Science.gov

Sample records for 6be uk enclosing

  1. Experiments with large enclosed ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Gamble, J C

    1979-08-08

    conclusion that the levels of mercury found in surface waters around the coast of the U.K. (0.001--0.022 microgram Hg/l) are one or two orders of magnitude below the levels at which a response of the biological population can be demonstrated. The usefulness of large scale enclosed ecosystems for further pollution research is discussed and it is concluded that those facilities that provided a link between the water column and the sediments would be most useful since they would (1) enable estimates to be made of the flux rates of pollutants from the water column to the sediments; and (2) allow experiments to be carried out with the pollutant in contact with sediment in its natural form.

  2. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  3. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...and EAS domains. Shelley Riedlinger, running both EAS and Yellow Sea model codes: Pamela Posey obtains and provides atmospheric forcing, both real time...extends from 150 S latitude to 600 N latitude . Testing of this model included a spin-up of the model from 1994 to 1999 using the Navy Operational Global

  4. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  5. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  6. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  7. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  8. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  9. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  10. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  11. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  12. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  13. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  14. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  15. Three-body decay of {sup 6}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorenko, L. V.; Wiser, T. D.; Mercurio, K.; Shane, R.; Charity, R. J.; Elson, J. M.; Sobotka, L. G.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2009-09-15

    Three-body correlations for the ground-state decay of the lightest two-proton emitter {sup 6}Be are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical studies are performed in a three-body hyperspherical-harmonics cluster model. In the experimental studies, the ground state of {sup 6}Be was formed following the {alpha} decay of a {sup 10}C beam inelastically excited through interactions with Be and C targets. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained demonstrating the existence of complicated correlation patterns that can elucidate the structure of {sup 6}Be and, possibly, of the A=6 isobars.

  16. Annual hypoxia dynamics in an enclosed gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountoura, K.; Zacharias, I.

    2012-04-01

    Hypoxia in coastal environments is a worldwide problem and is expected to worsen in future. Due to the stratification of the water column in many enclosed or semi-enclosed gulfs, deep waters are isolated and hypoxic or anoxic conditions frequently become dominant. The most common method for the oxygenation of these isolated anoxic water masses is vertical mixing. However, there are enclosed gulfs which rarely have the appropriate energy to ensure the mixing of the entire water column. The main purpose of this paper is to find if there are any other hydrodynamic processes which can cause oxygenation of deep waters, apart from vertical mixing. In order to achieve this aim, an enclosed gulf, Amvrakikos in Western Greece, was chosen to be the case study area and bimonthly physicochemical data were collected for one year and used in combination with a three-dimensional model in order to simulate the hydrodynamic circulation of the system. According to our results, another hydrodynamic process can lead to the oxygenation of the deepest water in an enclosed gulf. This process is the horizontal intrusion of well oxygenated water from the open sea. The key factor in determining the success of this horizontal intrusion is the density difference between the deepest area of the enclosed gulf and the open sea outside the gulf. From autumn to winter, when the open sea water is denser than that inside the gulf, the well oxygenated open sea water inflows into the gulf near the bottom sea floor and re-oxygenates the isolated deep waters through mixing. However, from spring to summer, when the deep water of the gulf is characterized by higher density in comparison with the open sea water, the inflow of well oxygenated water stops, causing the development of hypoxic/anoxic conditions during the summer months.

  17. Metal contamination in water, sediment and biota from a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    PubMed

    Aly, Walid; Williams, Ian D; Hudson, Malcolm D

    2013-05-01

    This study identifies and quantifies the spatial variations of metal contamination in water, sediment and biota: the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and the Mermaid's glove sponge (Haliclona oculata), within a heavily anthropogenically impacted semi-enclosed estuarine-coastal area with a low ability to disperse and flush contaminants (Poole Harbour, UK). The results showed that metal contamination was detected in all environmental compartments. Water was polluted with As, and Hg sediment metals were mostly within "the possible effect range" in which adverse effects occasionally occurs. Cockles had considerable concentrations of Ni, Ag and Hg in areas close to pollution sources, and sponges accumulate Cu and Zn with very high magnitude. A systematic monitoring approach that includes biological monitoring techniques, which covers all embayments, is needed, and an integrated management of the semi-enclosed coastal zones should be based on the overall hydrological characteristics of these sensitive areas and their ability to self-restore which is different than open coastal zones.

  18. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  19. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  20. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  1. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  2. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  3. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  4. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  5. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  6. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  7. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  8. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  9. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  10. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  11. Carbon fiber behavior in an enclosed volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of single carbon fibers existing in an enclosed space such as a room of a building. Three general phenomena were explored: the concentration decay rate of a fiber-charged room, the degree of uniform mixing of fibers within a room, and the effects of fibers being redisseminated off deposition surfaces within a room. The results were required in understanding the ratio of total indoor fiber exposure to total outdoor fiber exposure, a quantity essential to risk analysis. Results indicate that decay rate is predictable within acceptable limits and that homogeneous mixing can always be assumed. Some factors of redissemination are identified and effects discussed.

  12. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  13. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  14. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  15. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  16. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A

    2013-11-26

    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  17. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE AND TIN SHEETING. - Sig Sautelle Circus Training House, South Main Street (State Route 11), Homer, Cortland County, NY

  19. Flux projection beamforming for monochromatic source localization in enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Yu, Gaokun; Wang, Ning; Gao, Dazhi; Wang, Haozhong

    2017-01-01

    Monochromatic sound source localization becomes difficult in enclosed space. According to the reciprocity theorem, a self-consistent method of source localization in enclosed space, referred to as the flux projection beamforming, is proposed, only using the measurement of the sound pressure and normal velocity on the closed boundary at a single frequency. Its validity is examined both by experiment and simulation.

  20. Human Exploration of Enclosed Spaces through Echolocation.

    PubMed

    Flanagin, Virginia L; Schörnich, Sven; Schranner, Michael; Hummel, Nadine; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Wahlberg, Magnus; Stephan, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2017-02-08

    Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique, we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual-room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations. Individual differences in performance were related to the type and number of vocalizations produced. We then asked subjects to estimate virtual-room size with either active or passive sounds while measuring their brain activity with fMRI. Subjects were better at estimating room size when actively vocalizing. This was reflected in the hemodynamic activity of vocal-motor cortices, even after individual motor and sensory components were removed. Activity in these areas also varied with perceived room size, although the vocal-motor output was unchanged. In addition, thalamic and auditory-midbrain activity was correlated with perceived room size; a likely result of top-down auditory pathways for human echolocation, comparable with those described in echolocating bats. Our data provide evidence that human echolocation is supported by active sensing, both behaviorally and in terms of brain activity. The neural sensory-motor coupling complements the fundamental acoustic motor-sensory coupling via the environment in echolocation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Passive listening is the predominant method for examining brain activity during echolocation, the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds. We show that sighted humans perform better when they actively vocalize than during passive listening. Correspondingly, vocal motor and cerebellar activity is greater during active echolocation than vocalization alone. Motor

  1. Facility No. 201, view of enclosed loggia (now a study) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 201, view of enclosed loggia (now a study) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Quarters, Russell Avenue, between Central Avenue and Salvor Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  3. 3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH ON PHOTO RIGHT AND DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS MOUNTED BELOW WINDOWS AND HEATING SYSTEM PIPES ABOVE - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10600, 4 Quadrants, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  6. 4. Upper level of marine museum looking southwest at enclosed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Upper level of marine museum looking southwest at enclosed exterior wall of area office building - Duluth Ship Canal, Marine Museum-Area Office, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  7. 7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  8. 12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULLDOWN STAIRCASE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULL-DOWN STAIRCASE TO ATTIC. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  9. 5. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS, SOUTH PORTAL, SHOWING BOX ENCLOSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS, SOUTH PORTAL, SHOWING BOX ENCLOSING VALVES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  10. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. Kitchen, view to northnortheast. Window looks out on enclosed east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to north-northeast. Window looks out on enclosed east porch. Door at left leads to mud room, with laundry beyond that. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM 50-FOOT LOCK TO ELEVATOR, LOOKING WEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. 17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO 18-FOOT LOCK, LOOKING EAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  14. Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Hygrometer for Detecting Water in Partially Enclosed Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Surma, Jan; Parks, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A portable hygrometer has been devised to implement a pre-existing technique for detecting water trapped in partially enclosed volumes that may be difficult to reach and cannot be examined directly. The technique is based on the fact that eventually the air in such a volume becomes saturated or nearly so. The technique is straightforward: One measures the relative humidity and temperature of both the ambient air and a sample of air from the enclosed volume. If the relative humidity of the sample is significantly greater than that of the ambient air and/or if the sample is at or close to the dew point, then it can be concluded that water is trapped in the volume. Of course, the success of this technique depends on the existence of an access hole through which one can withdraw some air from the enclosed volume.

  16. Deposition of heterogeneous radiocolloid from groundwater on enclosing rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'Kovskii, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    A model of precipitation of radiocolloid particles on enclosing rocks at colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides by groundwater is considered. The model proposed is based on probabilistic analysis of deposition of heterogeneous colloidal particles on fixed sites of groundwater filtration channels, which are formed by connected systems of pore_ and fracture voids in enclosing rocks. The model takes into account heterogeneity of the system of colloidal particles and competition of different particles for the same potential deposition sites. Theoretical analysis is based on the solution of the system of Kolmogorov-Feller equations. The limit values of the obtained solutions correspond to the equilibrium distribution of radiocolloid particles of different sizes between the groundwater and the enclosing rocks. In the case of a homogeneous system of particles, the obtained distribution is reduced to the Langmuir isotherm.

  17. 3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE BOXES WITHIN AND BETWEEN MODULAR WORK AREAS. LEADED GLOVES WERE AFFIXED TO PORTS ALONG THE CHAINVEYOR PATHWAY TO ALLOW OPERATOR ACCESS. (1/25/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ENCLOSED CONVEYOR TO CARRY FINE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ENCLOSED CONVEYOR TO CARRY FINE ORE UP TO BIN IN THE TALLEST BUILDING. THE MULTI-WINDOWED PORTION OF BUILDING WITH "MILL TOUR" SIGN HOUSES THE MAINTENANCE SHOP. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  19. VIEW OF ENCLOSED CARPORT AREA. ON RIGHT HAND SIDE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ENCLOSED CARPORT AREA. ON RIGHT HAND SIDE IS THE ORIGINAL UTILITY ROOM ENTRY DOOR WITH JALOUSIES. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Four-Bedroom, Single-Family Type 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRYWAY SHOWING STAIR LANDING AND OPEN FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  1. Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office area taken from the main warehouse area showing the metal sash windows, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Interior view of the enclosed area, note the twolightover singlepanel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the enclosed area, note the two-light-over single-panel door to the main warehouse area, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  3. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND CASEMENT WINDOW INTO ATTIC AT PEAK OF GABLE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 15. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED AREAS AT BACK OF TUNNEL IS A HOUSING FOR CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE TESTING ON AIRCRAFT MODELS IN A VORTEX. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed east porch. Dining room visible through open door at center, with door to living room visible in background. Kitchen is highly altered. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  8. ENCLOSING WALL NORTH OF MAIN GATE, WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENCLOSING WALL NORTH OF MAIN GATE, WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD PLAQUE, FLORAL REGULATIONS SIGN, GENERAL ORDER 80 PLAQUE AND CEMETERY ACT PLAQUE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  9. 8. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRANCE. SIDE HUNG CASEMENT WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT OPEN TO FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN AND PANTRY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  10. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 108.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for... designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  11. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 108.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for... designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  12. Case histories of building material problems caused by condensation at an enclosed swimming pool and an enclosed ice rink

    SciTech Connect

    VanGeem, M.G.; Farahmandpour, K.; Gajda, J.

    1999-07-01

    Enclosed swimming pools and ice rinks in winter climates have the potential for high indoor relative humidities and cold building materials. These elements can contribute to condensation and premature deterioration of building materials. Case histories are provided for an enclosed swimming pool and an enclosed ice rink with condensation problems. An evaluation was performed after roof leaks were reported at a recently constructed indoor swimming pool in a Chicago suburb. After a preliminary inspection, it was evident that the reported leaks were related to building moisture problems rather than a roof leak. Exterior brick masonry exhibited heavy efflorescence in the area of the swimming pools, and water streaks were visible on the exterior walls below the eaves. The evaluation included laboratory testing, a visual inspection, field tests and measurements, and analyses for condensation potential. Results of the evaluation indicated the presence of condensed moisture as a direct cause of the observed water stains, and masonry efflorescence. Recommended corrective actions developed. A 54-year-old enclosed ice rink in New England was under investigation to determine the cause of a deteriorated wood deck roof. The building did not have dehumidification or air handling systems, and was heated only when occupied. The evaluation included visual inspection and analyses for condensation potential. Results of the evaluation indicated condensation within the wood decking and insulation during winter months, and high relative humidities that prohibited drying during the spring, summer, and fall. These conditions, over an extended number of years, resulted in decay of the wood decking.

  13. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  14. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  15. Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E.

    2016-05-01

    Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty.

  16. Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus using a radioactive 7Be beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K. Y.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Smith, Michael Scott; Champagne, A. E.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Visser, D. W.; Das, Jiban; Guimaraes, V.; Jones, K. L.; Pain, S. D.; Thomas, J. S.; Johnson, M. S.; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction is important for understanding stellar burning and solar neutrino production. Previous measurements have found a surprisingly large rise in the cross section at low energies that could be due to a low energy resonance in the 3He + 3He (6Be) system or electron screening. In the 6Be nucleus, however, no excited states have been observed above the first 2+ state at Ex = 1:67 MeV up to 23 MeV, even though several are expected. The d(7Be,t)6Be reaction has been studied for the first time to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may affect our understanding of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV radioactive 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It appears that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to explain the observed triton energy spectrum.

  17. 46 CFR 45.113 - Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed... LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.113 Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. (a) Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures must...

  18. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  19. CAP in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, P.

    2008-06-01

    This poster highlights some of the experiential learning activities used by The SHARE Initiative (TSI) in the UK. Past, present and future projects are described and the possibility of linking up internationally with other projects is invited. Digital media, scientific heritage and solar physics are three areas which Paul Haley (Director - TSI) is particularly keen to develop. Operating as a community interest company TSI outreaches astronomy activities directly into rural areas in the UK.

  20. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  1. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  2. Saturated porous layers squeezed between parallel disks in enclosed cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melciu, I. C.; Cicone, T.; Pascovici, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidences show that high lift forces can be generated when a porous layer imbibed with a fluid is subjected to compression by a rigid and impermeable component in normal (approaching) relative motion. If the porous layer is soft enough to neglect its solid structure reaction to compression then the pressure increase can be entirely attributed to the flow resistance of the porous structure when the fluid is squeezed out. The mechanism is highly dependent on the variation of permeability with porosity at its turn variable with the rate of compression. Such a mechanism can be used for impact damping but realistic applications need to consider an enclosed system which keeps the squeezed fluid inside and allows for re-imbibition. The paper presents a simple analytical model for the effects produced in highly compressible porous layers imbibed with Newtonian liquids, during compression between two parallel rigid disks placed in enclosed cells with variable volume buffer, similar to a hydro-pneumatic accumulator.

  3. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  4. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-15

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  5. Global update: UK.

    PubMed

    Culme-Seymour, Emily J

    2012-11-01

    2012 has been an exciting year in the UK with substantial development on every front - research, clinical, industry and government. In particular, the focus has now moved to encompass far more post-research activities, with the continued enrolment of patients onto two pioneering Phase I clinical trials: ReNeuron's ReN001 stem cell therapy for stroke (PISCES) in Southern General Hospital, Greater Glasgow and Advanced Cell Technology's retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells for Stargardts macular dystrophy and dry age-related macular degeneration at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. The funding landscape for the sector has evolved from previous years to more fully embrace development and translation, including the provision of £180 million available for biomedical research via the Biomedical Catalyst Fund (joint Technology Strategy Board and Medical Research Council [MRC] funding) and a further £25 million through the UK Research Council's UK Regenerative Medicine Platform initiative, as well as ongoing developments with the Cell Therapy Catapult, which all act to further encourage a pan-UK collaborative environment. Overall, the UK cell therapy community continues to thrive and impact heavily upon the worldwide sector, with an established research base, a solid approach to translation and a small but growing commercial sector that is going from strength to strength.

  6. Correlations between protons produced in the decay of ^10C and ^6Be states.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, R.; Mercurio, K. M.; Charity, R. J.; Elson, J. M.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Wuosmaa, A.; Banu, A.; Fu, C.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    This talk will present the 2-proton correlation data from recent secondary beam experiments using the MARS separator at TAMU. The experiment itself and the extracted decay paths for the previously known levels and a newly discovered level are described in a separate talk by K. Mercurio. The 2-proton relative-energy and relative-angle spectra for the ^10C state at E*=6.6 MeV contain correlations that can be reproduced by R-matrix or Fadeev calculations but not sequential or three-body calculations. In the same experiment, we also collected kinematically complete data on ^6Be ground-state decay. These data, as well as calculations from Grigorenko, will be presented in Jacobi ``T'' and ``Y'' coordinates.

  7. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Freire, Luiz Octavio

    2013-01-01

    In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection.

  8. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  9. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  10. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  11. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update*

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Freire, Luiz Octavio

    2013-01-01

    In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection PMID:23857686

  12. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  13. A Glove Box Enclosed Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Reevr, E, M; Robino, C.V.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes an inert atmosphere enclosed gas-tungsten arc welding system which has been assembled in support of the MC2730, MC2730A and MC 3500 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Enhanced Surveillance Program. One goal of this program is to fabricate welds with microstructures and impurity levels which are similar to production heat source welds previously produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mound Facility. These welds will subsequently be used for high temperature creep testing as part of the overall component lifetime assessment. In order to maximize the utility of the welding system, means for local control of the arc atmosphere have been incorporated and a wide range of welding environments can easily be evaluated. The gas-tungsten arc welding system used in the assembly is computer controlled, includes two-axis and rotary motion, and can be operated in either continuous or pulsed modes. The system can therefore be used for detailed research studies of welding impurity effects, development of prototype weld schedules, or to mimic a significant range of production-like welding conditions. Fixturing for fabrication of high temperature creep test samples have been designed and constructed, and weld schedules for grip-tab and test welds have been developed. The microstructure of these welds have been evaluated and are consistent with those used during RTG production.

  14. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  15. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  16. UK Parkinson's Excellence Network: empowering service improvement across the UK.

    PubMed

    Burn, David

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's UK, together with leading Parkinson's professionals, has set up the UK Parkinson's Excellence Network to bring together the passion and expertise of leading clinicians with the strategic leadership and resources of Parkinson's UK underpinned by the voice of people affected by Parkinson's. Launched in London in February 2015, the Excellence Network aims to drive sustainable improvements in health and social care services. It will provide a more strategic approach to clinical development so that Parkinson's services across health and social care can be transformed to provide the best quality care across the UK.

  17. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  18. Radiotherapy in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, S.

    1993-10-09

    What is wrong with radiation treatment in the UK Is it bad practice or merely bad publicity Between 1982 and 1991, 1,000 patients receiving isocentric radiation therapy at the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary received a substantial underdose of radiation; the clinical report on this incident was published last week. The operator had been using a correction factor for tumor-to-skin distance, unaware that this factor had already been applied by the computer system. Although the report pointed out that it is not surprising that the clinicians were not alerted to the undertreatment, is also noted that there were no resources at the hospital to audit the outcome of radiotherapy.

  19. Muscarinic receptor heterogeneity in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Rogelio O; Garay, Edith; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Ionic current responses elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes (follicles) were studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. ACh generated a fast chloride current (Fin) and inhibited K+ currents gated by cAMP (IK,cAMP) following receptor activation by adenosine, follicle-stimulating hormone or noradrenaline. These previously described cholinergic responses were confirmed to be of the muscarinic type, and were independently generated among follicles from different frogs.Inhibition of IK,cAMP was about 100 times more sensitive to ACh than Fin activation; the half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) were 6.6 ± 0.4 and 784 ± 4 nm, respectively.Both responses were blocked by several muscarinic receptor antagonists. Using the respective EC50 concentrations of ACh as standard, the antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide blocked the two effects with very different potencies. Fin was blocked with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.4 ± 0.07 nm, whilst the IC50 for IK,cAMP inhibition was 5.9 ± 0.2 μm.Oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, preferentially stimulated IK,cAMP inhibition (EC50= 15.8 ± 1.4 μm), whilst Fin was only weakly activated. In contrast, oxotremorine inhibited Fin generated by ACh with an IC50 of 2.3 ± 0.7 μm.Fin elicited via purinergic receptor stimulation was not affected by oxotremorine, indicating that the inhibition produced was specific to the muscarinic receptor, and suggesting that muscarinic actions do not exert a strong effect on follicular cell-oocyte coupling.Using reverse transcription-PCR, transcripts of a previously cloned muscarinic receptor from Xenopus (XlmR) were amplified from the RNA of both the isolated follicular cells and the oocyte. The pharmacological and molecular characteristics suggest that XlmR is involved in IK,cAMP inhibition.In conclusion, follicular cells possess two different muscarinic receptors, one resembling the M2 (or M4) subtype

  20. Entrepreneurship and UK Doctoral Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Tristram; Bentley, Kieran; Marriott, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience of UK doctoral graduates in pursuing entrepreneurial careers: there is evidence that this applies to a substantial number--about 10%--of doctoral graduates. The nature of their experience was explored using 37 interviews with doctoral entrepreneurs. The research was funded by Vitae (www.vitae.ac.uk), an…

  1. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W. ); Koepfinger, J.L. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities.

