Sea with one-way nesting to a child grid resolving the northern area (Gulf of Venice) at a resolution of 0.5 km. The meteorological forcings provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7 (a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) were used to drive the modeling system in the period bracketing September 2010-August 2011. The adopted winds and the simulated waves were compared with observations at the CNR-ISMAR Acqua Alta oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds were also compared with satellite-derived data. The analysis of WCI was performed on the child grid over the winter season (January-March 2011) with particular focus on the waves generated by prevailing and dominant winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea: Bora and Sirocco. Due to the variable wind direction with respect to the ocean current direction different effects on WCI were depicted, showing that within the northern Adriatic Sea the ocean-wave interactions are strongly dependent on the wind forcing direction. Further

  11. Sampling Line Heating Improves Frequency Response of Enclosed Eddy Covariance Gas Analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Fratini, G.; Metzger, S.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Trutna, D.; Luo, H.; Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges when measuring eddy-covariance fluxes with closed gas analyzers is high frequency attenuation due to the passage of the sampled air through a gas sampling system (GSS). The problem is particularly relevant for gases that undergo strong sorption processes, such as H2O. Recent "enclosed" analyzer designs (e.g. LI-7200, LI-COR Biosciences Inc.) mitigate the problem by allowing a reduced length of the intake tube (<1 m). Further improvements can come from carefully designed filtering and heating systems that reduce hygroscopic particulates and H2O adsorption on GSS surfaces. Because the sorption processes of H2O increase exponentially with air relative humidity (RH), low-pass filtering effects can be reduced by reducing RH inside the GSS, for example by increasing air temperature via heating. In this work, we evaluate the effects of several heating strategies with the aim of optimizing the LI-7200 performance while limiting the implied increase in power consumption. From field tests we found that 4 W of heating applied uniformly to a rain cap-integrated 2 µm particulate filter (FW-series, Swagelok) and a 700 mm stainless steel tube with 4.8 mm inner diameter reduces the occurrence of problematic RH levels (>60%) in the LI-7200 by ≈50%. As a result, the system half-power frequency increased by ≈1 Hz, and the remaining cospectral correction did not exceed 3%, even at very high ambient RH (95%). While little further improvement was found for increased heating powers, it is possible to optimize the sequence of GSS components and their heating: we found that positioning the particulate filter ≈20 cm downstream of the rain cap and concentrating 2/3 of the heat in this first 20 cm, and 1/3 in the remainder of the tube, provides optimal performances. Using model cospectra and a range of realistic measurement and environmental conditions, we estimated H2O spectral corrections to reduce by ≈50-70%, getting very close to those of CO2 in most

  12. Modeling the Shape Evolution of Enclosed Water Bodies: Pattern Formation from Emergent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. B.; Littlewood, R.; Ashton, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    Elongated water bodies tend to exhibit interesting shoreline shapes, including cuspate capes and flying spits. In some natural cases, these features appear to have merged, leading to segmentation of the water body. We explore how such shapes might evolve, starting with a coastline-evolution model originally developed to examine the results of a previously unappreciated instability in the large-scale, plan-view shape of sedimentary shorelines (Ashton et al., 2001; Murray and Ashton, 2004). Breaking waves drive an alongshore sediment flux, and when the waves approach from highly oblique angles, divergence of this flux along a perturbation on an otherwise straight shoreline cause perturbation growth. When local wave climates are dominated by these 'high-angle' waves, shorelines tend to become progressively bumpier over time. Numerical modeling has illuminated various modes of emergent interactions between shoreline features as they attain finite amplitude (Ashton and Murray, 2003; Murray and Ashton, 2003). These interactions stem largely from a wave shadowing effect; features such as emergent spits that protrude from the shoreline tend to shelter other parts of the shoreline from approaching waves. The resulting non-local interactions lead to the self-organization of rhythmic capes, spits, and alongshore sandwaves. The previous work involves an initially straight, infinite-length shoreline (periodic lateral boundary conditions) affected by alongshore-uniform deep-water wave forcing - i.e. waves approaching from a distant source. Here we highlight an increased level of complexity that arises in an enclosed water body, where the characteristics of waves approaching one section of shoreline depend on the length over which the local wind is blowing - the 'fetch'. Starting with an initially rectangular basin, local fetches affecting shoreline sections depend on the location within the domain, and the direction the wind is blowing from. With an isotropic distribution of

  13. Assessment of current effect on waves in a semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2012-04-01

    The wave-current interaction process in the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is studied using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is used to exchange data fields between the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The 2-way data transfer between circulation and wave models is synchronous with ROMS providing current fields, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. In particular, the 3-D current profiles are averaged using a formulation that integrates the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wave number. This coupling procedure is carried out up to coastal areas by means of an offline grid nesting. The parent grid covers the whole Adriatic Sea and has a horizontal resolution of 2.0 km, whereas the child grid resolution increases to 0.5 km but it is limited to the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), where the current effect on waves is investigated. The most frequent winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea are the so-called Bora and Sirocco which cause high waves in the Adriatic Sea, although Bora waves are generally fetch-limited. In fact, Bora winds blow orthogonal to the main basin axis (approximately aligned with the NW-SE direction), while Sirocco has large spatial scale being a southeasterly wind. For the numerical simulations, the meteorological forcings are provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7, which is the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium. During the analysis period, the simulated wind, current and wave are compared with observations at the ISMAR oceanographic tower located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds are also compared with satellite-derived data. To account for the variability of sea states during a storm, the expected maximum individual wave height in a sea storm with a given history is also

  14. Radon progeny size distributions and enhanced deposition effects from high radon concentrations in an enclosed chamber.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2004-01-01

    Prior work studying radon progeny in a small enclosed chamber found that at high (222)Rn concentrations an enhanced surface deposition was observed. Subsequent measurements for unfiltered air showed minimal charged particle mobility influence. Progeny particle size measurements reported here, performed at the US Department of Energy Environmental Measurement Laboratory (now with Home Security Department), using the EML graded screen array (GSA) system show in unfiltered air that the high (222)Rn levels causes a reduction in the attached (218)Po progeny airborne particulates and formation of additional normal sized unattached ( approximately 0.80 nm) and also even smaller (218)Po below 0.50 nm. At a (222)Rn level of 51 kBq m(-3), 73% of all (218)Po are of a mean particle diameter of about 0.40 +/- 0.02 nm. At this (222)Rn level, the ratio of (218)Po to (222)Rn airborne concentrations is reduced significantly from the concentration ratio at low (222)Rn levels. Similar reductions and size reformations were observed for the (214)Pb and (214)Bi/Po progeny. The particle size changes are further confirmed using the plateout rates and corresponding deposition velocities. The Crump and Seinfeld deposition theory provides the corresponding particle diffusion coefficients. With the diffusion coefficient to ultrafine clustered particle diameter correlation of Ramamurthi and Hopke, good agreement is obtained between EML GSA and deposition velocity data down to 0.40 nm. Strong evidence is presented that the progeny size reduction is due to, as a result of air ionization, the increased neutralization rate (primarily from electron scavenging of OH molecules) of the initially charged progeny. This is shown to increase with the (1/2) power of (222)Rn concentration and relative humidity as well as increased air change rate in the chamber. These results imply that at (222)Rn levels above 50 kBq m(-3), at relative humidity of 52%, a considerable reduction in lung dose could occur from

  15. Is The Enclosed Qaidam Basin In The Tibetan Plateau Accumulative Or Erosive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z.

    2014-12-01

    ), Qinghai Lake (loess), and the Chinese Loess Plateau (loess) indicate that the QB is an important dust source for the loess in Qinghai Lake and the Chinese Loess Plateau. Our numerical modeling showed that dust could be transported from the QB to the Loess Plateau during the glacial periods. Field observation also supports our new model of the geomorphic process in the enclosed basin.

  16. Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

    2001-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. The diffusion flame is found at the surface where the fuel jet and oxygen meet, react, and consume each other. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. Flame stability is strongly dependent on the fuel jet velocity. When the fuel jet velocity is sufficiently low, the diffusion flame anchors at the burner rim. When the fuel jet velocity is increased, the flame base gradually moves downstream. However, when the fuel jet velocity increases beyond a critical value, the flame base abruptly jumps downstream. When this "jump" occurs, the flame is said to have reached its lift-off condition and the critical fuel jet velocity is called the lift-off velocity. While lifted, the flame is not attached to the burner and it appears to float in mid-air. Flow conditions are such that the flame cannot be maintained at the burner rim despite the presence of both fuel and oxygen. When the fuel jet velocity is further increased, the flame will eventually extinguish at its blowout condition. In contrast, if the fuel jet velocity of a lifted flame is reduced, the flame base moves upstream and abruptly returns to anchor at the burner rim. The fuel jet velocity at reattachment can be much lower than that at lift off, illustrating the hysteresis effect present in flame stability. Although there have been numerous studies of flame stability, the controlling mechanisms are not well understood. This uncertainty is described by Pitts in his review of various competing theories of lift off and blow out in turbulent jet diffusion flames. There has

  17. Determining the Carbon Transport Rate of an Enclosed Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y. A.; Van Haren, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Determining how carbon moves through a tropical rainforest ecosystem is an important step towards understanding its role as a carbon sink system in the global carbon cycle. The paths by which carbon moves through forest ecosystems are reasonably well known. However, very little is known about how quickly this happens. We will present data from experiments where we isotopically pulse label the atmospheric carbon dioxide within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome with natural gas derived CO2 (∂13C ~ -40‰ vs. ~ -8.5‰ for ambient air). We are continually monitoring the CO2 concentration and isotope composition of the ambient air along a vertical profile to measure ecosystem gas exchange, and that of six branch-bag and five soil-chamber locations within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest, with an Aerodyne Quantum Cascade Laser to trace the labeled carbon (precision for ∂13C = 0.02‰ and CO2 = 0.07ppm, calibrated to NOAA air standards). Environmental parameters such as light, relative humidity, soil moisture, and temperature are monitored at fifteen-minute intervals. We have selected one vine species and three different tree species for branch bag enclosures at two canopy heights that we expect represent the bulk photosynthetic biomass of the rainforest. The soil chambers are distributed randomly. By treating the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome, a glass enclosed ecosystem with 1900m2 of ground, 26700m3 of air, and 92 different plant species, as a model ecosystem, we anticipate to determine carbon transport rates that would otherwise be practically impossible to determine in the real world due to the difficulty of isotopically labeling and monitoring entire canopies or even individual trees, which can reach heights over 60m. The data we have collected thus far will provide a baseline comparison for the labeling data. Comparing the branch bag data with the ecosystem data has helped us determine how well small branches represent the canopy and whole

  18. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  19. Repeated batch production of theanine by coupled fermentation with energy transfer using membrane-enclosed gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase and dried yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Morihara, Yosuke; Wakayama, Mamoru; Tachiki, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase and dried baker's yeast cells were enclosed together in a dialysis membrane tube to produce theanine repeatedly by coupled fermentation with energy transfer. The membrane-enclosed enzyme preparation (M-EEP) formed approximately 600 mM theanine from glutamic acid and ethylamine at a 100% conversion rate. M-EEP maintained its productivity of theanine during six consecutive reactions in a mixture containing NAD(+). PMID:19966461

  20. In situ experimental study of carbon monoxide generation by gasoline-powered electric generator in an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangzhu; Emmerich, Steven J; Persily, Andrew K

    2010-12-01

    On the basis of currently available data, approximately 97% of generator-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities are caused by operating currently marketed, carbureted spark-ignited gasoline-powered generators (not equipped with emission controls) in enclosed spaces. To better understand and to reduce the occurrence of these fatalities, research is needed to quantify CO generation rates, develop and test CO emission control devices, and evaluate CO transport and exposure when operating a generator in an enclosed space. As a first step in these efforts, this paper presents measured CO generation rates from a generator without any emission control devices operating in an enclosed space under real weather conditions. This study expands on previously published information from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thirteen separate tests were conducted under different weather conditions at half and full generator load settings. It was found that the CO level in the shed reached a maximum value of 29,300 +/- 580 mg/m3, whereas the oxygen (O2) was depleted to a minimum level of 16.2 +/- 0.02% by volume. For the test conditions of real weather and generator operation, the CO generation and the O2 consumption could be expressed as time-averaged generation/consumption rates. It was also found that the CO generation and O2 consumption rates can be correlated to the O2 levels in the space and the actual load output from the generator. These correlations are shown to agree well with the measurements. PMID:21243898

  1. Computational evaluation of the dynamic fluctuations of peripheral loops enclosing the catalytic tunnel of a family 7 cellobiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Granum, David M; Schutt, Timothy C; Maupin, C Mark

    2014-05-22

    The size and character of the peripheral loops enclosing the active site for cellulase enzymes is believed to play a major role in dictating many critical enzymatic properties. For many cellulases it is observed that fully enclosed active sites forming a tunnel are more conducive to cellobiohydrolase activity and the ability to processively move along the substrate. Conversely, a more open active site groove is indicative of endoglucanase activity. For both cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, the loop regions have been implicated in the ability of the enzyme to bind substrate, influence the pKa of active site residues, modulate the catalytic activity, and influence thermal stability. Reported here are constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations that investigate the role of dynamic fluctuations, substrate interactions, and residue pKa values for the peripheral loops enclosing the active site of the cellobiohydrolase Melanocarpus albomyces Cel7B. Two highly flexible loop regions in the free enzyme have been identified, which impact the overall dynamical motions of the enzyme. Charge interactions between Asp198 and Asp367, which reside on two adjacent loops, were found to influence the overall loop conformations and dynamics. In the presence of a substrate the protonation of Asp367, Asp198, and Tyr370 were found to stabilize substrate binding and control the movement of two peripheral loops onto the active site containing the substrate (i.e., clamping down). The substrate-induced response of the loop regions secures the cellulose polymer in the catalytic tunnel and creates an environment that is conducive to hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. PMID:24669967

  2. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in <3 days using immobilized consortium, while 3-5 days were required using free cells. The O2 supply efficiency of an enclosed in-well aeration system was assessed in a box filled with perlite and peat. Dissolved O2 (DO) concentrations increased to 8-12 mg L(-1) in 12 h for sampling ports within 12 cm of the aeration well. A diffusion coefficient as 33.5 cm(2) s(-1) was obtained. The DO concentration was >4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium. PMID:26865481

  3. PIV measurement of high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in an enclosed flow apparatus with fan agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary K.; Cao, Lujie; Woodward, Scott H.; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Enclosed flow apparatuses with negligible mean flow are emerging as alternatives to wind tunnels for laboratory studies of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) with or without aerosol particles, especially in experimental validation of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). It is desired that these flow apparatuses generate HIT at high Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers ({{R}λ} ) and enable accurate measurement of turbulence parameters including kinetic energy dissipation rate and thereby {{R}λ} . We have designed an enclosed, fan-driven, highly symmetric truncated-icosahedron ‘soccer ball’ airflow apparatus that enables particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and other whole-field flow measurement techniques. To minimize gravity effect on inertial particles and improve isotropy, we chose fans instead of synthetic jets as flow actuators. We developed explicit relations between {{R}λ} and physical as well as operational parameters of enclosed HIT chambers. To experimentally characterize turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber, we devised a new two-scale PIV approach utilizing two independent PIV systems to obtain both high resolution and large field of view. Velocity measurement results show that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48 mm diameter) of the chamber. From PIV-measured velocity fields, we obtained turbulence dissipation rates and thereby {{R}λ} by using the second-order velocity structure function. A maximum {{R}λ} of 384 was achieved. Furthermore, experiments confirmed that the root mean square (RMS) velocity increases linearly with fan speed, and {{R}λ} increases with the square root of fan speed. Characterizing turbulence in such apparatus paves the way for further investigation of particle dynamics in particle-laden homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  4. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  5. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  6. Well-posedness of a model for structural acoustic coupling in a cavity enclosed by a thin cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A fully coupled mathematical model describing the interactions between a vibrating thin cylindrical shell and enclosed acoustic field is presented. Because the model will ultimately be used in control applications involving piezoceramic actuators, the loads and material contributions resulting from piezoceramic patches bonded to the shell are included in the discussion. Theoretical and computational issues lead to the consideration of a weak form of the modeling set of partial differential equations (PDE's) and through the use of a semigroup formulation, well-posedness results for the system model are obtained.