  2. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  3. Models of anxiety: responses of rats to novelty in an open space and an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; Chazot, P L

    2006-07-15

    Exposure to novelty has been shown to induce anxiety responses in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposition of naïve rats to novelty would result in a comparable or a different pattern of responses in an open space versus enclosed space with or without the presence of an object in the centre of the field. Lewis and Wistar rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss the value and validity of these anxiety paradigms. We examined a wide range of measures, which cover several aspects of animals' responses. The results of this study revealed significant differences between the behaviour of animals in an open space and in the enclosed space. It also revealed significant differences in animal's responses to the presence and absence of an object in the open space and in the enclosed space. In the enclosed space, rats spent most of their time in the outer area with lower number of exits and avoided the object area except when there was an object, while in the open space rats displayed frequent short duration re-entries in the outer area and spent longer time in the object area in presence of an object. The time spent in the inner area (away from the outer area and the object area) was significantly longer and the number of faecal boli was significantly higher in the open space than in the enclosed space. In the present report, we will discuss the fundamental differences between enclosed space and open space models, and we will examine some methodological issues related to the current animal models of human behaviour in anxiety. In the enclosed space, animals can avoid the potential threat associated with the centre area of a box and chose the safety of walls and corners, whereas, in the open space animals have to avoid every parts of the field from which there was no safe escape. The response of animals to novelty in an open space model appears more relevant to anxiety than in an enclosed space

  4. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  5. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  6. An effective device for gas-liquid oxygen removal in enclosed microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenfeng; Kang, Ruijuan; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance gas-liquid transmission device (HPTD) was described in this paper. To investigate the HPTD mass transfer characteristics, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients, K(A)(La,CO(2)) for the absorption of gaseous CO(2) and K(A)(La,O(2)) for the desorption of dissolved O(2) were determined, respectively, by titration and dissolved oxygen electrode. The mass transfer capability of carbon dioxide was compared with that of dissolved oxygen in the device, and the operating conditions were optimized to suit for the large-scale enclosed micro-algae cultivation. Based on the effectiveness evaluation of the HPTD applied in one enclosed flat plate Spirulina culture system, it was confirmed that the HPTD can satisfy the demand of the enclosed system for carbon supplement and excessive oxygen removal.

  7. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  8. Overview of existing regulations for ventilation requirements of enclosed vehicular parking facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Krarti, M.; Ayari, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current standards and regulations regarding the ventilation in enclosed parking facilities in the US and other countries. First, the paper discusses the emission rates of motor vehicle pollutants and their health effects. In particular, typical emission rates for different vehicle and fuel types are presented to highlight the effect of various parameters on the ventilation rate requirements for parking garages. In addition, the paper provides a brief description of some of the common ventilation problems reported in the literature for enclosed parking garages.

  9. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei

    2015-05-15

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ∼0.3 eV/Å to ∼0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  10. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei

    2015-05-01

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ˜0.3 eV/Å to ˜0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  11. Multiple proton decays of 6Be, 8C, 8B(IAS) and excited states in 10C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Lee

    2011-10-01

    Recent technical advances have allowed for high-order correlation experiments to be done. We have primarily focused on experiments in which the final channels are composed of only alphas and protons. Four cases we have studied are: 6Be, 10C*, 8C, and 8B*(IAS) via 3, 4, 5, and 3-particle correlation measurements, respectively. While the first case had been studied before, our work presents very high statistics in the full Jacobi coordinates (the coordinates needed to describe 3-body decay.) Our study of 10C excited states provides isolatable examples of: correlated 2p decay, from one state, and the decay of another which is unusually highly correlated, a ``ménage a quatre.'' 8C decay presents the only case of sequential 3-body 2p decay steps (i.e. 2p-2p.) The intermediate in this 2-step process is the first example (6Be) mentioned above. Unlike the well-studied second step (6Be decay), the first step in this 2p-2p process provides another example of correlated 2p emission. The decay of 8B(IAS), the isobaric analog of 8C, also decays overwhelmingly by 2p emission, in this case to 6Li(IAS). This IAS-to-IAS 2p decay is one for which decay to the potential 1p intermediates is energetically allowed but isospin forbidden. This represents an expansion, over that originally envisioned by Goldanski, of the conceivable nuclear territory for 2p decay.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue... functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry. (iii) Shipyard rescue...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue... functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry. (iii) Shipyard rescue...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue... functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry. (iii) Shipyard rescue...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue... functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry. (iii) Shipyard rescue...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue... functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry. (iii) Shipyard rescue...

  17. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 65.118 Section 65.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks §...

  18. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 65.118 Section 65.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks §...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  2. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  5. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  6. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  7. Evaluation of an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of mobile handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Mathew, J Itty; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile handheld devices used in health care settings may become contaminated with health care-associated pathogens. We demonstrated that an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device was effective in rapidly reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and with longer exposure times, Clostridium difficile spores, on glass slides and reducing contamination on in-use mobile handheld devices.

  8. 46 CFR 28.340 - Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. 28... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.340 Ventilation... engine or gasoline storage tank must comply with the requirements of this section. (b) Ventilation...

  9. Location Representation in Enclosed Spaces: What Types of Information Afford Young Children an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. "Nature," 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify…

  10. Creating a parameterized model of a CMOS transistor with a gate of enclosed layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S. M.; Atkin, E. V.; Ivanov, P. Y.

    2016-02-01

    The method of creating a parameterized spice model of an N-channel transistor with a gate of enclosed layout is considered. Formulas and examples of engineering calculations for use of models in the computer-aided Design environment of Cadence Vitruoso are presented. Calculations are made for the CMOS technology with 180 nm design rules of the UMC.

  11. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  12. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  13. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing... enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. (a) The minimum pipe size for the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing... enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. (a) The minimum pipe size for the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing... enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. (a) The minimum pipe size for the...

  16. A snapshot of the UK net greenhouse gas flux using a mass balance approach with aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; Pitt, J. R.; Palmer, P. I.; Percival, C.; Mead, M. I.; Lee, J. D.; Le Breton, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne observations of high-precision in-situ and remotely sensed CO2, CH4 and other trace gases made from the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft during Spring and Summer months in 2014 and 2015. Measurements were recorded during the GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) aircraft field campaign, based out of Cranfield, UK, with sampling around and over the UK Mainland and Ireland. We derive Lagrangian mass-balanced net surface fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO, and N2O from a large surface footprint of England based on data collected during a flight in May 2015 by combining in-situ and remote-sensed concentration measurements and measured boundary layer thermodynamic profiles. By employing an advective box model for the volume enclosed by the flight-tracks and combining aircraft-measured winds and along-track Lagrangian back-trajectory modelling, we examine the sensitivity of total flux uncertainty to atmospheric transport and measurement errors using error propagation implicit in the mass balancing method. Finally, we compare the measured snapshot net fluxes to those reported in the current UK emissions inventory (weighted for surface footprint) and to previous UK-regional greenhouse gas top-down assessments.

  17. Who thinks what about e‐cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To establish how frequently different types of stakeholders were cited in the UK media debate about e‐cigarette regulation, their stances towards different forms of e‐cigarette regulation, and what rationales they employed in justifying those stances. Methods Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of 104 articles about e‐cigarette regulation published in eight UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Results Reporting on e‐cigarette regulation grew significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the sample period. Governments and regulatory bodies were the most frequently cited stakeholders and uniformly supported regulation, while other stakeholders did not always support regulation. Arguments for e‐cigarette regulation greatly outnumbered arguments against regulation. Regulating purchasing age, restricting marketing and regulating e‐cigarettes as medicine were broadly supported, while stakeholders disagreed about prohibiting e‐cigarette use in enclosed public spaces. In rationalizing their stances, supporters of regulation cited child protection and concerns about the safety of e‐cigarette products, while opponents highlighted the potential of e‐cigarettes in tobacco cessation and questioned the evidence base associating e‐cigarette use with health harms. Conclusions In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e‐cigarettes in UK‐wide and Scottish national newspapers. Almost all commentators supported e‐cigarette regulation, but there was disagreement about whether e‐cigarette use should be allowed in enclosed public spaces. This appeared to be linked to whether commentators emphasized the harms of vapour and concerns about renormalizing smoking or emphasized the role of e‐cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. PMID:26802534

  18. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  19. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  20. Lagrangian Turbulence and Transport in Semi-enclosed Basins and Coastal Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lagrangian Turbulence and Transport in Semi-enclosed...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is the development and application of new methods of investigation for the use of Lagrangian ...data and other emerging in-situ and remote instruments (drifters, HF radar, gliders and satellite ) that provide information on upper ocean advection

  1. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  2. UK policy: A success story?

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Child poverty is at the heart of the United Kingdom (UK) government’s social policy agenda. Child poverty rose rapidly in the 1980s; the child poverty rate was one of the highest in Europe by 2000. In 1999, the government’s objective was to reduce child poverty by 50% by 2004/2005, which it narrowly failed to meet. In 2005/2006, there was an increase in child poverty. An index of child well-being found that the UK was 21st out of the 25 European Union countries. Overall, the UK came in last in the UNICEF well-being index. The government’s child poverty strategy has been to manage the economy to maximize employment and to improve in-work incomes. Both have been successful in reducing child poverty. Out-of-work incomes have also been improved, but not enough to lift many children out of poverty. Public expenditure on services, especially health, education and childcare, has also increased; although there are questions about how much of this extra spending has focused on children and child poverty. The comprehensive spending review, reporting later in 2007, is likely to be tight, and it is now unlikely that the government will succeed in its aim of reducing child poverty by 50% by 2010 unless there are radical changes in policy. Constraints on the government’s ability to do this include the structural inequalities in British society and public attitudes toward people in poverty. PMID:19030446

  3. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  4. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  5. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sabrina B.; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T.; Snyder, Lori A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs. PMID:27681925

  6. Xenotransplantation of islets enclosed in agarose microcapsule carrying soluble complement receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Luan, Nguyen Minh; Iwata, Hiroo

    2012-11-01

    Strong immunological reactions remain a major barrier to treating diabetic patients using xenogeneic islets. In a previous study, we developed a method for enclosing islets with agarose microbeads carrying soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1-Mics), a potent complement inhibitor in both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. This is the follow-up in vivo study to evaluate the protective effect of these sCR1-Mics using a xenotransplantation model (rats to mice). ACI/NSIc rat islets enclosed in sCR1-Mics were transplanted into the intraperitoneal cavity of diabetic C57BL/6 mice without immunosuppression therapy. Transplantation of islets in plain agarose microbeads (Mics) was used as a reference. While islets enclosed in plain Mics were rapidly destroyed (graft survival in recipients of 1000 islets: 11.6±3.8 days), transplantation of islets in sCR1-Mics significantly prolonged graft survival (34.1±3.2 days). Moreover, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed that islets in sCR1-Mics normalized blood glucose levels in a similar manner as islets in pancreas of normal mice. In conclusion, sCR1 immobilized onto agarose microbeads exerted some protective effect in xenogeneic islets resulting in prolonged graft survival.

  7. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website.

  8. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  9. Demonstration of an Area-Enclosing Guided-Atom Interferometer for Rotation Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Saijun; Su, Edward; Prentiss, Mara

    2007-10-26

    We demonstrate area-enclosing atom interferometry based on a moving guide. Light pulses along the free-propagation direction of a magnetic guide are applied to split and recombine the confined atomic matter-wave, while the atoms are translated back and forth along a second direction in 50 ms. The interferometer is estimated to resolve 10 times the earth rotation rate per interferometry cycle. We demonstrate a ''folded figure 8'' interfering configuration for creating a compact, large-area atom gyroscope with multiple-turn interfering paths.

  10. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  11. An Introduction to ESERO-UK, the UK Space Education Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Allan; Mather, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the UK branch of the European Space Education Resource Office (ESERO-UK), also known as the UK Space Education Office. It is a teaching project designed to use space to enthuse primary and secondary students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The office is funded by the European Space…

  12. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  13. Science education reforms in the UK.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    As children return to school at the end of the summer in the UK, planned reforms aim to increase their science and maths literacy. A comprehensive foundation in these essential subjects is necessary to ensure that the UK remains at the forefront of science and technology for decades to come.

  14. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  15. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  16. Enclosed pillar arrays integrated on a fluidic platform for on-chip separations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V; Taylor, Lisa; Sepaniak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of reliably producing sealed 3-D structures, few researchers have tackled the challenges of creating pillar beds suitable for miniaturized liquid phase separation systems. Herein, we describe an original processing sequence for the fabrication of enclosed pillar arrays integrated on a fluidic chip which, we believe, will further stimulate interest in this field. Our approach yields a mechanically robust enclosed pillar system that withstands mechanical impacts commonly incurred during processing, sealing and operation, resulting in a design particularly suitable for the research environment. A combination of a wafer-level fabrication sequence with chip-level elastomer bonding allows for chip reusability, an attractive and cost efficient advancement for research applications. The characteristic features in the implemented highly ordered pillar arrays are scalable to submicron dimensions. The proposed fluidic structures are suitable for handling picolitre sample volumes and offer prospects for substantial improvements in separation efficiency and permeability over traditional packed and monolithic columns. Our experimental observations indicate plate heights as low as 0.76 {mu}m for a 10 mm long pillar bed. Theoretical calculations confirm that ordered pillar arrays with submicron pore sizes combine superior analysis speed, picolitre sample volumes, high permeability and reasonably large plate numbers on a small footprint. In addition, we describe a fluidic interface that provides streamlined coupling of the fabricated structures with off-chip fluidic components.

  17. Location representation in enclosed spaces: what types of information afford young children an advantage?

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify location in a square-shaped space, where geometry is uninformative, so long as scale-like information was available on the walls of the space [Huttenlocher, J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007a). Coding location in enclosed spaces: Is geometry the principle? Developmental Science, 10, 741-746]. Here we build on this work by examining more closely what types of cues afford 18- to 24-month-olds an advantage in locating a target object following disorientation. Their performance was assessed when linear scale-like information was presented either in isolation or in composite form. It was found that, even in isolation, young children searched at the appropriate locations, with added benefit when presented as a composite. We suggest that linear scale-like dimensions, especially when available in composite form, play a critical role in supporting location representation in young children.

  18. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  19. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  20. Sound reduction at a target point inside an enclosed cavity using particle dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li; Shi, Yaogui; Yang, Qiliang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel structural damping approach to reduce the sound pressure at a target point inside an enclosed cavity. In this approach, particle dampers filled with either metal or nonmetal particles are used. The dissipation mechanisms of such dampers are primarily related to the friction and collision of particle-wall and particle-particle contacts. In this research, each panel contribution was first analyzed to identify the panel that contributes the most to the target point. The proposed particle dampers were then attached to this panel for sound reduction. In the numerical process, a Particle Dampers Cyclic Iterative Method (PDCIM) was proposed for extracting the damping loss factor of the particle dampers to compute the sound pressure of a target point in the cavity with the particle dampers. For further comparative studies, simulation experiments are conducted for three cases: a case with the particle dampers, a case with the empty particle containers and a case with the equivalent mass. The numerical study found that the case with the particle dampers had the best sound reduction effect. Later, model tests were carried out to validate the numerical results. Experimental test results revealed that the particle dampers are remarkably effective for reducing the sound inside the enclosed cavity.

  1. Influence of Buoyant Convection on the Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Jia, Kezhong; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen. Lea-Der

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. There have been numerous studies of flame stability. Relatively few studies have investigated the stability of flames with an oxidizer co-flow, compared with the number of studies on (nearly) free jet diffusion flames. The air flow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. In normal gravity, however, the effects of the air flow on flame stability are often complicated by the presence of buoyant convection. A comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames can provide clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) research, described at the following URL site: http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm, is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flames.

  2. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  3. Application of RADTRAN to estimation of doses to persons in enclosed spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code for transportation risk analysis can be used to estimate doses to persons in enclosed volumes. This application was developed in response to a need to examine consequences of a hypothetical container leak during accident-free transportation by cargo air. The original problem addressed tritium containers, but the method can be applied to any gaseous or suspended particulate material potentially released in an airplane or other enclosed area (e.g., warehouse) under accident-free conditions. Such leakage can occur during shipment of any radioactive gas or material with a gaseous phase. Atmospheric dispersion is normally modeled in RADTRAN as a series of downwind isopleths each of which is assigned a dilution factor (also known as time-integrated concentration or X/Q value). These values are located in look-up tables in RADTRAN and are normally taken from externally performed Gaussian dispersion calculations. The dilution factors are used to estimate inhalation dose to persons in the specified downwind areas.

  4. Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Pelham, T W; Holt, L E; Moss, M A

    2002-04-01

    This article summarises the latest information on the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO(2) emissions are identified, current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation of these toxic gases are presented. A detailed literature search involving 72 references in English and French from research conducted in North America and Europe was used. Material was from peer reviewed journals and other appropriate sources. Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) which are present in enclosed skating facilities, may exacerbate a pre-existing pathogenic condition in those people who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, short track speed skating, and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it would seem appropriate to seek more definitive answers to this important health problem. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, 10 recommendations are listed.

  5. Cost-effectiveness comparison between topical silver sulfadiazine and enclosed silver dressing for partial-thickness burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Van Vliet, Michael M; Krishnan, Naveen M; Garner, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    The standard treatment of partial-thickness burns includes topical silver products such as silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream and enclosed dressings including silver-impregnated foam (Mepilex Ag; Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) and silver-laden sheets (Aquacel Ag; ConvaTec, Skillman, NJ). The current state of health care is limited by resources, with an emphasis on evidence-based outcomes and cost-effective treatments. This study includes a decision analysis with an incremental cost-utility ratio comparing enclosed silver dressings with SSD in partial-thickness burn patients with TBSA less than 20%. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify clinically relevant health states in partial-thickness burn patients. These health states include successful healing, infection, and noninfected delayed healing requiring either surgery or conservative management. The probabilities of these health states were combined with Medicare CPT reimbursement codes (cost) and patient-derived utilities to fit into the decision model. Utilities were obtained using a visual analog scale during patient interviews. Expected cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using the roll-back method. The incremental cost-utility ratio for enclosed silver dressing relative to SSD was $40,167.99/QALY. One-way sensitivity analysis of complication rates confirmed robustness of the model. Assuming a maximum willingness to pay $50,000/QALY, the complication rate for SSD must be 22% or higher for enclosed silver dressing to be cost effective. By varying complication rates for SSD and enclosed silver dressings, the two-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated the cost effectiveness of using enclosed silver dressing at the majority of complication rates for both treatment modalities. Enclosed silver dressings are a cost-effective means of treating partial thickness burns.

  6. Coastal upwelling and downwelling forcing of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. D.; Largier, J. L.; Torres, R.; Sheridan, M.; Trasviña, A.; Souza, A.; Pazos, Y.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-05-01

    Semi-enclosed bays in upwelling regions are exposed to forcing related to winds, currents and buoyancy over the shelf. The influence of this external forcing is moderated by factors such as connectivity to the open ocean, shelter by surrounding topography, dimensions of the bay, and freshwater outflows. Such bays, preferred locations for ports, mariculture, marine industry, recreational activities and coastal settlement, present a range of characteristics, understanding of which is necessary to their rational management. Observations in such a semi-enclosed bay, the Ria de Vigo in Spain, are used to characterize the influence of upwelling and downwelling pulses on its circulation. In this location, near the northern limit of the Iberian upwelling system, upwelling events dominate during a short summer season and downwelling events the rest of the year. The ria response to the external forcing is central to nutrient supply and resultant plankton productivity that supports its high level of cultured mussel production. Intensive field studies in September 2006 and June 2007 captured a downwelling event and an upwelling event, respectively. Data from eight current profiler moorings and boat-based MiniBat/ADCP surveys provided an unprecedented quasi-synoptic view of the distribution of water masses and circulation patterns in any ria. In the outer ria, circulation was dominated by the introduction of wind-driven alongshore flow from the external continental shelf through the ria entrances and its interaction with the topography. In the middle ria, circulation was primarily related to the upwelling/downwelling cycle, with a cool, salty and dense lower layer penetrating to the inner ria during upwelling over the shelf. A warmer, lower salinity and less dense surface layer of coastal waters flowed inward during downwelling. Without external forcing, the inner ria responded primarily to tides and buoyancy changes related to land runoff. Under both upwelling and downwelling

  7. Experiences of non-UK-qualified doctors working within the UK regulatory framework: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Slowther, A; Lewando Hundt, GA; Purkis, J; Taylor, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the experience of non-UK-qualified doctors in working within the regulatory framework of the General Medical Council (GMC) document Good Medical Practice. Design Individual interviews and focus groups. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Non-UK-qualified doctors who had registered with the GMC between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2008, doctors attending training/induction programmes for non-UK-qualified doctors, and key informants involved in training and support for non-UK-qualified doctors. Main outcome measures Themes identified from analysis of interview and focus group transcripts. Results Information and support for non-UK qualified doctors who apply to register to work in the UK has little reference to the ethical and professional standards required of doctors working in the UK. Recognition of the ethical, legal and cultural context of UK healthcare occurs once doctors are working in practice. Non-UK qualified doctors reported clear differences in the ethical and legal framework for practising medicine between the UK and their country of qualification, particularly in the model of the doctor–patient relationship. The degree of support for non-UK-qualified doctors in dealing with ethical concerns is related to the type of post they work in. European doctors describe similar difficulties with working in an unfamiliar regulatory framework to their non-European colleagues. Conclusions Non-UK-qualified doctors experience a number of difficulties related to practising within a different ethical and professional regulatory framework. Provision of information and educational resources before registration, together with in-practice support would help to develop a more effective understanding of GMP and its implications for practice in the UK. PMID:22408082

  8. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; ...

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  9. Air-quality monitoring and detection of air contamination in an enclosed environment.

    PubMed

    Skliar, M; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of an air-quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on a distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. Kalman filtering is identified as a suitable method for generating on-line estimation of the spatial contamination profile, and an implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is shown to be preferable for rear-time implementation. The identification of the contaminant concentration profile allows for a straightforward solution of the early detection of an air contamination event and provides information that enables potential automatic diagnosis of an unknown contamination source.

  10. "Fluid bearing" effect of enclosed liquids in grooves on drag reduction in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haosheng; Gao, Yang; Stone, Howard A.; Li, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    We report details of the fluid motion formed within and above grooves when a laminar continuous phase fluid flows over a second immiscible fluid enclosed in a grooved microchannel. Vortical structures within the transverse grooves were caused by a slip velocity at the fluid-fluid interface and act as "fluid bearings" on the boundary to lubricate the flow of the continuous phase. We investigated the drag reduction in the laminar flow in the microchannel by measuring slip at the boundaries and calculating an effective slip length, taking into account the influence of the effect of the viscosity ratio of the two fluids on the effective slip length. The "fluid bearing" effect can be used to transport high viscosity fluids using low viscosity fluids trapped in cavities to reduce drag.

  11. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Monaco, C

    1992-03-01

    Totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) are used to evacuate the crews of mobile offshore drilling units in emergencies. The small size and flat bottom of the TEMPSC predispose most occupants to seasickness, even in relatively calm waters. This paper discusses efforts required to improve the well-being of occupants in terms of reducing seasickness, dehydration, hypothermia, anxiety, and the other factors that contribute to loss of comfort and the will to survive. Specific recommendations include the provision of climatic control to regulate temperature, remove odors and provide fresh air; potable water, electrolytes, and survival rations; and an ample supply of motion sickness bags. Overcrowding should be avoided. Anti-motion-sickness drug therapy to control vomiting should be administered in two ways: initial injection of intramuscular scopolamine for fast action followed by a transdermal ear patch for long-term protection. Leadership and seasickness management should be requisite survival training for all oil rig workers.

  12. Physical assembly of Ag nanocrystals on enclosed surfaces in monocrystalline Si

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Michael S.; Theodore, N. David; Wei, Chao-Chen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Growth of thin crystals on external substrate surfaces by many different methods is a well-known technique, but its extension to inner, enclosed surfaces of large defects in monocrystalline materials has not yet been reported. The literature on thin film growth and defects in materials can be leveraged to fabricate new structures for a variety of applications. Here we show a physical process of nucleation and evolution of nanocrystalline silver inside voids in monocrystalline silicon. We found that the Ag growth is hetero-epitaxial using a coincident site lattice. Alignment of Ag and Si atomic planes is uniformly observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and macroscopically by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. PMID:25376502

  13. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.

  14. Synthesis and photochemical applications of processable polymers enclosing photoluminescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Dario; Mazzier, Daniela; Silvestrini, Simone; Privitera, Alberto; Marega, Carla; Franco, Lorenzo; Moretto, Alessandro

    2015-04-28

    Herein, we propose convenient routes to produce hybrid-polymers that covalently enclosed, or confined, N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs). We focus our attention on polyamide, polyurea-urethane, polyester, and polymethylmetacrylate polymers, some of the most common resources used to create everyday materials. These hybrid materials can be easily prepared and processed to obtain macroscopic objects of different shapes, i.e., fibers, transparent sheets, and bulky forms, where the characteristic luminescence properties of the native N-doped CQDs are preserved. More importantly we explore the potential use of these hybrid composites to achieve photochemical reactions as those of photoreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (under UV-light), the selective photo-oxidation of benzylalcohol to the benzaldehyde (under vis-light), and the photocatalytic generation of H2 (under UV-light).

  15. Exploring a partially enclosed space by lead-exposed female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R E; Laughlin, N K

    2001-01-01

    Beginning on Day 8 postpartum, lead acetate was administered to female rhesus monkeys (n=48). Their blood lead levels rose to 35-40 microg/dl (the level maintained for the duration of the study period) by 12 weeks of age. Weekly, these lead-exposed monkeys and their controls (n=23) were placed in a partially enclosed space from the second postnatal week until they escaped three times or were 26 weeks old. The lead-exposed monkeys exhibited more fear, were more likely to be agitated, and climbed more frequently during the first testing session. In subsequent sessions, they more frequently explored the periphery of the test area than the controls. The lead-exposed monkeys also tended to escape sooner although that trend did not consistently reach the.05 level of significance. The increased activity and agitation of the lead-exposed monkeys is suggestive of deficits reported in human children with high blood lead levels.

  16. Lipoedema: the first UK patient survey.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Lipoedema UK was founded in 2012 by women with lipoedema and clinicians working in the Lymphoedema Service at St George's Hospital in London. Its patron is Professor Peter Mortimer, the UK's leading Lipoedema expert, and its nurse consultant is Sandy Ellis, who diagnoses and treats many women with Lipoedema in the UK and is also the nurse consultant in the St George's team. The charity's objectives are to educate doctors, health professionals and the public about lipoedema and its symptoms, so it may be diagnosed and treated earlier.

  17. RF Exposure Analysis for Multiple Wi-Fi Devices In Enclosed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Rhodes, Bryan A.; deSilva, B. Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.; Keiser, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Wi-Fi devices operated inside a metallic enclosure have been investigation in the recent years. A motivation for this study is to investigate wave propagation inside an enclosed environment such as elevator, car, aircraft, and spacecraft. There are performances and safety concerned that when the RF transmitters are used in the metallic enclosed environments. In this paper, the field distributions inside a confined room were investigated with multiple portable Wi-Fi devices. Computer simulations were performed using the rigorous computational electromagnetics (CEM). The method of moments (MoM) was used to model the mutual coupling among antennas. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was applied for the multiple reflections off the ground and walls. The prediction of the field distribution inside such environment is useful for the planning and deployment of a wireless radio and sensor system. Factors that affect the field strengths and distributions of radio waves in confined space were analyzed. The results could be used to evaluate the RF exposure safety in confined environment. By comparing the field distributions for various scenarios, it was observed that the Wi-Fi device counts, spacing and relative locations in the room are important factors in such environments. The RF Keep Out Zone (KOZ), where the electric field strengths exceed the permissible RF exposure limit, could be used to assess the RF human exposure compliance. As shown in this study, it s possible to maximize or minimize field intensity in specific area by arranging the Wi-Fi devices as a function of the relative location and spacing in a calculated manner.

  18. Iron geochemistry in surface sediments of a temperate semi-enclosed bay, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Huang, Xiang-Li; Yang, Gui-Peng; Chen, Liang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe) speciation and microbial reducible Fe(III) oxides (MR-Fe(III)) in surface sediments of semi-enclosed Jiaozhou Bay were quantified to reveal Fe geochemistry in the settings subjected to anthropogenic perturbations. Results indicate that sedimentary Fe in the bay is mainly of natural weathering source, without appreciable anthropogenic Fe inputs, as indicated by a generally good linear coupling of total Fe to aluminum. Among the three highly reactive Fe(III) (Fe(III)HR) pools, well crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)wc) were always the predominant phase, followed by poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)pc), and amorphous Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)am) were only of minor importance. The dominance of non-sulfidized Fe(II) over sulfidized Fe in the sediments points to the importance of microbial iron(III) reduction (MIR) in the free sulfide-starved conditions. High riverine inputs of TOC leads to outliers in the Fe(III)HR versus total organic carbon (TOC) ratio compared the rest of the bay. OM-dependent MIR as the common driving force has rendered all Fe(II)-bearing phases linearly coupled to TOC. MR-Fe(III) in the surface sediments covered all Fe(III)am and a fraction of less reactive Fe(III) phases, while Fe(III)wc was at most a minor contributor. Highly reactive Fe appears to be enriched to some extent in the temperate semi-enclosed bay, as in the wet-tropical counterparts.

  19. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  20. Learning from UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Government is wise to examine other health care systems as it strives to improve the quality of care and address rising costs to both governments and individuals. Focus is currently on the United Kingdom, whose National Health Service (NHS) stands out as one that delivers good care at a reasonable price to all who need it. The Australian and UK systems have many similarities: universal access, tax payer support, no or low cost at point of delivery, and good population health outcomes. They also face similar pressures on services from aging, increasingly unwell yet expectant populations.However, there are also differences, largely in the way that health care is funded, organised and delivered. The NHS is a huge system for 60 million people in four home countries with diverging policies. Within England, the system is managed through 10 strategic health authorities, each responsible for about 5 million people and having the right to interpret national policy. Population based health care, including tertiary care, is funded locally via primary care trusts.

  1. UK organisation of access care.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed.

  2. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  3. The licensing of medicines in the UK.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    Before a medicinal product* can be marketed in the UK, a marketing authorisation (formerly called a 'product licence') is needed. Such an authorisation can be granted in the European Union (EU), via the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), European Commission (EC) and member state's competent authorities or, specifically in the UK, via the Medicines and Healthcare product Regulatory Agency (MHRA) on behalf of the UK licensing authority.2(-)4 Also, a change to the authorisation is needed if the licensing status of a medicine is changed; for example, from a prescription-only medicine (POM) to a pharmacy medicine (P). Here we look at the procedures involved in the licensing of medicines (including herbal and homoeopathic products) for use in the UK.

  4. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes.

  5. Vocational Qualifications for the UK Explosives Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-15

    possible consequences of a lack of competence when working with munitions or explosives can be devastating and the UK has long held concerns over these...their workforces; • activities with significant, or indeed, perceived health and safety and public safety risks are subject to increasingly...www.homelandsecurityqualifications.co.uk 4 National Occupational Standards (NOS) for Explosives Substances and Articles (ESA). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has

  6. The role of dams in the water stability and oxygenation of semi-enclosed bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos; Kountoura, Krystallia

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that dams were constructed in order to provide significant domestic and economic benefits. Apart from the advantages of these constructions, such as the hydroelectric power production, the flooding control and the storage of water for irrigation, there are also important impacts. Among the most serious of them upstream, is the conversion from a river system to a lake, the sediment transport and changes in the river's temperature and oxygen. However due to the irregular discharge resulting from the dams operation, there are also changes in biodiversity and in bio-geochemical cycle of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus thereby causing changes in temperature, turbidity, stratification, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and heavy metals, downstream. In order to determine how the existence of dams affects both the water stability and the dissolved oxygen conditions, we studied the enclosed bay of Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece. The gulf receives freshwater inputs from north by two rivers along which there are three dams. Before the dams, the maximum discharges into the Amvrakikos Gulf were during late winter and spring months. During autumn and early winter stratification was weak and mixing could take place within the entire gulf. After the dams construction, the rivers have been discharging large amounts of freshwater into the gulf in accordance to the Public Power Corporation's needs. Due to the fact that large volumes of fresh water discharged into the system during summer and autumn, much later than would occur without the presence of dams, the water column is characterized by stratification during those periods. As a consequence, the pycnocline which is characterized by high static stability, prevents both the mixing between the surface and the bottom layer and the oxygenation of the isolated water near the bottom. On the other hand due to the limited hydropower needs during spring, the volume of fresh water which discharged into the system is

  7. Novel Cl- currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone and acetylcholine in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Voltage-clamp techniques were used to study the membrane currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed oocytes of Xenopus laevis (follicles). Both agonists caused complex responses that were more evident when the follicles were in hypotonic Ringer solution (HR; 190.4 mosM). In this medium, currents activated by FSH regularly showed three phases whereas currents activated by ACh displayed three to six phases. At a holding potential of -60 mV, FSH, and ACh responses involved combinations of inward and outward currents. Both FSH and ACh responses included a slow smooth inward component that was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, mainly to Cl- (S(in)). This current was strongly dependent on the osmolarity of the external solution: an increase in osmolarity of the HR solution of 18-20 mosM caused a 50% decrease in S(in). In contrast, a fast and transient Cl- current (F(in)) specifically elicited by ACh was not dependent on osmolarity. Both, F(in) and S(in) currents required the presence of follicular cells, since defolliculation using three different methods abolished all the response to FSH and at least four components of the ACh responses. The membrane channels carrying F(in) and oscillatory Cl- currents elicited by stimulation of ACh or serum receptors, were much more permeable to I- and Br- than Cl-, whereas S(in) channels were equally permeable to these anions. Unlike the oscillatory Cl- currents generated in the oocyte itself, S(in) and F(in) currents in follicle-enclosed oocytes were not abolished by chelation of intracellular Ca2+, either with EGTA or BAPTA, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ does not play a critical role in the activation of these currents. Our experiments show that S(in) and F(in) currents are quite distinct from the previously characterized oscillatory Cl- responses of oocytes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that the FSH and ACh receptors, the Cl- channels

  8. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  14. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  15. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres...

  1. DFTr optimization and DFTr-MD studies of glucose, ten explicit water molecules enclosed by an implicit solvent, COSMO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DFTr optimization studies are carried out on alpha/beta-glucose surrounded by ten explicit water molecules and the glucose/water super-molecule completely enclosed by an implicit solvation model, COSMO. Twenty one starting configurations of the explicit waters were first optimized empirically with t...

  2. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  3. Pollution of PM10 in an underground enclosed loading dock in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualqumboz, M. S.; Mohammed, N. I.; Malakahmad, A.; Nazif, A. N.; Albattniji, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    The enclosed nature of underground loading docks results in accumulation of motor vehicles emissions. Thus, concentration of numerous harmful air pollutants including PM10 particles can increase and reach dangerous levels. This paper aims to study short-term and long-term exposure of PM10 particles inside an underground loading dock located in Malaysia. In addition, the correlation with indoor temperature, relative humidity and vehicles flow will be measured. The concentrations of PM10 were measured for three consecutive weeks using the real-time air quality monitoring instrument AQM60. Series of statistical tests and multiple linear regression analysis were applied on the data using SPSS software and MATLAB R2013a. The results illustrated that PM10 daily average concentration was in compliance with the Malaysian guideline of 150 µg/m3. Actually, 95% of instantaneous PM10 concentration readings were below 75 μg/m3. In addition, significant correlation were found between PM10 concentration and indoor temperature, relative humidity and the previous concentration. The multiple R and R2 were 0.91 and 0.83, respectively. PM10 concentration was also correlated with motor vehicles flow. In conclusion, health effects of long-term exposure to small repetitive doses of air pollutant inside underground facilities should be studied and appropriate control measures need to be implemented.

  4. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  5. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  6. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  7. Trapping of fine sediment in a semi-enclosed bay, Palau, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Victor, Steven; Wolanski, Eric; Richmond, Robert H.

    2003-08-01

    Airai Bay, Palau, is a small (3 km 2), semi-enclosed, mangrove-fringed, meso-tidal, coral lagoon on the southeast coast of Palau. It drains a small catchment area (26 km 2) of highly erodible soils in an area with high annual rainfall (3.7 m). River floods are short-lived and the sediment load is very large, with suspended fine sediment concentration exceeding 1500 mg l -1. The resulting river plume is about 2 m thick. The brackish water residence time is about 7 days; during this period the plume remains a distinct surface feature even after river runoff has ceased. About 98% of the riverine fine sediment settles in Airai Bay, of which about 15-30% is deposited in the mangroves during river floods. This mud remains trapped in Airai Bay because the bay is protected from ocean swells and the tidal currents and locally generated wind waves are too small to resuspend the mud in quantity. The mud is smothering coral reefs, creating a phase shift from coral to fleshy algae dominance, and is even changing habitats by creating mud banks. The persistence of Airai Bay marine resources may not be possible without improved soil erosion control in the river catchment.

  8. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare.

  9. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

    1992-02-01

    Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness.

  10. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-11-15

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  11. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    PubMed

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated.

  12. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method.

  13. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  14. Diffusion and rheology in a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting colloids enclosed by a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte-Rivera, Christian; Zia, Roseanna

    2014-11-01

    We study diffusion and rheology of a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting colloidal spheres enclosed by a spherical cavity, utilizing the Stokesian Dynamics framework to account for long-range many-body and pairwise lubrication interactions between the particles and between particle and enclosure. Previous studies of 1D- and 2D-confined suspensions have revealed that boundaries exert a pronounced qualitative influence on microstructure, dynamics, and rheology. While studies of the motion of a point particle in a cavity have been reported, the neglect of finite size sacrifices significant qualitative information, resulting in an incorrect coupling between torque and velocity, among others. We have derived new hydrodynamic mobility functions for finite-size particles confined by a spherical boundary that faithfully capture the physics of the boundary and its influence on particle dynamics. We obtain the full grand-mobility matrix and, from these, the position-dependent short-time self-diffusivity for an isolated particle and the dynamics of a hydrodynamically interacting pair suspended in the cavity. Both of these are studied over a range of particle-to-cavity size ratios. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF GRFP under Grant No. DGE-0707428. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

  15. Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Primary Productivity in the Semi-Enclosed Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, R.; Nishi, S.; Taniguchi, M.; Tominaga, O.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge is an alternative nutrient pathway and can drive primary production in coastal seas. However, very little is known about an exact relationship between input of groundwater and response of primary production. To clarify the relationship, we conducted the field survey in the semi-enclosed coastal bay in Japan (Obama Bay). There are abundant amounts of groundwater resources in the basin. Firstly, we conducted 222Rn continuous measurement along the coast in March 2013 to obtain the spatial difference of groundwater impact. As a result, 222Rn activity clearly showed that groundwater discharge concentrates in the western part of the bay head. We thus conducted in-situ measurements of primary productivity using stable 13C tracer method and environmental parameters (ex. 222Rn activity, light intensity, temperature and nutrient concentrations) at 6 stations within the western bay head in July and August 2013. Primary productivity within the western bay head changed from 11.0 to 49.5 μg C L-1 hr-1 in July and from 9.3 to 32.4 μg C L-1 hr-1 in August. Moreover, there was significant relationship between primary productivity and 222Rn concentration in both months. Although light intensity and water temperature were different in each station and month, concentrations of nutrients limited primary productivity. These results showed that nutrient supply from SGD would affect crucial impact on primary productivity in Obama Bay.

  16. Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J; Bryson, Rosie J; Meacham, Mark C; Bowen, Helen C; Johnson, Sarah E; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Breward, Neil; Harriman, Miles; Tucker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    Se is an essential element for animals. In man low dietary Se intakes are associated with health disorders including oxidative stress-related conditions, reduced fertility and immune functions and an increased risk of cancers. Although the reference nutrient intakes for adult females and males in the UK are 60 and 75 microg Se/d respectively, dietary Se intakes in the UK have declined from >60 microg Se/d in the 1970s to 35 microg Se/d in the 1990s, with a concomitant decline in human Se status. This decline in Se intake and status has been attributed primarily to the replacement of milling wheat having high levels of grain Se and grown on high-Se soils in North America with UK-sourced wheat having low levels of grain Se and grown on low-Se soils. An immediate solution to low dietary Se intake and status is to enrich UK-grown food crops using Se fertilisers (agronomic biofortification). Such a strategy has been adopted with success in Finland. It may also be possible to enrich food crops in the longer term by selecting or breeding crop varieties with enhanced Se-accumulation characteristics (genetic biofortification). The present paper will review the potential for biofortification of UK food crops with Se.

  17. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  18. Health Technology Assessment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Raftery, James; Powell, John

    2013-10-12

    In this Review, we discuss the UK's Health Technology Assessment programme, which is 20 years old in 2013. We situate the programme in the context of the UK landscape for evidence-based medicine, including in relation to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and as guidance to the National Health Service. We identify features that might be of value to other health systems as they confront the challenges of rapid innovation and rising costs. We use examples of recent studies to show the strengths and weaknesses of the programme.

  19. Bullying and the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, R H; Atkins, S; Gould, M

    2012-06-01

    There are certain characteristics of the culture and environment in the Armed Forces that may be conducive to bullying. In this article we examine the cultural and environmental factors that may encourage such behaviour and those that act as deterrents for victims to come forward. We will look at the scope of this problem within the UK Armed Forces specifically, before more generally considering the psychological impact of bullying. There appears to be an overall downward trend in bullying within the UK Armed Forces and a positive increase in complaints as more victims step forward. We conclude by highlighting some areas for further development.

  20. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  1. Assessment of hydrodynamics, biochemical parameters and eddy diffusivity in a semi-enclosed Ionian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of the Italian flagship Project RITMARE, during December 2013 a meteo-oceanographic station was installed in the Mar Grande basin, a semi-enclosed bay in Southern Italy, connected to the Ionian Sea. Due to the presence of coastal heavy industry and anthropic pressure, this marine system has experienced environmental degradation over the last decades. Therefore, much monitoring of hydrodynamics and water quality indicators is required. In fact, this monitoring makes it possible to check the real-time biochemical status of the basin and therefore promptly intervene when accidental spills occur, and to create a dataset necessary to calibrate and validate modelling systems providing forecasts. The present paper aims to analyze and discuss the long term and continuous recordings of hydrodynamic and biochemical data collected by this station, available for the period from January 2014 up to December 2014. In detail, hourly measurements of wind, waves, current velocity, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and turbidity concentrations were archived in monthly time-series and processed in frequency domain, using the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), to both delineate the reciprocal effects of drivers and deduce some correlations between parameters (De Serio and Mossa, 2013). Following this, monthly surface current data were processed in order to obtain time-averaged values of the turbulent velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent time scales. Based on these calculated turbulent parameters, the horizontal eddy diffusivity was computed with the hypothesis of homogeneous turbulence using two methods, which provided results with the same order of magnitude. These results are of interest for numerical dispersion models. Finally, only referring to the month of December 2014, the time series of the crude oil concentration was available at the station and was examined in depth. The field data enabled us to conclude that the crude oil dispersion

  2. Electron-rich mode ignition evaluations of a planar glass-enclosed thermionic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Brian D.; Lamp, Thomas R.; Ramalingam, Mysore L.; Thayer, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A planar variable gap glass-enclosed thermionic converter is presently being evaluated for possible application as a remote ground based power source or as a topping cycle in a conventional steam power plant in addition to the more conventional space power application. Present day steam power plants operate at a peak system temperature of 820 to 870 K; although the heat from burning the fuel is available at a much higher temperature of about 2200 K (Britt, 1975). One way of increasing the peak operating temperature, thereby utilizing the bulk of the thermodynamically available energy in the fuel, is to add a thermodynamic cycle on top of the steam with the capability of converting part of the heat into electricity at a higher temperature (Miskolczy, 1979). The heat from the topping cycle can be rejected to the steam cycle at safe operating temperatures, thus leaving the overall system unaffected. Conventional thermionic converters that produce 5 to 10 W/cm2 at 10% efficiency would not be economically feasible for this application but by studying the operating characteristics carefully with reference to the ignition and plasma characteristics, modern state-of-the art materials can be made to produce 30 W/cm2 at 20% efficiency (Ramalingam, 1991). This could then be used to raise the overall conversion efficiency to 40% or higher. One of the most important characteristics of any thermionic converter at a given set of electrode temperatures and cesium pressure is the ignition point (Hatsopoulos, 1973). The ignition point helps to define the stable range of operation for current density and output power. The ability to accurately predict this characteristic when designing a converter would be of great utility. Data is reported characterizing thermionic converter performance with respect to the converter's dependence on emitter temperature, cesium vapor pressure and interelectrode gap. Experimental current density vs. voltage (J-V) curves are reported, then conclusions

  3. Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using an Enclosed Array of Multiband, Miniaturized Patch Antennas

    PubMed Central

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 3-D microwave breast imaging study in which we reconstruct the dielectric profiles of MRI-derived numerical breast phantoms from simulated array measurements using an enclosed array of multiband, miniaturized patch antennas. The array is designed to overcome challenges relating to the ill-posed nature of the inverse scattering system. We use a multifrequency formulation of the distorted Born iterative method to image four normal-tissue breast phantoms, each corresponding to a different density class. The reconstructed fibroglandular distributions are very faithful to the true distributions in location and basic shape. These results establish the feasibility of using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multiband patch antennas for quantitative microwave breast imaging. PMID:25419189

  4. Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using an Enclosed Array of Multiband, Miniaturized Patch Antennas.