  7. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  8. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? PMID:25650197

  9. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-15uk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun; Liu, X.-W.; Dong, S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We obtained a low-resolution optical spectrum of ASASSN-15uk (ATel #8461) on 2015 December 25.9 with the 2.16-m telescope at Xinglong Station of NAOC. Cross-correlation with a library of SN spectra using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows that ASASSN-15uk is a Type Ia and matches best the normal SN 1999ef and the SN 1991T-like SN 2003fa at 7-9 days after maximum.

  10. Theoretical study on the top- and enclosed-contacted single-layer MoS2 piezotronic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yongli; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the piezotronic effect has been observed in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 materials, which have potential applications in force and pressure triggered or controlled electronic devices, sensors, and human-machine interfaces. However, classical theory faces the difficulty in explaining the mechanism of the piezotronic effect for the top- and enclosed-contacted MoS2 transistors, since the piezoelectric charges are assumed to exist only at the edge of the MoS2 flake that is far from the electronic transport pathway. In the present study, we identify the piezoelectric charges at the MoS2/metal-MoS2 interface by employing both the density functional theory and finite element method simulations. This interface is on the transport pathway of both top- and enclosed-contacted MoS2 transistors, thus it is capable of controlling their transport properties. This study deepens the understanding of piezotronic effect and provides guidance for the design of two-dimensional piezotronic devices.

  11. How Immunocontraception Can Contribute to Elephant Management in Small, Enclosed Reserves: Munyawana Population as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Heleen C.; Mackey, Robin L.; Slotow, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects). Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought), which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown. PMID:22174758

  12. Wave energy balance in wave models (SWAN) for semi-enclosed domains-Application to the Catalan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallares, Elena; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Espino, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study has been motivated by the limited accuracy of wave models under short-duration, fetch-limited conditions. This applies particularly to the wave period, in semi-enclosed domains with highly variable wind patterns as along the Catalan coast. The wave model SWAN version 40.91A is used here in three nested grids covering all the North-western Mediterranean Sea with a grid resolution from 9 to 1 km, forced with high resolution wind patterns from BSC (Barcelona Supercomputing Center) for two study periods, the winter 2010 and the spring 2011. The results are validated in eight locations with different types of instrumentations. In order to improve the results, a modification of the whitecapping term parameters is performed. Also the appropriate frequency integral range used to calculate the integral wave parameters is tested to be sure to compare the simulation results and the measurements for the same frequency interval. The results obtained show a clear improvement of the mean wave period and the peak period for the study area, decreasing considerably the negative bias observed previously, while almost no change is observed in wave height due to the proposed modifications. These results can be generalized to the Spanish Mediterranean coast and may be applicable to study areas with similar characteristics as the ones presented here: semi-enclosed domains with fetch-limited conditions and young sea waves.

  13. Temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and their responses to environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Mingzhuang

    2010-03-01

    Variations in physical-chemical factors, species composition, abundance and biomass of nano- and micro-phytoplankton assemblages, as well as their responses to environmental factors, were investigated over a complete cycle (6 months) in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, northern China. The aim was to establish the temporal patterns of phytoplankton communities and to evaluate protists as suitable bioindicators to water quality in mariculture systems. A total of 34 taxa with nine dominant species were identified, belonging to six taxonomic groups (dinoflagellates, diatoms, cryptophyceans, chlorophyceans, euglenophyceans and chrysophyceans). A single peak of protist abundance occurred in October, mainly due to chlorophyceans, diatoms and chrysophyceans. Two biomass peaks in July and October were primarily due to dinoflagellates and diatoms. Temporal patterns of the phytoplankton communities significantly correlated with the changes in nutrients, temperature and pH, especially phosphate, either alone or in combination with NO3-N and NH3-N. Species diversity, evenness and richness indices were clearly correlated with water temperature and/or salinity, whereas the biomass/abundance ratio showed a significant correlation with NO3-N. The results suggest that phytoplankton are potentially useful bioindicators to water quality in semi-enclosed mariculture systems.

  14. A new method for on-line monitoring of brake fluid condition using an enclosed reference probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Shida, Katsunori

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for on-line monitoring of the liquid level and water content of brake fluid using an enclosed reference probe as the capacitive sensing part. The probe has an enclosed cavity at the end which is designed to hold fresh brake fluid as an on-line reference. Three capacitances formed by four electrodes are used for the liquid level, water content and reference measurement and form the mutual calibrating output functions of the sensing probe. The liquid level measurement is calibrated to the permittivity changes by the capacitance for water content measurement. At the same time, the water content measurement is calibrated to temperature changes and variety of fluids by the capacitance of the reference measurement. Therefore, once the permittivity characteristics of brake fluids are experimentally modeled, the proposed method has a self-calibration ability to influence factors including temperature, water content (to liquid level measurement) and variety of brake fluids without an additional sensor supported by database as in conventional intelligent sensor systems. The design and implementation method are discussed with a prototype probe developed and tested. The permittivity characteristics of brake fluid samples are discussed. The calibration method and errors analysis are presented. The method presents a different way to construct a smart sensor which is useful in brake fluid condition monitoring and also other liquid measurement applications.

  15. Novel design of an enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyser for eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; McDermitt, D. K.; Anderson, D. J.; Furtaw, M. D.; Eckles, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes design and field performance of a new enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyser, LI-7200. Unlike present closed-path analysers, this new instrument is designed for operation with short intake tubes, with the intention to maximize strengths and to minimize weaknesses of both traditional open-path and closed-path approaches. The study provides description of the instrument, shows the principles of its operation, and explains advantages of a new design. Field results are provided from three field experiments with the prototypes, and cover such parameters as high frequency air temperature and pressure fluctuations inside the sampling cell versus ambient conditions, instantaneous concentrations and cospectra for CO2 and H2O in comparison with open-path instrument, and eddy covariance hourly CO2 and H2O fluxes in comparison with both open-path and closed-path instruments. Field data loss inventory is also provided in comparison with open-path and closed-path gas analysers. The new enclosed design results in little data loss during precipitation and icing, similar to the closed-path design, but with a low power consumption and high field stability comparable to open-path instruments.

  16. How immunocontraception can contribute to elephant management in small, enclosed reserves: Munyawana population as a case study.

    PubMed

    Druce, Heleen C; Mackey, Robin L; Slotow, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects). Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought), which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown. PMID:22174758

  17. Gateway control on circulation and water properties of a semi-enclosed sea: The Mediterranean/Paratethys case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M. P.; Meijer, P. Th.; de Leeuw, J. H. W. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2010-05-01

    Straits and marine gateways are vital for enclosed or semi-enclosed basins. The exchange flow through the straits influences the circulation of the landlocked basin and determines its sensitivity to variations in local climate. Changes in the geometry of the gateways and straits, resulting from tectonic activity and/or sea level variations, can change the circulation, temperature and salinity of the basin, which in turn can alter the regional climate. The present-day Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are the successors of the southern (the Mediterranean) and northern (the Paratethys) domain of the old Tethys Ocean, respectively, which were caught up in the convergence zone between Africa and Europe. During the Early Miocene (around 20 Ma) the Mediterranean Sea and the Paratethys had gateway connections to both the Indian and the Atlantic Ocean. The gateways to the Indian Ocean were closed in the Middle Miocene (13-15 Ma). This closure had important effects on the water properties and circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and the Paratethys. The Paratethys presents an outstanding case for studying the evolution of enclosed basins and the impact of gateway closure because of the availability of a large variety of studies and the accessibility of this part of Europe for geological study. As yet, a model or physics-based study regarding the closure of the gateway between the Mediterranean/Paratethys and the Indian Ocean and its effects is not available. Investigating the past evolution of these basins and their circulation as controlled by their straits, will contribute greatly to our understanding of the role of straits in basin circulation. We apply a hierarchy of ocean models, starting from simple box models and proceeding with circulation models with idealized and realistic geometries. We aim to determine the variation of (1) temperature, salinity, and residence time, (2) flows in the gateways, and (3) circulation of the basin, in response to changes in the gateways

  18. Educational Qualifications of UK Farmers: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    No single source provides information on farmers' educational levels in the United Kingdom. Recent large surveys suggest that a third to half of UK farmers have pursued courses of further/higher education and obtained formal qualifications, largely in agricultural areas. Farmers' educational attainment is related to age, region, farm size and…

  19. Universities UK: Manifesto for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that the UK faces today are global and they require world-class solutions. With continued support and investment from the Government, higher education will play a central role in meeting those challenges. Tomorrow's knowledge-based economy will demand a flexible, diverse and well educated workforce. Climate change and rapid…

  20. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  1. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  2. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  3. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  4. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  5. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  6. Economic Cost of Autism in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Martin; Romeo, Renee; Beecham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Autism has lifetime consequences, with potentially a range of impacts on the health, wellbeing, social integration and quality of life of individuals and families. Many of those impacts are economic. This study estimated the costs of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the UK. Data on prevalence, level of intellectual disability and place of…

  7. UK Work Placements: A Choice Too Far?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Harvey, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Increasing expectations are being placed on higher education institutions to ensure the economic relevance of research and knowledge creation as well as developing the skill needs of workers in modern knowledge-based societies. In the UK, workplace learning has long been a feature of higher education in certain subject areas, and in the late 1990s…

  8. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all P<0.001). PLAB2 marks correlated with MRCP(UK) PACES and MRCGP CSA (r=0.274, 0.321; both P<0.001). PLAB graduates had significantly lower MRCP(UK) and MRCGP assessments (Glass’s Δ=0.94, 0.91, 1.40, 1.01, and 1.82 for MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES and MRCGP AKT and CSA), and were more likely to fail assessments

  9. UK Schools, CCTV and the Data Protection Act 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Emmeline

    2011-01-01

    The use of CCTV in schools is now commonplace in the UK. It is estimated that 85% of all UK secondary schools currently have CCTV systems in operation. The introduction of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) (enacted in March 2000) meant that for the first time CCTV had direct legislation governing its use in the UK. This paper attempts to apply…

  10. Establishing a Research Culture for Archive Administration in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the current state of academic research within the discipline of archive administration in the UK. It identifies and examines a number of reasons why research output from the UK is so low when compared with activity on an international basis. These reasons include the historic nature of archival education in the UK, the…

  11. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the time series data produced annually since 2001 under the title "Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK." It offers a unique overview of provision at publicly-funded higher education institutions in the UK. All charts and tables in the report are now also available to download from the Universities UK website.…

  12. Orbit-averaged quantities, the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, and the magnetic flux enclosed by gyro-motion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. J. Bellan, P. M.

    2015-02-15

    Action integrals are often used to average a system over fast oscillations and obtain reduced dynamics. It is not surprising, then, that action integrals play a central role in the Hellmann-Feynman theorem of classical mechanics, which furnishes the values of certain quantities averaged over one period of rapid oscillation. This paper revisits the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, rederiving it in connection to an analogous theorem involving the time-averaged evolution of canonical coordinates. We then apply a modified version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to obtain a new result: the magnetic flux enclosed by one period of gyro-motion of a charged particle in a non-uniform magnetic field. These results further demonstrate the utility of the action integral in regards to obtaining orbit-averaged quantities and the usefulness of this formalism in characterizing charged particle motion.

  13. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area

    PubMed Central

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior. PMID:26997898

  14. Incidence of apoptosis and transcript abundance in bovine follicular cells is associated with the quality of the enclosed oocyte.

    PubMed

    Janowski, D; Salilew-Wondim, D; Torner, H; Tesfaye, D; Ghanem, N; Tomek, W; El-Sayed, A; Schellander, K; Hölker, M

    2012-08-01

    The close contact and interaction between the oocyte and the follicular environment influence the establishment of oocyte developmental competence. Moreover, it is assumed that apoptosis in the follicular cells has a beneficial influence on the developmental competence of oocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine oocytes with varied developmental competence show differences in the degree of apoptosis and gene expression pattern in their surrounding follicular cells (cumulus and granulosa cells). Oocytes and follicular cells from follicles of 3 to 5 mm in diameter were grouped as brilliant cresyl blue (BCB)+ and BCB- based on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the ooplasm by BCB staining. In the follicular cells initial, early and late apoptotic events were assessed by analyzing caspase-3 activity, annexin-V and TUNEL, respectively. Global gene expression was investigated in immature oocytes and corresponding follicular cells. BCB+ oocytes resulted in a higher blastocyst rate (19.3%) compared to the BCB- group (7.4%, P < 0.05). Moreover, the analysis of apoptosis showed a higher caspase-3 activity in the follicular cells and an increased degree of late apoptotic events in granulosa cells in the BCB+ compared with the BCB- group. Additionally, the global gene expression profile revealed a total of 34 and 37 differentially expressed genes between BCB+ and BCB- cumulus cells and granulosa cells, respectively, whereas 207 genes showed an altered transcript abundance between BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. Among these, EIF3F, RARRES2, RNF34, ACTA1, GSTA1, EIF3A, VIM and CS gene transcripts were most highly enriched in the BCB+ oocytes, whereas OLFM1, LINGO1, ALDH1A3, PTHLH, BTN3A3, MRPS2 and PPM1K were most significantly reduced in these cells. Therefore, the follicular cells enclosing developmentally competent oocytes show a higher level of apoptosis and a different pattern of gene expression compared to follicular cells enclosing non

  15. Natriuretic peptide precursor C delays meiotic resumption and sustains gap junction-mediated communication in bovine cumulus-enclosed oocytes.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Federica; Coticchio, Giovanni; Lodde, Valentina; Tessaro, Irene; Modina, Silvia C; Fadini, Rubens; Dal Canto, Mariabeatrice; Renzini, Mario Mignini; Albertini, David F; Luciano, Alberto M

    2014-09-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) has become a valuable technological tool for animal breeding and cloning and the treatment of human infertility because it does not require the administration of exogenous gonadotropin to obtain fertilizable oocytes. However, embryo development after IVM is lower compared to in vivo maturation, most likely because oocytes collected for IVM are heterogeneous with respect to their developmental competencies. Attempts to improve IVM outcome have relied upon either prematuration culture (PMC) or two-step maturation strategies in the hope of normalizing variations in developmental competence. Such culture systems invoke the pharmacological arrest of meiosis, in theory providing oocytes sufficient time to complete the acquisition of developmental competence after cumulus-enclosed oocytes isolation from the follicle. The present study was designed to test the efficiency of natriuretic peptide precursor C (NPPC) as a nonpharmacologic meiosis-arresting agent during IVM in a monoovulatory species. NPPC has been shown to maintain meiotic arrest in vivo and in vitro in mice and pigs; however, the use of this molecule for PMC has yet to have been explored. Toward this end, meiotic cell cycle reentry, gap-junction functionality, and chromatin configuration changes were investigated in bovine cumulus-enclosed oocytes cultured in the presence of NPPC. Moreover, oocyte developmental competence was investigated after IVM, in vitro fertilization, and embryo culture and compared to standard IVM-in vitro fertilization protocol without PMC. Our results suggest that NPPC can be used to delay meiotic resumption and increase the developmental competence of bovine oocytes when used in PMC protocols. PMID:25078681

  16. Water age, exposure time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water age, exposure time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water age is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with exposure time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water age, which is based on the water aging rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water age, and well approximates exposure time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water age and exposure time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.