    PubMed

    Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    We present a 3-D microwave breast imaging study in which we reconstruct the dielectric profiles of MRI-derived numerical breast phantoms from simulated array measurements using an enclosed array of multiband, miniaturized patch antennas. The array is designed to overcome challenges relating to the ill-posed nature of the inverse scattering system. We use a multifrequency formulation of the distorted Born iterative method to image four normal-tissue breast phantoms, each corresponding to a different density class. The reconstructed fibroglandular distributions are very faithful to the true distributions in location and basic shape. These results establish the feasibility of using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multiband patch antennas for quantitative microwave breast imaging.

  5. Behavior in normal and reduced gravity of an enclosed liquid/gas system with nonuniform heating from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Schiller, D. N.; Disimile, P.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature and velocity fields have been investigated for a single-phase gas system and a two-layer gas-and-liquid system enclosed in a circular cylinder being heated suddenly and nonuniformly from above. The transient response of the gas, liquid, and container walls was modelled numerically in normal and reduced gravity (10 to the -5 g). Verification of the model was accomplished via flow visualization experiments in 10 cm high by 10 cm diameter plexiglass cylinders.

  6. Field Survey on the Incidence and Severity of Motion Sickness in the Canadian Forces Enclosed light Armoured Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Hofer 2Lt Brian Coyle Defence R& D Canada Technical Memorandum DRDC Toronto TM 2007-063 April 2007 Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et...Forces enclosed light armoured vehicle Bob Cheung Ann Nakashima Kevin Hofer 2Lt Brian Coyle Defence R& D Canada...uncontrolled variables such as noise, vibration, adverse weather, stress and fatigue likely affected the scores of diagnostic motion sickness symptoms and

  7. Progressing Professional Careers in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This paper arises out of a study conducted for the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education on "Professional Managers in UK Higher Education: Preparing for Complex Futures," and focuses on those aspects relating to professional and career development. The author reviewed understandings in the literature about the roles and identities…

  8. Single heterostructure lasers: a UK perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selway, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The gallium-aluminium-arsenide single heterostructure laser was the first commercially successful semiconductor laser produced in the UK. This paper presents a personal perspective on the events leading up to volume production and highlights the fascinating physics involved in this device and the impact of this on the task of engineering a robust component which was eventually manufactured for over 20 years.

  9. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  10. Accelerated technology transfer: the UK quantum initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Simon D.

    2016-10-01

    A new generation of quantum technology based systems, exploiting effects such as superposition and entanglement, will enable widespread, highly disruptive applications which are expected to be of great economic significance. However, the technology is only just emerging from the physics laboratory and generally remains at low TRLs. The question is: where, and when, will this impact be first manifest? The UK, with substantial Government backing, has embarked on an ambitious national program to accelerate the process of technology transfer with the objective of seizing a significant and sustainable share of the future economic benefit for the UK. Many challenges and uncertainties remain but the combined and co-ordinated efforts of Government, Industry and Academia are making great progress. The level of collaboration is unusually high and the goal of embedding a "QT Ecosystem" in the UK looks to be attainable. This paper describes the UK national programme, its key players, and their respective roles. It will illustrate some of the likely first commercial applications and provide a status update. Some of the challenges that might prevent realisation of the goal will be highlighted.

  11. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  12. Challenges for Academic Accreditation: The UK Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearman, Richard; Seddon, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Several factors (government policy, demographic trends, employer pressure) are leading to new forms of degree programmes in UK universities. The government is strongly encouraging engagement between universities and employers. Work-based learning is increasingly found in first and second cycle programmes, along with modules designed by employers…

  13. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  14. After Brexit: nursing a divided UK.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2016-09-14

    Back in September 2014, the people of Scotland voted by 55% to 45% to stay part of the UK. Billed as a once in a generation event, the referendum appeared to put paid to the idea of an independent Scotland for the foreseeable future.

  15. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  16. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  17. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  18. Quality assurance in UK higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrimplin, Valerie

    Quality Assurance methods are becoming increasingly well known as systems applicable in business, commerce and industry. In modified form, such concepts can be applied to higher education and, in the UK, quality systems are utilized in universities in order to ensure the quality of provision and standards of awards. Similar principles may also be applied to the evaluation of quality in research.

  19. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  20. Migrant cap 'may damage' UK physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have expressed concern that changes to UK immigration rules - including a sharp drop in the number of visas available for the most highly skilled migrants - could make it more difficult for universities and other institutions to recruit talented researchers from overseas.

  1. IS Curriculum Career Tracks: A UK Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanidis, Angelos; Fitzgerald, Guy; Counsell, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a comprehensive study on the specialisations or career tracks supported by the Information Systems (IS) curriculum in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilises the recently published IS curriculum guidelines (IS 2010) to develop a method for ranking the career tracks of…

  2. Metaphor Use in Three UK University Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Graham; Littlemore, Jeannette; Koester, Almut

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed in recent years that, on the one hand, metaphor occurs in UK university lectures in ways that are likely to confuse ESL learners (Littlemore 2001, 2003) and on the other hand that US lecturers use it in highly structured ways, particularly involving linked clusters, to help organize the lecture and indicate the opinions of the…

  3. In situ experimental study of carbon monoxide generation by gasoline-powered electric generator in an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangzhu; Emmerich, Steven J; Persily, Andrew K

    2010-12-01

    On the basis of currently available data, approximately 97% of generator-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities are caused by operating currently marketed, carbureted spark-ignited gasoline-powered generators (not equipped with emission controls) in enclosed spaces. To better understand and to reduce the occurrence of these fatalities, research is needed to quantify CO generation rates, develop and test CO emission control devices, and evaluate CO transport and exposure when operating a generator in an enclosed space. As a first step in these efforts, this paper presents measured CO generation rates from a generator without any emission control devices operating in an enclosed space under real weather conditions. This study expands on previously published information from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thirteen separate tests were conducted under different weather conditions at half and full generator load settings. It was found that the CO level in the shed reached a maximum value of 29,300 +/- 580 mg/m3, whereas the oxygen (O2) was depleted to a minimum level of 16.2 +/- 0.02% by volume. For the test conditions of real weather and generator operation, the CO generation and the O2 consumption could be expressed as time-averaged generation/consumption rates. It was also found that the CO generation and O2 consumption rates can be correlated to the O2 levels in the space and the actual load output from the generator. These correlations are shown to agree well with the measurements.

  4. 3D modelling of the transport and fate of riverine fine sediment exported to a semi-enclosed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Lewis, Stephen; Legat, Vincent; Deleersnijder, Eric; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of suspended sediment exported by rivers is crucial for the management of sensitive marine ecosystems. Sediment transport and fate can vary considerably depending on the geophysical characteristics of the offshore environment (i.e. open, semi-enclosed and enclosed systems and the nature of the continental shelf). In this presentation, we focus on a semi-enclosed setting in the Great Barrier Reef, NE Australia. In this system, the large tropical Burdekin River discharges to a long and narrow continental shelf containing numerous headlands and embayments. Using a new 3D sediment model we developed and SLIM 3D, a Finite Element 3D model for coastal flows, we highlight the key processes of sediment transport for such a system. We validate the model with available measured data from the region. Wind direction and speed during the high river flows are showed to largely control the dynamics and final fate of the sediments. Most (71%) of the sediment load delivered by the river is deposited and retained near the river mouth. The remaining sediment is transported further afield in riverine freshwater plumes. The suspended sediment transported longer distances in the freshwater plumes can reach sensitive marine ecosystems. These results are compared to previous studies on the Burdekin River sediment fate and differences are analysed. The model suggests that wind-driven resuspension events will redistribute sediments within an embayment but have little influence on transporting sediments from bay to bay.

  5. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20–22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. Visibility The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). Outreach Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. Integration Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. Coverage Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. Emissaries Trainees to spread the word. PMID:22360150

  6. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-06-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20-22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. VISIBILITY: The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). OUTREACH: Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. INTEGRATION: Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. COVERAGE: Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. EMISSARIES: Trainees to spread the word.

  7. The future of learning disabilities nursing in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Anthony

    2014-07-02

    This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.

  8. Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. I.; Park, K.-H.; Jeon, J. H.; Choi, H. L.; Barroga, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig’s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to

  9. Is The Enclosed Qaidam Basin In The Tibetan Plateau Accumulative Or Erosive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z.

    2014-12-01

    ), Qinghai Lake (loess), and the Chinese Loess Plateau (loess) indicate that the QB is an important dust source for the loess in Qinghai Lake and the Chinese Loess Plateau. Our numerical modeling showed that dust could be transported from the QB to the Loess Plateau during the glacial periods. Field observation also supports our new model of the geomorphic process in the enclosed basin.

  10. Assessment of current effect on waves in a semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2012-04-01

    The wave-current interaction process in the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is studied using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is used to exchange data fields between the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The 2-way data transfer between circulation and wave models is synchronous with ROMS providing current fields, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. In particular, the 3-D current profiles are averaged using a formulation that integrates the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wave number. This coupling procedure is carried out up to coastal areas by means of an offline grid nesting. The parent grid covers the whole Adriatic Sea and has a horizontal resolution of 2.0 km, whereas the child grid resolution increases to 0.5 km but it is limited to the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), where the current effect on waves is investigated. The most frequent winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea are the so-called Bora and Sirocco which cause high waves in the Adriatic Sea, although Bora waves are generally fetch-limited. In fact, Bora winds blow orthogonal to the main basin axis (approximately aligned with the NW-SE direction), while Sirocco has large spatial scale being a southeasterly wind. For the numerical simulations, the meteorological forcings are provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7, which is the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium. During the analysis period, the simulated wind, current and wave are compared with observations at the ISMAR oceanographic tower located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds are also compared with satellite-derived data. To account for the variability of sea states during a storm, the expected maximum individual wave height in a sea storm with a given history is also

  11. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  12. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Esteban F. E.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We analyze United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources selected in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or whether there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work toward the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. Methods: After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources automatically by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method that could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. Results: We found that most (87.0 ± 1.6%) of the candidate YSOs from the GLIMPSE red source catalog have only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart that matches the mid-infrared SED (fainter associated UKIDSS sources might still be present). Although at first sight this could seem surprising, given that YSOs are typically in clustered environments, we argue that within the mass range covered by the GLIMPSE YSO candidates (intermediate to high masses), clustering with objects with comparable mass is unlikely at the GLIMPSE resolution. Indeed, by performing simple clustering experiments based on a population synthesis model of Galactic YSOs, we found that although 60% of the GLIMPSE YSO enclose at least two UKIDSS sources, in general only one dominates the flux. Conclusions: No significant corrections are needed for estimates of the SFR of the Milky Way based on the assumption that the GLIMPSE YSOs

  13. Patterns of Higher Education Institutions in the UK. Tenth Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series published annually by Universities UK, with the support of GuildHE, updating and expanding a rich variety of data which help us to understand higher education in the UK. Since its first report in 2001, the "Patterns" series has examined the trends in UK higher education at both the sector and…

  14. UK Schools, CCTV and the Data Protection Act 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Emmeline

    2011-01-01

    The use of CCTV in schools is now commonplace in the UK. It is estimated that 85% of all UK secondary schools currently have CCTV systems in operation. The introduction of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) (enacted in March 2000) meant that for the first time CCTV had direct legislation governing its use in the UK. This paper attempts to apply…

  15. Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

    2001-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. The diffusion flame is found at the surface where the fuel jet and oxygen meet, react, and consume each other. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. Flame stability is strongly dependent on the fuel jet velocity. When the fuel jet velocity is sufficiently low, the diffusion flame anchors at the burner rim. When the fuel jet velocity is increased, the flame base gradually moves downstream. However, when the fuel jet velocity increases beyond a critical value, the flame base abruptly jumps downstream. When this "jump" occurs, the flame is said to have reached its lift-off condition and the critical fuel jet velocity is called the lift-off velocity. While lifted, the flame is not attached to the burner and it appears to float in mid-air. Flow conditions are such that the flame cannot be maintained at the burner rim despite the presence of both fuel and oxygen. When the fuel jet velocity is further increased, the flame will eventually extinguish at its blowout condition. In contrast, if the fuel jet velocity of a lifted flame is reduced, the flame base moves upstream and abruptly returns to anchor at the burner rim. The fuel jet velocity at reattachment can be much lower than that at lift off, illustrating the hysteresis effect present in flame stability. Although there have been numerous studies of flame stability, the controlling mechanisms are not well understood. This uncertainty is described by Pitts in his review of various competing theories of lift off and blow out in turbulent jet diffusion flames. There has

  16. Wound botulism in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Brett, Moira M; Hallas, Gill; Mpamugo, Obioma

    2004-06-01

    There are three main, naturally occurring, epidemiological types of botulism: food-borne, intestinal colonization (infant botulism) and wound botulism. The neurological signs and symptoms are the same for all three epidemiological types and may include respiratory paralysis. Wound botulism is caused by growth of cells and release of toxin in vivo, is associated with traumatic wounds and abscesses and has been reported in drug users, such as those injecting heroin or sniffing cocaine. Up to the end of 1999 there were no confirmed cases of wound botulism in the UK. Between the beginning of 2000 and the end of December 2002, there were 33 clinically diagnosed cases of wound botulism in the UK and Ireland. All cases had injected heroin into muscle or by 'skin popping'. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory tests in 20 of these cases. Eighteen cases were caused by type A toxin and two by type B toxin.

  17. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.

  18. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented.

  19. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    PubMed

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  20. History of Inclusive Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    John Clarkson, P; Coleman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The UK Design Council describes Inclusive Design as neither a new genre of design, nor a separate specialism, but as a general approach to designing in which designers ensure that their products and services address the needs of the widest possible audience, irrespective of age or ability. Inclusive Design (also known [in Europe] as Design for All and as Universal Design in the USA) is in essence the inverse of earlier approaches to designing for disabled and elderly people as a sub-set of the population, and an integral part of a more recent international trend towards the integration of older and disabled people in the mainstream of society. This paper describes the development of Inclusive Design in the UK, from its early beginnings, through its subsequent adoption as a topic of academic research, leading to its recent emergence embodied as a framework and toolkit for design.

  1. UK-4 flight spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic tests conducted on the UK-4 spacecraft are discussed. The objectives of the test are: (1) to determine the permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft, (2) to assess its magnetic stability, (3) to determine the dipole moment produced by energizing the magnetorquer coil, (4) to measure the despin torque due to eddy current and magnetic hysteresis, and (5) to deperm, compensate, and make other adjustments necessary to achieve satisfactory magnetic characteristics for the spacecraft.

  2. Asteroidal occultation timed by four UK observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H.

    2000-04-01

    The occultation of a 9th magnitude star by the minor planet (49) Pales at 01.00 on Monday January 17 was the first such event to be timed by more than one observer at different locations on the track in the UK (see Figure 1). It was also seen from Hungary, and by three sets of observers in Canada and the USA, but unfortunately heavy cloud prevented observation across most of Europe.

  3. Repeated batch production of theanine by coupled fermentation with energy transfer using membrane-enclosed gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase and dried yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Morihara, Yosuke; Wakayama, Mamoru; Tachiki, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase and dried baker's yeast cells were enclosed together in a dialysis membrane tube to produce theanine repeatedly by coupled fermentation with energy transfer. The membrane-enclosed enzyme preparation (M-EEP) formed approximately 600 mM theanine from glutamic acid and ethylamine at a 100% conversion rate. M-EEP maintained its productivity of theanine during six consecutive reactions in a mixture containing NAD(+).

  4. PIV measurement of high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in an enclosed flow apparatus with fan agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary K.; Cao, Lujie; Woodward, Scott H.; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Enclosed flow apparatuses with negligible mean flow are emerging as alternatives to wind tunnels for laboratory studies of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) with or without aerosol particles, especially in experimental validation of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). It is desired that these flow apparatuses generate HIT at high Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers ({{R}λ} ) and enable accurate measurement of turbulence parameters including kinetic energy dissipation rate and thereby {{R}λ} . We have designed an enclosed, fan-driven, highly symmetric truncated-icosahedron ‘soccer ball’ airflow apparatus that enables particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and other whole-field flow measurement techniques. To minimize gravity effect on inertial particles and improve isotropy, we chose fans instead of synthetic jets as flow actuators. We developed explicit relations between {{R}λ} and physical as well as operational parameters of enclosed HIT chambers. To experimentally characterize turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber, we devised a new two-scale PIV approach utilizing two independent PIV systems to obtain both high resolution and large field of view. Velocity measurement results show that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48 mm diameter) of the chamber. From PIV-measured velocity fields, we obtained turbulence dissipation rates and thereby {{R}λ} by using the second-order velocity structure function. A maximum {{R}λ} of 384 was achieved. Furthermore, experiments confirmed that the root mean square (RMS) velocity increases linearly with fan speed, and {{R}λ} increases with the square root of fan speed. Characterizing turbulence in such apparatus paves the way for further investigation of particle dynamics in particle-laden homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  5. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in <3 days using immobilized consortium, while 3-5 days were required using free cells. The O2 supply efficiency of an enclosed in-well aeration system was assessed in a box filled with perlite and peat. Dissolved O2 (DO) concentrations increased to 8-12 mg L(-1) in 12 h for sampling ports within 12 cm of the aeration well. A diffusion coefficient as 33.5 cm(2) s(-1) was obtained. The DO concentration was >4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium.

  6. Well-posedness of a model for structural acoustic coupling in a cavity enclosed by a thin cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A fully coupled mathematical model describing the interactions between a vibrating thin cylindrical shell and enclosed acoustic field is presented. Because the model will ultimately be used in control applications involving piezoceramic actuators, the loads and material contributions resulting from piezoceramic patches bonded to the shell are included in the discussion. Theoretical and computational issues lead to the consideration of a weak form of the modeling set of partial differential equations (PDE's) and through the use of a semigroup formulation, well-posedness results for the system model are obtained.

  7. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  8. Temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and their responses to environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Mingzhuang

    2010-03-01

    Variations in physical-chemical factors, species composition, abundance and biomass of nano- and micro-phytoplankton assemblages, as well as their responses to environmental factors, were investigated over a complete cycle (6 months) in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, northern China. The aim was to establish the temporal patterns of phytoplankton communities and to evaluate protists as suitable bioindicators to water quality in mariculture systems. A total of 34 taxa with nine dominant species were identified, belonging to six taxonomic groups (dinoflagellates, diatoms, cryptophyceans, chlorophyceans, euglenophyceans and chrysophyceans). A single peak of protist abundance occurred in October, mainly due to chlorophyceans, diatoms and chrysophyceans. Two biomass peaks in July and October were primarily due to dinoflagellates and diatoms. Temporal patterns of the phytoplankton communities significantly correlated with the changes in nutrients, temperature and pH, especially phosphate, either alone or in combination with NO3-N and NH3-N. Species diversity, evenness and richness indices were clearly correlated with water temperature and/or salinity, whereas the biomass/abundance ratio showed a significant correlation with NO3-N. The results suggest that phytoplankton are potentially useful bioindicators to water quality in semi-enclosed mariculture systems.

  9. How Immunocontraception Can Contribute to Elephant Management in Small, Enclosed Reserves: Munyawana Population as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Heleen C.; Mackey, Robin L.; Slotow, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects). Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought), which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown. PMID:22174758

  10. Entrapment in small, enclosed spaces: a case report and points to consider regarding the mechanism of death.

    PubMed

    deJong, J L; Adams, T

    2001-05-01

    The mechanism of death due to confinement in an enclosed space is usually ascribed to asphyxia from oxygen deprivation. We report the case of the decomposed remains of a 23-year-old man discovered in an unused industrial size refrigerator in which the mechanism of death is heatstroke. The investigation of the death indicates the subject most likely voluntarily entered the refrigerator and for unknown reasons, closed the door. Injuries identified at autopsy and damage to the inside of the structure indicate he struggled to exit the cabinet. The autopsy shows no significant natural disease processes and toxicology studies were negative. The diagnosis of heat stroke typically rests on the evaluation of multiple features, including the age and size of the decedent, the ambient temperature, the medical history of the decedent, whole body hydration, body fat content, alcohol and drug use, medication history, general physical condition, and many other factors. The diagnosis of heatstroke due to confinement in an enclosed container requires evaluation of the heat stress of the container, the heat strain experienced by the individual, autopsy findings suggesting signs of a struggle to exit the container, and other factors. In all such cases, a careful death investigation with correlation of autopsy findings is required to accurately determine the mechanism and cause of death. We suggest that for all such deaths, physiological and environmental factors promoting hyperthermia and heatstroke be considered as a possible mechanism of death, along with those associated with the more obvious danger of asphyxiation.

  11. Bring UK data to the web

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.

    1995-11-01

    As part of its ongoing {open_quotes}Right to know{close_quotes}campaign friends of the Earth has made the U.K.`s new Chemical Release Inventory (CRI) significantly more accessible via a new Internet web site. Users enter a postal code, get a map of major industrial sites within a certain radius, and then look up the recent authorized and unauthorized releases of each site. {open_quotes}We fully support this,{close_quotes} says the U.K.`s HM Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP), which is in charge of CRI. HMIP launched CRI last September, but FOE attacked it as {open_quote}fundamentally flawed... a pale shadow of the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory [TRI].{close_quotes} The CRI report, covering 1992 and 1993, contains only broad aggregate data-for example, total emissions from industry sectors in geographic areas. FOE says it should list emissions by site or by total emissions of companies. HMIP says the report is {open_quotes}only the beginning{close_quote} and will improve. It adds that it is meant to show general trends and that people interested in site-by-site data can call an HMIP information hotline. CRI includes emissions to air, land, and water from industrial processes regulated by the U.K.`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regulations. HMIP says CRI will improve in two to three years, when IPC-which started up in 1991-is fully implemented. The FOE web site is based on the full HMIP database of emissions reported under IPC regulations, though some commercially sensitive information has been omitted, HMIP says.

  12. A Water Grid for the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  13. UK: impact of European human rights law.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    2000-10-21

    The UK's Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates into that country's law the European Convention on Rights and Freedoms, came into full operation on Oct 2, 2000. The Act imposes duties on public authorities, who must now justify their position if that is in conflict with a Convention right. Four Articles in the Convention are potential flashpoints in respect of health cases, examples being patients' rights to receive expensive life-saving treatment and disciplinary procedures, including those of the General Medical Council and National Health Service trusts.

  14. Resuscitation of general paediatrics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wacogne, I; Scott-Jupp, R; Chambers, T

    2006-12-01

    "The report of my death was an exaggeration", said Mark Twain. For a dying specialty, general paediatrics has certainly been looking very healthy recently. It is timely to examine why our specialty was thought to be at such risk, and to explore why, although in many cases shocked and confused, it is well on the way to recovery. This article explores what is needed to keep it healthy to ensure that the general paediatrician is at the centre of the delivery of paediatrics in the UK.

  15. Starlink: Software and sociology in UK astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2002-02-01

    Why don't people use Starlink software? Kevin A Pimbblet outlines the problem and some possible solutions. I discuss the remit of Starlink's software strategy groups and an item on the agenda of one group's meeting on 26 January 2001: ``Why don't people use Starlink software?'' The answer was thought to be primarily a sociological effect: most people supervising UK astronomy PhD students learnt their trade when Starlink had a less than perfect reputation. I report on recommendations made to counter this effect.

  16. Well integrity failure in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  17. Agricultural biotechnology and the UK public.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vivian

    2002-09-01

    It might be an exaggeration to claim that UK agriculture is in a state of crisis, but it is certainly a time for decisions. Uncertainties abound: the implications of growing free trade; a steady reduction in subsidies; the ongoing drift of people to towns and what some regard as the stranglehold of retailers both on food prices and on what the farmer gets. To all of this has to be added the backwash of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and the advent of new technologies, especially those based on modern genetics.

  18. Interpreting in the UK Community: Some Reflections on Public Service Interpreting in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the question "why do we need professional public service interpreters?" this paper offers an overview of the present situation regarding the provision of public service interpreters (PSIs) in the UK to public service clients and touches on the main obstacles to the professionalisation of public service interpreting so far…

  19. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  20. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  1. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  2. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  3. Teaching fellowships for UK foundation doctors.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Teaching Fellowships for junior doctors in their second post-graduate (FY2) year should be considered by medical students and junior doctors in UK. FY2 Teaching Fellowships are available in many foundation schools as part of the UK Academic Foundation Programme. Although programme structures differ between schools, they are designed to allow junior trainees to take time out from clinical practice to develop their teaching skills and gain insights into medication education careers. The advantages of an FY2 teaching fellowship include valuable experience of teaching and formal feedback not available to other trainees; the opportunity to further develop your portfolio; further development of the trainee's own knowledge and skills; the stimulation of working with students. Potential drawbacks to be considered are reduced direct clinical contact; reduced salary; difficulty carrying out education research in the allocated time frame; occasional difficulties establishing the teacher-student relationship while the trainee is at a relatively junior level. Experience of medical education as an FY2 trainee provides a helpful stepping stone whether or not the trainee further pursues education as a career, because the teaching skills are transferable to any specialty, and the unique experience enhances the trainee's confidence as a role model for junior colleagues.

  4. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  5. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97(th) percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  6. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care.

  7. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  8. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:27830837

  9. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  10. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  11. [Biocatalysis using immobilized cells or enzymes as a method of water and air purification in habitable enclosed environment].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T E; Nazarov, N M; Siniak, Iu E

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows that the method of water and air purification using immobilized cells and enzymes can be applied in regenerative life support systems in a habitable enclosed environment. This method is based on selective and adaptive functions of enzymic systems of microorganisms to assimilate organic components of the medium to be eliminated. Advantages of biocatalysis are low energy requirements and mild temperatures of purification leading to practically complete elimination of the substrate. Due to immobilization, cells and enzymes constitute an independent component which can be added to any continuously operating system of purification without generating a specific interface which is crucially important in microgravity. This allows the process of purification to be controllable. The resulting water and air meet biological requirements because they are formed under the influence of living organisms as in natural biogeocenoses. The production of ecologically pure water and air is highly important for long-duration space missions, especially for flights to Mars.

  12. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  13. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2014-09-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  14. Comparative analysis of the modified enclosed energy metric for self-focusing holograms from digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the performance of the modified enclosed energy (MEE) method for self-focusing holograms recorded with digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. Notwithstanding the MEE analysis previously published, no extended analysis of its performance has been reported. We have tested the MEE in terms of the minimum axial distance allowed between the set of reconstructed holograms to search for the focal plane and the elapsed time to obtain the focused image. These parameters have been compared with those for some of the already reported methods in the literature. The MEE achieves better results in terms of self-focusing quality but at a higher computational cost. Despite its longer processing time, the method remains within a time frame to be technologically attractive. Modeled and experimental holograms have been utilized in this work to perform the comparative study.

  15. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area

    PubMed Central

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior. PMID:26997898

  16. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area.

    PubMed

    Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior.

  17. Rapid semi-continuous calibration and field test of membrane-enclosed silicone collector as passive water sampler.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Albrecht; Schwab, Katrin; Brümmer, Janine; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Paschke, Heidrun; Popp, Peter

    2006-08-18

    The new membrane-enclosed silicone collector (MESCO) was, in two different configurations with respect to the thickness of low-density polyethylene membrane used, subject to serial batch extraction tests to obtain (preliminary) sampling rates for estimating water concentrations of selected chlorinated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This rapid calibration procedure is simple to implement compared to experiments in a flow-through apparatus and yielded reasonable sampling rates in the range of 50 microL-2 mL per hour for the compounds tested. The new MESCO formats were also exposed for 28 days in the polluted creek to test their field performance. For priority contaminants of special interest, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene, the time-weighted average concentrations derived from the freshly calibrated sampling devices agree well with those obtained by conventional water analysis of spot samples.

  18. Orbit-averaged quantities, the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, and the magnetic flux enclosed by gyro-motion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. J. Bellan, P. M.

    2015-02-15

    Action integrals are often used to average a system over fast oscillations and obtain reduced dynamics. It is not surprising, then, that action integrals play a central role in the Hellmann-Feynman theorem of classical mechanics, which furnishes the values of certain quantities averaged over one period of rapid oscillation. This paper revisits the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, rederiving it in connection to an analogous theorem involving the time-averaged evolution of canonical coordinates. We then apply a modified version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to obtain a new result: the magnetic flux enclosed by one period of gyro-motion of a charged particle in a non-uniform magnetic field. These results further demonstrate the utility of the action integral in regards to obtaining orbit-averaged quantities and the usefulness of this formalism in characterizing charged particle motion.

  19. Water age, exposure time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water age, exposure time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water age is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with exposure time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water age, which is based on the water aging rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water age, and well approximates exposure time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water age and exposure time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.

  20. Self-calibrating generalized phase-shifting interferometry of three phase-steps based on geometric concept of volume enclosed by a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a non-iterative, fast, and simple algorithm for phase retrieval, in phase-shifting interferometry of three unknown and unequal phase-steps, based on the geometric concept of the volume enclosed by a surface. This approach can be divided in three stages; first the background is eliminated by the subtraction of two interferograms, for obtaining a secondary pattern; second, a surface is built by the product of two secondary patterns and the volume enclosed by this surface is computed; and third, the ratio between two enclosed volumes is approximated to a constant that depends on the phase-steps, with which a system of equations is established, and its solution allows the measurement of the phase-steps to be obtained. Additional advantages of this approach are its immunity to noise, and its capacity to support high spatial variations in the illumination. This approach is theoretically described and is numerically and experimentally verified.

  1. Mapping the Information Systems Curricula in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanidis, Angelos; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) undergraduate student numbers in the UK have reduced by half in the last five years. An increasing number of researchers have been pondering the possible relationship between the modernity of IS curricula and its attractiveness to potential students. To support the debate about IS curricula in the UK and elsewhere, this…

  2. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  3. Does Price Matter? Overseas Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soo, Kwok Tong; Elliott, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the choice of UK universities by overseas undergraduate applicants. We use data on overseas applicants in Business Studies and Engineering from 2002 to 2007, to 97 UK universities. Estimating using a Hausman-Taylor model to control for the possible correlation between our explanatory variables and…

  4. The IB Diploma and UK University Degree Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Gemmill, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma has become widely accepted as a university-entry qualification in the UK, but there has been little quantitative research into the achievements of IB students at degree level. This study investigates IB students from one selective independent school who entered UK universities between…

  5. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  6. The Prevalence of Intellectual Disability in a Major UK Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…

  7. Long-term scenarios: Energy pathways in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The bottom-up approach promoted through the Paris Agreement and signed in 2016 requires the definition of accurate and realistic national pathways to cut emissions. A recent study applied to the UK energy system shows that current UK policy on climate change is incompatible with the most stringent climate objectives.

  8. Enhancing Academic Engagement in Knowledge Transfer Activity in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Smythe, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing call in the UK over the last decade for universities to become more entrepreneurial with a strengthening of university and industry/community links to contribute more significantly to the knowledge economy., and for UK higher education institutions (HEIs) to consider ways in which they can more actively engage in…

  9. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  10. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  11. Transforming Support for Students with Disabilities in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Turnbull, Yvonne; Bleasdale, Jo; Francis, Hulya; Forsyth, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Intended UK government changes to the Disabled Students' Allowance will have a significant impact on the support that UK universities provide for students with disabilities. In this article we examine the types of transformation that may be needed to support for university students with disabilities, from a socio-technical perspective. The…

  12. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  13. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  14. Comparative Review of UK-USA Industry-University Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore significant historical changes, legislation and policy in the UK and USA from the 1960s to present day relating to university-industry relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a review of papers, reports and policy documents from the UK and USA drawing comparisons of…

  15. Has Economics become an Elite Subject for Elite UK Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James; Reeves, Alan; Talbot, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The decline in the number of UK universities offering undergraduate degree programmes in subjects such as sciences, mathematics, modern languages and humanities has been well documented and is now of real concern. It appears that economics may be going through a decline in new (post-1992) UK universities with many economics programmes having been…

  16. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  17. Modelling the effect of UK energy policy and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ronald Wai Ho

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate various UK energy policy documents and identify how they are implanted to the main energy consuming sectors in order to achieve a reduction of 60 percent of carbon emissions by 2050. This has lead to two key questions: What are the pros and cons of the various UK energy policy documents What are the impacts of currently proposed environmental policies in UK on economic growth in the 21st century To answer these questions, the following four energy policy documents are reviewed. UK Energy White Paper Energy Efficiency Commitment Climate Change Levy and UK Emissions Trading Scheme Renewable Obligations Also, the following macro energy modelling work is also investigated: Markal Model E3ME The UK Energy White Paper has shown the government is being very eager to solve the climate change and its associated problems by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050. The four documents have illustrated the UK government main strategies to tackle climate change they are based on developing new technology, improving energy efficiency and to increase the use of renewables considerably. The analysis of these policies and macro-scale model has forecasted that the UK is going to have a slow down economic growth due to the environmental pressure.

  18. Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

  19. Data Protection Management in University Libraries in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, J. Eric

    1997-01-01

    Examines a range of issues relating to data protection management in UK (United Kingdom) university library and information services. Highlights include data protection legislation, personal data in libraries, and results of an impact survey of UK university libraries. A copy of the survey questionnaire is appended. (Author/LRW)

  20. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the time series data produced annually since 2001 under the title "Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK." It offers a unique overview of provision at publicly-funded higher education institutions in the UK. All charts and tables in the report are now also available to download from the Universities UK…

  1. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  2. UK peatland restoration: some economic arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Moxey, Andrew; Moran, Dominic

    2014-06-15

    Over 80% of UK peatlands are degraded to some extent and their widespread restoration could contribute to meeting various climate change, water quality and biodiversity policy challenges. Economic analysis of costs and benefits is, however, hampered by scientific uncertainty and a lack of data on biophysical conditions as well as the impacts and costs of restoration. This paper presents a simple 'ready-reckoner' of possible net economic benefits under different combinations of simplifying 'what if?' assumptions for key restoration parameters. The results strongly suggest that even a narrow focus on carbon benefits alone is sufficient to justify restoration in many cases, and the inclusion of possible additional non-carbon benefits reinforces this. However, results are sensitive to assumptions and better data for, in particular, restoration costs associated with modest emission savings from lightly degraded sites would be helpful. Some other areas for further research are also identified.

  3. UK neonatal intensive care services in 1996

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J.; Tarnow-Mordi, W.; Gould, C.; Parry, G.; Marlow, N.

    1999-01-01

    A census of activity and staff levels in 1996 was conducted in UK neonatal units and achieved a 100% response from 246 units. Among the 186 neonatal intensive care units, the median (interquartile range) number of total cots was 18(14−22); level 1 intensive care cots 4(2−6); total admissions 318(262−405); very low birthweight admissions 40(28−68); and the number ventilated or given CPAP by endotracheal tube 52(32−83). Forty six (25%) intensive care units lacked the recommended minimum of one consultant with prime responsibility for neonatal medicine. As a conservative estimate 79% of intensive care units had a lower nursing provision than that recommended in previously published guidelines. There was substantial variation in activity and staffing levels among units.

 PMID:10212089

  4. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  5. The carbon component of the UK power price

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Voorspools

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions trading is in full swing in Europe and is already having an impact on the price of power in the UK. If EU allowances (EUAs) trade at euro 20/t-CO{sub 2}, the EUA component in the power price is estimated to be slightly < euro 10/MW.h. In the case of UK power for delivery 1 year ahead, this is {approximately} 10% of the market price of power. The introduction of a carbon components into the UK power prices took place along before the 'official' start of ETS in 2005. Analysis of historical data of the price of power, gas, coal and EUAs shows that the first trace of a CO{sub 2} component in UK power dates back to August 2003, shortly after EUAs first started to trade. In April 2004, CO{sub 2} was fully integrated into the UK power price. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  7. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested.

  8. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  9. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  10. UK Health Secretary launches family planning initiatives.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    British Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley and Family Planning Association (FPA) President Anna Ford recently announced some new initiatives to promote wider use of family planning (FP) and contraception which will be carried out by the FPA with a special grant from the Department of Health. The grant will finance 3 FPA projects: 1) the Growing Up project, 3 booklets providing information for parents, young people, and children; 2) an information project at the work place on FP and sexual health for women and men; and 3) a primary health care project to aid general practitioners (G)s) and nurses engaged in the improvement of FP services. 1 in 3 pregnancies is unplanned, and teenage pregnancy rates are rising, thus sex education and public information are vital. The FPA chose St. Valentines Day to introduce How Your Body Changes, its new pamphlet for teenagers. In the UK over 85% of FP services are provided by family doctors and 15% or less by special community FP clinics. those who oppose further closures that health authorities contemplate stress that the special clinics provide: an anonymous service for younger women, especially those aged 16 or under, a wider choice of methods (some GPs do not offer the IUD, the diaphragm, or free condoms), a better service (most GPs are too busy and have had no training in FP, and postgraduate training for nurses and doctors (more clinic closures will impair FP education). Better FP education is crucial, especially for the age group 12-16 in view of over 180,000 legal abortions occurring each year in the UK.

  11. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  12. Globalisation of Researcher Mobility within the UK Higher Education: Explaining the Presence of Overseas Academics in the UK Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil; Fenton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the power structure that lies within the UK elite universities dictates a division of labour through which the inflows of overseas academics into the UK academic labour markets are skewed towards these elite academic institutions where they are employed primarily in research-only posts. These posts, are less valued and…

  13. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  14. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PILOT STUDY OF ENCLOSED THERMAL SOIL AERATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINATION AT THE MCKIN SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of a pilot study that treated vadose zone soil contaminated with VOCs in an enclosed thermal aeration system. The McKin site, an NPL site in Grey, Maine, was the location of the pilot study. The pilot study was chosen to demonstrate the viabili...

  15. Calculating CO2 and H2O eddy covariance fluxes from an enclosed gas analyzer using an instantaneous mixing ratio 2159

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eddy covariance flux research has relied on open- or closed-path gas analyzers for producing estimates of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). The two instruments have had different challenges that have led to development of an enclosed design that is intended to max...

  16. Risk factors for malaria in UK travellers.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Grant, Alison D; Armstrong, Margaret; Stümpfle, Richard; Behrens, Ron H

    2004-01-01

    After observing an apparent increase in severe falciparum malaria among travellers returning from The Gambia to the United Kingdom (UK) in the last quarter of 2000, we conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for malaria. The study participants had visited The Gambia between 1 September and 31 December 2000, travelling with the largest UK tour operator serving this destination. The main outcome measures were risk factors associated with malaria. Forty-six cases and 557 controls were studied. Eighty-seven percent of all participants reported antimalarial use (41% chloroquine/proguanil, 31% mefloquine). On univariate analysis the strongest risk factors for disease were: early calendar period of visit, longer duration of stay, non-use of antimalarial prophylaxis, non-use of mefloquine, lack of room air-conditioning, less use of insect repellent, prior visit to another malarial area and accommodation in 'hotel X'. After adjustment in multivariate analysis, use of mefloquine remained strongly protective (odds ratios, OR 0.13 [95% confidence intervals, 95% CI 0.04-0.40]), and the strongest independent risk factors for malaria were early calendar period (OR 5.19 [2.35-11.45] for 1 September to 9 November 2000 versus 10 November to 31 December 2000), prior visit to another malarial area (OR 3.27 [1.41-7.56]), main accommodation in 'hotel X' (OR 3.24 [1.51-6.97]) and duration of stay (OR 2.05 per extra week [1.42-2.95]). Neither any use, nor > 90% adherence to chloroquine/proguanil were protective (adjusted OR for any use 0.57 [0.27-1.21], P = 0.14). We concluded mefloquine use was strongly protective against malaria (87% protective efficacy), whereas chloroquine/proguanil, which is no longer recommended but remains widely used, was less than half as effective (43% protective efficacy). Waning efficacy of chloroquine/proguanil may have contributed to the observed increase in malaria among travellers to The Gambia in 2000. Local factors may also influence

  17. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  18. The early days of health computing in the UK.

    PubMed

    Richards, B

    2001-01-01

    The invention of RAM in Manchester, UK, in 1948 and the subsequent commercial production of computers paved the way for their wide-spread use in industry and commerce. This Paper details the problems and the successes as computers were introduced into the UK National Health Service. It covers the computers and their uses and lists also the personnel involved. On a broader front it sets the UK scene against the wider international scene, again mentioning those other pioneers elsewhere in the world. It should bring a sense of nostalgia to some and helpful advice to those countries about to go down a similar road.

  19. A sedimentary model for early Palaeozoic fluvial fans, Alderney Sandstone Formation (Channel Islands, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Ghinassi, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Fluvial fans in the rock record are inferred based on critical criteria such as: downstream grain-size fining; evidence for drainage fractionation along bifurcating channels; increasing fluvial-aeolian interaction in the basinward direction; and radial palaeoflow dispersion. Since pre-vegetation fluvial rocks often lack heterolithic alluvium and channelisation at the outcrop scale, the recognition of pre-Silurian fluvial fans has, so far, not been straightforward. This research proposes a sedimentary model for the Alderney Sandstone Formation of Channel Islands (UK), so far considered as a fine record of early Palaeozoic axial-fluvial sedimentation. Here, outcrop-based and remote-sensing analysis of the formation's type-section reveal the interaction of fluvial and aeolian processes, expressed by the alternation of: compound fluvial bars enclosing macroform surfaces, related to phases of perennial discharge; fluvial sandsheets containing antidunal forms and soft-sediment deformations, related to seasonal (i.e. flashy) discharge; and aeolian bedforms overlying thin stream-flow deposits. An up-section increase in aeolian deposits is accompanied by the shrinking of fluvial bars and minor-channel cuts, suggesting that drainage was fractioned along smaller channels terminating into marginal aeolian environments. Together with a propensity towards more dispersed values of fluvial cross-set thickness up-section (again due to discharge fractionation along intermittently active channels), these features depict an aeolian-influenced fluvial fan. This work discusses a set of criteria for the identification of fluvial fans in pre-vegetation environments. In doing so, it also explores possible parallels to modern environments, and underscores the potential of integrated outcrop and remotely sensed observations on ancient fluvial rocks and modern sedimentary realms.

  20. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  1. Processing LHC data in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Colling, D.; Britton, D.; Gordon, J.; Lloyd, S.; Doyle, A.; Gronbech, P.; Coles, J.; Sansum, A.; Patrick, G.; Jones, R.; Middleton, R.; Kelsey, D.; Cass, A.; Geddes, N.; Clark, P.; Barnby, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011—the first two significant years of the running of the LHC. PMID:23230163

  2. Processing LHC data in the UK.

    PubMed

    Colling, D; Britton, D; Gordon, J; Lloyd, S; Doyle, A; Gronbech, P; Coles, J; Sansum, A; Patrick, G; Jones, R; Middleton, R; Kelsey, D; Cass, A; Geddes, N; Clark, P; Barnby, L

    2013-01-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011--the first two significant years of the running of the LHC.

  3. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment.

  4. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  5. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu; Moiseeva, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size.