  17. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  18. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs. PMID:21364210

  19. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented. PMID:26900652

  20. History of Inclusive Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    John Clarkson, P; Coleman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The UK Design Council describes Inclusive Design as neither a new genre of design, nor a separate specialism, but as a general approach to designing in which designers ensure that their products and services address the needs of the widest possible audience, irrespective of age or ability. Inclusive Design (also known [in Europe] as Design for All and as Universal Design in the USA) is in essence the inverse of earlier approaches to designing for disabled and elderly people as a sub-set of the population, and an integral part of a more recent international trend towards the integration of older and disabled people in the mainstream of society. This paper describes the development of Inclusive Design in the UK, from its early beginnings, through its subsequent adoption as a topic of academic research, leading to its recent emergence embodied as a framework and toolkit for design. PMID:23570838

  1. Balance sheet for phosphorus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J C

    A balance sheet for the inputs, uses and outputs of phosphorus in the UK economy has been drawn up. The major import is fertilizer, amounting to about 200 kt P per year. After fertilizers, the other imports (in kt P) are in animal feeds (63), detergents (38) and human food (14). The major outputs are sewage (50), animal excreta (26) and refuse (21); soil losses are about 20 kt. The flowpaths for phosphorus through humans, animals and plants are described. The discrepancy of about 210 kt P/yr is explained by the fact that the amount of phosphorus in the soil increases each year by almost as much as the amount of fertilizer phosphorus added. In view of UK dependence on this imported resource it is suggested that priority is given to work which might eventually have some practical application in preventing or reversing the immobilization of phosphorus in the soil. PMID:249678

  2. UK biotechnology lab advances improve fermentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, J.

    1983-12-01

    In the UK the government is promoting research into biotechnology in order to encourage commercialisation of the products at industrial level. This is especially obvious at the Agricultural Division of Imperial Chemical Industries. ''Pruteen'' and ''Biopol'' or PHB (polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid) are two products which have been successful commercially ''Pruteen'' is an animal feed additive and the main aspects of ''Purteen'' technology are outlined in the article. PHB is synthesised in bacterial cells and ICI researchers have developed a new extraction and purification procedure. The physical and chemical properties of PHB are discussed along with its uses. UK researchers are also involved in commercial production of single cell proteins and the continuous fermentation of ethanol.

  3. Magnetospheric studies using the UKS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field data from the UKS spacecraft were analyzed to learn more about the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere and about the magnetosphere itself. The data was reduced from raw experimenter data records to engineering units. The evolution of the waves in the foreshock, the varying structure of the bow shock along the boundary, simultaneous behavior of the magnetopause in the north and south hemisphere and MHD waves in the magnetosphere and magnetosheath were examined.

  4. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  5. Should Gleason 6 be labeled as cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Kulac, Ibrahim; Haffner, Michael C.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Epstein, Jonathan I.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This review covers arguments for and against removing the label of “cancer” Gleason score 6 tumors. Recent findings While there are a number of factors that determine whether men elect active surveillance, the most powerful predictor remains the Gleason score. The Gleason grading remains a robust and powerful predictor of outcome in patients with prostate cancer. A pure Gleason score 6 (GS6) tumor is exceedingly unlikely to cause harm in the near-term and there have been discussions regarding whether the term cancer should still be applied. In this manuscript we update the largely clinico-pathological arguments that have led to the suggestion to remove the cancer label from GS6 tumors, and, we provide counter arguments based on practical matters of needle biopsy sampling, classical histopathology, and molecular biology findings. Summary The implications are that by retaining the label of cancer and implementing the recently proposed concept of prognostic groups, with patients harboring GS6 tumors placed into the lowest category, there is still a strong rationale in support of the choice of active surveillance or watchful waiting for most patients with GS6 lesions. PMID:25730327

  6. Calculating CO2 and H2O eddy covariance fluxes from an enclosed gas analyzer using an instantaneous mixing ratio 2159

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eddy covariance flux research has relied on open- or closed-path gas analyzers for producing estimates of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). The two instruments have had different challenges that have led to development of an enclosed design that is intended to max...

  7. Resuscitation of general paediatrics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wacogne, I; Scott-Jupp, R; Chambers, T

    2006-12-01

    "The report of my death was an exaggeration", said Mark Twain. For a dying specialty, general paediatrics has certainly been looking very healthy recently. It is timely to examine why our specialty was thought to be at such risk, and to explore why, although in many cases shocked and confused, it is well on the way to recovery. This article explores what is needed to keep it healthy to ensure that the general paediatrician is at the centre of the delivery of paediatrics in the UK. PMID:17119078

  8. Well integrity failure in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  9. Panel picked to review UK physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The UK's research councils have named the eight physicists who will take part in a review of the health of the country's physics. The review, which will be led by physicist Bill Wakeham from Southampton University, was announced late last year by the science minister Ian Pearson after an £80m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) forced it to pull out of the Gemini telescopes, withdraw from the International Linear Collider (ILC), and cut university grants by 25% in particle physics and astronomy.

  10. UK physics hit by fresh funding cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-08-01

    Physicists have reacted angrily to plans by one of the UK's leading research councils to slash funding for a number of key national facilities. The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) will cut support for the Diamond light source and make "reductions in facility operations" at the ISIS neutron source and the Central Laser Facility. STFC chief executive Keith Mason blames the cuts on the fall in the value of the pound, which has led to a 15.1% rise in the STFC's subscriptions to CERN and other international facilities from £214.9m last year to £247.3m in 2009-2010.

  11. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  12. The WAIS-R(UK): basic psychometric properties in an adult UK sample.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J R; Gray, C D; Allan, K M

    1995-05-01

    The WAIS-R is the most widely used measure of intellectual ability in the UK, despite never having been standardized in this country. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the WAIS-R in a sample of 200 subjects, which was representative of the adult UK population in terms of the distributions of age, sex and social class. The properties of the three IQ scales, i.e. the FSIQ, the VIQ and the PIQ, were found to be very similar to those reported for the US standardization sample: the scores were normally distributed, with means close to the desired value of 100; moreover, the reliabilities of the IQ scales were extremely high and closely matched the US reliabilities. There were also indications, however, that the scales have restricted standard deviations when used in the UK. The reliabilities of the 11 original subtests ranged from moderate to high and the majority were similar to the US reliabilities. However, in addition to evidence of restricted SDs, significant differences (sometimes as much as two-thirds of an SD) were found among the subtest means. These in-built subtest discrepancies could lead to erroneous conclusions about an individual's performance. A conversion table for UK test users is provided to overcome this problem. PMID:7647715

  13. Interpreting in the UK Community: Some Reflections on Public Service Interpreting in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the question "why do we need professional public service interpreters?" this paper offers an overview of the present situation regarding the provision of public service interpreters (PSIs) in the UK to public service clients and touches on the main obstacles to the professionalisation of public service interpreting so far…

  14. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body

    PubMed Central

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial cell rearrangements that drive epidermal spreading also require ROCK activity but are driven by cell protrusions and not myosin II contractility. Epidermal progenitor monolayer formation and epidermal spreading are delayed in Crash mice, which possess a dominant mutation in Celsr1, an orthologue of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) Drosophila protein Flamingo (also known as Stan). We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. PMID:26989131

  15. Culturing Human Pluripotent and Neural Stem Cells in an Enclosed Cell Culture System for Basic and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Alexander E.; Herculian, Siranush; Banuelos, Maria G.; Navarro, Samantha L.; Jenkins, Michael P.; Schwartz, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how to use a custom manufactured, commercially available enclosed cell culture system for basic and preclinical research. Biosafety cabinets (BSCs) and incubators have long been the standard for culturing and expanding cell lines for basic and preclinical research. However, as the focus of many stem cell laboratories shifts from basic research to clinical translation, additional requirements are needed of the cell culturing system. All processes must be well documented and have exceptional requirements for sterility and reproducibility. In traditional incubators, gas concentrations and temperatures widely fluctuate anytime the cells are removed for feeding, passaging, or other manipulations. Such interruptions contribute to an environment that is not the standard for cGMP and GLP guidelines. These interruptions must be minimized especially when cells are utilized for therapeutic purposes. The motivation to move from the standard BSC and incubator system to a closed system is that such interruptions can be made negligible. Closed systems provide a work space to feed and manipulate cell cultures and maintain them in a controlled environment where temperature and gas concentrations are consistent. This way, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells can be maintained at optimum health from the moment of their derivation all the way to their eventual use in therapy. PMID:27341536

  16. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body.

    PubMed

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B A; Formstone, Caroline J

    2016-05-01

    Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial cell rearrangements that drive epidermal spreading also require ROCK activity but are driven by cell protrusions and not myosin II contractility. Epidermal progenitor monolayer formation and epidermal spreading are delayed in Crash mice, which possess a dominant mutation in Celsr1, an orthologue of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) Drosophila protein Flamingo (also known as Stan). We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. PMID:26989131

  17. Application of dynamic global-coefficient subgrid-scale models to turbulent natural convection in an enclosed tall cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, G. E.; Yeoh, G. H.; Timchenko, V.; Reizes, J. A.

    2012-09-01

    Large-eddy simulations examining natural convection in an enclosed cavity with the simultaneous presence of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes were conducted. The Rayleigh number based on height of the cavity is 4.6 × 1010. Different dynamic global-coefficient procedures to compute the Vreman [A. W. Vreman, "An eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model for turbulent shear flow: Algebraic theory and applications," Phys. Fluids 16, 3670 (2004)] model coefficient were implemented for the subgrid-scale tensors in both the momentum and energy equations. Based on comparison with experimental and existing numerical data, it is shown that the dynamic model derived from the "global equilibrium" hypothesis gives favorable results in the mean flow and turbulence quantities. Nevertheless, because of higher subgrid-scale dissipation, transition to a turbulent flow is postponed when the Vreman model coefficient is either uniform or determined dynamically using the Germano identity approach. This suggests that much finer grid is desired when using these models in order to better capture the weak transitional boundary layer. Further, by exploring the instantaneous flow dynamics, it is demonstrated that characteristics of the coherent structures which resemble streaks in forced convection boundary layers are somewhat dissimilar in the different models.

  18. Multi-hollow polymer microspheres with enclosed surfaces and compartmentalized voids prepared by seeded swelling polymerization method.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiong; Yu, Demei; Zhu, Kaiming; Hu, Guohe; Zhang, Lifeng; Liu, Yuhang

    2016-07-01

    Multi-hollow particles have drawn extensive research interest due to their high specific areas and abundant inner voids, whereas their convenient synthesis still remains challenging. In this paper, we report a simple and convenient method based on seeded swelling polymerization to prepare the multi-hollow microspheres with enclosed surfaces and compartmentalized voids using monodisperse poly (styrene-co-sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate) microspheres as seed particles. A formation mechanism of the multi-hollow structure was proposed involving the processes of water absorption, coalescence and stabilization of water domains, immobilization of multi-hollow structure, and coverage of surface dimples. The influencing parameters on the morphology of the microspheres, including weight ratio of sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate to styrene in the seed particles, dosage of the swelling monomer and the crosslinking agent were systematically investigated. The internal structure of the resultant microspheres could be tuned from solid to multi-hollow by controlling over these parameters. Multi-hollow microspheres with compartmentalized chambers, smooth surfaces and narrow size distributions were obtained as a result. PMID:27046772

  19. FSH supplementation to culture medium is beneficial for activation and survival of preantral follicles enclosed in equine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, F L N; Lunardi, F O; Lima, L F; Rocha, R M P; Bruno, J B; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cibin, F W S; Nunes-Pinheiro, D C S; Gastal, M O; Rodrigues, A P R; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding different concentrations of bovine recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on the IVC of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments. Randomized ovarian fragments were fixed immediately (fresh noncultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/mL FSH and subsequently analyzed by classical histology. Culture media collected on Day 1 or Day 7 and were analyzed for steroids (estradiol and progesterone) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). After Day 1 and Day 7 of culture, 50-ng/mL FSH treatment had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared to the other groups, except the 10-ng/mL FSH treatment at Day 1 of culture. The percentage of developing follicles (transition, primary, and secondary), and follicular and oocyte diameters were higher (P < 0.05) in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment compared to the other groups after Day 7 of culture. Furthermore, estradiol secretion and ROS production were maintained (P > 0.05) throughout the culture in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment. In conclusion, the addition of 50 ng/mL of FSH promoted activation of primordial follicles to developing follicles, improved survival of preantral follicles, and maintained estradiol and ROS production of equine ovarian tissue after 7 days of culture. PMID:26723132

  20. Culturing Human Pluripotent and Neural Stem Cells in an Enclosed Cell Culture System for Basic and Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Stover, Alexander E; Herculian, Siranush; Banuelos, Maria G; Navarro, Samantha L; Jenkins, Michael P; Schwartz, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how to use a custom manufactured, commercially available enclosed cell culture system for basic and preclinical research. Biosafety cabinets (BSCs) and incubators have long been the standard for culturing and expanding cell lines for basic and preclinical research. However, as the focus of many stem cell laboratories shifts from basic research to clinical translation, additional requirements are needed of the cell culturing system. All processes must be well documented and have exceptional requirements for sterility and reproducibility. In traditional incubators, gas concentrations and temperatures widely fluctuate anytime the cells are removed for feeding, passaging, or other manipulations. Such interruptions contribute to an environment that is not the standard for cGMP and GLP guidelines. These interruptions must be minimized especially when cells are utilized for therapeutic purposes. The motivation to move from the standard BSC and incubator system to a closed system is that such interruptions can be made negligible. Closed systems provide a work space to feed and manipulate cell cultures and maintain them in a controlled environment where temperature and gas concentrations are consistent. This way, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells can be maintained at optimum health from the moment of their derivation all the way to their eventual use in therapy. PMID:27341536

  1. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces. PMID:27280358

  2. A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelin, Hu; Qin, Chen; Wang, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a unique role in extreme hurricane events. The impact of wetlands on storm surge depends on multiple factors including vegetation, landscape, and storm characteristics. The Delft3D model, in which vegetation effects on flow and turbulence are explicitly incorporated, was applied to the semi-enclosed Breton Sound (BS) estuary in coastal Louisiana to investigate the wetland impact. Guided by extensive field observations, a series of numerical experiments were conducted based on variations of actual vegetation properties and storm parameters from Hurricane Isaac in 2012. Both the vegetation-induced maximum surge reduction (MSR) and maximum surge reduction rate (MSRR) increased with stem height and stem density, and were more sensitive to stem height. The MSR and MSRR decreased significantly with increasing wind intensity. The MSRR was the highest with a fast-moving weak storm. It was also found that the MSRR varied proportionally to the expression involving the maximum bulk velocity and surge over the area of interest, and was more dependent on the maximum bulk surge. Both MSR and MSRR appeared to increase when the area of interest decreased from the whole BS estuary to the upper estuary. Within the range of the numerical experiments, the maximum simulated MSR and MSRR over the upper estuary were 0.7 m and 37%, respectively.

  3. Cooperative control of multi-agent dynamical systems in target-enclosing operations using cyclic pursuit strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Hara, Shinji; Hori, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    This article is concerned with formation stability analysis of distributed cooperative control for target-enclosing operations by multiple homogeneous dynamic agents. To this end, we first present an on-line path generator design method based on a cyclic pursuit scheme. Then, we provide Lyapunov and asymptotic stability conditions which should hold for the above path generation laws. These conditions are derived based on a simple stability analysis method for linear systems with a generalised frequency variable. The formation control scheme combined with a cyclic pursuit based distributed on-line path generator satisfying the derived stability conditions guarantees the required global convergence property with theoretical rigour. Furthermore, in order to show its distinctive features clearly, we present how to analyse a global formation stability for multi-agent systems, where each agent is modelled as a class of second-order systems and is locally stabilised by a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Some simulation examples illustrate the distinctive features of the proposed method and the achievement of a desired pursuit pattern.