  6. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body

    PubMed Central

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial cell rearrangements that drive epidermal spreading also require ROCK activity but are driven by cell protrusions and not myosin II contractility. Epidermal progenitor monolayer formation and epidermal spreading are delayed in Crash mice, which possess a dominant mutation in Celsr1, an orthologue of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) Drosophila protein Flamingo (also known as Stan). We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. PMID:26989131

  7. Culturing Human Pluripotent and Neural Stem Cells in an Enclosed Cell Culture System for Basic and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Alexander E.; Herculian, Siranush; Banuelos, Maria G.; Navarro, Samantha L.; Jenkins, Michael P.; Schwartz, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how to use a custom manufactured, commercially available enclosed cell culture system for basic and preclinical research. Biosafety cabinets (BSCs) and incubators have long been the standard for culturing and expanding cell lines for basic and preclinical research. However, as the focus of many stem cell laboratories shifts from basic research to clinical translation, additional requirements are needed of the cell culturing system. All processes must be well documented and have exceptional requirements for sterility and reproducibility. In traditional incubators, gas concentrations and temperatures widely fluctuate anytime the cells are removed for feeding, passaging, or other manipulations. Such interruptions contribute to an environment that is not the standard for cGMP and GLP guidelines. These interruptions must be minimized especially when cells are utilized for therapeutic purposes. The motivation to move from the standard BSC and incubator system to a closed system is that such interruptions can be made negligible. Closed systems provide a work space to feed and manipulate cell cultures and maintain them in a controlled environment where temperature and gas concentrations are consistent. This way, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells can be maintained at optimum health from the moment of their derivation all the way to their eventual use in therapy. PMID:27341536

  8. A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelin, Hu; Qin, Chen; Wang, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a unique role in extreme hurricane events. The impact of wetlands on storm surge depends on multiple factors including vegetation, landscape, and storm characteristics. The Delft3D model, in which vegetation effects on flow and turbulence are explicitly incorporated, was applied to the semi-enclosed Breton Sound (BS) estuary in coastal Louisiana to investigate the wetland impact. Guided by extensive field observations, a series of numerical experiments were conducted based on variations of actual vegetation properties and storm parameters from Hurricane Isaac in 2012. Both the vegetation-induced maximum surge reduction (MSR) and maximum surge reduction rate (MSRR) increased with stem height and stem density, and were more sensitive to stem height. The MSR and MSRR decreased significantly with increasing wind intensity. The MSRR was the highest with a fast-moving weak storm. It was also found that the MSRR varied proportionally to the expression involving the maximum bulk velocity and surge over the area of interest, and was more dependent on the maximum bulk surge. Both MSR and MSRR appeared to increase when the area of interest decreased from the whole BS estuary to the upper estuary. Within the range of the numerical experiments, the maximum simulated MSR and MSRR over the upper estuary were 0.7 m and 37%, respectively.

  9. Behaviour of an artery enclosed within a normal or hypertrophic callus of a long-bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, A T; Symeonides, P P; Dessiris, A K

    2000-07-01

    The behaviour of the brachial artery enclosed in a hypertrophic or a normal callus was investigated in experimentally produced fractures of the humerus in 22 dogs. The brachial artery was displaced in a bony groove created at the fractured ends of the bone. The fracture was immobilized with a metal plate and four screws. The progress of the callus formation was studied and the patency of the artery was evaluated. In 15 out of the 22 animals a medium-sized or hypertrophic callus had developed that engulfed the brachial artery without obstructing its lumen and blood flow. In five dogs the fracture site was infected and the resultant osteomyelitis obstructed the artery. In the remaining two dogs the arterial lumen was extremely narrowed, due to breaking of the plate and formation of pseudarthrosis in one and injury of the artery in the other. Unless complicated by infection resulting in vascular occlusion, callus at the fracture site may engulf an artery without interference in its patency and blood flow. The possible involvement of a functioning artery within a callus or a mass of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) should be kept in mind during surgical treatment of old fractures, hypertrophic callus with pseudarthrosis or extensive heterotopic ossification.

  10. Evaluation of the dry and wet weather recreational health risks in a semi-enclosed marine embayment in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Shao, Stella; Peng, Jian; Grant, Stanley B; Jiang, Sunny C

    2017-03-15

    For many coastal regions around the world, recreational beach water quality is assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). However, the utility of FIB as indicators of recreational water illness (RWI) risk has been questioned, particularly in coastal settings with no obvious sources of human sewage. In this study we employed a source-apportionment quantitative microbial risk assessment (SA-QMRA) to assess RWI risk at a popular semi-enclosed recreational beach in Southern California (Baby Beach, City of Dana Point) with no obvious point sources of human sewage. Our SA-QMRA results suggest that, during dry weather, the median RWI risk at this beach is below the U.S. EPA recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) of 36 illness cases per 1000 bathers. During wet weather, the median RWI risk predicted by SA-QMRA depends on the assumed level of human waste associated with stormwater; the RWI risk is below the EPA RWQC illness risk benchmark 100% of the time provided that <2% of the FIB in stormwater are of human origin. However, these QMRA outcomes contrast strongly with the EPA RWQC for 30-day geometric mean of enterococci bacteria. Our results suggest that SA-QMRA is a useful framework for estimating robust RWI risk that takes into account local information about possible human and non-human sources of FIB.

  11. Culturing Human Pluripotent and Neural Stem Cells in an Enclosed Cell Culture System for Basic and Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Stover, Alexander E; Herculian, Siranush; Banuelos, Maria G; Navarro, Samantha L; Jenkins, Michael P; Schwartz, Philip H

    2016-06-10

    This paper describes how to use a custom manufactured, commercially available enclosed cell culture system for basic and preclinical research. Biosafety cabinets (BSCs) and incubators have long been the standard for culturing and expanding cell lines for basic and preclinical research. However, as the focus of many stem cell laboratories shifts from basic research to clinical translation, additional requirements are needed of the cell culturing system. All processes must be well documented and have exceptional requirements for sterility and reproducibility. In traditional incubators, gas concentrations and temperatures widely fluctuate anytime the cells are removed for feeding, passaging, or other manipulations. Such interruptions contribute to an environment that is not the standard for cGMP and GLP guidelines. These interruptions must be minimized especially when cells are utilized for therapeutic purposes. The motivation to move from the standard BSC and incubator system to a closed system is that such interruptions can be made negligible. Closed systems provide a work space to feed and manipulate cell cultures and maintain them in a controlled environment where temperature and gas concentrations are consistent. This way, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells can be maintained at optimum health from the moment of their derivation all the way to their eventual use in therapy.

  12. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  13. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces.

  14. [Temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors and chlorophyll-a and their correlation analysis in a small enclosed lake].

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Chen, Ling

    2013-10-01

    About four year's field observation was conducted from July 2007 to September 2011, in a small enclosed eutrophic lake located in Qianwei Village, Chongming Island. The temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors (including physical-chemical factors and hydrodynamic condition) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were studied and their correlation was analyzed. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of Chl-a in the lake. Significantly positive correlation was found between Chl-a and water temperature, turbidity, TN and TP. Water temperature and nutrients were the main limited factors of seasonal changes of phytoplankton. It could be the result of phytoplankton growth that caused the seasonal change of turbidity. It was found that hydrological changes were the primary factor affecting the spatial difference of Chl-a concentration. Lower average Chl-a concentration (35. 30 microg.L-1) was recorded in the north watercourse, in condition with higher wind driven flow velocity ranging from 0. 08 m.s- 1 to 0. 22 m.s -1. A strong negative correlation was found between Chl-a concentration and flow velocity. Higher average Chl-a concentration (53. 11 microg.L-1) was frequently found under flow conditions ranged from 0 m.s-1 to 0. 10 m.s-1. These findings indicated that increasing hydrodynamic condition would significantly inhibit the growth of phytoplankton and reduce the risk of algae blooming in summer in these eutrophic water bodies.

  15. Mercury in UK imported fish and shellfish and UK-farmed fish and their products.

    PubMed

    Knowles, T G; Farrington, D; Kestin, S C

    2003-09-01

    Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1).

  16. The UK National Flap Registry (UKNFR): A National Database for all pedicled and free flaps in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Anita; Walton, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The UK National Flap Registry (UKNFR) is a cross-speciality National Clinical Audit with participation by the British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS), British Association of Head and Neck Oncologists (BAHNO), British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS) and Association of Breast Surgery (ABS). The aim of UKNFR is to collect information about all major pedicled and free flap operations carried out in the UK and through that, assess the quality of care we provide for patients. This audit will allow appropriate comparison of clinical performance with national standards and provide useful data on changing trends. Participation in audit is integral to appraisal and revalidation in the UK.

  17. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-11-13

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK.

  18. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  19. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  20. UK Dietary Policy for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Louis; Tedstone, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition advice is devolved within each of the four UK countries, but share a common evidence base provided through the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). Current UK dietary recommendations to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is based upon recommendations from SACN and its predecessor committee. Dietary advice in the UK has recently been revised in relation to intakes of free sugar and fibre. This paper highlights current UK recommendations for the prevention of CVD, in particular related to energy intake, saturated fat, free sugars, salt, fruit, vegetables, oily fish and fibre. It describes how this advice is promulgated including the refresh of the Eatwell Guide and wider action that will impact on CVD. PMID:28230719

  1. A Note on the Misconduct of Academics in UK HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2005-01-01

    The article compares the employment regime for academics in UK HEIs with that of faculty in US HEIs. It considers, "inter alia", "progressive discipline", "at will contracts", "the Model Statute", "academic freedom", "faculty misconduct" and "academic underperformance".…

  2. Antibiotic Overuse Behind 'Superbug' Outbreak in U.K. Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163248.html Antibiotic Overuse Behind 'Superbug' Outbreak in U.K. Hospitals Finding could have ... related to the outbreak of Clostridium difficile , a "superbug" gut infection. The investigators concluded that reducing the ...

  3. UK: legal action on needle exchange programs in prisons dismissed.

    PubMed

    Valette, Delphine

    2005-08-01

    In April 2005, a judicial review application against the UK Home Secretary for his failure to introduce needle exchange programs in prisons in England and Wales was dismissed by a judge at the Royal Courts of Justice (Administrative Court Division).

  4. Health Promotion in Community Pharmacy: The UK Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research pertaining to pharmacy health promotion and examples of good practice in the UK. Concludes with a discussion about the contribution pharmacists can make and about some issues that will need to be overcome first. (Author/MKA)

  5. Universities give record level of support to the UK economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Universities in the UK are providing record levels of services to businesses, according to a recent survey by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The survey concludes that the income earned by universities and higher-education colleges in the UK is now worth a total of £2.812bn - an increase of 6.5% from the previous year.

  6. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. PMID:27531829

  7. First emission estimates from the UK DECC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Derwent, Richard G.; Moncrieff, John B.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2013-04-01

    The UK DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network monitors the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to assess the impact of international policies related to climate change. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Kyoto Protocol are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocol. For over 25 years the UK Government has funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These in-situ, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using the inversion methodology InTEM (Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling). InTEM links the Met Office's atmospheric dispersion model, NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment), with the Mace Head observations and provides independent verification of bottom up (inventory) emission estimates. In 2011 the UK government (Department of Energy and Climate Change) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to allow enhanced resolution emission estimates with decreased uncertainty to be produced using InTEM. The new network became operational in 2012. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (10 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new UK measurement network in detail along with the new inversion results highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government annually and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. The results are compared to the bottom up inventory emission estimates as submitted to the UNFCCC.

  8. ERUPTING FILAMENTS WITH LARGE ENCLOSING FLUX TUBES AS SOURCES OF HIGH-MASS THREE-PART CMEs, AND ERUPTING FILAMENTS IN THE ABSENCE OF ENCLOSING FLUX TUBES AS SOURCES OF LOW-MASS UNSTRUCTURED CMEs

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, Joe; Morgan, Huw

    2015-11-01

    The 3-part appearance of many coronal mass ejections (CMEs) arising from erupting filaments emerges from a large magnetic flux tube structure, consistent with the form of the erupting filament system. Other CMEs arising from erupting filaments lack a clear 3-part structure and reasons for this have not been researched in detail. This paper aims to further establish the link between CME structure and the structure of the erupting filament system and to investigate whether CMEs which lack a 3-part structure have different eruption characteristics. A survey is made of 221 near-limb filament eruptions observed from 2013 May 03 to 2014 June 30 by Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) imagers and coronagraphs. Ninety-two filament eruptions are associated with 3-part structured CMEs, 41 eruptions are associated with unstructured CMEs. The remaining 88 are categorized as failed eruptions. For 34% of the 3-part CMEs, processing applied to EUV images reveals the erupting front edge is a pre-existing loop structure surrounding the filament, which subsequently erupts with the filament to form the leading bright front edge of the CME. This connection is confirmed by a flux-rope density model. Furthermore, the unstructured CMEs have a narrower distribution of mass compared to structured CMEs, with total mass comparable to the mass of 3-part CME cores. This study supports the interpretation of 3-part CME leading fronts as the outer boundaries of a large pre-existing flux tube. Unstructured (non 3-part) CMEs are a different family to structured CMEs, arising from the eruption of filaments which are compact flux tubes in the absence of a large system of enclosing closed field.

  9. (ELF) Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the ELF investigation is to improve our fundamental understanding of the effects of the flow environment on flame stability. The flame's stability refers to the position of its base and ultimately its continued existence. Combustion research focuses on understanding the important hidden processes of ignitions, flame spreading, and flame extinction. Understanding these processes will directly affect the efficiency of combustion operations in converting chemical energy to heat and will create a more balanced ecology and healthy environment by reducing pollutants emitted during combustion.

  10. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  11. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy.

  12. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) for molecular genetic testing in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Perry, David J; Goodeve, Anne; Hill, Marian; Jennings, Ian; Kitchen, Steve; Walker, Isobel

    2006-11-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of families with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders is now a common laboratory investigation. In contrast to phenotypic testing in which strict quality control is adhered to, in haemophilia molecular genetic testing there has been a lack of any external quality assurance schemes. In 1998 the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) established a pilot quality assurance scheme for molecular genetic testing in haemophilia. Results from three initial surveys highlighted problems with the quality of samples when used to screen for the intron 22 inversion within the F8 gene. The scheme was re-launched in 2003, and since that time there have been five exercises involving whole blood or immortalised cell line DNA. The results together with an overall summary of the exercise are subsequently returned to participants. Exercises to date have focused exclusively on haemophilia A and QA, material has included screening for the intron 1 and intron 22 inversions as well as sequence analysis. A paper exercise circulated in 2003 highlighted problems with the format of reports and, following feedback to participants, only a single error has been made in the subsequent four exercises. Participating laboratories now receive QA material every six months. Immortalised cell line material was introduced in 2005 and was shown to perform well. This will allow expansion of the scheme and a reduction in the dependence on blood donation.

  13. UK coastal flood risk; understanding the uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matt; Bates, Paul; Horsburgh, Kevin; Smith, Ros

    2010-05-01

    The sensitivity of flood risk mapping to the major sources of future climate uncertainty were investigated by propagating these uncertainties through a LISFLOOD inundation model of a significant flood event of the North Somerset coast, to the west of the UK. The largest source of uncertainty was found to be the effect of the global Mean Sea Level rise range of 18-59cm (as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), with an approximate upper limit of 1m, by 2100. Therefore, MSL rise uncertainty needs to be quantified in future flood risk predictions. However, the uncertainty of the storm tide height along the coastline (i.e. the maximum water-level at the coast excluding wave effects) was found to significantly affect our results. Our evidence suggests that the current flood mapping approach of forcing the inundation model with an extreme water-level of constant return period is incorrect. We present a new technique which is based on the spatial characteristics of real events. This provides a more reliable spatial treatment of the storm tide uncertainty. The uncertainty of land roughness coefficients (0.018-0.09 for the study area, depending upon land use), used within the inundation model to control flood wave propagation, was found to affect inundation extents especially for larger inundation events. However, the sensitivity to roughness uncertainty was found to be much smaller than other factors, such as Mean Sea Level rise uncertainty. We present the results of propagating these uncertainties through an inundation model and develop probabilistic techniques to quantify these sources of future flood risk uncertainty. Keywords: future flood risk, uncertainty, inundation, LISFLOOD, sea-level rise, climate change

  14. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2010-10-01

    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  15. Effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus variation in a semi-enclosed bay of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guangzhe; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Amano, Atsuko; Saito, Mitsuyo; Shimizu, Yuta; Satou, Takaharu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus concentrations in a semi-enclosed bay in western Japan. Long sediment core samples spanning over 100 years were collected from the bay, and their P fractions were analyzed. Sediment P concentrations and the P accumulation rate in an artificial lake increased after the construction of a coastal dam in 1959. The amount of P accumulated in the 60 years after the dam construction was ˜1.7 times that prior to the dam construction. Moreover, concentrations of mobile forms of P, primarily redox-sensitive P species, were higher in freshwater sediments above the dam than in saline sediments below the dam. The redox-sensitive forms of P in freshwater sediments increased sharply after the dam construction, from 100 to ˜900 μg/g, accompanied by a decrease in chloride (Cl-) concentrations to <2000 mg/l. In the artificial lake, the maximum values of total P (TP) and redox-sensitive P concentrations were ˜1200 μg/g and ˜900 μg/g at depths of 23 cm and 3 cm, respectively. Smaller peaks observed in the TP and redox-sensitive P concentration values likely corresponded to the recycled P released from sediments. The maximum values corresponded to hypereutrophic conditions that were caused by extensive discharges of sewage during the 1970s. The lake has been gradually recovering from these hypereutrophic conditions, as observed from the trophic state index. However, despite a substantial decrease in P loading after the 1980s, the lake still has a high trophic level. The presently high mobile P concentrations in surface sediments may lead to high-magnitude P releases with environmental changes in the future.

  16. Trophic resource use by macrozoobenthic primary consumers within a semi-enclosed coastal ecosystem: Stable isotope and fatty acid assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Sophie; Blanchet, Hugues; Garcia, Aurélie; Massé, Marjorie; Galois, Robert; Grémare, Antoine; Charlier, Karine; Guillou, Gaël; Richard, Pierre; Savoye, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    The diet of different macrozoobenthic trophic groups was investigated in the Arcachon Bay-a semi-enclosed macrotidal ecosystem that shelters the largest Zostera noltei seagrass meadow in Europe-in early spring and late summer 2009, using stable isotopes and fatty acids. Fatty acid profiles and literature information about the biology and physiology of benthic consumers were combined to identify the main organic matter sources for the benthic primary consumers. An isotope mixing model was then run to evaluate the contribution of each organic matter source to each identified trophic group (suspension feeders, sub-surface deposit feeders, micro-and macrograzers, suspension-oriented interface feeders and deposit-oriented interface feeders). Variations in organism' diets with respect to both habitats (intertidal seagrass meadows, intertidal bare sediments and subtidal bare sediments) and study periods were also investigated. At the scale of this study, it appeared that the diet of macrozoobenthos primary consumers was based exclusively on autochthonous material (no use of terrestrial organic matter): mainly microphytobenthos, seagrasses and their epiphytes, and phytoplankton. In addition, the different trophic groups relied on different organic matter pools: for instance, suspension feeders mainly fed on microphytobenthos and phytoplankton, whereas subsurface deposit feeders fed on microphytobenthos, decayed seagrasses and bacteria, and grazers mainly fed on microphytobenthos, and seagrasses and their epiphytes. The same pattern was observed in both early spring and late summer, indicating a stability of the benthic system at a six-month time scale. Finally our results showed that, in Arcachon Bay, the seagrass meadow directly or indirectly (through detritus) plays a significant role in the diet of most benthic consumers.

  17. The Strategic Failure of UK Defence Reform and What Still Needs to Be Done

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    recently argued clear policy and strategy are even more important for the UK in the current global environment. A notable UK MoD paper highlighted that...comprehensive strategy . Based on the shortfalls identified, this thesis offers a set of recommendations to improve Defence Reform through the bolstering of...institutional strategic thinking and planning. 15. SUBJECT TERMS UK Procurement, UK Strategic Programs, UK Strategy and Policy, Economic Limitations

  18. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2011-01-01

    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet.

  19. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  20. Effects of MERV 16 filters and routine work practices on enclosed cabs for reducing respirable dust and DPM exposures in an underground limestone mine

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.D.; Cecala, A.B.; J.A.Organiscak; Rider, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    An effective technique to minimize miners’ respirable dust and diesel exposure on mobile mining equipment is to place mine operators in enclosed cabs with designed filtration and pressurization systems. Many factors affect the performance of these enclosed cab systems, and one of the most significant factors is the effectiveness of the filtration system. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-type filters are typically used because they are highly efficient at capturing all types and sizes of particles, including those in the submicron range such as diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, in laboratory tests, minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) 16 filters have proven to be highly efficient for capturing DPM and respirable dust. Also, MERV 16 filters can be less restrictive to cab airflow and less expensive than HEPA filters. To verify their effectiveness in the field, MERV 16 filters were used in the enclosed cab filtration system on a face drill and roof bolting mining machine and tested at an underground limestone mine. Test results showed that DPM and respirable dust concentrations were reduced by more than 90% when the cabs were properly sealed. However, when the cab door was opened periodically throughout the shift, the reduction efficiency of the MERV 16 filters was reduced to 80% on average. PMID:26236044

  1. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  2. An Introduction to the UK Polar Network: Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K.; Irvine, E.; Mugford, R.; Freeman, H.; Baker, N.; Thomas, L.; Rye, C.; Cheshire, J.

    2007-12-01

    The UK Polar Network is the UK branch of the IPY Youth Steering Committee, an endorsed IPY Project, and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS). We have two aims in the UKPN: (1) to provide a network for early career polar researchers working in the UK and (2) to carry out education and outreach activities in UK schools, science festivals and through our website. The Education and Outreach working group is involved in organising programs for a range of age groups including engaging activities for primary and secondary school children, information packs on careers and gap year ideas to school leavers and undergraduate students. The intention is, as far as possible, to keep these events free through fundraising. In addition we aim to provide funding for UK polar researchers to attend national networking days and international IPY conferences to present their work, and are involved with organising workshops at these events. In addition, our website is being developed to provide discussion boards, careers information for polar researchers, as well as information for the public, photos and blogs from polar researchers in the field.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF THYMUS AND OTHER LYMPHOID ORGANS ENCLOSED IN MILLIPORE DIFFUSION CHAMBERS ON NEONATALLY THYMECTOMIZED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, David

    1965-01-01

    When neonatally thymectomized CBA mice were implanted at 9 to 12 days of age with Millipore diffusion chambers (pore size, 0.1 µ) containing either syngeneic or allogeneic neonatal thymus, they were subsequently found to have the capacity to reject skin homografts and to form antibodies to sheep erythrocytes. In spite of displaying restored immune reactivity, thymectomized mice bearing thymus-filled diffusion chambers still had a lymphopenia and diminished numbers of small lymphocytes in their spleens, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Comparison of the lymphoid organs of these mice with those of the thymectomized control mice did not reveal any appreciable difference in the numbers of primary follicles or small lymphocytes. It is postulated that the thymus humoral factor induced immunological competence in lymphoid cells which had left the thymus prior to neonatal thymectomy. The paucity of circulating and tissue small lymphocytes in thymectomized animals, the immune reactivity of which was restored by thymus tissue in diffusion chambers, argues against the theory that the thymus humoral factor has a lymphocytosis-stimulating effect. There was no restoration of immune reactivity in those neonatally thymectomized mice which had been implanted with diffusion chambers containing neonatal or adult spleens, or adult lymph nodes. Thus, the competence-inducing factor is elaborated by the thymus but not by the spleen or lymph nodes. Allogeneic (C57Bl) neonatal thymus tissue, enclosed within diffusion chambers, had the capacity to restore the immune reactivity of totally thymectomized CBA mice, not only to skin homografts of a totally unrelated strain (Ak), but also to grafts isogeneic with the donor of the allogeneic thymus. Therefore, there is no strain barrier to the action of thymus humoral factor. To explain the apparent lack of full participation of thymus lymphocytes in immune reactions it is postulated that thymus lymphocytes are functionally immature in situ, and

  4. High resolution modelling and observation of wind-driven surface currents in a semi-enclosed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, S.; Hartnett, M.; McKinstry, A.; Ragnoli, E.; Nagle, D.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Firstly, the wind data used in hydrodynamic models is usually measured on land and can be quite different in magnitude and direction from offshore winds. Secondly, surface winds are spatially-varying but due to a lack of data it is common practice to specify a non-varying wind speed and direction across the full extents of a model domain. These problems can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In the present research, a wind forecast model is coupled with a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of surface wind data resolution on model accuracy. High resolution and low resolution wind fields are specified to the model and the computed surface currents are compared with high resolution surface current measurements obtained from two high frequency SeaSonde-type Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radars (CODAR). The wind forecast models used for the research are Harmonie cy361.3, running on 2.5 and 0.5km spatial grids for the low resolution and high resolution models respectively. The low-resolution model runs over an Irish domain on 540x500 grid points with 60 vertical levels and a 60s timestep and is driven by ECMWF boundary conditions. The nested high-resolution model uses 300x300 grid points on 60 vertical levels and a 12s timestep. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) is used for the hydrodynamic model. The Galway Bay model has ten vertical layers and is resolved spatially and temporally at 150m and 4 sec respectively. The hydrodynamic model is run for selected hindcast dates when wind fields were highly energetic. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind data is provided by

  5. Optimization of an enclosed gas analyzer sampling system for measuring eddy covariance fluxes of H2O and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Stefan; Burba, George; Burns, Sean P.; Blanken, Peter D.; Li, Jiahong; Luo, Hongyan; Zulueta, Rommel C.

    2016-03-01

    Several initiatives are currently emerging to observe the exchange of energy and matter between the earth's surface and atmosphere standardized over larger space and time domains. For example, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) are set to provide the ability of unbiased ecological inference across ecoclimatic zones and decades by deploying highly scalable and robust instruments and data processing. In the construction of these observatories, enclosed infrared gas analyzers are widely employed for eddy covariance applications. While these sensors represent a substantial improvement compared to their open- and closed-path predecessors, remaining high-frequency attenuation varies with site properties and gas sampling systems, and requires correction. Here, we show that components of the gas sampling system can substantially contribute to such high-frequency attenuation, but their effects can be significantly reduced by careful system design. From laboratory tests we determine the frequency at which signal attenuation reaches 50 % for individual parts of the gas sampling system. For different models of rain caps and particulate filters, this frequency falls into ranges of 2.5-16.5 Hz for CO2, 2.4-14.3 Hz for H2O, and 8.3-21.8 Hz for CO2, 1.4-19.9 Hz for H2O, respectively. A short and thin stainless steel intake tube was found to not limit frequency response, with 50 % attenuation occurring at frequencies well above 10 Hz for both H2O and CO2. From field tests we found that heating the intake tube and particulate filter continuously with 4 W was effective, and reduced the occurrence of problematic relative humidity levels (RH > 60 %) by 50 % in the infrared gas analyzer cell. No further improvement of H2O frequency response was found for heating in excess of 4 W. These laboratory and field tests were reconciled using resistor-capacitor theory, and NEON's final gas sampling system was developed on this

  6. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections

  7. Observed and modeled patterns of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilczynski, Krzysztof; Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Barton, Des; Souto Torres, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Ría de Vigo, as a semi-enclosed bay, belonging to the area so-called Rias Baixas, located at the northern tip of the Iberian coastal upwelling system. The circulation of the Ria de Vigo, being one of the major areas of mussels production, has become the subject of intensive research. The Ria de Vigo behaves as a partially-mixed estuary with a two-layered residual circulation, and is influenced by water exchange with the surrounding ocean. During northerly (upwelling favorable) winds, water enters into the Ria through the northern mouth and leaves through the surface layer of the southern mouth, in a double layer circulation at this mouth. Nearly opposed situation occours during downwelling favourable wind periods. Numerical models have become useful tools to study the hydrology and circulation of the Ria de Vigo. In this research we used the ROMS - AGRIF model. The implementation of several nested domains to increase the spatial resolution (up to 150m resolution) allowed solving the interactions between Ria de Vigo and surrounding coastal ocean in a realistic way. We have obtained a detailed description of the circulation with good agreement between observational data (ADCP moorings at both mouths, and weekly hydrological cruises) and predicted currents, salinity and temperature fields. Two new patterns of circulation in the Ria are revealed by our research: -In particular conditions associated with northerly wind relaxation, there are two-layer circulation occurs in both mouths of the Ria, consisting of outflow and inflow though the surface and bottom layers. This situation happens in the absence of stratification during winter. -Also during winter, one-layer circulation in the southern mouth of the Ria (typically there are two layers) can occur during long periods of persistent and strong upwelling-favourable wind. Our research has provided a detailed study of the circulation and hydrology of the Ria de Vigo, explaining specifically different mechanisms of

  8. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  9. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  10. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenkov, Vasily D. . E-mail: vasily.antonenkov@oulu.fi; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-05-25

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

  11. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  12. Use of non‐invasive ventilation in UK emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Browning, J; Atwood, B; Gray, A

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe the current use of non‐invasive ventilation in UK emergency departments. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to all UK emergency departments assessing 25,000 new patients annually. Results 222 of 233 departments completed the questionnaire. 148 currently use non‐invasive ventilation (NIV). Most used NIV for either cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (n = 128) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 115). Only 49 departments have protocols for NIV use and 23 audited practice. Conclusion NIV is commonly used in UK emergency departments. Practices vary significantly. One solution would be the development of guidelines on when and how to use NIV in emergency medicine practice. PMID:17130599

  13. The UK Human Genome Mapping Project online computing service.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.

  14. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  15. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Demou, E.; Kiran, S.; Gaffney, M.; Stevenson, M.; Macdonald, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. Aims To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. Methods A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Results Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. ‘Good clinical care’ was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by ‘general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health’. ‘Research methods’ and ‘teaching & educational supervision’ were considered least important. Conclusions This study has established UK OHNs’ current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty’s goals for standard setting in OHN education and training. PMID:27492470

  16. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  17. Rabies antibody testing and the UK Pet Travel Scheme.

    PubMed

    Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L M; Brookes, S M; Johnson, N; Keene, V; Parsons, G; Soldan, A

    2002-04-06

    The Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) commenced on February 28, 2000, allowing pet dogs and cats from named countries to enter the UK without spending six months in quarantine as long as they met specific criteria. Since the start of the scheme to the end of February 2002, more than 45,000 animals have successfully entered the UK under PETS. In this article, Dr Tony Fooks and colleagues consider the results of serological testing under the scheme at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency and look to future developments.

  18. Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolston, John

    2000-03-01

    Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook.

  19. The Availability of Advanced Airway Equipment and Experience with Videolaryngoscopy in the UK: Two UK Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Rachel L.; Jeffrey, Audrey S. Y.; McNarry, Alistair F.; Liew, Geoffrey H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibreoptic intubation, high frequency jet ventilation, and videolaryngoscopy form part of the Royal College of Anaesthetists compulsory higher airway training module. Curriculum delivery requires equipment availability and competent trainers. We sought to establish (1) availability of advanced airway equipment in UK hospitals (Survey I) and (2) if those interested in airway management (Difficult Airway Society (DAS) members) had access to videolaryngoscopes, their basic skill levels and teaching competence with these devices and if they believed that videolaryngoscopy was replacing conventional or fibreoptic laryngoscopy (Survey II). Data was obtained from 212 hospitals (73.1%) and 554 DAS members (27.6%). Most hospitals (202, 99%) owned a fiberscope, 119 (57.5%) had a videolaryngoscope, yet only 62 (29.5%) had high frequency jet ventilators. DAS members had variable access to videolaryngoscopes with Airtraq 319 (59.6%) and Glidescope 176 (32.9%) being the most common. More DAS members were happy to teach or use videolaryngoscopes in a difficult airway than those who had used them more than ten times. The majority rated Macintosh laryngoscopy as the most important airway skill. Members rated fibreoptic intubation and videolaryngoscopy skills equally. Our surveys demonstrate widespread availability of fibreoptic scopes, limited availability of videolaryngoscopes, and limited numbers of experienced videolaryngoscope tutors. PMID:25628653

  20. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    PubMed

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain.

  1. Mutual learning and research messages: India, UK, and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    India and UK have had a long history together, since the times of the British Raj. Most of what Indian psychiatry is today, finds its roots in ancient Indian texts and medicine systems as much as it is influenced by the European system. Psychiatric research in India is growing. It is being influenced by research in the UK and Europe and is influencing them at the same time. In addition to the sharing of ideas and the know-how, there has also been a good amount of sharing of mental health professionals and research samples in the form of immigrants from India to the UK. The Indian mental health professionals based in UK have done a good amount of research with a focus on these Indian immigrants, giving an insight into cross-cultural aspects of some major psychiatric disorders. This article discusses the impact that research in these countries has had on each other and the contributions that have resulted from it. PMID:21836716

  2. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  3. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  4. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Archer, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. PMID:27694545

  5. Assessment for Learning and Teacher Learning Communities: UK Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the experiences of secondary teachers in four London schools [UK] who participated in Teacher Learning Communities, defined as meetings in which professional learning was supported as they learned about Assessment for Learning (AfL). The claim for these communities is that they lead to sustained improvements in teaching…

  6. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  7. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  8. Non-European nurses' perceived barriers to UK nurse registration.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Westwood, Sue

    2016-05-11

    Aim To conduct a scoping project to identify perceived barriers to UK nurse registration as experienced by internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in the UK. Method Eleven internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in two London hospitals attended two facilitated focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Study participants articulated frustration with UK English language testing requirements and a sense of injustice and unfairness relating to: double standards for nurses educated within and outside of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA); and what was perceived, by some, as arbitrary English language testing with unnecessarily high standards. Differences among study participants related to issues of competency and accountability regarding English language skills and passing English language skills tests, with many feeling they were playing 'a game' where the rules kept changing. Conclusion Language testing barriers are impeding UK nurse registration for some internationally educated nurses from outside the EU and EEA who, as a result, are working as healthcare assistants. The provision of English language training by employers would improve their prospects of achieving nurse registration.

  9. A Longitudinal Analysis of UK Second-Generation Disadvantaged Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel; de Coulon, Augustin; Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar; Vignoles, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relative academic achievement in primary school of second-generation immigrant children in the UK. The education progress of these groups of children is of historical interest and is also relevant to the policy debate today, since ethnic minority students in England continue to have lower levels of achievement in primary school,…

  10. Performance Indicators and Widening Participation in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Coates, Gwen; Adnett, Nick

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the widening participation performance indicators adopted in UK higher education (HE) and the government's objective of increasing overall HE participation rates. We critically assess the development of performance monitoring in HE and identify weaknesses in the current performance indicators from the…

  11. Lively Bureaucracy? The ESRC's Doctoral Training Centres and UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Ingrid; McAlpine, Lynn; Mills, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing relationships between the UK government, its research councils and universities, focusing on the governing, funding and organisation of doctoral training. We use the Doctoral Training Centres (DTCs) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as a prism through which to study the shifting nature of…

  12. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  13. Linguistics Undergraduate and Postgraduate Courses: Experience of Lancaster University (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komochkova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with peculiarities of undergraduate and postgraduate linguistic courses at Lancaster University. It has been stated that the latter is considered to be one of the best higher education institutions both in the UK and worldwide. Being a relatively new higher education institution (founded in 1964), it can already boast its…

  14. Feudalism and Academia: UK Academics' Accounts of Research Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of research cultures in university education departments is still evolving, particularly in connection with the departments which have achieved a high ranking in the UK government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), and also the conditions under which "knowledge workers" operate are under-researched, although this is…

  15. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  16. Domestic properties in the UK and a lack of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugochukwu, Nnadozie

    This research aims to provide sufficient insight into the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK. The paper reviewed relevant theories of sustainability, with respect to energy performance and environmental friendliness of the built environment. The research also studied the efforts made by the UK Government and other Stakeholders to ensure availability of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, by introducing the Code for Sustainable Homes. The research identified constraints that cause the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, they are: The extra costs associated with building homes to sustainable standards, flexible government legislation, lack of information of the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards, and lack of community participation in the formulation of sustainable policies. Recommendations for the availability of more homes built to sustainable standards include the need for mandatory government legislation, making the formulation of policies more participatory amongst the communities where they will be implemented, creating public awareness about the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards and the fact that the costs associated with owning such a home is recoverable through savings made in energy costs.

  17. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted…

  18. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  19. Copyright Infringement and Potential Technological Prevention Measures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    "Sony Music v. Easyinternetcafe" has introduced a new facet to the debate concerning the copyright legality of peer-to-peer file transfer. The judgment and subsequent settlement has highlighted that companies offering services that are used to infringe copyright may be held to account in the UK courts. Liability may extend from the…

  20. Deconstructing "Aspiration": UK Policy Debates and European Policy Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohrer, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Strategies of "employability" and "activation" are increasingly favoured in the European Union policy context. These strategies are aimed at fostering inclusion by stressing the responsibility of the individual to participate in education and employment. Similar tendencies can be observed in the United Kingdom (UK) over the…

  1. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  2. Information Society: Agenda for Action in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips of Ellesmere, Lord

    1997-01-01

    Explains the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology in the UK (United Kingdom) and discusses its report that addresses the need for information technology planning on a national basis. Topics include electronic publishing for access to government publications, universal access, regulatory framework, encryption and verification,…

  3. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  4. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  5. The Evolution of Student Services in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    There is limited literature that looks at the evolution of student services in the UK and their effectiveness in providing student support. Student support is broadly defined as all services that support students to learn. Academic and non-academic support are essential mechanisms in providing holistic student support. In this article, the author…

  6. The Impact Debate: Hazards of Discourse in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The UK higher education community is well served for news and policy discourse by the weekly "Times Higher Education" ("THE"). "THE" also provides a window into the conduct of this community. Concern about the contribution of research to the wider society beyond academe has risen along with its scale and cost. Views…

  7. Social Pedagogy in the UK: Gaining a Firm Foothold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The paper asks why, unlike much of Europe, the UK has until recently taken very little interest in social pedagogy. It looks at the meanings of social pedagogy, including the importance of both "social" and "pedagogy" in understanding the term and argues that social pedagogy policy, practice, and theory are interlinked and…

  8. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. Results: 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. Conclusion: SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. Advances in knowledge: This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique. PMID:26689091

  9. A Study of CHARGE Syndrome in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuce, Gail; Howard, Simon; Rose, Steve; Fuggle, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings of a questionnaire completed by 44 families living in the UK with a child (aged 15 years or younger) with a medical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome. The questionnaire contained three sections, namely Diagnosis (including medical and health issues), Child development, and Educational provision. This article reports on the…

  10. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Ann; Dyer, Jenni; Monroe, Maisie; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    The interests of women in physics in the UK are being addressed by two strands of work by the Institute of Physics—Girls in Physics and Project Juno—and by several nationwide efforts, including the Athena SWAN awards. Both Project Juno and the Athena SWAN awards recognize academic departments for graded levels of gender equity.

  11. Should Form Follow Function? Changing Academic Structures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John

    2005-01-01

    What, if any, changes have occurred in the academic structures of UK universities since the early 1990s and the abolition of the binary line? This paper attempts to answer this question and raises issues about the significance of any such changes. There is one useful publication that can provide some insight into the pattern of academic…

  12. Correlating video meteors with GRAVES radio detections from the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, R.

    2015-01-01

    The area of meteor ablation layer illuminated by the GRAVES radar is low on the horizon from southern UK. A number of simultaneous video meteor and radio detections suggested that it was possible to record common events despite the unfavorable relative positions. This was investigated further to see what the constraints are and whether there is any prospect of obtaining useful data.

  13. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  14. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  15. Engineering Careers in the UK: Still Not What Women Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Liz; Hamill, Les

    2006-01-01

    Of all professions, engineering is ranked near the bottom in the UK in terms of the proportion of female applicants for university places, so the engineering industry is missing out on some of the best young talent available. Despite initiatives to increase the number of women entering engineering, there has been little change over the last…

  16. Causes and effective management of insect bites in the UK.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marion

    Insects play an important role in maintaining the world's ecosystem (Zhu and Stiller, 2002) but many of them feed on other animals. Humans are relatively hairless and provide an easy target, especially when partly clothed (Cohn, 2003). Biting insects common to the UK include midges, gnats, mosquitoes, flies, fleas, lice, mites, ticks, and bedbugs (Fig 1).

  17. Young People, Biblical Narrative and "Theologizing": A UK Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Terence

    2005-01-01

    Religious Education is a curriculum subject provided as entitlement for all students in UK public schools. Biblical narratives appear for every student age group, usually in Christian studies modules. The Biblos research project was founded to investigate how biblical narrative might be taught with integrity in public schools in a society labelled…

  18. Restructuring Revisited: Changing Academic Structures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing external environment, for many universities, restructuring of the academic organisation is the most important leadership challenge. In this article, the author provides an analysis of academic restructuring in UK universities. Using the "Commonwealth Universities Yearbook", he looked at the changes in academic…

  19. Research Staff and Public Engagement: A UK Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Public engagement plays an important role in the contemporary UK academy, and is promoted through initiatives such as Beacons of Public Engagement and research grant "Pathways to Impact". Relatively little is known, however, about academic experiences of such engagement activities. This study focuses on one staff group, contract…

  20. Participating and Performing: Sport and Higher Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This report highlights the contribution that higher education institutions make to sport in the UK. It draws out key findings from the Sport England and sportscotland audits of sports provision in higher education institutions. The role of sport ranges from world-class excellence to community access and healthy living. (Contains 22 notes.)

  1. A UK national audit of hereditary and acquired angioedema.

    PubMed

    Jolles, S; Williams, P; Carne, E; Mian, H; Huissoon, A; Wong, G; Hackett, S; Lortan, J; Platts, V; Longhurst, H; Grigoriadou, S; Dempster, J; Deacock, S; Khan, S; Darroch, J; Simon, C; Thomas, M; Pavaladurai, V; Alachkar, H; Herwadkar, A; Abinun, M; Arkwright, P; Tarzi, M; Helbert, M; Bangs, C; Pastacaldi, C; Phillips, C; Bennett, H; El-Shanawany, T

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) and acquired angioedema (AAE) are rare life-threatening conditions caused by deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1INH). Both are characterized by recurrent unpredictable episodes of mucosal swelling involving three main areas: the skin, gastrointestinal tract and larynx. Swelling in the gastrointestinal tract results in abdominal pain and vomiting, while swelling in the larynx may be fatal. There are limited UK data on these patients to help improve practice and understand more clearly the burden of disease. An audit tool was designed, informed by the published UK consensus document and clinical practice, and sent to clinicians involved in the care of HAE patients through a number of national organizations. Data sets on 376 patients were received from 14 centres in England, Scotland and Wales. There were 55 deaths from HAE in 33 families, emphasizing the potentially lethal nature of this disease. These data also show that there is a significant diagnostic delay of on average 10 years for type I HAE, 18 years for type II HAE and 5 years for AAE. For HAE the average annual frequency of swellings per patient affecting the periphery was eight, abdomen 5 and airway 0·5, with wide individual variation. The impact on quality of life was rated as moderate or severe by 37% of adult patients. The audit has helped to define the burden of disease in the UK and has aided planning new treatments for UK patients.

  2. The Politics of Childhood and Asylum in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner, Clotilde

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the general treatment of asylum-seeking families with children in the UK, focusing on the government's practices and public reactions to these measures. It first describes both the exclusive asylum framework, based on institutionalised suspicion, welfare restrictions and detention, and the inclusive child policy framework,…

  3. Falling through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Farrah

    2008-01-01

    An overview of child trafficking in the UK explores the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to these particularly vulnerable children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's…

  4. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  5. Approaches to Training Teachers of Adults in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chychuk, Vadym

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the theoretical foundations of teacher training for adult students in the UK. It has been found out that the system of adult education is based on the andragogical approach that reveals patterns, psychological and pedagogical factors of effective learning. In applying the andragogical approach to adult education the…

  6. US/UK Loan Account Project Status PMOD477

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Patrice A.

    2012-07-12

    The viewgraphs describe the status of PMOD477 for LANL. The meeting will occur at DOE-HQ with NA-11 and Military Applications personnel in attendance. Serves to repatriate material with a balance to zero by December 2012. Phase 1 -- Establish formality of operations for War Reserve (WR): Complete surrogate taskings to A90 through a Materials Channel and perform US/UK lessons learned; Complete the US/UK agreed Quality Acceptance Plan, Materials Plan, Shipping procedure, and establish the formal UK/US point of contacts. Phase 2 -- Metal Manufacture (WR): Process material and store material as electrorefined metal (ER) rings, with initial assay and isotopic analysis, prior to manufacturing. Material is cast into accepted configuration and appropriate acceptance document for each aliquot will be generated. Phase 3 -- Intermediate Material Manufacture, Packaging and Shipping (WR): Continue processing of the material in accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance documentation for each aliquot. Provide an initial tasking of the material owed to UK including appropriate quality acceptance documentation. Phase 4 -- Complete Tasking (WR). Phase 5 -- Residue Processing (Non-WR): Complete processing of residue material and waste into accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance document for disposal.

  7. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  8. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  9. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  10. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  11. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  12. The Prevalence of "Life Planning:" Evidence from UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Everett, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    At a time when "personal development planning" is being rolled out across the UK higher education sector, this paper explores young adults' inclinations to plan for the future in relation to work, relationships and other aspects of life. Although Giddens has emphasised the prevalence of strategic life planning (or the "colonisation…

  13. An analysis of cancer research funding in the UK.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Liam; Nurse, Paul; Radda, George

    2003-02-01

    Until recently, a lack of comparable and reliable data on ongoing research activity has been a significant limiting factor in strategic planning for cancer research. This article describes a new initiative in the UK, which is aimed at facilitating the coordination and strategic planning of cancer research at the national level.

  14. Expectation and Reality: Korean Sojourner Families in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Seonghye

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Korean sojourner families are moving to an English-speaking country on a short-term basis in the hope of improving educational and linguistic outcomes for their children. This study reports the findings of an ethnographic case study of 10 families in southern England. The motivation for the move to the UK is explored, paying…

  15. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Rob

    2009-01-01

    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  16. University Students' Unions: Changing Functions, a UK and Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Lu; Cole, Michael; Worthington, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the functions of students' unions (SUs) through a UK case study. First, a functional classification of educational representation; wider representation; delivery of commercial services and faciliating a student community is outlined. Second, we specify a theoretical framework in terms of neo-liberalism and therapeutic…

  17. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  18. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  19. Supporting International Students in UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ian

    2014-01-01

    International students make up an increasingly large proportion of the UK's student population. Whether studying at undergraduate, postgraduate taught or postgraduate research level, they require support just like home students. However, international students can often bring additional issues and complications for the staff who are supporting…

  20. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  1. Higher Education Funding Issues: U.S. / UK Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares and contrasts higher education funding sources and systems in the U.S. and the UK. The issues raised in the paper pertain to the major challenge of academia: finding financial support in times of limited resources and enhanced competition. The issues discussed throughout the paper are: funding and quality assessment of…

  2. Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

  3. Embracing the UNCRC in Wales (UK): Policy, Pedagogy and Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Most countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). In 1999, the Government of Wales was devolved from the UK, and in 2011 the "Children and Young Persons Rights Measure" put the UNCRC as the basis of all its work. Any programme introduced in schools should therefore promote the UNCRC. To…

  4. Transitions to material efficiency in the UK steel economy.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M

    2013-03-13

    Steel production is energy intensive so already has achieved impressive levels of energy efficiency. If the emissions associated with steel must be reduced in line with the requirements of the UK Climate Change Act, demand for new steel must be reduced. The strategies of 'material efficiency' aim to achieve such a reduction, while delivering the same final services. To meet the emissions targets set into UK law, UK consumption of steel must be reduced to 30 per cent of present levels by 2050. Previous work has revealed six strategies that could contribute to this target, and this paper presents an approximate analysis of the required transition. A macro-economic analysis of steel in the UK shows that while the steel industry is relatively small, the construction and manufacturing sectors are large, and it would be politically unacceptable to pursue options that lead to a major contraction in other sectors. Alternative business models are therefore required, and these are explored through four representative products--one for each final sector with particular emphasis given to options for reducing product weight, and extending product life. Preliminary evidence on the triggers that would lead to customers preferring these options is presented and organized in order to predict required policy measures. The estimated analysis of transitions explored in this paper is used to define target questions for future research in the area.

  5. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  6. International Higher Education and the Mobility of UK Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Waters, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In the context of increasing academic interest in the internationalization of education and the international mobility of university students, this article draws on findings of a recent research project examining students from the UK as they seek higher education overseas before entering the labour market. The discussion is framed around four key…

  7. Lifelong Learning through SMEs: Exploring Workplace Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren, Linda; Engel, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective in this paper is to examine the role of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in promoting and/or hindering educational opportunities to adult employees in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on 12 case studies of SMEs in England and Scotland, which form part of a larger European Sixth Framework…

  8. Systemic Working in Learning Disability Services: A UK Wide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Scior, Katrina; Wilson, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Systemic therapy works not just with the individual but those around them in trying to address difficulties and find ways forward. This approach has received increasing attention in learning disability settings over recent years. To date little is known about the provision of systemic therapy in learning disability services in the UK. This article…

  9. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  10. The New Decade: A Watershed in UK Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNay, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article first draws together a range of published statistics to analyse trends in participation in higher education in the UK over recent years. That provides evidence of the shifting profile in the student population and sets a context for examining emerging evidence of the impact of recent government policy decisions on control of student…

  11. Health tourism and the UK: some new developments.

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean

    Pre-empting the implementation of the EU draft Patient's Rights directive, the UK Government has issued regulations governing the reimbursement of costs of treatment to patients seeking treatment overseas. This article explores the new regulations and how they may impact on NHS resource allocation in the future.

  12. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. > We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. > There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. > Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. > Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  13. Investigating UK Summer precipitation variability using a Lagrangian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Johannes; Methven, John; Blackburn, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Northwest Europe has been faced with a succession of exceptionally wet summers in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2012. In 2007, although June-July rainfall was over 200% of the average for England and Wales, 38% of this rain fell in only 3 events associated with slow-moving cyclones. This paper attempts to explain the UK Summer precipitation variability by partitioning it into changes in the origin of air masses, changes in the environment at those origins and local storm dynamics (e.g.,stronger ascent above the UK). Reverse domain filling back trajectories are calculated from meteorological analyses and variables are interpolated to the trajectories. It is shown that moisture changes along the last 6 hours of trajectories account for 76% of the precipitation observed by the gauge network. The results are also consistent with precipitation forecasts made as part of the ERA-Interim analysis cycle in the ECMWF IFS. Therefore, the trajectories can be used to explore the variability in water vapour above the UK and the associated precipitation. The back trajectories are used to link to the origins of air masses contributing to the precipitation over the UK. For this purpose, the last contact with the boundary layer defines the "origins". Conservation of specific humidity is not assumed: the trajectories are used to link changes occurring in the ECMWF model following the resolved flow. Results suggest that precipitation for the wettest summer months originates from different regions when compared to the climatological origins. Part of this signal can be linked to the mid-latitude storm track variability. Anomalous temperature and humidity at the origins during wet months are below the local long term average, showing that the extreme monthly precipitation for the UK cannot be explained by a simple "warmer climate, higher humidity" argument. The changes in circulation patterns are crucial.

  14. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  15. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Surface energetic and bonding characteristics of tetrahexahedral platinum nanocrystals enclosed by high-index facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses a molecular static approach with a many-body potential to investigate the surface energetic and bonding characteristics of tetrahexahedral platinum nanocrystals enclosed by high-index facets such as {210}, {310}, {410}, {520} and {730}. It mainly focuses on the effect of crystal size and surface Miller index on these characteristics. The results show that the surface energy and dangling bond density increase with decreasing diameter of tetrahexahedral nanocrystals and generally show an order of {210} > {730} > {520} > {310} > {410}. However, this order is not valid at crystal sizes below 7 nm or so. The results of corresponding surfaces are also presented for comparison.

  17. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  18. Situated and Contextual Features of Test Anxiety in UK Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William

    2009-01-01

    Despite a literature spanning over 50 years, there has been little test anxiety research conducted on samples of school-aged students drawn from the UK. As a consequence, little in known about the test anxious experience in the UK, and whether this experience is contextualized by features of the UK educational context. For this reason, the…

  19. Those Who Can, Teach: Addressing the Crisis in Mathematics in UK Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; d'Inverno, Ray

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in UK mathematics education, both in schools and universities, has been widely reported in the national media. A recent study shows that 26% of full-time mathematics teachers in UK schools have no qualification in the subject, and that 31% of all UK schools' mathematics teachers are now over the age of 50. The crisis in school…

  20. Developing tools for long-term breeding of blueberry germplasm for UK production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit consumption in the UK, particularly of berry fruits, is expanding rapidly, and consumer demand for blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) is at record levels with UK growers unable to meet current demand. There is great potential for UK growers to supply high-quality fresh blueberries across a wide seas...

  1. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  2. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  3. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] with a Large Referred Irish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…

  4. UK School Students' Attitudes towards Science and Potential Science-Based Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Emelia L.; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of literature pertaining to UK secondary school students, their uptake of science at higher levels and their consideration of careers as scientists. As with all countries, the continued uptake of sufficient numbers of science at all levels is in the UK's interest. Unfortunately too many UK secondary students see science as…

  5. An observational study of Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation: DEVELOP-UK.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Andrew; Andreasson, Anders; Chrysos, Alexandros; Lally, Joanne; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Exley, Catherine; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Qian, Jessica; Watson, Gillian; Lewington, Oli; Chadwick, Thomas; McColl, Elaine; Pearce, Mark; Mann, Kay; McMeekin, Nicola; Vale, Luke; Tsui, Steven; Yonan, Nizar; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor; Mascaro, Jorge; Dark, John

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs. SETTING Multicentre study involving all five UK officially designated NHS adult lung transplant centres. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with advanced lung disease accepted onto the lung transplant waiting list. INTERVENTION The study intervention was EVLP assessment of donor lungs before determining suitability for transplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was survival during the first 12 months following lung transplantation. Secondary outcome measures were patient-centred outcomes that are influenced by the effectiveness of lung transplantation and that contribute to the health-care costs. RESULTS Lungs from 53 donors unsuitable for standard transplant were assessed with EVLP, of which 18 (34%) were subsequently transplanted. A total of 184 participants received standard donor lungs. Owing to the early closure of the study, a non-inferiority analysis was not conducted. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival at 12 months was 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.83] for the EVLP arm and 0.80 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.85) for the standard arm. The hazard ratio for overall 12-month survival in the EVLP arm relative to the standard arm was 1.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 4.67). Patients in the EVLP arm required ventilation for a longer period and stayed longer in an intensive therapy unit (ITU) than patients in the standard arm, but duration of overall hospital

  6. Long-term macronutrient stoichiometry of UK ombrotrophic peatlands.

    PubMed

    Schillereff, Daniel N; Boyle, John F; Toberman, Hannah; Adams, Jessica L; Bryant, Charlotte L; Chiverrell, Richard C; Helliwell, Rachel C; Keenan, Patrick; Lilly, Allan; Tipping, Edward

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report new data on peat carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and accumulation rates for 15 sites in the UK. Concentrations of C, N and P measured in peat from five ombrotrophic blanket mires, spanning 4000-10,000years to present were combined with existing nutrient data from ten Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs to provide the first UK perspective on millennial scale macronutrient concentrations in ombrotrophic peats. Long-term average C, N and P concentrations (0-1.25m) for the UK are 54.8, 1.56 and 0.039wt%, of similar magnitude to the few published comparable sites worldwide. The uppermost peat (0-0.2m) is enriched in P and N (51.0, 1.86, and 0.070wt%) relative to the deeper peat (0.5-1.25m, 56.3, 1.39, and 0.027wt%). Long-term average (whole core) accumulation rates of C, N and P are 25.3±2.2gCm(-2)year(-)(1) (mean±SE), 0.70±0.09gNm(-2)year(-1) and 0.018±0.004gPm(-2)year(-1), again similar to values reported elsewhere in the world. The two most significant findings are: 1) that a regression model of N concentration on P concentration and mean annual precipitation, based on global meta data for surface peat samples, can explain 54% of variance in N concentration in these UK peat profiles; and 2) budget calculations for the UK peat cores yield an estimate for long-term average N-fixation of 0.8gm(-2)year(-1). Our UK results, and comparison with others sites, corroborate published estimates of N storage in northern boreal peatlands through the Holocene as ranging between 8 and 15Pg N. However, the observed correlation of N% with both mean annual precipitation and P concentration allows a potential bias in global estimates that do not take this into account. The peat sampling data set has been deposited at the NERC Data Centre (Toberman et al., 2016).

  7. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard; Chipperfield, Martyn; Savage, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this work the applicability of satellite observations to evaluate the operational UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) have been investigated. The main focus involved the AQUM validation against satellite observations, investigation of satellite retrieval error types and of synoptic meteorological-atmospheric chemistry relationships simulated/seen by the AQUM/satellite. The AQUM is a short range forecast model of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols up to 5 days. It has been designed to predict potentially hazardous air pollution events, e.g. high concentrations of surface ozone. The AQUM has only been validated against UK atmospheric chemistry recording surface stations. Therefore, satellite observations of atmospheric chemistry have been used to further validate the model, taking advantage of better satellite spatial coverage. Observations of summer and winter 2006 tropospheric column NO2 from both OMI and SCIAMACHY show that the AQUM generally compares well with the observations. However, in northern England positive biases (AQUM - satellite) suggest that the AQUM overestimates column NO2; we present results of sensitivity experiments on UK emissions datasets suspected to be the cause. In winter, the AQUM over predicts background column NO2 when compared to both satellite instruments. We hypothesise that the cause is the AQUM winter night-time chemistry, where the NO2 sinks are not substantially defined. Satellite data are prone to errors/uncertainty such as random, systematic and smoothing errors. We have investigated these error types and developed an algorithm to calculate and reduce the random error component of DOAS NO2 retrievals, giving more robust seasonal satellite composites. The Lamb Weather Types (LWT), an objective method of classifying the daily synoptic weather over the UK, were used to create composite satellite maps of column NO2 under different synoptic conditions. Under cyclonic conditions, satellite observed UK column NO2 is

  8. Congressional Science Fellow tackles science policy for U.K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Julie J.

    After an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship in 1997-1998,I decided to pursue science policy further. I spied an ad in the Sunday Washington Post advertising for someone with a science degree, who also had knowledge of the United Kingdom, and science policy experience on Capitol Hill. In addition to my Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles and the Congressional Science Fellowship, I had spent two years in the U.K. as a post-doc at Queen Mary and Westfield College in London.I applied for the job, which was at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., and was hired. The UK Foreign Office has a tradition of hiring many of its embassy staff locally; they consider knowledge of local politics and issues very use ful for their interests. Now I cover hard science issues, including space and the Internet for Her Majesty's Government.

  9. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2008-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carol; Marks, Ann; Wilkin, Nicola; Leslie, Dawn; D'Amico, Irene; Dyer, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Positive progress has continued in the past three years for women in physics in the UK. The Institute of Physics has aggressively advocated and organized initiatives for women in science through its Diversity Programme and its Women in Physics Group. Surveys are routinely carried out and acted upon, most recently on postdoctoral researchers and childcare issues. The Institute's Juno Award program encourages higher education institutes to address the underrepresentation of women in physics. The UK Resource Centre for Women in SET (science, engineering, and technology) provides resources and support for women working in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. The Equality Act of 2010 provides renewed focus on equality and a framework within which women physicists can continue to push for progress. The recent achievements of women physicists are noted.

  10. Family income and child health in the UK.

    PubMed

    Apouey, Bénédicte; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies examining the relationship between family income and child health in the UK have produced mixed findings. We re-examine the income gradient in child general health and its evolution with child age in this country, using a very large sample of British children. We find that there is no correlation between income and child general health at ages 0-1, that the gradient emerges around age 2 and is constant from age 2 to age 17. In addition, we show that the gradient remains large and significant when we reduce the endogeneity of income. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gradient in general health reflects a greater prevalence of chronic conditions among low-income children and a greater severity of these conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that income does matter for child health in the UK and may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status.

  11. A review of the UK metals recycling industry.

    PubMed

    Emery, Andrew; Williams, Keith P; Griffiths, Anthony J

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the volatile nature of the price of recycled metals over the past decade and examines legislative and fiscal drivers that have affected the industry. Results from this study have shown that the UK scrap metals markets are presently seeing some of the lowest scrap prices for nearly a decade for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, in many cases halving in value in less than a year. Scrap metals and other recycled materials prices were high in 1994-96, which have since fallen back to more traditional low levels. World recessions and the steady decline of the UK manufacturing and engineering sectors have effected prices. With tougher new Government legislation, such as the Climate Change Levy and the proposed End of Life Vehicles Directive, small and medium sized scrap merchants are finding it increasingly difficult to compete.

  12. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services.

  13. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  14. UK NEQAS for leucocyte immunophenotyping: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, J; Barnett, D

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade, cellular immunophenotyping has become a new discipline in diagnostic haematology and immunology, and is invaluable in the rapid diagnosis of leukaemia and monitoring disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals. The introduction of bench top flow cytometers has meant that immunophenotyping is now also used for the quantitation of CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) to ensure the correct timing and adequacy of haematopoietic progenitor cell harvests. Furthermore, flow cytometry has become an important tool for the counting of leucocytes in blood components after leucocyte depletion. Because this new discipline is now such a major diagnostic and prognostic tool in the clinical arena, its use must be subject to both internal and external quality control. Such a requirement was first recognised as early as 1986 when an Inter-Regional Quality Assessment Scheme (IRQAS) was initiated for laboratories that undertook the immunocytochemical diagnosis of leukaemia using the alkaline phosphates anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. This programme began with around 25 UK laboratories. In 1990, after the introduction of two more programmes (one for leukaemia diagnosis using UV microscopy and latterly flow cytometry, and one for the enumeration of CD4+ T cells) the IRQAS achieved UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) status and changed its title to UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping. In the past decade the once small IRQAS programme has evolved into the largest international scheme of its kind, providing EQA to over 650 laboratories world wide for leukaemia immunophenotyping, lymphocyte subset analysis, PBSCs, and more recently low level leucocyte counting. Over the years, this EQA programme has highlighted important problems, such as the inappropriate use of fluorochromes and antibody titre, and the identification of effective gating strategies, all of which have contributed directly to the high

  15. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  16. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'.

  17. Assessment of professional development of neurology trainees: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Wills, Adrian J

    2005-04-01

    The European Working Time Directive has led to concerns that trainees' hours of work will decrease, with negative effects on their training. Various changes to the curriculum are needed to equip trainees for self-directed learning. A strong lobby argues for the introduction of examinations before entry to the consultant grade. Meanwhile, there is intense political pressure (in the UK at least), to shorten the duration of postgraduate training so that pledges for consultant numbers can be met. Reconciliation of these conflicting demands is a challenge for the future. Additional assessment procedures should be piloted. To successfully introduce changes, trainees and trainers will need to work in partnership. Course assessment and student feedback should be formalised. In this paper I summarise the assessment procedures in the UK and US, and suggest a model of best practice.

  18. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the simulation of regional ocean, wave and atmosphere components of the Earth System have been considered separately, with some information on other components provided by means of boundary or forcing conditions. More recently, the potential value of a more integrated approach, as required for global climate and Earth System prediction, for regional short-term applications has begun to gain increasing research effort. In the UK, this activity is motivated by an understanding that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system, including a new eddy-permitting resolution ocean component, and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions in this relatively high resolution system. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  19. The UK Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcome (OHCAO) project

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Gavin D; Brace-McDonnell, Samantha J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reducing premature death is a key priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS). NHS Ambulance services treat approximately 30 000 cases of suspected cardiac arrest each year but survival rates vary. The British Heart Foundation and Resuscitation Council (UK) have funded a structured research programme—the Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) programme. The aim of the project is to establish the epidemiology and outcome of OHCA, explore sources of variation in outcome and establish the feasibility of setting up a national OHCA registry. Methods and analysis This is a prospective observational study set in UK NHS Ambulance Services. The target population will be adults and children sustaining an OHCA who are attended by an NHS ambulance emergency response and where resuscitation is attempted. The data collected will be characterised broadly as system characteristics, emergency medical services (EMS) dispatch characteristics, patient characteristics and EMS process variables. The main outcome variables of interest will be return of spontaneous circulation and medium—long-term survival (30 days to 10-year survival). Ethics and dissemination Ethics committee permissions were gained and the study also has received approval from the Confidentiality Advisory Group Ethics and Confidentiality committee which provides authorisation to lawfully hold identifiable data on patients without their consent. To identify the key characteristics contributing to better outcomes in some ambulance services, reliable and reproducible systems need to be established for collecting data on OHCA in the UK. Reports generated from the registry will focus on data completeness, timeliness and quality. Subsequent reports will summarise demographic, patient, process and outcome variables with aim of improving patient care through focus quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26428332

  20. The UK geothermal hot dry rock R&D programme

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Paul; Stedman, Ann; Symons, Geoff

    1992-01-01

    The UK hot dry rock research and development programme is funded by the Department of Energy and aims to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial exploitation of HDR in the UK. The philosophy of the UK programme has been to proceed to a full-scale prototype HDR power station via a number of stages: Phase 1--Experiments at shallow depth (300 m) to assess the feasibility of enhancing the permeability of the rock. Phase 2--Studies at intermediate depth (2500 m) to determine the feasibility of creating a viable HDR subsurface heat exchanger. Phase 3--Establishment of an HDR prototype at commercial depth. The programme has run over a 15 year period, and has been formally reviewed at stages throughout its progress. The 1987 review towards the end of Phase 2 identified a number of technical objectives for continuing research and proposed that the initial design stage of the deep HDR prototype should start. Phase 3A is now complete. It addressed: the feasibility of creating an underground HDR heat exchanger suitable for commercial operation; techniques for improving hydraulic performance and correcting short circuits in HDR systems; modeling of the performance, resource size and economic aspects of HDR systems. The work has been conducted by a number of contractors, including Cambome School of Mines, Sunderland and Sheffield City Polytechnics and RTZ Consultants Limited. This paper focuses upon the experimental work at Rosemanowes in Cornwall and the recently completed conceptual design of a prototype HDR power station. The economics of HDR-generated electricity are also discussed and the conclusions of a 1990 program review are presented. Details of the HDR program to 1994, as announced by the UK Department of Energy in February 1991, are included.