  4. The effect of different open plan and enclosed classroom acoustic conditions on speech perception in Kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Mealings, Kiri T; Demuth, Katherine; Buchholz, Jörg M; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Open plan classrooms, where several classes are in the same room, have recently re-emerged in Australian primary schools. This paper explores how the acoustics of four Kindergarten classrooms [an enclosed classroom (25 children), double classroom (44 children), fully open plan triple classroom (91 children), and a semi-open plan K-6 "21st century learning space" (205 children)] affect speech perception. Twenty-two to 23 5-6-year-old children in each classroom participated in an online four-picture choice speech perception test while adjacent classes engaged in quiet versus noisy activities. The noise levels recorded during the test were higher the larger the classroom, except in the noisy condition for the K-6 classroom, possibly due to acoustic treatments. Linear mixed effects models revealed children's performance accuracy and speed decreased as noise level increased. Additionally, children's speech perception abilities decreased the further away they were seated from the loudspeaker in noise levels above 50 dBA. These results suggest that fully open plan classrooms are not appropriate learning environments for critical listening activities with young children due to their high intrusive noise levels which negatively affect speech perception. If open plan classrooms are desired, they need to be acoustically designed to be appropriate for critical listening activities. PMID:26520328

  5. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  6. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  7. Obesity Treatment in the UK Health System.

    PubMed

    Capehorn, Matthew S; Haslam, David W; Welbourn, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment. A 4-tier model of care is now widely accepted and ranges from primary activity, through community weight management and specialist weight management for severe and complex obesity, to bariatric surgery. However, although there are clear care pathways and clinical guidelines for evidence-based practice, there remains no single stakeholder willing to take overall responsibility for obesity care. There is a lack of provision of adequate services characterised by a noticeable 'postcode lottery', and little political will to change the obesogenic environment. PMID:27352180

  8. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  9. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  10. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  11. Teaching fellowships for UK foundation doctors.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Teaching Fellowships for junior doctors in their second post-graduate (FY2) year should be considered by medical students and junior doctors in UK. FY2 Teaching Fellowships are available in many foundation schools as part of the UK Academic Foundation Programme. Although programme structures differ between schools, they are designed to allow junior trainees to take time out from clinical practice to develop their teaching skills and gain insights into medication education careers. The advantages of an FY2 teaching fellowship include valuable experience of teaching and formal feedback not available to other trainees; the opportunity to further develop your portfolio; further development of the trainee's own knowledge and skills; the stimulation of working with students. Potential drawbacks to be considered are reduced direct clinical contact; reduced salary; difficulty carrying out education research in the allocated time frame; occasional difficulties establishing the teacher-student relationship while the trainee is at a relatively junior level. Experience of medical education as an FY2 trainee provides a helpful stepping stone whether or not the trainee further pursues education as a career, because the teaching skills are transferable to any specialty, and the unique experience enhances the trainee's confidence as a role model for junior colleagues. PMID:25073019

  12. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  13. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  14. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK. PMID:12147434

  15. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality. PMID:16954055

  16. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  17. Erupting Filaments with Large Enclosing Flux Tubes as Sources of High-mass Three-part CMEs, and Erupting Filaments in the Absence of Enclosing Flux Tubes as Sources of Low-mass Unstructured CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Joe; Morgan, Huw

    2015-11-01

    The 3-part appearance of many coronal mass ejections (CMEs) arising from erupting filaments emerges from a large magnetic flux tube structure, consistent with the form of the erupting filament system. Other CMEs arising from erupting filaments lack a clear 3-part structure and reasons for this have not been researched in detail. This paper aims to further establish the link between CME structure and the structure of the erupting filament system and to investigate whether CMEs which lack a 3-part structure have different eruption characteristics. A survey is made of 221 near-limb filament eruptions observed from 2013 May 03 to 2014 June 30 by Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) imagers and coronagraphs. Ninety-two filament eruptions are associated with 3-part structured CMEs, 41 eruptions are associated with unstructured CMEs. The remaining 88 are categorized as failed eruptions. For 34% of the 3-part CMEs, processing applied to EUV images reveals the erupting front edge is a pre-existing loop structure surrounding the filament, which subsequently erupts with the filament to form the leading bright front edge of the CME. This connection is confirmed by a flux-rope density model. Furthermore, the unstructured CMEs have a narrower distribution of mass compared to structured CMEs, with total mass comparable to the mass of 3-part CME cores. This study supports the interpretation of 3-part CME leading fronts as the outer boundaries of a large pre-existing flux tube. Unstructured (non 3-part) CMEs are a different family to structured CMEs, arising from the eruption of filaments which are compact flux tubes in the absence of a large system of enclosing closed field.

  18. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is

  19. Effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus variation in a semi-enclosed bay of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guangzhe; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Amano, Atsuko; Saito, Mitsuyo; Shimizu, Yuta; Satou, Takaharu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus concentrations in a semi-enclosed bay in western Japan. Long sediment core samples spanning over 100 years were collected from the bay, and their P fractions were analyzed. Sediment P concentrations and the P accumulation rate in an artificial lake increased after the construction of a coastal dam in 1959. The amount of P accumulated in the 60 years after the dam construction was ˜1.7 times that prior to the dam construction. Moreover, concentrations of mobile forms of P, primarily redox-sensitive P species, were higher in freshwater sediments above the dam than in saline sediments below the dam. The redox-sensitive forms of P in freshwater sediments increased sharply after the dam construction, from 100 to ˜900 μg/g, accompanied by a decrease in chloride (Cl-) concentrations to <2000 mg/l. In the artificial lake, the maximum values of total P (TP) and redox-sensitive P concentrations were ˜1200 μg/g and ˜900 μg/g at depths of 23 cm and 3 cm, respectively. Smaller peaks observed in the TP and redox-sensitive P concentration values likely corresponded to the recycled P released from sediments. The maximum values corresponded to hypereutrophic conditions that were caused by extensive discharges of sewage during the 1970s. The lake has been gradually recovering from these hypereutrophic conditions, as observed from the trophic state index. However, despite a substantial decrease in P loading after the 1980s, the lake still has a high trophic level. The presently high mobile P concentrations in surface sediments may lead to high-magnitude P releases with environmental changes in the future.

  20. Trophic resource use by macrozoobenthic primary consumers within a semi-enclosed coastal ecosystem: Stable isotope and fatty acid assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Sophie; Blanchet, Hugues; Garcia, Aurélie; Massé, Marjorie; Galois, Robert; Grémare, Antoine; Charlier, Karine; Guillou, Gaël; Richard, Pierre; Savoye, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    The diet of different macrozoobenthic trophic groups was investigated in the Arcachon Bay-a semi-enclosed macrotidal ecosystem that shelters the largest Zostera noltei seagrass meadow in Europe-in early spring and late summer 2009, using stable isotopes and fatty acids. Fatty acid profiles and literature information about the biology and physiology of benthic consumers were combined to identify the main organic matter sources for the benthic primary consumers. An isotope mixing model was then run to evaluate the contribution of each organic matter source to each identified trophic group (suspension feeders, sub-surface deposit feeders, micro-and macrograzers, suspension-oriented interface feeders and deposit-oriented interface feeders). Variations in organism' diets with respect to both habitats (intertidal seagrass meadows, intertidal bare sediments and subtidal bare sediments) and study periods were also investigated. At the scale of this study, it appeared that the diet of macrozoobenthos primary consumers was based exclusively on autochthonous material (no use of terrestrial organic matter): mainly microphytobenthos, seagrasses and their epiphytes, and phytoplankton. In addition, the different trophic groups relied on different organic matter pools: for instance, suspension feeders mainly fed on microphytobenthos and phytoplankton, whereas subsurface deposit feeders fed on microphytobenthos, decayed seagrasses and bacteria, and grazers mainly fed on microphytobenthos, and seagrasses and their epiphytes. The same pattern was observed in both early spring and late summer, indicating a stability of the benthic system at a six-month time scale. Finally our results showed that, in Arcachon Bay, the seagrass meadow directly or indirectly (through detritus) plays a significant role in the diet of most benthic consumers.

  1. Facile Bench-Top Fabrication of Enclosed Circular Microchannels Provides 3D Confined Structure for Growth of Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dolega, Monika E.; Wagh, Jayesh; Gerbaud, Sophie; Kermarrec, Frederique; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Donald K.; Gidrol, Xavier; Picollet-D’hahan, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple bench-top method to fabricate enclosed circular channels for biological experiments. Fabricating the channels takes less than 2 hours by using glass capillaries of various diameters (from 100 µm up to 400 µm) as a mould in PDMS. The inner surface of microchannels prepared in this way was coated with a thin membrane of either Matrigel or a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte to control cellular adhesion. The microchannels were then used as scaffolds for 3D-confined epithelial cell culture. To show that our device can be used with several epithelial cell types from exocrine glandular tissues, we performed our biological studies on adherent epithelial prostate cells (non-malignant RWPE-1 and invasive PC3) and also on breast (non-malignant MCF10A) cells We observed that in static conditions cells adhere and proliferate to form a confluent layer in channels of 150 µm in diameter and larger, whereas cellular viability decreases with decreasing diameter of the channel. Matrigel and PSS (poly (sodium 4-styrenesulphonate)) promote cell adhesion, whereas the cell proliferation rate was reduced on the PAH (poly (allylamine hydrochloride))-terminated surface. Moreover infusing channels with a continuous flow did not induce any cellular detachment. Our system is designed to simply grow cells in a microchannel structure and could be easily fabricated in any biological laboratory. It offers opportunities to grow epithelial cells that support the formation of a light. This system could be eventually used, for example, to collect cellular secretions, or study cell responses to graduated hypoxia conditions, to chemicals (drugs, siRNA, …) and/or physiological shear stress. PMID:24945245

  2. A glass-coated tungsten microelectrode enclosing optical fibers for optogenetic exploration in primate deep brain structures.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Keita; Ohashi, Yohei; Tsubota, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Daigo; Hirabayashi, Toshiyuki; Yaguchi, Masae; Matsuyama, Makoto; Sekine, Takeru; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2012-10-15

    The optogenetic approach to primate brain circuitry has unparalleled potential for uncovering genetically and temporally resolved neuronal mechanisms of higher brain functions. In order to optogenetically investigate the large and complex primate brain, an optical-/electrical probe, or "optrode", must be inserted deeply, which requires the optrode to be not only long and stiff, but also sharp and smooth to reduce possible tissue damage. This study presents a tungsten microelectrode-based optrode that encloses optical fibers within its insulation glass. Optical fibers and a tungsten wire were tightly bound to each other and integrally coated with a smooth, thin layer of glass. This design satisfied the structural requirements for use in deep brain structures. The performance of the optrode was then examined in the thalamus of the rat and macaque monkeys which were injected with lentiviral vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) transgene. With fluorescence measurements via the optical fiber, ChR2-EYFP expression was detected clearly in vivo, which was confirmed by histological analysis in the rat. With photostimulation and extracellular recording, photo-responsive single-unit activities were isolated in the monkeys. The depth distribution of these units and the peak of the EYFP fluorescence profile overlapped consistently with each other. Thus, by developing a new probe, optogenetic methodology was successfully applied to a primate subcortical structure. This smooth glass-coated optrode is a promising tool for chronic in vivo experiments with various research targets including deep brain structures in behaving monkeys. PMID:22971353

  3. Choice, Competition and Equity: Lessons from Research in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; And Others

    This paper evaluates the recent education reforms in the United Kingdom (UK) in terms of their contribution to the establishment of an equitable system of education income distribution. The UK education market as it exists today was set in motion by a package of reforms introduced as a result of the 1988 Education Reform Act. That legislation was…

  4. The IB Diploma and UK University Degree Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Gemmill, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma has become widely accepted as a university-entry qualification in the UK, but there has been little quantitative research into the achievements of IB students at degree level. This study investigates IB students from one selective independent school who entered UK universities between…

  5. Modelling the effect of UK energy policy and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ronald Wai Ho

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate various UK energy policy documents and identify how they are implanted to the main energy consuming sectors in order to achieve a reduction of 60 percent of carbon emissions by 2050. This has lead to two key questions: What are the pros and cons of the various UK energy policy documents What are the impacts of currently proposed environmental policies in UK on economic growth in the 21st century To answer these questions, the following four energy policy documents are reviewed. UK Energy White Paper Energy Efficiency Commitment Climate Change Levy and UK Emissions Trading Scheme Renewable Obligations Also, the following macro energy modelling work is also investigated: Markal Model E3ME The UK Energy White Paper has shown the government is being very eager to solve the climate change and its associated problems by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050. The four documents have illustrated the UK government main strategies to tackle climate change they are based on developing new technology, improving energy efficiency and to increase the use of renewables considerably. The analysis of these policies and macro-scale model has forecasted that the UK is going to have a slow down economic growth due to the environmental pressure.

  6. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications for children and young…

  7. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  8. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  9. Higher Education Academic Salaries in the UK. CEE DP 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mark; Vignoles, Anna; Walker, James

    2007-01-01

    The recent industrial action taken by the Association of University Teachers (AUT) has given the issue of academic pay high prominence in the UK press. There appears to be a remarkable consensus that higher education academic salaries are too low, relative to other groups of workers in the UK, and that this is leading to an academic "brain drain".…

  10. Universities UK Submission to the 2010 Spending Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document represents the submission of Universities UK to the 2010 Spending Review. It sets out why the authors believe universities are critical to the UK's future economic growth, what the impact of cuts to the budget for higher education would be, and the activities which universities are currently pursuing to secure national economic…

  11. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  12. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  13. Promoting the UK Doctorate: Opportunities and Challenges. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Faye; Metcalfe, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen increased interest in various aspects of the UK doctorate. This report brings together issues arising from national policy developments, the doctoral researcher cohort, the diversification of doctoral level provision in the UK and the development of the third cycle in the Bologna process. Through discussions with key…

  14. The Prevalence of Intellectual Disability in a Major UK Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…

  15. Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

  16. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  17. Comparative Review of UK-USA Industry-University Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore significant historical changes, legislation and policy in the UK and USA from the 1960s to present day relating to university-industry relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a review of papers, reports and policy documents from the UK and USA drawing comparisons of…

  18. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  19. Towards the Hybrid Library: Developments in UK Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusbridge, Chris; Royan, Bruce

    This paper outlines the efforts of the United Kingdom (UK) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) to help UK higher education institutions deal with the growing diversity of information resources. These efforts are based on two strands: the Electronic Libraries Program and the development of the JISC collections. These strands are now coming…

  20. Mapping the Information Systems Curricula in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanidis, Angelos; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) undergraduate student numbers in the UK have reduced by half in the last five years. An increasing number of researchers have been pondering the possible relationship between the modernity of IS curricula and its attractiveness to potential students. To support the debate about IS curricula in the UK and elsewhere, this…

  1. Safer Schools in the UK--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Carol; Holt, Amanda; Martin, Denise; Nee, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a research that is based on a European Safer Schools Partnership that included ten countries and specifically the UK case study which was located in London. The initiators of this partnership had been involved in early SSPs in the UK and the educationalists were very much focussed on work that would address problematic…

  2. Does Price Matter? Overseas Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soo, Kwok Tong; Elliott, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the choice of UK universities by overseas undergraduate applicants. We use data on overseas applicants in Business Studies and Engineering from 2002 to 2007, to 97 UK universities. Estimating using a Hausman-Taylor model to control for the possible correlation between our explanatory variables and…

  3. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  4. Has Economics become an Elite Subject for Elite UK Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James; Reeves, Alan; Talbot, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The decline in the number of UK universities offering undergraduate degree programmes in subjects such as sciences, mathematics, modern languages and humanities has been well documented and is now of real concern. It appears that economics may be going through a decline in new (post-1992) UK universities with many economics programmes having been…

  5. Data Protection Management in University Libraries in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, J. Eric

    1997-01-01

    Examines a range of issues relating to data protection management in UK (United Kingdom) university library and information services. Highlights include data protection legislation, personal data in libraries, and results of an impact survey of UK university libraries. A copy of the survey questionnaire is appended. (Author/LRW)

  6. What Determines Alumni Generosity? Evidence for the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, C. R.; Beney, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scale and determinants of alumni giving, using datasets from two public-sector UK universities. Considers the importance of alumni giving as revenue and performance measures, comparing UK with U.S. alumni behaviors. Women are more likely to give; high-income grads, particularly lawyers, give greater amounts. (Contains 35 references.)…

  7. Challenges for academic accreditation: the UK experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, Richard; Seddon, Deborah

    2010-08-01

    Several factors (government policy, demographic trends, employer pressure) are leading to new forms of degree programmes in UK universities. The government is strongly encouraging engagement between universities and employers. Work-based learning is increasingly found in first and second cycle programmes, along with modules designed by employers and increasing use of distance learning. Engineering faculties are playing a leading part in these developments, and the Engineering Council, the engineering professional bodies and some universities are collaborating to develop work-based learning programmes as a pathway to professional qualification. While potentially beneficial to the engineering profession, these developments pose a challenge to traditional approaches to programme accreditation. This paper explores how this system deals with these challenges and highlights the issues that will have to be addressed to ensure that the system can cope effectively with change, especially the development of individually tailored, work-based second cycle programmes, while maintaining appropriate standards and international confidence.

  8. Leadership and the UK health service.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, N

    2000-02-01

    This paper explores future leadership requirements for health services in the context of relevant leadership theory and the changing environment for health services in the UK. The output of leadership research is both prolific and confusing and its applicability to health services management uncertain especially in the context of constraints on the strategic managerial behaviour and choices of public service managers. The introduction of general management to the UK NHS in the 1980s, followed by an internal market for health care in 1990 should have provided the opportunity for managers to work differently and to create personal space for leadership. However, it is not known whether sustainable , new ways of leadership working have emerged although it is reasonable to hypothesis from studies elsewhere that a number of contextual and behavioural leadership models are likely to be found in the NHS. Although management researchers have explored networking and referred to the impact of the external environment of leadership, insufficient importance has been attached to-date to the impact of future trends in health services on the leadership of change in the health sector. The paper argues that in future health services leadership will require much more than traditional networking with other organizations and groups and will need to focus on developing and securing external agreement to an agenda for positive change turning the apparent constraints of the external environment, determined primarily by government policies,into opportunities. In other words, the demands of external or contextual leadership will increase forcing a stronger focus on having to achieve change through others. PMID:11010225

  9. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  10. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  11. UK consumer perceptions of starchy foods.

    PubMed

    Stubenitsky, K; Mela, D J

    2000-03-01

    To gain an understanding of UK consumer attitudes and beliefs regarding starchy foods and their dietary role, a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was developed and sent out to a UK consumer sample (n 800). The content focused on attitudes and beliefs towards starchy foods, perceived barriers towards increasing their intake (e.g. cost, habit, social influences), perceptions of personal and recommended starchy food intake, intention to increase starchy food intakes in the future and socio-demographic information. Responses (n 414) indicated that consumers have highly divergent attitudes and beliefs regarding starchy foods. These foods are seen as nutritious and good for one's health, but also as high in energy and not helping to control weight, and the overall intention to increase starchy food intake was extremely low. Possible barriers towards increasing starchy food intake were the perceptions that personal starchy food intakes were already high, beliefs that starchy food intakes should be reduced to achieve a healthier diet, and the view that personal starchy food intakes did not need to be changed any further, because (depending on attitude) individual's intakes had already been increased or reduced. The model including attitude and subjective norm had the best fit for predicting reported intention to increase starchy food consumption, with attitude being the strongest contributor. Addition of the factor 'family's liking of starchy foods' significantly improved the model. For reported starch intake, the model including attitude had the best fit, and addition of other factors did not improve the model. These findings indicate that health promotion strategies aimed at increasing complex carbohydrate intakes should take these perceptions into consideration; however, further work is required to examine how these potential barriers can best be addressed in practice. PMID:10884716

  12. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  13. The carbon component of the UK power price

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Voorspools

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions trading is in full swing in Europe and is already having an impact on the price of power in the UK. If EU allowances (EUAs) trade at euro 20/t-CO{sub 2}, the EUA component in the power price is estimated to be slightly < euro 10/MW.h. In the case of UK power for delivery 1 year ahead, this is {approximately} 10% of the market price of power. The introduction of a carbon components into the UK power prices took place along before the 'official' start of ETS in 2005. Analysis of historical data of the price of power, gas, coal and EUAs shows that the first trace of a CO{sub 2} component in UK power dates back to August 2003, shortly after EUAs first started to trade. In April 2004, CO{sub 2} was fully integrated into the UK power price. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  15. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. PMID:23161613

  16. Effects of MERV 16 filters and routine work practices on enclosed cabs for reducing respirable dust and DPM exposures in an underground limestone mine

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.D.; Cecala, A.B.; J.A.Organiscak; Rider, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    An effective technique to minimize miners’ respirable dust and diesel exposure on mobile mining equipment is to place mine operators in enclosed cabs with designed filtration and pressurization systems. Many factors affect the performance of these enclosed cab systems, and one of the most significant factors is the effectiveness of the filtration system. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-type filters are typically used because they are highly efficient at capturing all types and sizes of particles, including those in the submicron range such as diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, in laboratory tests, minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) 16 filters have proven to be highly efficient for capturing DPM and respirable dust. Also, MERV 16 filters can be less restrictive to cab airflow and less expensive than HEPA filters. To verify their effectiveness in the field, MERV 16 filters were used in the enclosed cab filtration system on a face drill and roof bolting mining machine and tested at an underground limestone mine. Test results showed that DPM and respirable dust concentrations were reduced by more than 90% when the cabs were properly sealed. However, when the cab door was opened periodically throughout the shift, the reduction efficiency of the MERV 16 filters was reduced to 80% on average. PMID:26236044

  17. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  18. Optimization of an enclosed gas analyzer sampling system for measuring eddy covariance fluxes of H2O and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Stefan; Burba, George; Burns, Sean P.; Blanken, Peter D.; Li, Jiahong; Luo, Hongyan; Zulueta, Rommel C.

    2016-03-01

    Several initiatives are currently emerging to observe the exchange of energy and matter between the earth's surface and atmosphere standardized over larger space and time domains. For example, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) are set to provide the ability of unbiased ecological inference across ecoclimatic zones and decades by deploying highly scalable and robust instruments and data processing. In the construction of these observatories, enclosed infrared gas analyzers are widely employed for eddy covariance applications. While these sensors represent a substantial improvement compared to their open- and closed-path predecessors, remaining high-frequency attenuation varies with site properties and gas sampling systems, and requires correction. Here, we show that components of the gas sampling system can substantially contribute to such high-frequency attenuation, but their effects can be significantly reduced by careful system design. From laboratory tests we determine the frequency at which signal attenuation reaches 50 % for individual parts of the gas sampling system. For different models of rain caps and particulate filters, this frequency falls into ranges of 2.5-16.5 Hz for CO2, 2.4-14.3 Hz for H2O, and 8.3-21.8 Hz for CO2, 1.4-19.9 Hz for H2O, respectively. A short and thin stainless steel intake tube was found to not limit frequency response, with 50 % attenuation occurring at frequencies well above 10 Hz for both H2O and CO2. From field tests we found that heating the intake tube and particulate filter continuously with 4 W was effective, and reduced the occurrence of problematic relative humidity levels (RH > 60 %) by 50 % in the infrared gas analyzer cell. No further improvement of H2O frequency response was found for heating in excess of 4 W. These laboratory and field tests were reconciled using resistor-capacitor theory, and NEON's final gas sampling system was developed on this

  19. Not Your Basic Base Levels: Simulations of Erosion and Deposition With Fluctuating Water Levels in Coastal and Enclosed Basin Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. D.; Matsubara, Y.; Lloyd, H.

    2006-12-01

    The DELIM landform evolution model has been adapted to investigate erosional and depositional landforms in two setting with fluctuating base levels. The first is erosion and wave planation of terraced landscapes in Coastal Plain sediments along the estuarine Potomac River. The last 3.5 million years of erosion is simulated with base level fluctuations based upon the long-term oceanic delta 18O record, eustatic sea level changes during the last 120 ka, estimates of the history of tectonic uplift in the region, and maximum depths of incision of the Potomac River during sea-level lowstands. Inhibition of runoff erosion by vegetation has been a crucial factor allowing persistence of uplands in the soft coastal plain bedrock. The role of vegetation is simulated as a contributing area- dependent critical shear stress. Development of wave-cut terraces is simulated by episodic planation of the landscape during base-level highstands. Although low base level excursions are infrequent and of short duration, the total amount of erosion is largely controlled by the depth and frequency of lowstands. The model has also been adapted to account for flow routing and accompanying erosion and sedimentation in landscapes with multiple enclosed depressions. The hydrological portion of the model has been calibrated and tested in the Great Basin and Mojave regions of the southwestern U.S. In such a setting, runoff, largely from mountains, may flow through several lacustrine basins, each with evaporative losses. An iterative approach determines the size and depth of lakes, including overflow (or not) that balances runoff and evaporation. The model utilizes information on temperatures, rainfall, runoff, and evaporation within the region to parameterize evaporation and runoff as functions of latitude, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and elevation. The model is successful in predicting the location of modern perennial lakes in the region as well as that of lakes during the last

  20. Spatial patterns of phytoplanktonic pigments and primary production in a semi-enclosed periantarctic ecosystem: the Strait of Magellan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggiomo, V.; Goffart, A.; Carrada, G. C.; Hecq, J. H.

    1994-07-01

    The spatial patterns of nitrate, phytoplankton size-fractionated chlorophyll a, photosynthetic pigments detected by HPLC and primary production were studied at the end of the austral summer (February-March 1991), in the Strait of Magellan to provide insight into the mechanisms governing this seemi-enclosed periantartic ecosystem. Climatological peculiarities, hydrodynamic constraints, runoff and land forcing were considered. The most important features identified for this area were the confinement of the microphytoplankton fraction to the external parts of the Strait and the rather uniform dimensional structure of the phytoplankton communities (< 5 μm) within the internal sectors. In particular, the nanoplanktonic fraction (10-2 μm) comprised 33%, while the picoplanktonic one (2-0.5 μm) represented 62% of the total. The concentration of active Chl. a and plant pigments detected by HPLC, nitrate and primary production showed an uneven but similar distribution, allowing for the characterization of different sectors within the Strait, according to different types and intensities of forcing factors. The different ecological sectors identified along the Strait were associated with distinct hydrographic typologies: an oligotrophic, wind-mixed coastal area, adjacent to the Pacific opening; a high runoff fjord and a divergence zone in the Andean sectors; a stratified inland sea in the basin-like part of the channel (Paso Ancho) and a shallow, tidally mixed system in the Patagonian sectors. Areas of relatively low and high phytoplankton biomass and primary production alternate along the Strait, according to the hydrographic structures of the different sectors. Phytoplankton biomass, in terms of active Chl. a (spectrofluorometric determination) ranged between 10 and 51 mg m -2 and primary production between 275 and 1170 mg C m -2 d -1. The assemblage of plant pigments detected by HPLC indicated that the high levels of phytoplankton pigments and production were most likely

  1. A Conceptual Physical Model of Jet Current Turbulence in the Mouth of a River Inflowing Into a Nontidal Enclosed Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbilvardi, R. M.; Shteinman, B.; Ozkurt, O.

    2005-05-01

    The results of measurements performed in multiple river mouths, as well as theoretical analysis, have led to revealing a number of special features of mouth currents. This made it possible to formulate a conceptual physical model of free jet current turbulence in the mouth of a river inflowing into a nontidal enclosed sea. Its main principles are as follows: The structure of turbulence is characterized by the presence of a hierarchy of energy supply zones in the velocity spectra. The energy spectra have two basic discrete zones of energy supply, which are related: the first to the hydrodynamic instability of the averaged flow, and the second to the increased friction on the river jet boundaries. These discrete zones are separated by the inertial interval. Moving away from the mouth into the sea (to the bar), the ordinates of the spectral density are decreasing and the zones of additional energy supply move into the domain of higher frequencies. In all sections of the jet flow within the river mouth, the generation of turbulent energy exceeds its dissipation. This excess increases along the jet flow. In all sections, dissipation and generation of turbulent energy increase from the surface to the bottom. The dissipation of energy decreases in the section before the bar, while beyond the bar it rises along the flow, due to the increasing hydraulic resistance at the bar. The longitudinal dimensions of turbulent eddies get smaller with the distance from the mouth gauge, while their orientation is changing from the predominantly vertical-longitudinal rotation over a horizontal axis to the predominantly horizontal-transversal rotation over a vertical axis. With the advance of the river jet from the mouth into the sea, the predominance of the longitudinal dimensions of the eddies changes to the predominance of their transversal dimensions. The farther from the mouth, in the spectra of the river jet current there appear frequency intervals that can be described not by the

  2. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  3. Observed and modeled patterns of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilczynski, Krzysztof; Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Barton, Des; Souto Torres, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Ría de Vigo, as a semi-enclosed bay, belonging to the area so-called Rias Baixas, located at the northern tip of the Iberian coastal upwelling system. The circulation of the Ria de Vigo, being one of the major areas of mussels production, has become the subject of intensive research. The Ria de Vigo behaves as a partially-mixed estuary with a two-layered residual circulation, and is influenced by water exchange with the surrounding ocean. During northerly (upwelling favorable) winds, water enters into the Ria through the northern mouth and leaves through the surface layer of the southern mouth, in a double layer circulation at this mouth. Nearly opposed situation occours during downwelling favourable wind periods. Numerical models have become useful tools to study the hydrology and circulation of the Ria de Vigo. In this research we used the ROMS - AGRIF model. The implementation of several nested domains to increase the spatial resolution (up to 150m resolution) allowed solving the interactions between Ria de Vigo and surrounding coastal ocean in a realistic way. We have obtained a detailed description of the circulation with good agreement between observational data (ADCP moorings at both mouths, and weekly hydrological cruises) and predicted currents, salinity and temperature fields. Two new patterns of circulation in the Ria are revealed by our research: -In particular conditions associated with northerly wind relaxation, there are two-layer circulation occurs in both mouths of the Ria, consisting of outflow and inflow though the surface and bottom layers. This situation happens in the absence of stratification during winter. -Also during winter, one-layer circulation in the southern mouth of the Ria (typically there are two layers) can occur during long periods of persistent and strong upwelling-favourable wind. Our research has provided a detailed study of the circulation and hydrology of the Ria de Vigo, explaining specifically different mechanisms of

  4. The effect of shape and orientation upon radiation heat transfer within an enclosed cavity of a high-temperature material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick

    A steady-state, coupled thermal conduction-thermal radiation heat transfer problem is investigated for a solid enclosing a single void cavity. The application of this research is for high temperature (T > 500sp°C) porous materials. This text derives effective thermal conductivity (lambdasb{e}) models for solid systems with a prolate or oblate spheroid-shaped cavity, which are axially-symmetric ellipsoids that describe the elongation and compression, respectively, of the spherical cavity. The engineering model used to quantify the contribution of thermal radiation in lambdasbe is the radiation conductivity (lambdasb{r}). lambdasb{r} is a function of emissivity (varepsilon) and cavity with an orientation specific form. Chapter 2 derives a rigorous variational upper bound to lambdasb{e} for the general cavity-solid system. Trial functions for the dependent variables temperature (T) and radiosity (B) are presented in a form general to both cavity shapes and principal axis orientations to the external heat flux Q. Substitution of the trial functions into the upper bound produces volume and surface averages, and the upper bound is optimized around three trial function parameters. Optimization produces the best analytical equation of lambdasb{r} to minimize the lambdasb{e} upper bound, which in turn has the same form as the analogous two Fourier phase conduction problem described in the Appendix. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the specific variational lambdasb{r} results for the prolate and oblate spheroid, respectively, for Q aligned parallel and perpendicular to the cavity's symmetry axis. All the lambdasbr equations are continuous over the entire ranges of nonzero varepsilon and spheroidal eccentricity, and are exact for the sphere geometry and varepsilon = 0 limits. Some exact solutions to lambdasb{r} are found at the limits of elongation and compression. Chapter 5 generates the variational lambdasb{e} upper bound tensor Ksbsp{e}{*} for both the prolate and oblate

  5. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections

  6. A sedimentary model for early Palaeozoic fluvial fans, Alderney Sandstone Formation (Channel Islands, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Ghinassi, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Fluvial fans in the rock record are inferred based on critical criteria such as: downstream grain-size fining; evidence for drainage fractionation along bifurcating channels; increasing fluvial-aeolian interaction in the basinward direction; and radial palaeoflow dispersion. Since pre-vegetation fluvial rocks often lack heterolithic alluvium and channelisation at the outcrop scale, the recognition of pre-Silurian fluvial fans has, so far, not been straightforward. This research proposes a sedimentary model for the Alderney Sandstone Formation of Channel Islands (UK), so far considered as a fine record of early Palaeozoic axial-fluvial sedimentation. Here, outcrop-based and remote-sensing analysis of the formation's type-section reveal the interaction of fluvial and aeolian processes, expressed by the alternation of: compound fluvial bars enclosing macroform surfaces, related to phases of perennial discharge; fluvial sandsheets containing antidunal forms and soft-sediment deformations, related to seasonal (i.e. flashy) discharge; and aeolian bedforms overlying thin stream-flow deposits. An up-section increase in aeolian deposits is accompanied by the shrinking of fluvial bars and minor-channel cuts, suggesting that drainage was fractioned along smaller channels terminating into marginal aeolian environments. Together with a propensity towards more dispersed values of fluvial cross-set thickness up-section (again due to discharge fractionation along intermittently active channels), these features depict an aeolian-influenced fluvial fan. This work discusses a set of criteria for the identification of fluvial fans in pre-vegetation environments. In doing so, it also explores possible parallels to modern environments, and underscores the potential of integrated outcrop and remotely sensed observations on ancient fluvial rocks and modern sedimentary realms.

  7. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:24000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.01.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  8. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  9. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  10. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  11. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  12. Processing LHC data in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Colling, D.; Britton, D.; Gordon, J.; Lloyd, S.; Doyle, A.; Gronbech, P.; Coles, J.; Sansum, A.; Patrick, G.; Jones, R.; Middleton, R.; Kelsey, D.; Cass, A.; Geddes, N.; Clark, P.; Barnby, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011—the first two significant years of the running of the LHC. PMID:23230163

  13. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  14. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  15. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  16. U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159536.html U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics U.S. officials concerned about potential ... public health experts have confirmed a case of throat gonorrhea that proved untreatable with the standard antibiotic ...

  17. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-01-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK. PMID:26567237

  18. Universities give record level of support to the UK economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Universities in the UK are providing record levels of services to businesses, according to a recent survey by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The survey concludes that the income earned by universities and higher-education colleges in the UK is now worth a total of £2.812bn - an increase of 6.5% from the previous year.

  19. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. PMID:25628340

  20. First emission estimates from the UK DECC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Derwent, Richard G.; Moncrieff, John B.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2013-04-01

    The UK DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network monitors the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to assess the impact of international policies related to climate change. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Kyoto Protocol are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocol. For over 25 years the UK Government has funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These in-situ, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using the inversion methodology InTEM (Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling). InTEM links the Met Office's atmospheric dispersion model, NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment), with the Mace Head observations and provides independent verification of bottom up (inventory) emission estimates. In 2011 the UK government (Department of Energy and Climate Change) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to allow enhanced resolution emission estimates with decreased uncertainty to be produced using InTEM. The new network became operational in 2012. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (10 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new UK measurement network in detail along with the new inversion results highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government annually and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. The results are compared to the bottom up inventory emission estimates as submitted to the UNFCCC.

  1. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  2. Calcite saturation in eastern UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin

    2002-01-23

    Calcite saturation in eastern UK rivers is assessed in relation to the potential kinetic inhibition of calcite precipitation. Two well established inhibitors are considered: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, i.e. inorganic monomeric phosphorus); and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The rivers show a range of calcite saturation levels from approximately 1hundredth to approximately 100-fold. The greatest range occurs for the northernmost river considered, the Tweed, where the waters range from highly unsaturated to highly oversaturated. The lowest range occurs for the most southerly rivers (the Great Ouse and the Thames) where the waters are consistently oversaturated with respect to calcite. The contrasting patterns relate to a greater diversity of water quality within the northern regions. Thus, during the winter, the main waters are derived from the upland areas with acidic soils and low weathering rates. During the summer baseflow periods, groundwater inputs are more important and high photosynthesis results in particularly high pHs and calcite oversaturation. In contrast, for the southern rivers, the main source of water during both the summer baseflow and the winter highflow periods comes from calcium carbonate rich aquifer sources. Statistical analysis of pH vs. the logarithm of the calcite saturation index for each river indicates strong linear features with individual gradients of approximately 1. This linearity results from an autocorrelation (the logarithm of the saturation index is calculated from the pH) and this indicates that calcite solubility controls are not operative in any of the rivers examined. A comparison of calcite saturation levels and SRP and DOC concentrations show a pattern inconsistent with kinetic hindrance, although some structure is observed, probably due to the mixing reactions between point and diffuse sources of water with contrasting chemistry. PMID:11846076

  3. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2010-10-01

    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  4. Exploring morphological variations of a laser-induced water jet in temporal evolution: formation of an air bubble enclosing a water drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ross C. C.; Yu, Y. T.; Su, K. W.; Chen, Y. F.

    2013-11-01

    We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of a water jet that is generated by laser-induced water breakdown beneath a flat free surface. We find that morphological variations in the temporal evolution can be divided into three categories depending on the depth parameter γ, which is the ratio of the water-breakdown depth to the maximum bubble radius. For a depth parameter in the range 0.8 ≤ γ ≤ 1.03, we observe an intriguing pattern formation in which an air bubble perfectly encloses a water drop through the process of the Plateau-Rayleigh instability.

  5. Trends in UK cancer trials: results from the UK Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research National Register of Cancer Trials

    PubMed Central

    Vale, C; Stewart, L; Tierney, J

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to study trends in the design and conduct of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer in the UK, using the UK Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) National Register of Cancer Trials (NRCT). We conducted a descriptive survey of 520 UK RCTs in cancer that were registered on the UKCCCR NRCT. All trials had been initiated between 1971 and 2000. Trials on the NRCT have been conducted in a wide variety of cancer types, but with a third in breast (22%) or lung cancer (11%). They have largely been funded by the UK public and charity sectors. Overall, there has been a sustained rise in the total numbers of patients entering UK cancer trials over time with a trend towards larger, multicentre trials, greater recruitment targets and a marked reduction in the average time taken to complete trials. Trends in the design and conduct of noncommercial cancer RCTs from 1971 to 2000 are encouraging. It will be interesting to see how they develop in light of the implementation of recent national initiatives regarding cancer clinical trials in the UK. PMID:15756251

  6. A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmer, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK has had a tradition of reprocessing originating in the early weapons programme and all irradiated fuel from the Magnox reactors continues to be reprocessed. Specific consideration is given to the fuel used in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) and the competing irradiated fuel management strategies of early reprocessing British Nuclear Fuel`s (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield or the alternative of long term storage followed by direct disposal. The fuel management strategy for the UK`s first Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), Sizewell B, will also be discussed. This review considers the following issues: (1) Plant technology and the effect on back-end strategies; (2) Nuclear Electric`s commercial approach to the changing UK business environment; (3) The inevitability of storage in the management of irradiated fuel; (4) Dry storage as an option in the UK Non economic issues such as safety, public perception, proliferation, International Safeguards and bilateral trade agreements; and (5) The experience of THORP and the issues it raises concerning two stage licensing. This paper not only reflects on the worldwide issues relating to the {open_quotes}reprocess or not decision{close_quotes} but also considers UK specific actions both historic and current. It concludes that whether to exercise the option of reprocessing in the short or long term, or at all, is a matter of commercial and strategic judgement of Nuclear Electric.

  7. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  8. An Introduction to the UK Polar Network: Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K.; Irvine, E.; Mugford, R.; Freeman, H.; Baker, N.; Thomas, L.; Rye, C.; Cheshire, J.

    2007-12-01

    The UK Polar Network is the UK branch of the IPY Youth Steering Committee, an endorsed IPY Project, and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS). We have two aims in the UKPN: (1) to provide a network for early career polar researchers working in the UK and (2) to carry out education and outreach activities in UK schools, science festivals and through our website. The Education and Outreach working group is involved in organising programs for a range of age groups including engaging activities for primary and secondary school children, information packs on careers and gap year ideas to school leavers and undergraduate students. The intention is, as far as possible, to keep these events free through fundraising. In addition we aim to provide funding for UK polar researchers to attend national networking days and international IPY conferences to present their work, and are involved with organising workshops at these events. In addition, our website is being developed to provide discussion boards, careers information for polar researchers, as well as information for the public, photos and blogs from polar researchers in the field.

  9. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  10. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenkov, Vasily D. . E-mail: vasily.antonenkov@oulu.fi; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-05-25

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

  11. Propagation data for VHF planning in the UK area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. A.; Lane, J. A.

    1983-03-01

    Demand for VHF spectrum in the UK requires sharing of frequency bands by different services. Fundamental to the planning of shared bands is the prediction of the potential interference between the services for small percentages of the time. The most well established prediction method at VHF is probably that given in CCIR Recommendation 370. As an aid to UK spectrum planning, the suitability of Recommendation 370-4 has been investigated for propagation paths within, or terminating in the UK. Comparisons have been made between long term measurements and predicted values of field strength using the Recommendation. For some categories of path, measured field strengths were found to exceed predicted values by some 10 dB; other categories however, show good agreement. the applicability of the Recommendation to current planning requirements is discussed in the light of the comparisons.

  12. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  13. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  14. CEA in policies and plans: UK case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Lourdes M.

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) has been considered in Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of regional and local plans in a number of case studies in the UK. Initially, the paper presents the legislative and regulatory requirements for assessing cumulative effects in plans and programmes in the UK. The two approaches for assessing plans in the UK, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and SEA are discussed and in most cases, a combined SA and SEA process is undertaken by Regional and Local Planning Authorities. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are explored, as well as their usefulness in decision making. There are problems relating to baseline, establishing trends and predicting cumulative effects at the strategic level. The issues in assessing cumulative effects within this SA/SEA framework are discussed and recommendations for improvements are made.

  15. [Employment-related benefit system in the UK].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Keiji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Statutory Sick Pay, Jobseeker's Allowance, and Employment and Support Allowance are employment-related benefits in the United Kingdom (UK). They correspond to the Injury and Disease Allowance and Unemployment Insurance in Japan. The Government of the UK is determined to reform the benefit system to make it fairer and to improve financial work incentives, using the slogan "Welfare to Work". Against this background, the government of the UK united some non-contributory benefits into a new "Universal Credit" scheme, which started in April 2013. The labor policy was also reformed to improve work incentives, for example by abolishing the Flexible New Deal program and uniting all the "Welfare to Work" policies into the "Work Programme". These reforms are useful for reconsidering the labor and employment-related policy and benefit system of Japan. PMID:24334698

  16. Governing UK Biobank: the importance of ensuring public trust.

    PubMed

    Tutton, Richard; Kaye, Jane; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    In the autumn of 2003, UK Biobank published the first draft of its Ethics and Governance Framework. Subsequently, this document has been available for interested parties to comment on and the UK Biobank Board of Directors is expected to adopt the final version in 2004. Here, we aim to contribute to this process and highlight to a wider audience some of the inconsistencies in the issues of consent, governance and right of withdrawal that emerge from the draft of the Framework. These issues will have implications for securing the public trust and long-term support that the success of the project depends on. Therefore, they must be considered carefully because the UK Biobank will be the first ever genetic database of a general population of this size to become operational, and will be used as a model for other projects of this kind. PMID:15158057

  17. UK rheumatology consultant workforce provision 2007-9: results from the BSR/Arthritis Research UK Consultant Workforce Register.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark J; Lee, Sarah; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the provision of consultant rheumatology services and the pattern of inequalities in UK rheumatology service provision, and to summarise the five-year impact of the new NHS consultant contract and the Musculoskeletal Services Framework in England and Wales. All consultants on the British Society for Rheumatology/Arthritis Research UK Consultant Workforce Register in January 2007 and January 2009 were sent questionnaires about timetable and working conditions and the personal and job-related details currently held about them on the register. Response rates were 87% in 2007 and 86% in 2009. The number of whole-time equivalent (WTE) rheumatologists in the UK increased from 470 to 531 (13%). Levels of provision in 2009 were lower in Scotland (1 WTE per 113,286 population) than the rest of the UK. There are now few regional variations in rheumatology consultant provision within the UK, and the number of WTE consultants is approaching recommended levels. PMID:21526690

  18. Characterising freeze in the UK: applications for the insurance industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, E. K.; Keef, C.; Busby, K.

    2012-04-01

    The UK winters of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 were characterised by prolonged and widespread low temperatures. This was challenging for the UK insurance industry and organisations such as the emergency services, the Highways Agency and British Gas who had to manage the extra demands that resulted. In the 6-day period running to Christmas Eve 2010, British Gas reported 100,000 boiler repair call-outs, whilst those 190,000 homes and businesses left with frozen and subsequently burst pipes contributed to the ABI's estimated £ 900 million in insured losses for December 2010 alone; the highest payout by the industry for damages associated with cold weather. Unfortunately, the severity of these winters made the difference between profit and loss for some primary UK insurance companies. To enable better pricing of premiums in the future, insurance companies are looking to understand the potential risk from cold waves at a local, postcode-level, whilst reinsurance firms seek to determine the accumulated loss across the UK associated with spatially coherent events. Other industry sectors also strive to improve their understanding of weather extremes for planning and management. Underpinning this is the need to statistically characterise the physical hazard. Aimed primarily at the re/insurance industry, we have applied an established methodology for developing statistical event sets and applied this to generate a UK freeze event set. An event set provides a stochastic set of several thousand events over 10's of 1000's of years and is typically applied within probabilistic catastrophe models. Our method applies extreme value theory and dependence modelling to explain low-temperature relationships across the UK and over time using historical records. The resulting event set represents the spatial and temporal dependence of cold waves in the UK and is modelled against household factors that increase the vulnerability to freezing conditions, such as property type, age and condition

  19. UK postgraduate medicine examinations: opportunities for international candidates.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Lawrence; Selamaj, Elona; Shannon, Colleen; Chis, Liliana; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    The medical profession is global, and ambitious trainee physicians around the world are eager to attain internationally recognised postgraduate medical qualifications. The MRCP(UK) and specialty certificate examinations of the Federation of Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom provide such qualifications, and between 2002 and 2013, the number of international candidates attempting these examinations grew substantially. Delivering these proven and reliable UK-based examinations in other countries has many local benefits: it enhances careers, strengthens medical training and improves standards of patient care. In collaboration with international colleagues, the Federation is committed to continued growth that extends these benefits to all physicians, wherever they work and live. PMID:25301910

  20. UK interpretation and implementation of the EEC Shellfish directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wathern, Peter; Young, Stephen N.; Brown, Ian W.; Roberts, Dawn A.

    1987-01-01

    The EEC Shellfish Directive is a policy designed to protect and, where necessary, improve the quality of designated shellfish waters. Its implementation within the UK, however, has had no effect upon water quality for two reasons. First, the policy has important defects, having ambiguities concerning public health provisions and lacking designation criteria. Second, UK government has sought to achieve formal compliance, while at the same time ensuring that its full financial impact on public expenditure has been contained. Consequently, only those fisheries which already comply with water quality standards have been designated. Within Wales, one fishery has been designated, while other, commercially more important, but grossly contaminated shellfisheries have not.

  1. Maternal near-miss case reviews: the UK approach.

    PubMed

    Knight, M; Lewis, G; Acosta, C D; Kurinczuk, J J

    2014-09-01

    The UK has a well-established programme of Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and a national system for research into near-miss maternal morbidities, the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. The addition of a programme of near-miss case reviews, the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Morbidity, permits a complete examination of the incidence, risk factors, care and outcomes of the severest complications in pregnancy, and enables the lessons learnt to improve future care to be identified more quickly. This in turn allows for more rapid inclusion of recommendations into national guidance and hence the potential of better health for both women and babies. PMID:25236644

  2. Stakeholder involvement facilitates decision making for UK nuclear accident recovery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C; Burt, R; Nisbet, A F

    2005-01-01

    The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are given of the achievements of the AFCWG and its sub-groups, which include agreeing management options that would be included in a recovery handbook for decision-makers in the UK and tackling the disposal of large volumes of contaminated milk, potentially resulting from a nuclear accident. PMID:15921830

  3. Results of first field tests of the improved open-path and enclosed models of CO2 and H2O flux measurements systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, Israel; Fratini, Gerardo; Griessbaum, Frank; Kathilankal, James; Xu, Liukang; Franz, Daniela; Joseph, Everett; Larmanou, Eric; Miller, Scott; Papale, Dario; Sabbatini, Simone; Sachs, Torsten; Sakai, Ricardo; McDermitt, Dayle; Burba, George

    2016-04-01

    In 2014-2015, improved open-path and enclosed-path flux measurement systems were developed, based on established LI-7500A and LI-7200 gas analyzer models, with the focus on improving stability in the presence of contamination, refining temperature control and compensation, and providing more accurate gas concentration measurements. In addition to optical and electronic redesign, both systems incorporate automated on-site flux calculations using EddyPro® software run by a weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs. The ultimate goal of such development was to reduce errors in CO2 and H2O hourly fluxes and in long-term carbon and water budgets. Field tests of both systems were conducted over six periods, each 5-14 months long, at 6 sites with diverse environments, setups, and types of contamination, using 26 gas analyzers. The open-path LI-7500RS system performed significantly better than the original LI-7500A model in terms of contamination-related drifts in mean concentrations. Improvements in CO2 drifts were strong, with RS models often drifting few-to-tens of times less than the original. Improvements in H2O contamination-related drifts were particularly significant, with modified models often drifting many tens of times less than the original. The enclosed-path LI-7200RS system performed substantially better than the original LI-7200 in terms of the drifts in H2O, sometimes drifting few-to-tens of times less than the original. Improvements in CO2 contamination-related drifts were modest, being similar or just a bit better than the original. Results from field tests suggest that both RS systems can help improve flux data coverage and potentially reduce site maintenance: (i) Frequency of cleaning and site visits for service and maintenance should decrease, especially for the open-path design (ii) Amount of highest quality data with smallest error bars on fluxes is expected to increase for both open-path and enclosed

  4. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed. PMID:15388817

  5. Modeling the dispersion of viable and total Escherichia coli cells in the artificial semi-enclosed bathing area of Santa Marinella (Latium, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bonamano, S; Madonia, A; Borsellino, C; Stefanì, C; Caruso, G; De Pasquale, F; Piermattei, V; Zappalà, G; Marcelli, M

    2015-06-15

    Coastal areas are strongly affected by episodes of fecal contamination due to polluted water inflows from inadequately treated sewages. The present study aims to investigate the dispersion of Escherichia coli in the artificial semi-enclosed bathing area of Santa Marinella (Latium, Italy) through in situ samplings carried out in summer 2012 and the application of a dynamic model. Collected samples were analyzed by the Culture-Based technique and the Fluorescent Antibody method in order to estimate both the viable culturable cells and the total E. coli population, respectively. The in situ datasets were used to test the proposed modeling approach and simulate the behavior of bacteria as particles subjected, or not, to decay. Next, the flushing time and the computation of the Microbiological Potential Risk Area allowed the evaluation of the contribution of physical and biological processes to coliform dispersion and the related potential risk for bathers. PMID:25912266

  6. Temporal population dynamics of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and its relationship to environmental factors and protozoan grazers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2010-01-01

    The ecological processes and interrelationships between protists, either autotrophic or heterotrophic, and environmental factors in mariculture ponds are largely unknown. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of potentially harmful dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller, and its relationship to physico-chemical factors and protozoan grazers over a complete cycle in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, Northern China. P. minimum occurred frequently in low numbers from June to August, followed by a sharp increase from the middle of August, reaching a single maximum peak value of 2.2×105 cells L-1 in October. Temporal variation in abundance was positively correlated with dissolved nitrogen, but showed a significant inverse relationship to abundance of the dominant ciliates, Tintinnopsis lohmanni and Askenasia stellaris. The results provide statistical evidence that the number of P. minimum increased with increasing nitrogen, and the suppression or shortening of algal bloom may be associated with protozoan grazers, such as Tintinnopsis lohmanni, in mariculture ponds.

  7. A novel on-chip three-dimensional micromachined calorimeter with fully enclosed and suspended thin-film chamber for thermal characterization of liquid samples

    PubMed Central

    Davaji, Benyamin; Jeong Bak, Hye; Chang, Woo-Jin; Hoon Lee, Chung

    2014-01-01

    A microfabricated calorimeter (μ-calorimeter) with an enclosed reaction chamber is presented. The 3D micromachined reaction chamber is capable of analyzing liquid samples with volume of 200 nl. The thin film low-stress silicon nitride membrane is used to reduce thermal mass of the calorimeter and increase the sensitivity of system. The μ-calorimeter has been designed to perform DC and AC calorimetry, thermal wave analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. The μ-calorimeter fabricated with an integrated heater and a temperature sensor on opposite sides of the reaction chamber allows to perform thermal diffusivity and specific heat measurements on liquid samples with same device. Measurement results for diffusivity and heat capacitance using time delay method and thermal wave analysis are presented. PMID:24926386

  8. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. PMID:22306313

  9. The influence of wind-driven currents on the circulation and bay dynamics of a semi-enclosed reefal bay, Wreck Bay, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxam, Ava M.; Webber, Dale F.

    2010-05-01

    Investigations into the descriptive hydrodynamics of a semi-enclosed reefal bay showed that inner bay waters re-circled the reef and particular forcing conditions of wind and tide retarded or enhanced this circulation. Fringing reef parabola, partially enclosing bays, are generally accepted as the limit of the bay dynamics. The dynamics displayed at Wreck Bay, on the southeast coast of Jamaica, however, showed the reef as the heart of main circulation and therefore the centre of the functioning bay. Results from field measurements of the spatial and temporal variability in circulation revealed that inner bay water surging from the back-reef exited quickly through a gap in the reef (channel flow, up to 60 cm s -1), diverged on the fore-reef, then either re-entered the back-reef to become closed circum-reef circulation (CRC), or continued along the fore-reef as open CRC. Variation in the wind regime controlled the relative importance of wind or tides to driving circulation and bay emanation. Wind speeds above 5 m s -1 were found to be the dominant forcing factor and, combined with tides, accounted for 60% of the variability in CRC when the sea-breeze developed during early summer and again when the land-breeze strengthened during the winter deployment. Open CRC was extended seawards when channel flow currents displayed occasional surges associated with strong wind-driven currents combined with similar incident wave approach. This led to change in bay dynamics by extreme expansion in bay characteristics. The opposite scenario occurred on rare occasions of low tide with wind calms, when channel flow reversed into the inner bay and flow over the emergent reef was reduced, leading to the most extreme contraction of bay characteristics.

  10. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  11. Feudalism and Academia: UK Academics' Accounts of Research Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of research cultures in university education departments is still evolving, particularly in connection with the departments which have achieved a high ranking in the UK government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), and also the conditions under which "knowledge workers" operate are under-researched, although this is beginning to…

  12. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  13. Science Education in the Gambia--UK Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatcher, Judy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares UK students' experience in a ten-day trip to the Gambia. During the trip, three schools were visited and students taught their lessons in pairs, each pair delivering two 20-minute lessons. Topics covered were chosen beforehand to relate to the Gambian curriculum and the equipment used was selected on a local…

  14. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in the number…

  15. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  16. Students' Expectations of Debt in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachan, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The funding of students in UK higher education (HE) has undergone radical reform over the past two decades. Using a unique dataset, this paper investigates student expectations of debt. We find that a student's gender, ethnicity, and year of study play an important role in determining their expected debt. Students in receipt of financial…

  17. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  18. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  19. Deconstructing "Aspiration": UK Policy Debates and European Policy Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohrer, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Strategies of "employability" and "activation" are increasingly favoured in the European Union policy context. These strategies are aimed at fostering inclusion by stressing the responsibility of the individual to participate in education and employment. Similar tendencies can be observed in the United Kingdom (UK) over the last decade, among them…

  20. Are Ethnic Minorities Underrepresented in UK Postgraduate Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeling, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent rapid increases in postgraduate numbers, little is known about the ethnic background of current postgraduates. This lacuna is addressed using data about the UK postgraduate population. Overall, students from minority ethnic backgrounds are under-represented among research and teacher-training students but not on masters degrees. The…

  1. Participating and Performing: Sport and Higher Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This report highlights the contribution that higher education institutions make to sport in the UK. It draws out key findings from the Sport England and sportscotland audits of sports provision in higher education institutions. The role of sport ranges from world-class excellence to community access and healthy living. (Contains 22 notes.)

  2. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Rob

    2009-01-01

    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  3. Chinese Language Teaching in the UK: Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, George X.; Li, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long history of Chinese learning and teaching (CLT) in the UK, but until recently CLT was predominantly confined to community schools for Chinese children at weekends and a small number of other schools and universities. Therefore, it had remained peripheral for a long time in terms of student numbers and its position in the…

  4. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  5. Determinants of Teaching as a Career in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the likelihood of individuals becoming teachers, to identify the key social and economic determinants of selecting teaching as a career in the UK. E-mail and focus group interviews were used to develop a questionnaire, for surveying a sample of 1845 students and professional trainees from four tertiary institutions in South-west…

  6. Mutual learning and research messages: India, UK, and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    India and UK have had a long history together, since the times of the British Raj. Most of what Indian psychiatry is today, finds its roots in ancient Indian texts and medicine systems as much as it is influenced by the European system. Psychiatric research in India is growing. It is being influenced by research in the UK and Europe and is influencing them at the same time. In addition to the sharing of ideas and the know-how, there has also been a good amount of sharing of mental health professionals and research samples in the form of immigrants from India to the UK. The Indian mental health professionals based in UK have done a good amount of research with a focus on these Indian immigrants, giving an insight into cross-cultural aspects of some major psychiatric disorders. This article discusses the impact that research in these countries has had on each other and the contributions that have resulted from it. PMID:21836716

  7. Embracing the UNCRC in Wales (UK): Policy, Pedagogy and Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Most countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). In 1999, the Government of Wales was devolved from the UK, and in 2011 the "Children and Young Persons Rights Measure" put the UNCRC as the basis of all its work. Any programme introduced in schools should therefore promote the UNCRC. To…

  8. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reakes, Angharad

    2007-01-01

    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  9. Quality and Standards in UK Universities: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2008

    2008-01-01

    UK universities are widely regarded as being among the best in the world. Maintaining the highest academic quality and standards is crucial to that reputation. This leaflet explains how universities ensure that students can have confidence that the time and money they invest in their education are well spent. This leaflet summarises the detailed…

  10. Copyright Infringement and Potential Technological Prevention Measures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    "Sony Music v. Easyinternetcafe" has introduced a new facet to the debate concerning the copyright legality of peer-to-peer file transfer. The judgment and subsequent settlement has highlighted that companies offering services that are used to infringe copyright may be held to account in the UK courts. Liability may extend from the private to the…

  11. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  12. Universities UK Response to the Higher Education White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Universities UK's response to the Higher Education White Paper outlines the principles that we believe will underpin a strong future higher education system. These principles form the basis of the specific recommendations we make to government in taking forward a programme of change. They also form the backdrop to our own commitments, which…

  13. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Ann; Dyer, Jenni; Monroe, Maisie; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    The interests of women in physics in the UK are being addressed by two strands of work by the Institute of Physics—Girls in Physics and Project Juno—and by several nationwide efforts, including the Athena SWAN awards. Both Project Juno and the Athena SWAN awards recognize academic departments for graded levels of gender equity.

  14. Changing Places: A Study of Chinese Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Maley, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the way tertiary level Chinese students in the UK adapt, in varying degrees, to their new learning and living environment. A questionnaire and interview study that includes both Chinese students and their British teachers attempts to ascertain key issues with a view to helping sojourning students adapt to their environment,…

  15. International Higher Education and the Mobility of UK Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Waters, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In the context of increasing academic interest in the internationalization of education and the international mobility of university students, this article draws on findings of a recent research project examining students from the UK as they seek higher education overseas before entering the labour market. The discussion is framed around four key…

  16. Exploring the case for assisted dying in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Carol

    This article discusses the concepts of euthanasia, assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide, under the umbrella term of assisted dying, from a pro-assisted dying perspective. It outlines the key principles underpinning the debate around assisted dying and refutes the main arguments put forward by those opposing legalisation of assisted dying in the UK. PMID:22272538

  17. The Impact Debate: Hazards of Discourse in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The UK higher education community is well served for news and policy discourse by the weekly "Times Higher Education" ("THE"). "THE" also provides a window into the conduct of this community. Concern about the contribution of research to the wider society beyond academe has risen along with its scale and cost. Views became polarized about the…

  18. Restructuring Revisited: Changing Academic Structures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing external environment, for many universities, restructuring of the academic organisation is the most important leadership challenge. In this article, the author provides an analysis of academic restructuring in UK universities. Using the "Commonwealth Universities Yearbook", he looked at the changes in academic structures…

  19. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  20. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  1. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  2. Information Society: Agenda for Action in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips of Ellesmere, Lord

    1997-01-01

    Explains the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology in the UK (United Kingdom) and discusses its report that addresses the need for information technology planning on a national basis. Topics include electronic publishing for access to government publications, universal access, regulatory framework, encryption and verification,…

  3. A Study of CHARGE Syndrome in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuce, Gail; Howard, Simon; Rose, Steve; Fuggle, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings of a questionnaire completed by 44 families living in the UK with a child (aged 15 years or younger) with a medical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome. The questionnaire contained three sections, namely Diagnosis (including medical and health issues), Child development, and Educational provision. This article reports on the…

  4. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  5. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  6. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  7. The Politics of Childhood and Asylum in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner, Clotilde

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the general treatment of asylum-seeking families with children in the UK, focusing on the government's practices and public reactions to these measures. It first describes both the exclusive asylum framework, based on institutionalised suspicion, welfare restrictions and detention, and the inclusive child policy framework,…

  8. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  9. Domestic properties in the UK and a lack of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugochukwu, Nnadozie

    This research aims to provide sufficient insight into the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK. The paper reviewed relevant theories of sustainability, with respect to energy performance and environmental friendliness of the built environment. The research also studied the efforts made by the UK Government and other Stakeholders to ensure availability of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, by introducing the Code for Sustainable Homes. The research identified constraints that cause the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, they are: The extra costs associated with building homes to sustainable standards, flexible government legislation, lack of information of the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards, and lack of community participation in the formulation of sustainable policies. Recommendations for the availability of more homes built to sustainable standards include the need for mandatory government legislation, making the formulation of policies more participatory amongst the communities where they will be implemented, creating public awareness about the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards and the fact that the costs associated with owning such a home is recoverable through savings made in energy costs.

  10. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted and the…

  11. The Prevalence of "Life Planning:" Evidence from UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Everett, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    At a time when "personal development planning" is being rolled out across the UK higher education sector, this paper explores young adults' inclinations to plan for the future in relation to work, relationships and other aspects of life. Although Giddens has emphasised the prevalence of strategic life planning (or the "colonisation of the future")…

  12. Leadership Development for Organizational Change in a "New" UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Sharon; Edwards, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study of an Organizational Development (OD) intervention within a new university in the UK. Previous research into the leadership of higher education has highlighted a number of apparently inevitable tensions. The findings of the case study uncovered a number of complex and interrelated tensions. The…

  13. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  14. Non-European nurses' perceived barriers to UK nurse registration.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Westwood, Sue

    2016-05-11

    Aim To conduct a scoping project to identify perceived barriers to UK nurse registration as experienced by internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in the UK. Method Eleven internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in two London hospitals attended two facilitated focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Study participants articulated frustration with UK English language testing requirements and a sense of injustice and unfairness relating to: double standards for nurses educated within and outside of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA); and what was perceived, by some, as arbitrary English language testing with unnecessarily high standards. Differences among study participants related to issues of competency and accountability regarding English language skills and passing English language skills tests, with many feeling they were playing 'a game' where the rules kept changing. Conclusion Language testing barriers are impeding UK nurse registration for some internationally educated nurses from outside the EU and EEA who, as a result, are working as healthcare assistants. The provision of English language training by employers would improve their prospects of achieving nurse registration. PMID:27206205

  15. US/UK Loan Account Project Status PMOD477

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Patrice A.

    2012-07-12

    The viewgraphs describe the status of PMOD477 for LANL. The meeting will occur at DOE-HQ with NA-11 and Military Applications personnel in attendance. Serves to repatriate material with a balance to zero by December 2012. Phase 1 -- Establish formality of operations for War Reserve (WR): Complete surrogate taskings to A90 through a Materials Channel and perform US/UK lessons learned; Complete the US/UK agreed Quality Acceptance Plan, Materials Plan, Shipping procedure, and establish the formal UK/US point of contacts. Phase 2 -- Metal Manufacture (WR): Process material and store material as electrorefined metal (ER) rings, with initial assay and isotopic analysis, prior to manufacturing. Material is cast into accepted configuration and appropriate acceptance document for each aliquot will be generated. Phase 3 -- Intermediate Material Manufacture, Packaging and Shipping (WR): Continue processing of the material in accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance documentation for each aliquot. Provide an initial tasking of the material owed to UK including appropriate quality acceptance documentation. Phase 4 -- Complete Tasking (WR). Phase 5 -- Residue Processing (Non-WR): Complete processing of residue material and waste into accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance document for disposal.

  16. The Evolution of Student Services in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    There is limited literature that looks at the evolution of student services in the UK and their effectiveness in providing student support. Student support is broadly defined as all services that support students to learn. Academic and non-academic support are essential mechanisms in providing holistic student support. In this article, the author…

  17. Lifelong Learning through SMEs: Exploring Workplace Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren, Linda; Engel, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective in this paper is to examine the role of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in promoting and/or hindering educational opportunities to adult employees in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on 12 case studies of SMEs in England and Scotland, which form part of a larger European Sixth Framework…

  18. Constructed wetlands in UK urban surface drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Shutes, B; Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M; Scholes, L N L

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of an inventory of planted wetland systems in the UK which are classified according to land use type and are all examples of sustainable drainage systems. The introduction of constructed wetlands to treat surface runoff essentially followed a 1997 Environment Agency for England and Wales report advocating the use of "soft engineered" facilities including wetlands in the context of sustainable development and Agenda 21. Subsequently published reports by the UK Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) have promoted the potential benefits to both developer and the community of adopting constructed wetlands and other vegetated systems as a sustainable drainage approach. In addition, the UK Environment Agency and Highways Agency (HA) have recently published their own design criteria and requirements for vegetative control and treatment of road runoff. A case study of the design and performance of a constructed wetland system for the treatment of road runoff is discussed. The performance of these systems will be assessed in terms of their design criteria, runoff loadings as well as vegetation and structure maintenance procedures. The differing design approaches in guidance documents published in the UK by the Environment Agency, CIRIA and HA will also be evaluated. PMID:16042240

  19. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  20. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  1. University Rankings: Do They Matter in the UK?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecke, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of changes in university rankings on applicant and institution behaviour in the UK. When their rank worsens, universities are found to experience small but statistically significant reductions in the number of applications received as well as in the average tariff score of applicants…

  2. Environmental issues of energetic materials: A U.K. perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, A.S.; Paul, N.C.

    1998-07-01

    Research on environmental problems encountered in the production, formulation, use and disposal of energetic munitions is driven by current and projected future legislation. In turn, legislation is being driven by public perception and pressure groups. With the ban on sea dumping and pressures to ban open burning the main concern at present is disposal of the end of life stockpile. U.K. research effort on disposal is further influenced by both the available funding and the size of the U.K. problem. Controlled incineration is being implemented and a munitions destruction facility based on this has been commissioned. For the longer term there is an increasing research effort in the production of munitions by cleaner methods and processes for the control and treatment of effluent streams. There is strong commitment by the UK Ministry of Defence to address environmental issues and an Ordnance Board Proceeding ``Design for Disposal`` has been published. This is a far reaching proposal which places full life cycle responsibility on the procurer i.e. purchasing office in the U.K. MOD. Design for Disposal is a comprehensive strategy which considers all aspects of the life of munitions from design, through production to eventual disposal.

  3. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  4. Social Pedagogy in the UK: Gaining a Firm Foothold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The paper asks why, unlike much of Europe, the UK has until recently taken very little interest in social pedagogy. It looks at the meanings of social pedagogy, including the importance of both "social" and "pedagogy" in understanding the term and argues that social pedagogy policy, practice, and theory are interlinked and…

  5. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  6. The Future of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK's "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlay, Harry; Hussain, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades in the UK, successive Conservative and Labour governments have implemented policies and initiatives aimed at widening access to higher education. During the same period, entrepreneurship education has emerged as an important aspect of higher education provision, as it has in other industrially developed and developing…

  7. Falling through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Farrah

    2008-01-01

    An overview of child trafficking in the UK explores the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to these particularly vulnerable children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's…

  8. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  9. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  10. Research Staff and Public Engagement: A UK Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Public engagement plays an important role in the contemporary UK academy, and is promoted through initiatives such as Beacons of Public Engagement and research grant "Pathways to Impact". Relatively little is known, however, about academic experiences of such engagement activities. This study focuses on one staff group, contract…

  11. The New Decade: A Watershed in UK Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNay, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article first draws together a range of published statistics to analyse trends in participation in higher education in the UK over recent years. That provides evidence of the shifting profile in the student population and sets a context for examining emerging evidence of the impact of recent government policy decisions on control of student…

  12. Environmental Management in the UK: The Way Ahead for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryall, Colin; Pinder, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Discusses two environmental management systems (EMS) for businesses, including the BS7750 developed in the UK, and the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, from the European Commission. Reviews the benefits of installing an EMS and the pressures of environmental compliance. (LZ)

  13. UK Public Libraries: Roles in Adult Literacy Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Carla; Morris, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Reported here are the results of a research project that examined the role of UK public libraries in addressing adult literacy including approaches and issues. Eight public libraries were selected as case studies and adult literacy provision was investigated using staff interviews. The interviews provided support for the role of public libraries…

  14. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  15. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  16. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. > We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. > There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. > Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. > Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  17. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Huw; Brunet, Gilbert; Harris, Chris; Best, Martin; Saulter, Andrew; Holt, Jason; Bricheno, Lucy; Brerton, Ashley; Reynard, Nick; Blyth, Eleanor; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    It has long been understood that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. This was well demonstrated in the UK throughout winter 2013/14 when an exceptional run of severe winter storms, often with damaging high winds and intense rainfall led to significant damage from the large waves and storm surge along coastlines, and from saturated soils, high river flows and significant flooding inland. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus on a 2-year Prototype project will demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode, including an analysis of the winter 2013/14 storms and its impacts. By linking science development to operational collaborations such as the UK Natural Hazards Partnership, we can ensure that science priorities are rooted in user requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of UK environmental prediction activities and an update on progress during the first year of the Prototype project. We will present initial results from the coupled model development and discuss the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  18. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  19. A Nonessential African Swine Fever Virus Gene UK Is a Significant Virulence Determinant in Domestic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zsak, L.; Caler, E.; Lu, Z.; Kutish, G. F.; Neilan, J. G.; Rock, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865–8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, ΔUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, ΔUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all ΔUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and ΔUK-infected groups; however, ΔUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  20. A nonessential African swine fever virus gene UK is a significant virulence determinant in domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Zsak, L; Caler, E; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Neilan, J G; Rock, D L

    1998-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865-8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, deltaUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, deltaUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all deltaUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and deltaUK-infected groups; however, deltaUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  1. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  2. Developing tools for long-term breeding of blueberry germplasm for UK production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit consumption in the UK, particularly of berry fruits, is expanding rapidly, and consumer demand for blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) is at record levels with UK growers unable to meet current demand. There is great potential for UK growers to supply high-quality fresh blueberries across a wide seas...

  3. UK School Students' Attitudes towards Science and Potential Science-Based Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Emelia L.; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of literature pertaining to UK secondary school students, their uptake of science at higher levels and their consideration of careers as scientists. As with all countries, the continued uptake of sufficient numbers of science at all levels is in the UK's interest. Unfortunately too many UK secondary students see science as…

  4. An Overview of Extra-Curricular Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Interventions in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline A.; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent and type of extra-curricular ESD-related practice in UK universities and to record opinions about the utility of such work. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire survey of all UK universities was undertaken in 2006. Over half (51 percent) of the UK's 140 universities with…

  5. Those Who Can, Teach: Addressing the Crisis in Mathematics in UK Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; d'Inverno, Ray

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in UK mathematics education, both in schools and universities, has been widely reported in the national media. A recent study shows that 26% of full-time mathematics teachers in UK schools have no qualification in the subject, and that 31% of all UK schools' mathematics teachers are now over the age of 50. The crisis in school…

  6. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  7. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] with a Large Referred Irish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…

  8. Career Progress and Career Barriers: Women MBA Graduates in Canada and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the career progress of female MBA graduates in Canada and the UK and the nature of career barriers experienced in each context. Results suggest that while Canadian women have similar career profiles to men, women in the UK lag behind their male counterparts after graduation from the course. At the same time, UK women…

  9. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard; Chipperfield, Martyn; Savage, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this work the applicability of satellite observations to evaluate the operational UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) have been investigated. The main focus involved the AQUM validation against satellite observations, investigation of satellite retrieval error types and of synoptic meteorological-atmospheric chemistry relationships simulated/seen by the AQUM/satellite. The AQUM is a short range forecast model of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols up to 5 days. It has been designed to predict potentially hazardous air pollution events, e.g. high concentrations of surface ozone. The AQUM has only been validated against UK atmospheric chemistry recording surface stations. Therefore, satellite observations of atmospheric chemistry have been used to further validate the model, taking advantage of better satellite spatial coverage. Observations of summer and winter 2006 tropospheric column NO2 from both OMI and SCIAMACHY show that the AQUM generally compares well with the observations. However, in northern England positive biases (AQUM - satellite) suggest that the AQUM overestimates column NO2; we present results of sensitivity experiments on UK emissions datasets suspected to be the cause. In winter, the AQUM over predicts background column NO2 when compared to both satellite instruments. We hypothesise that the cause is the AQUM winter night-time chemistry, where the NO2 sinks are not substantially defined. Satellite data are prone to errors/uncertainty such as random, systematic and smoothing errors. We have investigated these error types and developed an algorithm to calculate and reduce the random error component of DOAS NO2 retrievals, giving more robust seasonal satellite composites. The Lamb Weather Types (LWT), an objective method of classifying the daily synoptic weather over the UK, were used to create composite satellite maps of column NO2 under different synoptic conditions. Under cyclonic conditions, satellite observed UK column NO2 is

  10. Growth inhibition dependent on reactive oxygen species generated by C9-UK-2A, a derivative of the antifungal antibiotic UK-2A, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Kazunori; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Tanaka, Toshio; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    UK-2A is a potent antifungal antibiotic and its structure is highly similar to that of antimycin A3 (AA). UK-2A and AA inhibit mitochondrial electron transport at complex III. C9-UK-2A, which has been prepared to improve the duration of the antifungal activity of UK-2A, shows durable fungicidal activities against various species of fungi and induces both membrane injury and the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IFO 0001 cells. We found that C9-UK-2A inhibited the vegetative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0203 cells accompanying cellular ROS generation in Sabouraud dextrose (SD) medium, which contained a fermentable carbon source. The ROS generation was completely restricted by pretreatment with a lipophilic antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. In addition, the pretreatment with the antioxidant protected against the growth inhibition induced by C9-UK-2A. C9-UK-2A also induced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria of the S. cerevisiae cells. The addition of both a complex I inhibitor rotenone and a complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone reduced ROS generation induced by C9-UK-2A in the whole cells and the isolated mitochondria. The addition of the inhibitors of complex III, AA or myxothiazol, or of complex IV, KCN, did not reduce ROS generation. These results suggest that C9-UK-2A induces ROS generation due to the blockade of electron flow at complex III, thereby inhibiting the growth of S. cerevisiae in SD medium. PMID:15515888

  11. Ethnicity and bullying involvement in a national UK youth sample.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Platt, Lucinda

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated ethnic differences in bullying involvement (as victim and bully) among a UK wide sample of adolescents, controlling for potential confounders, including age, gender, economic situation, family structure and parent-adolescent relationships. 4668 youths, aged 10 to 15, who participate in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were assessed for bullying involvement. Binary logistic regression models were used to estimate ethnic differences across bullying roles while controlling for potential confounders. Overall, ethnic minority youths were not more likely to be victims; African boys and girls were significantly less likely to be victimised than same sex White youths. Pakistani and Caribbean girls were significantly more likely to have bullied others compared to White girls. Further research is necessary to explore why Pakistani and Caribbean girls may be more often perpetrators of bullying than girls in other ethnic groups. PMID:23849658

  12. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. PMID:26948066

  13. Congressional Science Fellow tackles science policy for U.K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Julie J.

    After an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship in 1997-1998,I decided to pursue science policy further. I spied an ad in the Sunday Washington Post advertising for someone with a science degree, who also had knowledge of the United Kingdom, and science policy experience on Capitol Hill. In addition to my Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles and the Congressional Science Fellowship, I had spent two years in the U.K. as a post-doc at Queen Mary and Westfield College in London.I applied for the job, which was at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., and was hired. The UK Foreign Office has a tradition of hiring many of its embassy staff locally; they consider knowledge of local politics and issues very use ful for their interests. Now I cover hard science issues, including space and the Internet for Her Majesty's Government.

  14. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2008-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carol; Marks, Ann; Wilkin, Nicola; Leslie, Dawn; D'Amico, Irene; Dyer, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Positive progress has continued in the past three years for women in physics in the UK. The Institute of Physics has aggressively advocated and organized initiatives for women in science through its Diversity Programme and its Women in Physics Group. Surveys are routinely carried out and acted upon, most recently on postdoctoral researchers and childcare issues. The Institute's Juno Award program encourages higher education institutes to address the underrepresentation of women in physics. The UK Resource Centre for Women in SET (science, engineering, and technology) provides resources and support for women working in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. The Equality Act of 2010 provides renewed focus on equality and a framework within which women physicists can continue to push for progress. The recent achievements of women physicists are noted.

  15. Support of vulnerable patients throughout TB treatment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Inamdar, L; Okereke, E; Collinson, S; Dukes, R; Mandelbaum, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established treatment regimens, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health burden; it disproportionately affects poor and marginalized populations who may not have access to social support, including migrants, homeless people and those dependent on drugs or alcohol. There is a clearly demonstrated need for housing and other appropriate social support, as part of a package of integrated clinical and social care. However, TB prevention and control efforts in the UK often do not address the specific vulnerabilities of these groups and it can be a challenge to support the continued TB treatment of these underserved populations. This challenge is exacerbated by complex issues concerning funding, immigration and the law. In this paper, we have reviewed current UK guidance and legislation, discussed several case studies and highlighted examples of existing models of community support for TB patients. Finally, we lay out our recommendations for ensuring a co-ordinated, whole system approach to successful TB treatment. PMID:25889386

  16. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services. PMID:24109133

  17. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  18. The medicines for children agenda in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Terence

    2006-06-01

    Children can expect the medicines prescribed for them to have at least as good an evidence base as in adult practice. Current licensing arrangements in the UK ensure a rigorous assessment of most drugs used for adults, whereas prescribing outside the licence is relatively common for children. Until the evidence base is increased, consensus guidelines or formularies, such as the new British National Formulary for Children, provide some protection for children and prescribers. For the future, there is optimism that the dearth of research on which to base children's prescribing will be addressed by new initiatives, such as the UK Medicines for Children Research Network and draft EU legislation providing incentives to industry. PMID:16722834

  19. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  20. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite