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Sample records for 6f final characterization

  1. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  3. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  4. Formation, structural characterization, and reactions of a unique cyclotrimeric vicinal Lewis pair containing (C6F5)2P-Lewis base and (C6F5)BH-Lewis acid components.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Markus; Wiegand, Thomas; Blumenberg, Jonas; Eckert, Hellmut; Ren, Jinjun; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard

    2014-10-28

    The synthesis of the new vicinal frustrated Lewis pair 5 containing (C6F5)2P-Lewis base and (C6F5)BH-Lewis acid functionality is described. It forms a unique cyclotrimer (5)3 which was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The relevant NMR Hamiltonian parameters ((11)B and (31)P chemical shielding tensors, (11)B quadrupolar coupling tensors, and (31)P-(11)B spin-spin coupling constants) indicate significant intramolecular covalent BP interactions, consistent with results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, the (11)B/(31)P and (31)P/(31)P three-spin geometries are accurately reproduced by suitable high-resolution hetero- and homonuclear dipolar NMR experiments. As predicted from the bonding character portrayed by the solid-state NMR results, the cyclotrimer (5)3 possesses only moderate catalytic activity. However, it undergoes an addition reaction with pyridine and hydroboration reactions with benzaldehyde and tert-butylacetylene. The products of the hydroboration reactions form stable adducts with pyridine.

  5. Characterization of the High-spin Heme x in the Cytochrome b{sub 6}f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huijuan; Primak, Andrew N.; Cape, Jonathan L.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.; Cramer, William A.

    2004-12-28

    X-ray structures at 3.0-3.1 {angstrom} resolution of the ccterizytochrome b{sub 6}f complex from the cyanobacterium, Mastigocladus laminosus (1) and the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (2) showed the presence of a unique heme, heme x, that is covalently linked by a single thioether bond to a Cys residue (Cys35) on the electrochemically negative (n) side of the cytochrome b{sub 6} polypeptide. Heme x faces the inter-monomer quinone exchange cavity. The only axial ligand associated with this heme is a H{sub 2}O or OH{sup -} that is H-bonded to the propionate of the stromal side heme b{sub n}, showing that is penta-coordinate. The spectral properties of this heme were hardly defined at the time of the structure determination. The pyridine hemochromagen redox difference spectrum for heme x covalently bound to the cytochrome b polypeptide isolated from SDS-PAGE displays a broad spectrum of low amplitude with a peak at 553 nm, similar to that of other hemes with a single thioether linkage. The binding of CO and a hydrophobic cyanide analogue, butyl isocyanide (BIC), to dithionite-reduced b{sub 6}f complex perturbs and significantly shifts the redox difference visible spectrum. Together with EPR spectra displaying g values of the oxidized complex at 6.7 and 7.4, the character of heme x is defined to be ferric high spin in a rhombic environment. In addition to a possible function in photosystem I-linked cyclic electron transport, the 5-coordinate state implies that there is at least one more function of heme x that is related to axial binding of a physiological ligand.

  6. invspheroids6.f

    2013-01-03

    Program invspheroid6.f inverts time domain measurements of normalized magnetic dipole polarizabilities in axial and transverse directions, for the parameters of a conducting magnetic (ferrous) spheroid: axial and transverse diameters, relative magnetic permeability and conductivity. It uses the sphere/spheroid approximation of J.T. Smith and H.F. Morrison, 2006, "Approximating spheroid inductive responses using spheres" (Geophysics, vol 71, G21-G25). It estimates uncertainty in the inverted parameters, based on a Monte Carlo method using multiple inversions with additional noisemore » added to the data. The transmitter time function may be a step function pulse, a square wave pulse, or a half sine of given duration , at a given repetition rate. Any subset of spheroid parameters may be held fixes while solving for the others.« less

  7. Magnesium Cyclam complexes with a Mg2(Bn2Cyclam) core: Structural characterization of Mg2(Bn2Cyclam)I2 and Mg2(Bn2Cyclam){μ-H}{μ-F-C6F4}2BC6F5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luis G.; Martins, Ana M.; Duarte, M. Teresa

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the crystal structures of two Mg dimers supported by dianionic trans-disubstituted Bn2Cyclam ligands (1,8-dibenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). Mg2(Bn2Cyclam)I2 (1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with half-molecule in the asymmetric unit. The two metal centers and the two Namido donors of the cyclam ring define a four-member Mg2N2 metallacycle. The metals' coordination spheres are completed by one amine of the macrocycle and one iodide defining a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Mg2(Bn2Cyclam){μ-H}{μ-F-C6F4}2BC6F5 (2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with half-molecule in the asymmetric unit. Compound 2 is a rare example of a zwitterionic species of the type [Mg2(Bn2Cyclam)]2+ with two [HB(C6F5)3]- anions coordinating in a k3-H,F,F tridentate fashion. This compound also displays bridging Namido ligands that bind the two Mg atoms in a Mg2N2 arrangement analogous to 1, promoting a capped square pyramidal coordination geometry. At a supramolecular level C-H⋯I and C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds as well as CH/π and F⋯F interactions are responsible for the crystal packing.

  8. The missing hydrate AlF3·6H2Odbnd [Al(H2O)6]F3: Ionothermal synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of aluminum fluoride hexahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangmei; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-11-01

    AlF3 is a strong Lewis acid and several hydrates of it are known, namely the monohydrate, the trihydrate (of which two polymorphs have been described) and the nonohydrate, which forms in the abundance of water, as well as a more complex fluoride of composition Al0.82□0.18F2.46(H2O)0.54 whose structure has been related to the ReO3 type. The monohydrate features edge connected [AlF6] octahedra, in the tri- and nonahydrate mixed F/O coordination of aluminum is observed. Here we report on a new aluminium fluoride hydrate, AlF3·6H2O, which could be obtained via ionothermal synthesis in the ionic liquid n-hexyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate. The ionic liquid serves in the synthesis of AlF3·6H2O as the reaction partner (fluoride source) and solvent. Overmore it controls the water activity allowing access to the missing AlF3·6H2O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of AlF3·6H2O shows that it crystallizes in the anti-Li3Bi-type of structure according to F3[Al(H2O)6] (Fm-3m, a = 893.1(2) pm, Z = 4) featuring hexaaqua aluminium(III) cations and isolated fluoride anions. The compound was further characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, TG/DTA, IR analyses.

  9. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-02

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  10. Final Technical Report: Characterizing Emerging Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Stein, Joshua; Riley, Daniel; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2015-12-01

    The Characterizing Emerging Technologies project focuses on developing, improving and validating characterization methods for PV modules, inverters and embedded power electronics. Characterization methods and associated analysis techniques are at the heart of technology assessments and accurate component and system modeling. Outputs of the project include measurement and analysis procedures that industry can use to accurately model performance of PV system components, in order to better distinguish and understand the performance differences between competing products (module and inverters) and new component designs and technologies (e.g., new PV cell designs, inverter topologies, etc.).

  11. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  12. Physical characterization of magmatic liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Manghnani, M.H.

    1991-12-31

    Long-range goals of this research project are: (1) Characterization of seismic velocity and attenuation (V{sub p}, V{sub S}, Q{sub p}{sup {minus}1}, Q{sup S}{sup {minus}1}) and electrical properties of selected Hawaiian and related rocks under appropriate controlled environments of pressure, temperature and volatile/fluid content; and, (2) Characterization of the elastic, viscoelastic and thermodynamic properties (V{sub p}, V{sub S}, Q{sub P}{sup {minus}1}, Q{sub S}{sup {minus}1}, viscosity and compressibility) of molten basalts, picrites and komatites, and related silicate melts to {approximately} 1600{degrees}C using the ultrasonic interferometry method. In addition, the pressure dependences of V{sub p},V{sub S} and bulk modulus will be determined using the Brillouin scattering and diamond- anvil cell techniques.

  13. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  14. Antenna dielectric sealing process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, M.L.; Yerganian, S.S.

    1994-04-01

    An antenna assembly experienced leak test failures during TMS testing. The leaks were occurring between the dielectric and housing. The antenna assembly dielectric is sealed into a nickel-plated aluminum housing using a tin catalyzed condensation cure silicone (RTV). In preparation for sealing, the dielectric and housing are chemically cleaned and then plasma cleaned. The surfaces to be sealed are primed, RTV is applied, and the RTV is cured in a humidity chamber. This report is an evaluation of the production process and includes FEM analysis and process characterization and control (PC&C) data.

  15. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  16. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  17. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  18. Spectroscopic studies on electron transfer between plastocyanin and cytochrome b6f complex.

    PubMed

    Sujak, A; Drepper, F; Haehnel, W

    2004-05-27

    This paper reports the results of the research on the interaction between the highly active cytochrome b(6)f complex and plastocyanin, both isolated from the same source - spinachia oleracea plants. An equilibrium constant K between the cytochrome f of the cytochrome b(6)f complex and plastocyanin has been estimated by two independent spectroscopic techniques: steady-state absorption spectroscopy and stopped-flow. The second-order rate constants k2 for forward and backward electron transfer between cytochrome f and plastocyanin have been found between 1.4-2 x 10(7) and 8-10 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively, giving the value of an equilibrium constant of about 2+/-0.4 or a difference in redox potential between plastocyanin and cytochrome f of cytochrome b(6)f complex of ca. 17 mV. The value of K=1.7+/-0.3 has been estimated from steady-state experiments in which the initial and final concentrations of participating components after mixing have been estimated via differential spectra analysis or spectra deconvolution. We propose a method of evaluation of the final plastocyanin concentration after the electron transfer reaction between cytochrome bf complex and plastocyanin that overcomes the interference by the strong chlorophyll absorption in the spectral region where oxidised plastocyanin has its low extinction absorption band. The data from both experiments, in the system devoid of quinol being the electron donor to cytochrome b(6), suggest that in case of electron transfer from cytochrome f to plastocyanin electron transfer can either bypass cytochrome f or the Rieske iron-sulfur protein can be reduced prior to its movement to the quinol binding site of cytochrome b(6). The role of the Rieske protein in forward and backward electron transfer reactions is discussed.

  19. The cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f subunit PetP adopts an SH3 fold in solution.

    PubMed

    Veit, Sebastian; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Rögner, Matthias; Rexroth, Sascha; Stoll, Raphael; Ikegami, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    PetP is a peripheral subunit of the cytochrome b(6)f complex (b(6)f) present in both, cyanobacteria and red algae. It is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of this membrane protein complex where it greatly affects the efficiency of the linear photosynthetic electron flow although it is not directly involved in the electron transfer reactions. Despite the crystal structures of the b(6)f core complex, structural information for the transient regulatory b(6)f subunits is still missing. Here we present the first structure of PetP at atomic resolution as determined by solution NMR. The protein adopts an SH3 fold, which is a common protein motif in eukaryotes but comparatively rare in prokaryotes. The structure of PetP enabled the identification of the potential interaction site for b(6)f binding by conservation mapping. The interaction surface is mainly formed by two large loop regions and one short 310 helix which also exhibit an increased flexibility as indicated by heteronuclear steady-state {(1)H}-(15)N NOE and random coil index parameters. The properties of this potential b(6)f binding site greatly differ from the canonical peptide binding site which is highly conserved in eukaryotic SH3 domains. Interestingly, three other proteins of the photosynthetic electron transport chain share this SH3 fold with PetP: NdhS of the photosynthetic NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH-1), PsaE of the photosystem 1 and subunit α of the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase have, similar to PetP, a great impact on the photosynthetic electron transport. Finally, a model is presented to illustrate how SH3 domains modulate the photosynthetic electron transport processes in cyanobacteria. PMID:27033306

  20. Vibrational branching ratios in the (b(2u))(-1) photoionization of C6F6.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Robert R; Bozek, John D; Das, Aloke; Poliakoff, E D

    2009-07-28

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of C(6)F(6) leading to the C (2)B(2u) state of C(6)F(6)(+) are considered. Computational and experimental data are compared for the excitation of two totally symmetric modes. Resonant features at photon energies near 19 and 21 eV are found. A detailed analysis of the computed results shows that the two resonance states have different responses to changes in the C-C and C-F bond lengths. We find that the energies of both of the resonant states decrease with increasing bond lengths. In contrast to the energy positions, however, the resonant widths and the integrated oscillator strength of the resonances can either increase or decrease with increasing bond length depending on the nature and location of the resonant state and the location of the bond under consideration. With increasing C-F bond length, we find that the energy of the antibonding sigma resonance localized on the ring has a decreasing resonance energy and also a decreasing lifetime. This behavior is in contrast to the usual behavior of shape resonance energies where increasing a bond length leads to decreasing resonance energies and increasing resonance lifetimes. Finally, for the first time, we examine the effect of simultaneously occurring multiple vibrations on the resonance profile for valence photoionization, and we find that the inclusion of more than a single vibrational mode substantially attenuates the strength of resonance.

  1. Western Maryland power plant siting study: biological characterization of candidate sites. Final assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, F.; Himel, J.; Cummins, R.; Weisberg, S.

    1984-10-01

    Three locations in western Maryland are being considered as potential candidate sites for future construction of a 1200-1800 MWe coal-fired power plant. This report provides a detailed biological characterization of each site and assesses potential terrestrial and aquatic impacts associated with plant construction and operation. This assessment considers possible impacts on geomorphology, vegetation, wildlife, water quality, and nearby aquatic biota. Relevant information contained in a Phase I document produced earlier under this contract, was incorporated into this final report.

  2. Cs[H2NB2(C6F5)6] Featuring an Unequivocal 16-Coordinate Cation.

    PubMed

    Pollak, David; Goddard, Richard; Pörschke, Klaus-Richard

    2016-08-01

    Cesium bis(perfluoro-triphenylborane)amide, Cs[H2NB2(C6F5)6] (1), has been prepared by the reaction of sodium salt and CsF in dichloromethane and water. The compound is exceptional for a [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) salt in that it contains a monatomic solute-free cation. Determination of the molecular structure revealed a novel C2 symmetrical conformation of the weakly coordinating [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) anion, which gives rise to an unprecedented 16-coordinate (CN 16) Cs(+) cation in a likewise unprecedented tetracosahedral arrangement of F atoms. The poor solubility of 1 allows nearly quantitative separation of Cs(+) from water, which suggests potential applications as an effective (134/137)Cs remover from nuclear waste solutions, administration as an antidote for (134/137)Cs poisoning, and use for (131/137)Cs radiotherapy (brachytherapy). Rb[H2NB2(C6F5)6]·CH2Cl2 (2) has also been characterized, featuring two inequivalent Rb(+) cations having CN 10, one of which involves Rb(+)(η(2)-Cl2CH2)2 coordination. PMID:27267866

  3. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  4. Synthesis and reactivity of N-heterocycle-B(C6F5)3 complexes. 4. Competition between pyridine- and pyrrole-type substrates toward B(C6F5)3: structure and dynamics of 7-B(C6F5)3-7-azaindole and [7-Azaindolium]+[HOB(C6F5)3]-.

    PubMed

    Focante, Francesca; Camurati, Isabella; Resconi, Luigi; Guidotti, Simona; Beringhelli, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Donghi, Daniela; Maggioni, Daniela; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Sironi, Angelo

    2006-02-20

    Reaction between 7-azaindole and B(C6F5)3 quantitatively yields 7-(C6F5)3B-7-azaindole (4), in which B(C6F5)3 coordinates to the pyridine nitrogen of 7-azaindole, leaving the pyrrole ring unreacted even in the presence of a second equivalent of B(C6F5)3. Reaction of 7-azaindole with H2O-B(C6F5)3 initially produces [7-azaindolium]+[HOB(C6F5)3]- (5) which slowly converts to 4 releasing a H2O molecule. Pyridine removes the borane from the known complexes (C6F5)3B-pyrrole (1) and (C6F5)3B-indole (2), with formation of free pyrrole or indole, giving the more stable adduct (C6F5)3B-pyridine (3). The competition between pyridine and 7-azaindole for the coordination with B(C6F5)3 again yields 3. The molecular structures of compounds 4 and 5 have been determined both in the solid state and in solution and compared to the structures of other (C6F5)3B-N-heterocycle complexes. Two dynamic processes have been found in compound 4. Their activation parameters (DeltaH = 66 (3) kJ/mol, DeltaS = -18 (10) J/mol K and DeltaH = 76 (5) kJ/mol, DeltaS = -5 (18) J/mol K) are comparable with those of other (C6F5)3B-based adducts. The nature of the intramolecular interactions that result in such energetic barriers is discussed. PMID:16471981

  5. Reaction of aminodihydropentalenes with HB(C6F5)2: the crucial role of dihydrogen elimination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Hua; Kehr, Gerald; Fröhlich, Roland; Grimme, Stefan; Erker, Gerhard

    2011-03-16

    The aminodihydropentalene derivative 1a reacts with the Lewis acidic RB(C(6)F(5))(2) boranes (2a-c) by C-C bond cleavage to yield the formal borylene insertion products 3. In contrast, 1a,b react with HB(C(6)F(5))(2) at 55 °C by elimination of dihydrogen to yield the iminium-stabilized zwitterionic heterofulvenes 10a,b. The reaction pathways were studied by preparation of the kinetically controlled intermediates 7a,b and the thermodynamically controlled products 9a,b, monitored by variable-temperature NMR experiments, and supported by DFT calculations. The trapping reactions of 9a with HCl and PhCHO, respectively, led to the addition products 13 and 14. Compounds 3c, 7a,b, 10a,b, 11, 13, and 14 were characterized by X-ray diffraction. PMID:21329395

  6. Fischer-Tropsch wax characterization and upgrading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.; Sturtevant, G.C.; Gregor, J.H.; Humbach, M.J.; Padrta, F.G.; Steigleder, K.Z.

    1988-06-06

    The characterization and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch wax was studied. The focus of the program was to maximize the yield of marketable transportation fuels from the Fischer-Tropsch process. The wax was characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography (GC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and various other physical analyses. Hydrocracking studies conducted in a pilot plant indicate that Fischer-Tropsch wax is an excellent feedstock. A high yield of excellent quality diesel fuel was produced with satisfactory catalyst performance at relatively mild operating conditions. Correlations for predicting key diesel fuel properties were developed and checked against actual laboratory blend data. The blending study was incorporated into an economic evaluation. Finally, it is possible to take advantage of the high quality of the Fischer-Tropsch derived distillate by blending a lower value light cycle oil (produced from a refinery FCC unit) representing a high aromatic and low cetane number. The blended stream meets diesel pool specifications (up to 60 wt % LCO addition). The value added to this blending stream further enhances the upgrading complex return. 22 refs., 39 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Nanodomains of cytochrome b6f and photosystem II complexes in spinach grana thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew P; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil

    2014-07-01

    The cytochrome b6f (cytb6f) complex plays a central role in photosynthesis, coupling electron transport between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I to the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient used for the biosynthesis of ATP. Photosynthesis relies on rapid shuttling of electrons by plastoquinone (PQ) molecules between PSII and cytb6f complexes in the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane. Thus, the relative membrane location of these complexes is crucial, yet remains unknown. Here, we exploit the selective binding of the electron transfer protein plastocyanin (Pc) to the lumenal membrane surface of the cytb6f complex using a Pc-functionalized atomic force microscope (AFM) probe to identify the position of cytb6f complexes in grana thylakoid membranes from spinach (Spinacia oleracea). This affinity-mapping AFM method directly correlates membrane surface topography with Pc-cytb6f interactions, allowing us to construct a map of the grana thylakoid membrane that reveals nanodomains of colocalized PSII and cytb6f complexes. We suggest that the close proximity between PSII and cytb6f complexes integrates solar energy conversion and electron transfer by fostering short-range diffusion of PQ in the protein-crowded thylakoid membrane, thereby optimizing photosynthetic efficiency.

  8. Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-03-01

    This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations. Many of the

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  10. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  11. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  12. Diastereoselective B(C6F5)3-Catalyzed Reductive Carbocyclization of Unsaturated Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bender, Trandon A; Dabrowski, Jennifer A; Zhong, Hongyu; Gagné, Michel R

    2016-08-19

    A B(C6F5)3-catalyzed method for the selective conversion of unsaturated carbohydrates to cyclopentanes and cyclopropanes is disclosed. Catalyst activation of tertiary silanes generates the ion pair [(C6F5)3B-H][ROSi2] whose components synergistically activate C-O bonds for diastereoselective C-C bond formation. Sila-THF cations are invoked as key intermediates facilitating carbocyclizations. Complex chiral synthons are thereby obtained in a single pot.

  13. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  14. Catalytic CO2 activation assisted by rhenium hydride/B(C6F5)3 frustrated Lewis pairs--metal hydrides functioning as FLP bases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Blacque, Olivier; Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2013-05-22

    Reaction of 1 with B(C6F5)3 under 1 bar of CO2 led to the instantaneous formation of the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-type species [ReHBr(NO)(PR3)2(η(2)-O═C═O-B(C6F5)3)] (2, R = iPr a, Cy b) possessing two cis-phosphines and O(CO2)-coordinated B(C6F5)3 groups as verified by NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The attachment of B(C6F5)3 in 2a,b establishes cooperative CO2 activation via the Re-H/B(C6F5)3 Lewis pair, with the Re-H bond playing the role of a Lewis base. The Re(I) η(1)-formato dimer [{Re(μ-Br)(NO)(η(1)-OCH═O-B(C6F5)3)(PiPr3)2}2] (3a) was generated from 2a and represents the first example of a stable rhenium complex bearing two cis-aligned, sterically bulky PiPr3 ligands. Reaction of 3a with H2 cleaved the μ-Br bridges, producing the stable and fully characterized formato dihydrogen complex [ReBrH2(NO)(η(1)-OCH═O-B(C6F5)3)(PiPr3)2] (4a) bearing trans-phosphines. Stoichiometric CO2 reduction of 4a with Et3SiH led to heterolytic splitting of H2 along with formation of bis(triethylsilyl)acetal ((Et3SiO)2CH2, 7). Catalytic reduction of CO2 with Et3SiH was also accomplished with the catalysts 1a,b/B(C6F5)3, 3a, and 4a, showing turnover frequencies (TOFs) between 4 and 9 h(-1). The stoichiometric reaction of 4a with the sterically hindered base 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) furnished H2 ligand deprotonation. Hydrogenations of CO2 using 1a,b/B(C6F5)3, 3a, and 4a as catalysts gave in the presence of TMP TOFs of up to 7.5 h(-1), producing [TMPH][formate] (11). The influence of various bases (R2NH, R = iPr, Cy, SiMe3, 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylpyridine, NEt3, PtBu3) was studied in greater detail, pointing to two crucial factors of the CO2 hydrogenations: the steric bulk and the basicity of the base.

  15. Transmembrane signaling and assembly of the cytochrome b6f-lipidic charge transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Saif Hasan, S; Yamashita, Eiki; Cramer, William A

    2013-01-01

    Structure-function properties of the cytochrome b6f complex are sufficiently unique compared to those of the cytochrome bc1 complex that b6f should not be considered a trivially modified bc1 complex. A unique property of the dimeric b6f complex is its involvement in transmembrane signaling associated with the p-side oxidation of plastoquinol. Structure analysis of lipid binding sites in the cyanobacterial b6f complex prepared by hydrophobic chromatography shows that the space occupied by the H transmembrane helix in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex is mostly filled by a lipid in the b6f crystal structure. It is suggested that this space can be filled by the domain of a transmembrane signaling protein. The identification of lipid sites and likely function defines the intra-membrane conserved central core of the b6f complex, consisting of the seven trans-membrane helices of the cytochrome b and subunit IV polypeptides. The other six TM helices, contributed by cytochrome f, the iron-sulfur protein, and the four peripheral single span subunits, define a peripheral less conserved domain of the complex. The distribution of conserved and non-conserved domains of each monomer of the complex, and the position and inferred function of a number of the lipids, suggests a model for the sequential assembly in the membrane of the eight subunits of the b6f complex, in which the assembly is initiated by formation of the cytochrome b6-subunit IV core sub-complex in a monomer unit. Two conformations of the unique lipidic chlorophyll a, defined in crystal structures, are described, and functions of the outlying β-carotene, a possible 'latch' in supercomplex formation, are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. PMID:23507619

  16. Transmembrane signaling and assembly of the cytochrome b6f-lipidic charge transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Saif Hasan, S; Yamashita, Eiki; Cramer, William A

    2013-01-01

    Structure-function properties of the cytochrome b6f complex are sufficiently unique compared to those of the cytochrome bc1 complex that b6f should not be considered a trivially modified bc1 complex. A unique property of the dimeric b6f complex is its involvement in transmembrane signaling associated with the p-side oxidation of plastoquinol. Structure analysis of lipid binding sites in the cyanobacterial b6f complex prepared by hydrophobic chromatography shows that the space occupied by the H transmembrane helix in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex is mostly filled by a lipid in the b6f crystal structure. It is suggested that this space can be filled by the domain of a transmembrane signaling protein. The identification of lipid sites and likely function defines the intra-membrane conserved central core of the b6f complex, consisting of the seven trans-membrane helices of the cytochrome b and subunit IV polypeptides. The other six TM helices, contributed by cytochrome f, the iron-sulfur protein, and the four peripheral single span subunits, define a peripheral less conserved domain of the complex. The distribution of conserved and non-conserved domains of each monomer of the complex, and the position and inferred function of a number of the lipids, suggests a model for the sequential assembly in the membrane of the eight subunits of the b6f complex, in which the assembly is initiated by formation of the cytochrome b6-subunit IV core sub-complex in a monomer unit. Two conformations of the unique lipidic chlorophyll a, defined in crystal structures, are described, and functions of the outlying β-carotene, a possible 'latch' in supercomplex formation, are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes.

  17. Framework for characterization. (Revised final report March 1992). Technical pub

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, M.; Boynton, W.; Clark, P.

    1992-03-01

    The Tampa Bay National Estuary Program (TBNEP) was established in 1990 to develop a comprehensive conservation and management plan, a program to restore and protect Tampa Bay and its resources. The process of identifying the problems of the bay and linking problems to causes is prerequisite to developing the CCMP and is known as characterization. Characterization workshops were held in June and July 1991 to (1) guide the characterization process toward areas of greatest information needs; (2) contribute to the development of a preliminary bay characterization report; and (3) develop a depiction of bay ecosystem components and interrelationships. The workshops focused on two categories of priority problems: living resources and water quality deterioration. Priority information needs include estuarine seagrasses, low-salinity habitats, and benthic habitats. Refinement of a nitrogen input budget and establishment of cause-effect relationships among nutrient loading dissolved oxygen concentrations and the distribution of seagrass and benthic communities were also identified as priority information needs.

  18. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ``ground truth`` data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization.

  19. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  20. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shackelford, M.H.; Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report concludes a preliminary report prepared by ANL for Sandia, published as NUREG/CR-3855, in June 1984. The preliminary report, NUREG/CR-3855, presented the results of a survey of nuclear reactor containment penetrations, covering the number of plants surveyed at that time (22 total). Since that time, an additional 26 plants have been included in the survey. This final report serves two purposes: (1) to add the summary data sheets and penetration details for the additional plants now included in the survey; and (2) to confirm, revise, or add to analyses and discussions presented in the first report which, of course, were based solely on the earlier sample of 22 plants. This final report follows the outline and format of the preliminary survey report. In general, changes and additions to the preliminary report are implied, rather than stated as such to avoid repeated reference to that report. If no changes have been made in a section the title of the section of the previous report is simply repeated followed by ''No Changes''. Some repetition is used for continuity and clarity.

  1. Mechanism of enhanced superoxide production in the cytochrome b(6)f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Baniulis, Danas; Hasan, S Saif; Stofleth, Jason T; Cramer, William A

    2013-12-17

    The specific rate of superoxide (O2(•-)) production in the purified active crystallizable cytochrome b6f complex, normalized to the rate of electron transport, has been found to be more than an order of magnitude greater than that measured in isolated yeast respiratory bc1 complex. The biochemical and structural basis for the enhanced production of O2(•-) in the cytochrome b6f complex compared to that in the bc1 complex is discussed. The higher rate of superoxide production in the b6f complex could be a consequence of an increased residence time of plastosemiquinone/plastoquinol in its binding niche near the Rieske protein iron-sulfur cluster, resulting from (i) occlusion of the quinone portal by the phytyl chain of the unique bound chlorophyll, (ii) an altered environment of the proton-accepting glutamate believed to be a proton acceptor from semiquinone, or (iii) a more negative redox potential of the heme bp on the electrochemically positive side of the complex. The enhanced rate of superoxide production in the b6f complex is physiologically significant as the chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) functions in the regulation of excess excitation energy, is a source of oxidative damage inflicted during photosynthetic reactions, and is a major source of ROS in plant cells. Altered levels of ROS production are believed to convey redox signaling from the organelle to the cytosol and nucleus.

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-6 - F.o.b. destination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination. 47.303... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-6 F.o.b. destination. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination means— (1) Free of expense to the Government delivered, on board...

  3. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  4. Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and Rcra Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final document titled, Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and RCRA Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations.

  5. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Meara, Jr., D. J.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The overall project consists of four interdisciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: modeling depositional environments; sweep efficiency; tracer testing; and integrated 3D seismic interpretation. The first of these aims at improving the ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil. The second is a development geophysics project which proposes to improve the quality of reservoir geological models through better use of 3D seismic data. The third investigates the usefulness of a new numerical technique for identifying unswept oil through rapid calculation of sweep efficiency in large reservoir models. The fourth explores what can be learned from tracer tests in complex depositional environments, particularly those which are fluvial dominated.

  6. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  7. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  8. Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.

  9. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  10. Aerial remote sensing surveys, geophysical characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L.; Anderson, W.L.

    1998-06-01

    The application of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and magnetic methods to the requirements of the environmental restoration of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) demand the use of advanced, nontraditional methods of data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and University of California (UCB) has resulted in the planning and supervision of data acquisition, the development of tools for data processing and interpretation, and an intensive application of the methods developed. This final report consists of a series of publications which the USGS collaborated with the ORNL technical staff. These reports represent the full scope of the USGS assistance. Copies of the reports and papers are included in the Appendix. The primary goals of this effort were to quantify the effectiveness of the geophysical methods applied in the survey of the ORR for the identification of buried waste, hydrogeologic pathways by which contamination could migrate through or off the site, and for the more accurate geologic mapping of the ORR. The objectives in buried waste identification are the accurate description of the source of the geophysical anomaly and the determination of the limits of resolution of the geophysical methods to acknowledge what we might have missed. The study of hydrogeologic pathways concentrated on the identification of karst features in the limestone underlying much of the ORR. Work in this study has indicated to the ORNL staff that these karst features can be located from the airborne geophysics. The defining characteristic of this helicopter geophysical study is the collaborative nature of the effort. Each task in which the USGS was involved has included a designated staff member from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMott, PJ; Suski, KJ; Hill, TCJ; Levin, EJT

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics

  12. A trigonal prismatic Cu6-pyrazolato complex containing a μ6-F ligand.

    PubMed

    Mathivathanan, Logesh; Al-Ameed, Karrar; Lazarou, Katerina; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Sanakis, Yiannis; Herchel, Radovan; McGrady, John E; Raptis, Raphael G

    2015-12-21

    The encapsulation of a fluoride ion in a trigonal prismatic CuII6-pyrazolato cage results in a small expansion of the Cu6-host. The structural, electronic and magnetic features of the Cu6-complex, containing an endohedral fluoride in the rare μ6-F coordination mode, are compared with those of the parent complex with a vacant Cu6-cage. PMID:26565718

  13. A new layered perovskite, KSrNb2O6F, by powder neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chung Yul; Hong, Kun Pyo; Kim, Seung Joo

    2007-08-01

    The structure of a new layered oxyfluoride, viz. potassium strontium diniobium hexaoxide fluoride, KSrNb(2)O(6)F, was refined from powder neutron diffraction data in the orthorhombic space group Immm. The oxyfluoride compound is an n = 2 member of the Dion-Jacobson-type family of general formula A[A'(n-1)B(n)X(3n+1)], which consists of double layered perovskite slabs, [SrNb(2)O(6)F](-), between which K(+) ions are located. Within the perovskite slabs, the NbO(5)F octahedra are significantly distorted and tilted about the a axis. A bond-valence-sum calculation gives evidence for O/F ordering in KSrNb(2)O(6)F, with the F(-) ions located in the central sites of the corner-sharing NbO(5)F octahedra along the b axis. All atoms lie on special positions, namely Nb on m, Sr on mmm, K on m2m, F on mm2, and O on sites of symmetry m and m2m.

  14. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: biogenesis, function, and turnover of ATP synthase and the cytochrome b6f complex.

    PubMed

    Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Tóth, Szilvia Z; Boulouis, Alix; Kahlau, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    During plant development and in response to fluctuating environmental conditions, large changes in leaf assimilation capacity and in the metabolic consumption of ATP and NADPH produced by the photosynthetic apparatus can occur. To minimize cytotoxic side reactions, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, photosynthetic electron transport needs to be adjusted to the metabolic demand. The cytochrome b6f complex and chloroplast ATP synthase form the predominant sites of photosynthetic flux control. Accordingly, both respond strongly to changing environmental conditions and metabolic states. Usually, their contents are strictly co-regulated. Thereby, the capacity for proton influx into the lumen, which is controlled by electron flux through the cytochrome b6f complex, is balanced with proton efflux through ATP synthase, which drives ATP synthesis. We discuss the environmental, systemic, and metabolic signals triggering the stoichiometry adjustments of ATP synthase and the cytochrome b6f complex. The contribution of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of subunit synthesis, and the importance of auxiliary proteins required for complex assembly in achieving the stoichiometry adjustments is described. Finally, current knowledge on the stability and turnover of both complexes is summarized.

  15. Hydrosilane-B(C6F5)3 adducts as activators in zirconocene catalyzed ethylene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Varga, Vojtech; Lamač, Martin; Horáček, Michal; Gyepes, Róbert; Pinkas, Jiří

    2016-06-21

    Hydrosilane-B(C6F5)3 adducts were found to activate zirconocene dihalides and generate ternary catalytic systems possessing moderate to high activity in ethylene polymerization to high density polyethylene (HDPE). The activation efficacy of the adducts increased with increasing hydride donor ability and decreased with steric crowding of the particular hydrosilane used. NMR investigation of the HSiEt3/B(C6F5)3/Cp*2ZrF2 system (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) revealed the formation of a stable intermediate [Cp*2ZrF(FSiEt3-κF)](+)[HB(C6F5)3](-), whereas a crucial role of the [HB(C6F5)3](-) anion as a hydride donor for generation of an active cationic zirconium hydride center was elucidated. PMID:27254815

  16. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions.

  17. Useful ion yields for Cameca IMS 3f and 6f SIMS: Limits on quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hervig, R.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Williams, Pat; Guan, Y.; Huss, G.R.; Leshin, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The useful yields (ions detected/atom sputtered) of major and trace elements in NIST 610 glass were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using Cameca IMS 3f and 6f instruments. Useful yields of positive ions at maximum transmission range from 10-4 to 0.2 and are negatively correlated with ionization potential. We quantified the decrease in useful yields when applying energy filtering or high mass resolution techniques to remove molecular interferences. The useful yields of selected negative ions (O, S, Au) in magnetite and pyrite were also determined. These data allow the analyst to determine if a particular analysis (trace element contents or isotopic ratio) can be achieved, given the amount of sample available and the conditions of the analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. PMID:21221830

  19. Facile metalation of Hbzq by [cis-Pt(C6F5)2(thf)2]: a route to a pentafluorophenyl benzoquinolate solvate complex that easily coordinates terminal alkynes. Spectroscopic and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Jesús R; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio; Torroba, Javier

    2012-11-01

    A new neutral cyclometalated platinum(II) solvate complex [cis-Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(acetone)] (1) has been prepared by easy C-H activation of 7,8-benzo[h]quinoline on the coordination sphere of [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(thf)(2)] (thf = tetrahydrofuran). The study of the reaction pathway has led us to the preparation of the bis(Hbzq) product [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(Hbzq)(2)] (2) and the benzoquinoline-benzoquinolate derivative [Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(Hbzq)] (3). This latter complex has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing the occurrence of π···π intermolecular stacking interactions associated to the deprotonated bzq units. The acetone molecule in [cis-Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(acetone)] can be easily displaced by alkynes, allowing the synthesis of the first reported η(2)-alkyne-cycloplatinate complexes [Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(η(2)-RC≡CR')] (R = H, R' = Ph 4, (t)Bu 5, Fc 6; R = R' = Ph 7), which have been fully characterized spectroscopically and by DFT studies. These alkyne complexes are only moderately stable in solution, and all attempts to obtain crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were fruitless. Nevertheless, in the case of the ferrocenyl derivative, crystals of complex [Pt(κN:η(2)-bzq-C≡CFc)(C(6)F(5))(μ-κC(α):η(2)-C≡CFc)Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))] (8), containing an unusual alkynyl-functionalized benzoquinoline chelate ligand, were systematically obtained. All complexes (except those containing the ferrocenyl fragment) present emissive properties in solution and solid state (77 K), related, in general, with intraligand (bzq) excited states with some mixing (3)MLCT character, as supported by theoretical calculations. In solid state at room temperature, aggregation induced emission (AIE) is observed likely generated by intermolecular π···π stacking, as supporting by DFT calculations on 3(2). Interestingly, both types of excited states ((3)IL/(3)MLCT and AIE) seem to be close in energy in complexes 1 and 3, which show a significant luminescent thermochromism

  20. Melilite-like modulation and temperature-dependent evolution in the framework structure of K2Sc[Si2O6]F.

    PubMed

    Hejny, Clivia; Kahlenberg, Volker; Eberhard, Tim; Krüger, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structure of synthetic K2Sc[Si2O6]F has been solved and refined as an incommensurately modulated structure in (3 + 2)-dimensional superspace. This paper describes the tetragonal structure in the superspace group P42/mnm(α,α,0)000s(-α,α,0)0000 [a = 8.9878 (1), c = 8.2694 (2) Å, V = 668.01 (2) Å(3)] with modulation wavevectors q1 = 0.2982 (4)(a* + b*) and q2 = 0.2982 (4)(-a* + b*). Structure refinement taking into account the modulation of positional and ADP parameters for all atoms from 3074 observed main hkl00 and satellite reflections hklmn of first order with single, m·n = 0, and mixed, m·n = ±1, indices converged to a final R value of 0.0514. The structure is a mixed octahedral-tetrahedral framework composed of [ScO4F2] octahedra, [Si4O12] rings and K in variable coordination. Due to the modulation the O atoms move into and out of the first coordination sphere of K leading to a minimum of five and a maximum of 10 interatomic K-O distances up to 3.1 Å. Although this feature is comparable to observations in modulated fresnoite and melilite group compounds, these structures differ from K2Sc[Si2O6]F with respect to their topology. On temperature increase the intensity of the satellite reflections decreases until they disappear just above 443 K. The high-temperature normal structure, in space group P42/mnm, is identical to the room-temperature average structure of K2Sc[Si2O6]F.

  1. Accurate mask registration on tilted lines for 6F2 DRAM manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeth, K. D.; Choi, W.; Lee, Y.; Kim, S.; Yim, D.; Laske, F.; Ferber, M.; Daneshpanah, M.; Kwon, E.

    2015-10-01

    193nm immersion lithography is the mainstream production technology for the 22nm half pitch (HP) DRAM manufacturing. Considering multi-patterning as the technology to solve the very low k1 situation in the resolution equation puts extreme pressure on the intra-field overlay, to which mask registration error may be a significant error contributor [3]. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS [1]) requests a registration error below 4 nm for each mask of a multi-patterning set forming one layer on the wafer. For mask metrology at the 22nm HP node, maintaining a precision-to-tolerance (P/T) ratio below 0.25 will be very challenging. Mask registration error impacts intra-field wafer overlay directly and has a major impact on wafer yield. DRAM makers moved several years ago to 6F2 (figure 1, [2]) cell design and thus printing tilted lines at 15 or 30 degree. Overlay of contact layer over buried line has to be well controlled. However, measuring mask registration performance accurately on tilted lines was a challenge. KLA Tencor applied the model-based algorithm to enable the accurate registration measurement of tilted lines on the Poly layer as well as the mask-to-mask overlay to the adjacent contact layers. The metrology solution is discussed and measurement results are provided.

  2. Quinone-dependent proton transfer pathways in the photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S Saif; Yamashita, Eiki; Baniulis, Danas; Cramer, William A

    2013-03-12

    As much as two-thirds of the proton gradient used for transmembrane free energy storage in oxygenic photosynthesis is generated by the cytochrome b6f complex. The proton uptake pathway from the electrochemically negative (n) aqueous phase to the n-side quinone binding site of the complex, and a probable route for proton exit to the positive phase resulting from quinol oxidation, are defined in a 2.70-Å crystal structure and in structures with quinone analog inhibitors at 3.07 Å (tridecyl-stigmatellin) and 3.25-Å (2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) resolution. The simplest n-side proton pathway extends from the aqueous phase via Asp20 and Arg207 (cytochrome b6 subunit) to quinone bound axially to heme c(n). On the positive side, the heme-proximal Glu78 (subunit IV), which accepts protons from plastosemiquinone, defines a route for H(+) transfer to the aqueous phase. These pathways provide a structure-based description of the quinone-mediated proton transfer responsible for generation of the transmembrane electrochemical potential gradient in oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:23440205

  3. Low-energy electron attachment to C 6F 5X (X=F, Cl, Br and I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamori, Hiroshi; Sunagawa, Takeyoshi; Ogawa, Yuji; Tatsumi, Yoshitsugu

    1994-09-01

    Rate constants have been measured for electron attachment to C 6F 5X (X=F, Cl, Br and I) in Xe buffer gas at room temperature at the mean electron energy between 0.04 and 2 eV using the pulse-radiolysis microwave-cavity method combined with microwave heating. The cross sections as a function of electron energy have been derived by unfolding the obtained rate constants. The rate constants at thermal energy are all the same, around 2 × 10 -7 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, for C 6F 5X, and decrease monotonically with increasing mean energy. The cross sections have a peak at ≈0 eV for each compound. Only C 6F 6 shows another cross-section maximum at ≈0.75 eV. The discrepancy in the rate constants at thermal energy with those in previous reports is discussed.

  4. On the Structural Role of the Aromatic Residue Environment of the Chlorophyll a in the Cytochrome b[subscript 6]f Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jiusheng; Dashdorj, Naranbaatar; Baniulis, Danas; Yamashita, Eiki; Savikhin, Sergei; Cramer, William A.

    2008-08-19

    Because light is not required for catalytic turnover of the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex, the role of the single chlorophyll {alpha} in the structure and function of the complex is enigmatic. Photodamage from this pigment is minimized by its short singlet excited-state lifetime ({approx}200 ps), which has been attributed to quenching by nearby aromatic residues (Dashdorj et al., 2005). The crystal structure of the complex shows that the fifth ligand of the chlorophyll {alpha} contains two water molecules. On the basis of this structure, the properties of the bound chlorophyll and the complex were studied in the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, through site-directed mutagenesis of aromatic amino acids in the binding niche of the chlorophyll. The b{sub 6}f complex was purified from three mutant strains, a double mutant Phe133Leu/Phe135Leu in subunit IV and single mutants Tyr112Phe and Trp125Leu in the cytochrome b{sub 6} subunit. The purified b{sub 6}f complex from Tyr112Phe or Phe133Leu/Phe135Leu mutants was characterized by (i) a loss of bound Chl and b heme, (ii) a shift in the absorbance peak and increase in bandwidth, (iii) multiple lifetime components, including one of 1.35 ns, and (iv) relatively small time-resolved absorbance anisotropy values of the Chl Qy band. A change in these properties was minimal in the Trp125Leu mutant. In vivo, no decrease in electron-transport efficiency was detected in any of the mutants. It was concluded that (a) perturbation of its aromatic residue niche influences the stability of the Chl {alpha} and one or both b hemes in the monomer of the b{sub 6}f complex, and (b) Phe residues (Phe133/Phe135) of subunit IV are important in maintaining the short lifetime of the Chl {alpha} singlet excited state, thereby decreasing the probability of singlet oxygen formation.

  5. The Antarctic Psychrophile Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 Preferentially Phosphorylates a Photosystem I-Cytochrome b6/f Supercomplex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Szyszka-Mroz, Beth; Pittock, Paula; Ivanov, Alexander G.; Lajoie, Gilles; Hüner, Norman P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 (UWO 241) is a psychrophilic green alga isolated from Antarctica. A unique characteristic of this algal strain is its inability to undergo state transitions coupled with the absence of photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex protein phosphorylation. We show that UWO 241 preferentially phosphorylates specific polypeptides associated with an approximately 1,000-kD pigment-protein supercomplex that contains components of both photosystem I (PSI) and the cytochrome b6/f (Cyt b6/f) complex. Liquid chromatography nano-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify three major phosphorylated proteins associated with this PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex, two 17-kD PSII subunit P-like proteins and a 70-kD ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease, FtsH. The PSII subunit P-like protein sequence exhibited 70.6% similarity to the authentic PSII subunit P protein associated with the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Tyrosine-146 was identified as a unique phosphorylation site on the UWO 241 PSII subunit P-like polypeptide. Assessment of PSI cyclic electron transport by in vivo P700 photooxidation and the dark relaxation kinetics of P700+ indicated that UWO 241 exhibited PSI cyclic electron transport rates that were 3 times faster and more sensitive to antimycin A than the mesophile control, Chlamydomonas raudensis SAG 49.72. The stability of the PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex was dependent upon the phosphorylation status of the PsbP-like protein and the zinc metalloprotease FtsH as well as the presence of high salt. We suggest that adaptation of UWO 241 to its unique low-temperature and high-salt environment favors the phosphorylation of a PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex to regulate PSI cyclic electron transport rather than the regulation of state transitions through the phosphorylation of PSII light-harvesting complex proteins. PMID:26169679

  6. Network discovery, characterization, and prediction : a grand challenge LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    This report is the final summation of Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD project No.119351, 'Network Discovery, Characterization and Prediction' (the 'NGC') which ran from FY08 to FY10. The aim of the NGC, in a nutshell, was to research, develop, and evaluate relevant analysis capabilities that address adversarial networks. Unlike some Grand Challenge efforts, that ambition created cultural subgoals, as well as technical and programmatic ones, as the insistence on 'relevancy' required that the Sandia informatics research communities and the analyst user communities come to appreciate each others needs and capabilities in a very deep and concrete way. The NGC generated a number of technical, programmatic, and cultural advances, detailed in this report. There were new algorithmic insights and research that resulted in fifty-three refereed publications and presentations; this report concludes with an abstract-annotated bibliography pointing to them all. The NGC generated three substantial prototypes that not only achieved their intended goals of testing our algorithmic integration, but which also served as vehicles for customer education and program development. The NGC, as intended, has catalyzed future work in this domain; by the end it had already brought in, in new funding, as much funding as had been invested in it. Finally, the NGC knit together previously disparate research staff and user expertise in a fashion that not only addressed our immediate research goals, but which promises to have created an enduring cultural legacy of mutual understanding, in service of Sandia's national security responsibilities in cybersecurity and counter proliferation.

  7. The Inhibitor DBMIB Provides Insight into the Functional Architecture of the Qo Site in the Cytochrome b(6)f Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Arthur G.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2004-06-22

    Previously, we showed that two equivalents of the quinone analog, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzoquinone (DBMIB), could occupy the Qo site of the cytochrome (cyt) b6f complex simultaneously. In this work, study of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra from oriented cyt b6f complex shows that the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) is in distinct orientations, depending on the stoichiometry of the inhibitor at the Qo site. With a single DBMIB at the Qo site, the ISP is oriented with the 2Fe2S cluster toward cyt f, which is similar to the orientation of the ISP in the x-ray crystal structure of the cyt b6f complex from thermophilic cyanobacteria, Mastigocladus laminosus, in the presence of DBMIB, as well as that of the chicken mitochondrial cyt bc1 complex in the presence of the class II inhibitor myxothiazol, which binds in the so-called ''proximal niche,'' near the cyt bL heme. These data suggest that the high affinity DBMIB site is at the proximal niche Qo pocket. With 2 equivalents or more of DBMIB bound, the Rieske ISP is in a position that resembles the ISPB position of chicken mitochondrial cyt bc1 complex in the presence of stigmatellin and Chlamydamonas reinhardtii cyt b6f complex in the presence of tridecyl-stigmatellin (TDS), which suggests that the low affinity DBMIB site is at the distal niche. The close interaction of DBMIB bound at the distal niche with the ISP induced the well-known effects on the 2Fe2S EPR spectrum and redox potential. To further test the effects of DBMIB on the ISP, the extents of cyt f oxidation after flash excitation in the presence of photosystem II inhibitor DCMU were measured as a function of DBMIB concentration in thylakoids. Addition of DBMIB concentrations where single binding was expected, did not markedly affect the extent of cyt f oxidation, whereas higher concentrations, where double occupancy was expected, increased the extent of cyt f oxidation to levels similar to cyt f oxidation in the presence of

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1211, LB3955_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1211, LB3955_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Launching a particle on a ring: b2u -->ke2g ionization ofC6F6

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A.; Poliakoff, E.D.; Lucchese, R.R.; Bozek, J.D.

    2006-08-20

    Evidence is presented demonstrating that an electron launched into the continuum is trapped in an unprecedented quasibound state, namely, one that extends through the backbone of the six-member carbon ring of C{sub 6}F{sub 6}. The mode specificity of the vibrational sensitivity to the electron trapping provides an experimental signature for this phenomenon, while adiabatic static model-exchange scattering calculations are used to map the wave function, which corroborate the interpretation.

  10. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of

  11. Computational study of Cs immobilization in the apatites Ca10(PO4)6F2, Ca4La6(SiO4)6F2 and Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin; Gale, Julian D.

    2001-08-01

    Incorporation and lattice migration of cesium in three apatites fluorapatite Ca10(PO4)6F2, lanthanum-fluorobritholite Ca4La6(SiO4)6F2 and lanthanum-oxyapatite Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 have been studied theoretically. The above apatites have been first optimized by applying the ab initio Hartree-Fock method using electron core pseudopotentials. Mulliken analysis has shown the calculated anion charges in the apatite tunnels to have formal values, thus establishing the presence of ionic bonds with cations at site II (6h), particularly in Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2. These results have been used for optimizing the corresponding interactions in the interatomic potential method employed in the following. Free energy calculations have shown the preferential site for Cs and La incorporation in the three apatites to be site I (4f) and site II (6h), respectively. The calculated activation energies for Cs migration offer evidence that cesium diffusion is mainly controlled by intersite (I<-->II) jumps to adjacent vacancies. Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 proves to have the higher immobilization capacity, because of the high activation energies characterizing all the possible lattice diffusion mechanisms.

  12. Unimolecular reaction dynamics of well characterized ionic reactions. Final report, 1993--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.

    1997-12-31

    The dissociation dynamics of well characterized and energy selected ions have been investigated by photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectrometry. A number of ions have been found which dissociate in competition with isomerization and which thus lead to multi-component decay rates. The dissociation dynamics on such complex potential energy surfaces are common for many free radical reactions, including some of importance to combustion processes. Individual reaction rates for isomerization and dissociation have been extracted from the data. In addition, all rates have been successfully modeled with the RRKM theory in combination with ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The dissociation dynamics of a dimer ion system has been studied on the UNC PEPICO apparatus as well as at the Chemical Dynamics Beam line of the ALS. This proof of principle experiment shows that it is possible to investigate such systems and to determine the heats of formation of free radicals by this approach. Finally, a dissociation involving a loose transition state with no exit barrier has been successfully modeled with a simplified version of the variational transition state theory (VTST). The aim of all of these studies is to develop protocols for modeling moderately complex unimolecular reactions with simple models.

  13. Final report on characterizing the dynamics of spatio-temporal data

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelich, E.J.; Armbruster, H.D.

    1998-09-01

    One principal goal of the grant was to model and analyze the dynamics of spatially extended chaotic systems. One of the principal tools used in the analysis was KLTOOL, a computer package developed by the principal investigators for Karhunen-Loeve analysis. The package was used to analyze video data from a laboratory experiment on cellular flames. A second goal of the project was to analyze complex time series whose underlying dynamics may be low dimensionally chaotic. Particular emphasis was placed on systems of possible relevance to energy production and distribution. The work attempted to characterize low-dimensional aspects of the dynamics of a fluidized bed, in particular, a transition from periodic to irregular behavior. Finally, collaborators worked on aspects of targeting in chaotic dynamical systems. This work showed that it is possible to switch a moderately high-dimensional chaotic process rapidly between prespecified periodic saddle orbits embedding within the attractor. Additional work extended previously-developed algorithms for the highly accurate computation of stable manifolds of periodic saddle orbits, which is essential to the successful application of targeting algorithms.

  14. Statistical Methods and Tools for Uxo Characterization (SERDP Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Wilson, John E.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; O'Brien, Robert F.; Bates, Derrick J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2004-11-15

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) issued a statement of need for FY01 titled Statistical Sampling for Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Site Characterization that solicited proposals to develop statistically valid sampling protocols for cost-effective, practical, and reliable investigation of sites contaminated with UXO; protocols that could be validated through subsequent field demonstrations. The SERDP goal was the development of a sampling strategy for which a fraction of the site is initially surveyed by geophysical detectors to confidently identify clean areas and subsections (target areas, TAs) that had elevated densities of anomalous geophysical detector readings that could indicate the presence of UXO. More detailed surveys could then be conducted to search the identified TAs for UXO. SERDP funded three projects: those proposed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (SERDP Project No. UXO 1199), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The projects were closely coordinated to minimize duplication of effort and facilitate use of shared algorithms where feasible. This final report for PNNL Project 1199 describes the methods developed by PNNL to address SERDP's statement-of-need for the development of statistically-based geophysical survey methods for sites where 100% surveys are unattainable or cost prohibitive.

  15. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  16. Mechanical characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy under biaxial stress: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, G.E. Jr.; Swanson, S.R.

    1987-11-13

    This is the final report on an investigation to evaluate the mechanical response of Hercules IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy, which is a high strength, high elongation fiber and a high toughness resin system used in a prepreg form. The material characterization involved testing both laminate and lamina forms under a wide range of biaxial stress states. Tubular specimens were employed that have been designed to eliminate undesirable end effects, permitting uniform stress states to be achieved. Quasi-isotropic (90/+-45/0)/sub ns/laminates and (90)/sub 16T/ lamina specimens were loaded under combinations of internal pressure, axial load, and torsion. Both stiffness and strength data were obtained under these multiaxial stress conditions. The measured laminate stiffnesses correlated well using classical laminated plate theory, and that laminate failure occurred in the two separate modes of matrix cracking and fiber failure. Like the previously examined carbon/epoxy systems, laminate failure could be predicted by using a fiber failure criterion to identify the critical plies and critical load levels. It was found that either maximum fiber stress or fiber direction strain could be used as a failure criterion on a ply level. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1112, LB3956_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1112, LB3956_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  19. Activation of the Stt7/STN7 Kinase through Dynamic Interactions with the Cytochrome b6f Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Chai, Xin; Fucile, Geoffrey; Longoni, Paolo; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have the ability to adapt to changes in light quality by readjusting the cross sections of the light-harvesting systems of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process, called state transitions, maintains the redox poise of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and ensures a high photosynthetic yield when light is limiting. It is mediated by the Stt7/STN7 protein kinase, which is activated through the cytochrome b6f complex upon reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Its probable major substrate, the light-harvesting complex of PSII, once phosphorylated, dissociates from PSII and docks to PSI, thereby restoring the balance of absorbed light excitation energy between the two photosystems. Although the kinase is known to be inactivated under high-light intensities, the molecular mechanisms governing its regulation remain unknown. In this study we monitored the redox state of a conserved and essential Cys pair of the Stt7/STN7 kinase and show that it forms a disulfide bridge. We could not detect any change in the redox state of these Cys during state transitions and high-light treatment. It is only after prolonged anaerobiosis that this disulfide bridge is reduced. It is likely to be mainly intramolecular, although kinase activation may involve a transient covalently linked kinase dimer with two intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have mapped one interaction site of the kinase on the Rieske protein of the cytochrome b6f complex. PMID:26941194

  20. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  1. Aspernigrins with anti-HIV-1 activities from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus niger SCSIO Jcsw6F30.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Fang, Wei; Tan, Suiyi; Lin, Xiuping; Xun, Tianrong; Yang, Bingjie; Liu, Shuwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-15

    Two new 2-benzylpyridin-4-one containing metabolites, aspernigrins C (3) and D (4), together with six known compounds (1, 2, and 5-8), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus niger SCSIO Jcsw6F30. The structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR, MS, and optical rotation analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against infection with HIV-1 SF162 in TZM-bl cells. Malformin C (5) showed the strongest anti-HIV-1 activity with IC50 of 1.4±0.06μM (selectivity index, 11.4), meanwhile aspernigrin C (3) also exhibited potent activity with IC50 of 4.7±0.4μM (selectivity index, 7.5).

  2. B(C6F5)3: A Lewis Acid that Brings the Light to the Solid State.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Max M; López-Andarias, Alicia; Rettenmeier, Eva; Egler-Lucas, Carolina; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K; Romero-Nieto, Carlos

    2016-01-18

    The straightforward coordination of the Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 to classical, non-emitting aldehydes results in solid-state photoluminescence. Variation of the electronic properties of the carbonyl moieties lead to the modulation of the solid-state emission colors, covering the entire visible spectrum with quantum yields up to 0.64. Steady-state spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations confirm that intermolecular interactions between the Lewis adducts are responsible for the observed luminescence. Alteration of the latter interactions induces, moreover, remarkable solid-state phenomena such as piezochromism. The versatility and simplicity of our approach facilitate the future development of solid-state emitting materials.

  3. Theory of Triplet Excitation Transfer in the Donor-Oxygen-Acceptor System: Application to Cytochrome b6f.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Elmar G; Robert, Bruno; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Valkunas, Leonas

    2015-10-20

    Theoretical consideration is presented of the triplet excitation dynamics in donor-acceptor systems in conditions where the transfer is mediated by an oxygen molecule. It is demonstrated that oxygen may be involved in both real and virtual intramolecular triplet-singlet conversions in the course of the process under consideration. Expressions describing a superexchange donor-acceptor coupling owing to a participation of the bridging twofold degenerate oxygen's virtual singlet state are derived and the transfer kinetics including the sequential (hopping) and coherent (distant) routes are analyzed. Applicability of this theoretical description to the pigment-protein complex cytochrome b6f, by considering the triplet excitation transfer from the chlorophyll a molecule to distant β-carotene, is discussed. PMID:26488665

  4. Aging in the cerebellum and hippocampus and associated behaviors over the adult life span of CB6F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of normal aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as behaviors associated with these substrates. A total of 67 CB6F1 hybrid mice were tested at one of five ages (4, 8, 12, 18 or 25 months) on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect modification of fear conditioning (CPFE), rotorod, Barnes maze, acoustic startle, Morris water maze (MWM) and 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). Behavioral tasks were chosen to increase the ability to detect age-related changes in learning, as trace EBCC is considered a more difficult paradigm (compared to delay EBCC) and the CPFE has been found to be more sensitive to hippocampus insults than standard contextual fear conditioning. To assess the effects of age on the brain, hippocampus volume was calculated and unbiased stereology was used to estimate the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex. A significant, age-related loss of Purkinje neurons was found—beginning at 12 months of age—and hippocampus volume remained stable over the adult life span. Age-related impairment was found, beginning at 12–18 months in the rotorod, and mice with fewer Purkinje neurons showed greater impairment in this task. CB6F1 mice retained auditory acuity across the life span and mice aged 25 months showed significant age-related impairment in the EBCC task; however, deficits were not associated with the loss of Purkinje neurons. Although the CPFE task is considered more sensitive to hippocampus insult, no age-related impairment was found. Spatial memory retention was impaired in the Barnes maze at 25 months, but no significant deficits were seen in the MWM. These results support the finding of differential aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum. PMID:23764510

  5. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  6. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration of minerals. Final technical report, March 1, 1985--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this project were to continue the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron, and to initiate an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. Progress is described.

  7. Collaborative Research: Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mavko, G.

    2000-01-01

    This research contributes three newly-developed relationships that significantly improve aquifer characterization: (1) a general relationship between total and channel porosities, (2) a general relationship between electrical resistivity and channel porosity, and (3) bounds on the electrical resistivity - seismic velocity relationship.

  8. Career Interest Characterizing and Reporting System. May 1, 1976 - May 31, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Inst., Waco.

    A study was conducted to update the existing Career Interest Characterizing (CIC) instrument in terms of current career choices of students and to implement the survey instrument in the Texas secondary school counseling programs. The CIC instrument defines career interests of secondary school students and yields information of value in counseling…

  9. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  10. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  11. Cytochrome b 6 f function and localization, phosphorylation state of thylakoid membrane proteins and consequences on cyclic electron flow.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Louis; Chazaux, Marie; Peltier, Gilles; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Both the structure and the protein composition of thylakoid membranes have an impact on light harvesting and electron transfer in the photosynthetic chain. Thylakoid membranes form stacks and lamellae where photosystem II and photosystem I localize, respectively. Light-harvesting complexes II can be associated to either PSII or PSI depending on the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, and their distribution is governed by state transitions. Upon state transitions, the thylakoid ultrastructure and lateral distribution of proteins along the membrane are subject to significant rearrangements. In addition, quinone diffusion is limited to membrane microdomains and the cytochrome b 6 f complex localizes either to PSII-containing grana stacks or PSI-containing stroma lamellae. Here, we discuss possible similarities or differences between green algae and C3 plants on the functional consequences of such heterogeneities in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and propose a model in which quinones, accepting electrons either from PSII (linear flow) or NDH/PGR pathways (cyclic flow), represent a crucial control point. Our aim is to give an integrated description of these processes and discuss their potential roles in the balance between linear and cyclic electron flows. PMID:27534565

  12. Broadband Yellowish-Green Emitting Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) Phosphor: Structure Refinement, Energy Transfer, and Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaopeng; Lü, Wei; Jiao, Mengmeng; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-20

    A series of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors with a broad emitting band have been synthesized by a traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structural and photoluminescence properties of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) are investigated. The different crystallographic sites of Eu(2+) in Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors have been verified by means of their photoluminescence (PL) properties and decay times. Energy transfer between Eu(2+) ions, analyzed by excitation, emission, and PL decay behavior, has been indicated to be a dipole-dipole mechanism. Moreover, the luminescence quantum yield as well as the thermal stability of the Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor have been investigated systematically. The as-prepared Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor can act as a promising candidate for n-UV convertible white LEDs. PMID:27249557

  13. Broadband Yellowish-Green Emitting Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) Phosphor: Structure Refinement, Energy Transfer, and Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaopeng; Lü, Wei; Jiao, Mengmeng; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-20

    A series of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors with a broad emitting band have been synthesized by a traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structural and photoluminescence properties of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) are investigated. The different crystallographic sites of Eu(2+) in Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors have been verified by means of their photoluminescence (PL) properties and decay times. Energy transfer between Eu(2+) ions, analyzed by excitation, emission, and PL decay behavior, has been indicated to be a dipole-dipole mechanism. Moreover, the luminescence quantum yield as well as the thermal stability of the Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor have been investigated systematically. The as-prepared Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor can act as a promising candidate for n-UV convertible white LEDs.

  14. UV and VUV spectroscopic study of Na0.4Y0.6F2.2 crystals doped with rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhanov, V. A.; Mikhaĭlin, V. V.; Chernov, S. P.; Karimov, D. N.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2006-10-01

    The short-wavelength transmission spectra of Na0.4 R 0.6F2.2 crystals with R = Y, Yb, or Lu have been investigated. For these crystals, the VUV transmission cutoffs are 78750, 58820, and 75200 cm-1, respectively. The 4 f n-4 f n-15 d absorption and excitation spectra of Na0.4Y0.6F2.2 crystals activated with Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+ ions have been analyzed in the range 30000-80000 cm-1. The energy positions of the lowest levels of the 4 f n-15 d configurations of these ions in the fluorite crystal matrix Na0.4Y0.6F2.2 are determined. The absorption band in the spectral range 60600-70000 cm-1 in Na0.4(Y, Yb)0.6F2.2 crystals is due to the charge transfer from F- to Yb3+. It is shown that the environmental symmetry of Ce3+ ions in Na0.4R0.6F2.2 ( R = Y, Yb, Lu) crystals is almost identical.

  15. Synthesis and Reactivity of (Pentafluorophenyl)platinate(II) Complexes with Bridging 1,8-Naphthyridine (napy) and X Ligands (X = C(6)F(5), OH, Cl, Br, I, SPh). Crystal Structure of [NBu(4)][Pt(2)(&mgr;-napy)(&mgr;-OH)(C(6)F(5))(4)].CHCl(3).

    PubMed

    Ara, Irene; Casas, José M.; Forniés, Juan; Rueda, Angel J.

    1996-12-01

    By reaction of [NBu(4)](2)[Pt(2)(&mgr;-C(6)F(5))(2)(C(6)F(5))(4)] with 1,8-naphthyridine (napy), [NBu(4)][Pt(C(6)F(5))(3)(napy)] (1) is obtained. This compound reacts with cis-[Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(THF)(2)] to give the dinuclear derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(2)(&mgr;-napy)(&mgr;-C(6)F(5))(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2). The reaction of several HX species with 2 results in the substitution of the bridging C(6)F(5) by other ligands (X) such as OH (3), Cl (4), Br (5), I (6), and SPh (7), maintaining in all cases the naphthyridine bridging ligand. The structure of 3 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/n, with a = 12.022(2) Å, b = 16.677(3) Å, c = 27.154(5) Å, beta = 98.58(3) degrees, V = 5383.2(16) Å(3), and Z = 4. The structure was refined to residuals of R = 0.0488 and R(w) = 0.0547. The complex consists of two square-planar platinum(II) fragments sharing a naphthyridine and OH bridging ligands, which are in cis positions. The short Pt-Pt distance [3.008(1) Å] seems to be a consequence of the bridging ligands.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  18. Final Report on Materials Characterization for the Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2002-10-30

    This report is a summary of materials characterization results on twenty cathode samples that were used in a novel aluminum reduction cell at the Northwest Aluminum Technologies laboratory. Most of these cathodes were based on the TiB2 composition and showed very little corrosion as a result of testing. Most of the samples also showed good wetting by Al metal that formed during cell operation.

  19. Automated fabrication, characterization and transport of ICF pellets. Final report, March 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, D W; Boyd, B A; Lilienkamp, R H

    1980-12-01

    The near-term objectives of the contract were threefold: (1) evaluate techniques for the production of frozen hydrogen microspheres and demonstrate concepts for coating them; (2) develop and demonstrate an optical characterization system which could lead to automated pellet inspection; and (3) develop and demonstrate a preliminary electrostatic pellet transport control system. This report describes the equipment assembled for these experiments and the results obtained.

  20. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  1. Evaluation of uncertainties in irradiated hardware characterization: Final report, September 30, 1986-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bedore, N.; Levin, A.; Tuite, P.

    1987-10-01

    Waste Management Group, Inc. has evaluated the techniques used by industry to characterize and classify irradiated hardware components for disposal. This report describes the current practices used to characterize the radionuclide content of hardware components, identifies the uncertainties associated with the techniques and practices considered, and recommends areas for improvement which could reduce uncertainty. Industry uses two different characterization methods. The first uses a combination of gamma scanning, direct sampling, underwater radiation profiling and radiochemical analysis to determine radionuclide content, while the second uses a form of activation analysis in conjunction with underwater radiation profiling. Both methods employ the determination of Cobalt 60 content, and the determination of scaling factors for hard-to-detect Part 61 radionuclides. The accurate determination of Cobalt-60 is critical since the Part 61 activation product radionuclides which affect Part 61 classification are scaled from Cobalt-60. Current uncertainties in Cobalt-60 determination can be reduced by improving underwater radiation profiling equipment and techniques. The calculational techniques used for activation analysis can also be refined to reduce the uncertainties with Cobalt-60 determination. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Tc-Bearing Metallic Waste Forms- Final Report FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita

    2010-09-30

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) Program is developing aqueous and electrochemical approaches to the processing of used nuclear fuel that will generate technetium-bearing waste streams. This final report presents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research in FY10 to evaluate an iron-based alloy waste form for Tc that provides high waste loading within waste form processing limitations, meets waste form performance requirements for durability and the long-term retention of radionuclides and can be produced with consistent physical, chemical, and radiological properties that meet regulatory acceptance requirements for disposal.

  3. Processing of High Level Waste: Spectroscopic Characterization of Redox Reactions in Supercritical Water - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington Jr., C. A.

    2000-11-15

    Current efforts are focused on the oxidative dissolution of chromium compounds found in Hanford tank waste sludge. Samples of chromium oxides and hydroxides with varying degrees of hydration are being characterized using Raman, FTIR, and XPS spectroscopic techniques. Kinetics of oxidation reactions at subcritical and supercritical temperatures are being followed by Raman spectroscopy using a high temperature stainless steel cell with diamond windows. In these reactions both hydrogen peroxide and nitrate anions are used as the oxidizing species with Cr(III) compounds and organic compounds as reducing agents.

  4. Characterizing the emissivity of materials under dynamic compression (final report for LDRD project 79877).

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2007-10-01

    Temperature measurements are crucial to equation of state development, but difficult to perform reliably. In the case of infrared pyrometry, a large uncertainty comes from the fact that sample emissivity (the deviation from a blackbody) is unknown. In this project, a method for characterizing the emissivity of shocked materials was developed. By coupling infrared radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source to a gas gun system, broad spectrum emissivity changes were studied to a peak stress of 8 GPa. Emissivity measurements were performed on standard metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Pt) as well as a high emissivity coating developed at Sandia.

  5. Structure-Function, Stability, and Chemical Modification of the Cyanobacterial Cytochrome b[subscript 6]f Complex from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    SciTech Connect

    Baniulis, Danas; Yamashita, Eiki; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Zatsman, Anna I.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Hasan, S. Saif; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.

    2009-06-08

    The crystal structure of the cyanobacterial cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex has previously been solved to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution using the thermophilic Mastigocladus laminosus whose genome has not been sequenced. Several unicellular cyanobacteria, whose genomes have been sequenced and are tractable for mutagenesis, do not yield b{sub 6}f complex in an intact dimeric state with significant electron transport activity. The genome of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 has been sequenced and is closer phylogenetically to M. laminosus than are unicellular cyanobacteria. The amino acid sequences of the large core subunits and four small peripheral subunits of Nostoc are 88 and 80% identical to those in the M. laminosus b{sub 6}f complex. Purified b{sub 6}f complex from Nostoc has a stable dimeric structure, eight subunits with masses similar to those of M. laminosus, and comparable electron transport activity. The crystal structure of the native b{sub 6}f complex, determined to a resolution of 3.0{angstrom} (PDB id: 2ZT9), is almost identical to that of M. laminosus. Two unique aspects of the Nostoc complex are: (i) a dominant conformation of heme b{sub p} that is rotated 180 deg. about the {alpha}- and {gamma}-meso carbon axis relative to the orientation in the M. laminosus complex and (ii) acetylation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (PetC) at the N terminus, a post-translational modification unprecedented in cyanobacterial membrane and electron transport proteins, and in polypeptides of cytochrome bc complexes from any source. The high spin electronic character of the unique heme cn is similar to that previously found in the b{sub 6}f complex from other sources.

  6. Purification, growth, fabrication and characterization of wide bandgap materials. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.T.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.

    1998-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductor single crystals, such as heavy metal halide compounds, have been grown by physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods. Zone-refining and vacuum sublimation techniques were used to purify and adjust the stoichiometric composition of the starting material, and were proven to be effective. Several spectroscopic, microscopic and thermodynamic analytical techniques were employed to investigate the optical, electrical and structural properties of crystals. These results revealed information regarding micro- and macroscopic defects, impurities and modifications resulting from source material, growth process, post-growth treatment and device fabrication. Crystal growth and processing conditions have been correlated with this information and were optimized to achieve the purest and highest quality materials for practical device applications. Future works will involve optimization of material purification and crystal growth processes to produce high purity and low defect crystals, development of sensitive material characterization tools allowing a better understanding of defects formation and their correlation with processing conditions. Developments in bulk crystal growth research for detector devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials based on heavy metal halides semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures.

  7. Characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of advanced composite pultrusions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, J.G.; Roux, J.A.; Mantena, P.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by the Composite Materials Group at the University of Mississippi to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of pultruded advanced composite materials. Considerable progress has been made on characterizing the effects of pultrusion process variables on the structural/dynamic and thermal properties of a mono-fiber type graphite-epoxy composite material system. The effects of process parameters on the mechanical properties of a mono-fiber type fiberglass-epoxy were also investigated and correlated with the degree of cure using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The mechanical properties and the failure mechanisms of these hybrids were compared with those of the mono-fiber type glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy pultruded composites. The static properties examined were flexural strength and modulus, short-beam shear strength and tensile strength. For the dynamic (modulus and damping) studies, the impulse frequency response technique was used for exciting the flat specimens into flexural, and the round specimens into torsional, modes of vibration using appropriately designed test fixtures. The results of these tests demonstrate the potential for the cost-effective production of stiff, light and well damped composite products having a number of practical applications. A three-dimensional numerical model which utilizes a fixed control volume based finite difference approach was also developed to predict the axial, radial and circumferential temperature and degree of cure profiles, which were found to be in close agreement with experimental results.

  8. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

  9. Toxic contaminant characterization of aquatic organisms in Galveston Bay: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Wade, T.L.; Dennicutt, M.C.; Wiesenburg, D.A.; Wilkinson, D.

    1992-06-01

    The study characterizes contamination in edible fish and shellfish from Galveston Bay. The sampling design called for the analysis of trace contaminants in five species from four sites in Galveston Bay. The goal of the sampling program was to collect ten specimens of each target organism that were of legal market size from each collection site. Standard fisheries data were recorded for all collections. The analytical program called for the analyses of 10 individual specimens of the target organisms from each site (200 edible tissue (muscle) samples). Fifty (50) liver samples were composed for analysis from the 120 fishes. The trace contaminants that were measured included heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), pesticides and PCBs and a GC-MS scan for other EPA organic priority pollutants. In general, trace contaminants were higher in oyster and crab tissues than fish tissue.

  10. Characterization of porosity via secondary reactions. Final technical report, 1 September 1991--30 November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Zhang, L.; Hall, P.J.; Antxustegi, M.

    1997-09-01

    A new approach to the study of porosity and porosity development in coal chars during gasification was investigated. This approach involves the establishment of the relationships between the amount and type of surface complexes evolved during post-activation temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and the porosity, as measured by gas adsorption and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. With this new method, the total surface area and micropore volume can be determined by the interpretation of post-activation TPD spectra. The primary conclusion of this work is that it is possible to predict total surface area and micropore volume from TPD spectra. From the extended random pore model, additional information about the micropore surface area, the nonmicroporous surface area, and the mean micropore size development as a function of reaction time (or burn-off) can also be predicted. Therefore, combining the TPD technique and the extended random pore model provides a new method for the characterization of char porosity.

  11. Characterization of single-tube model-boiler dented intersection specimens. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Varsanik, R.G.; Gibbon, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Crevice denting, caused by the uncontrolled growth of magnetite in the space between carbon-steel tube-support plates and Inconel heat-exchange tubes is a major cause of concern in nuclear steam generators. This particular form of localized corrosion has been modeled experimentally by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation using prototypical boiler systems. In this study, three corrosion specimens from these model-boiler systems have been characterized by Calgon Corporation using light and scanning electron microscopy along with both energy- and wave-length-dispersive x-ray spectrophotometry. Samples examined consisted of specimens which had been exposed to a known corrosive environment and then either left untreated, treated with calcium hydroxide, or treated with boric acid in an attempt to halt the corrosion process. The destructive examination of the samples was conducted on both polished sections as well as sections fractured in liquid nitrogen to expose uncontaminated interfaces between the multiple phases involved.

  12. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine

  13. Characterization and environmental studies on anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes: Pompano Beach plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.V.; Nemerow, N.; Strietfeld, M.; Narasimhan, R.; Tilles, A.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate and verify the technical and economical feasibiilty of the solid waste to methane fermentation process. Since anaerobic fermentation of solid waste materials has not been demonstrated on a large scale, there is a definite risk factor that the system will not perform as current research suggests. The proof of concept plant was built on an existing shredding and landfill site at Pompano Beach, Florida. Two digesters were built with a total capacity of 90 Mg/day of solid waste. Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. The areas of environmental concerns identified were: output gas quality, leachate (filter cake and filtrate) to groundwater system, wash water streams, filter cake, and filtrate. In order to characterize the effluent streams, the following sampling sites were chosen: air classified heavy fraction, air classified light fraction, digested slurry, output gas, filter cake, filtrate, wash water input, and wash water effluent. The technical approach consisted of physical, chemical, and biological characterization of all outputs at the plant. Analyses for major, minor and trace compounds of potential environmental concern were conducted. Relevant regulatory standards were recognized and searches for compounds on EPA priority pollutant list and carciongen list were conducted. The ultimate aim was to quantitatively relate contaminant potential with plant operating parameters. Some mutagenic studies were conducted. A significant part of the technical approach relates to the development of predictive criterion for pollutant migration by leaching and modeling studies.

  14. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  15. Characterization of facies and permeability patterns in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.; Lucia, F.J.; Senger, R.K.; Fogg, G.E.; Nance, H.S.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop methods for better describing the three-dimensional geometry of carbonate reservoir flow units as related to conventional or enhanced recovery of oil. San Andres and Grayburg reservoirs were selected for study because of the 13 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil and 17 Bbbl of residual oil in these reservoirs. The key data base is provided by detailed characterization of geologic facies and rock permeability in reservior-scale outcrops of the Permian San Andres Formation in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Emphasis is placed on developing an outcrop analog for San Andres strata that can be used as (1) a guide to interpreting the regional and local geologic framework of the subsurface reservoirs (2) a data source illustrating the scales and patterns of variability of rock-fabric facies and petrophysical properties, particularly in lateral dimension, and on scales that cannot be studied during subsurface reservoir characterization. The research approach taken to achieve these objectives utilizes the integration of geologic description, geostatistical techniques, and reservoir flow simulation experiments. Results from this research show that the spatial distribution of facies relative to the waterflood direction can significantly affect how the reservoir produces. Bypassing of unswept oil occurs due to cross flow of injected water from high permeability zones into lower permeability zones were high permeability zones terminate. An area of unswept oil develops because of the slower advance of the water-injection front in the lower permeability zones. When the injection pattern is reversed, the cross-flow effect changes due to the different arrangements of rock-fabric flow units relative to the flow of injected water, and the sweep efficiency is significantly different. Flow across low-permeability mudstones occurs showing that these layers do not necessarily represent flow barriers.

  16. Ash and slag characterization. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, S K

    1986-06-01

    A procedure was developed for mine sampling and the storage of standard coals under argon. In total, 53 coals were collected and are also available to other DOE supported projects at the Center. Task 2 was the study of mineral transformation during ashing of low-rank coals. Results of this study verified the importance of organically-bound alkalies, specifically calcium and sodium, in forming low-melting temperature aluminosilicates (i.e., melilites). Task 3 highlighted the viscosity studies on the molten ash of low-rank coals. A major part of this study involved the modification of the Urbain equation so that it can be used to predict the Newtonian behavior of low-rank coal slags. In addition, the effects of iron and sodium on viscosity, hysteresis, and the nature of the non-Newtonian flow were examined. Task 4 comprised the identification of volatilized species evolved during the combustion of selected low-rank coals. In each case sodium, potassium and sulfur were found to be major components of the condensed volatiles. Verification of their volatility on an experimental basis has significance in their possible contributions to forming new solid and liquid phases at high temperatures. Finally Task 5 evaluated the use of various sessile drop techniques to determine the surface tension of low-rank coal slags. Results show that meaningful surface tension measurements can be obtained with the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate.

  17. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  18. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  19. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration on minerals. Final technical report, August 4, 1994--August 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-12-31

    The scope of work outlined in the original proposal contained two specific aims. Highlights of the results obtained and published on each specific aim during the grant period in question are summarized. The first aim continued the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron. An electrochemical apparatus for the large scale cultivation of chemolithotrophic bacteria that respire aerobically on ferrous ions was perfected. The kinetic properties of an acid-stable iron:rusticyanin oxidoreductase from T. ferrooxidans were determined. The overall tertiary structure of rusticyanin in solution was elucidated from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear {sup 15}N-edited NMR spectra. An artificial gene for rusticyanin was designed, synthesized, and successfully expressed in E. coli. The X-ray crystallographic structure of rusticyanin was solved to a resolution of 1.9 {angstrom} by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing. The second aim initiated an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. The electrophoretic mobility of T. ferrooxidans with and without its insoluble substrates was determined by laser Doppler velocimetry under physiological conditions. The adherence of T. ferrooxidans to the surface of pyrite was observed directly in a video-enhanced light microscope.

  20. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  1. Characterization of embryo-specific genes. Final report, April 1, 1987--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.

    1992-06-12

    The objective of the proposed research is to characterize the function and regulation of a set of embryonic genes which are expressed in the embryos, not in the plants. 22 cDNA clones were isolated from a cDNA library we constructed using mRNAS of -carrot somatic embryos. These cDNA clones identified mRNA species that are present in the somatic and zygotic embryos, but not in adult plants. The sequence of all 22cDNA clones were determined; genomic clones for three cDNA clones, DC8, DC59, and DC49 were isolated and gene sequences determined. DC8, DC49, and several other genes identified by the cDNA sequences belong to the category of late embryogenesis abundant protein genes, Lea. The function of these gens have not yet been determined, but they share common structural features, are regulated by ABA and are speculated to play a role in seed desiccation.

  2. Characterization of non-Darcy multiphase flow in petroleum bearing formation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Civan, F.

    1994-04-01

    The productive capacity of oil and gas bearing rocks depends on various parameters characterizing the flow conditions in the reservoir. Among these, the non-Darcy flow coefficient specifically plays an important role for cases involving fluid accelerations or decelerations around the well bore and in the reservoir. However, most reservoir simulators used for reservoir management assume Darcy flow, and yield misleading results causing an incorrect analysis or projection of reservoir performance. A few attempts have been made to incorporate non-Darcy effect in reservoir models but many of these lack a reliable accuracy since they use simplified correlations which ignore the effects of the variation of the fluid and formation conditions. The present study developed an accurate non-Darcy flow model that will lead to more accurate reservoir management decisions. First, a rigorous analysis and derivation of the porous media mass and momentum equations are presented considering the non-Darcy flow behavior. Second, steady-state and unsteady-state methods for simultaneous determination of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and interfacial drag during non-Darcy flow in laboratory cores are derived. This work results in several algebraic, integral, and differential interpretation methods. Third, correlations for the non-Darcy flow coefficient are investigated and improved. The study presented in this report provides new insights and formulations in the description of non-Darcy flow in oil and gas bearing formations.

  3. Screening and characterizing oleaginous microalgal species from the southeastern United States. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to select and characterize promising algal species which tolerate high light intensities, temperature variations and accumulate lipids. Samples have been collected from freshwater and saltwater locations in the State of Alabama and intertidal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were screened through a multi-step process. Selected species: Cyclotella, Nitzschia, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Ankistrodesmus, have been examined for growth requirements. Approximate cellular composition of these species was determined. This report describes accomplishments from February 1984 to January 1985. During this period, collection trips were made to Dauphin Island near the Alabama coast in the summer of 1984. Over sixty strains were isolated, and of these six were ranked as good growers. Two diatoms were isolated that are of particular interest because of their ability to accumulate high lipids. Cyclotella tolerates high temperatures (30/sup 0/-35/sup 0/C), grows at moderate salinities (15-25 parts per thousand), and with nitrogen stress accumulates 42% of its dry weight as lipid. Hantzschia is a large diatom that also grows well at elevated temperatures and full strength seawater. Hantzschia can accumulate as much as 66% of its dry weight as lipid. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  5. Selenium isotope geochemistry: A new approach to characterizing the environmental chemistry of selenium. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A.M.; Esser, B.K.

    1997-02-05

    High levels of selenium in the environment will be a prominent water quality issue in the western United States for many years. Selenium accumulation is linked to increased rates of death and deformity in migratory birds, blind staggers in livestock, and selenosis in humans. In California, agricultural drain waters and oil refinery effluent contribute to high selenium content in the San Joaquin Valley and the San Francisco Bay. The importance of these industries to California`s economy precludes simple abatement, while the complexity of selenium cycling precludes simple remediation. The purpose of this project is to measure variations in the isotopic composition of selenium in water and soil samples caused by natural processes and to show, for the first time, the value of isotopic measurements in characterizing selenium pollution. The research seeks to identify sources of selenium pollution, determine processes in the selenium cycle, and support selenium remediation studies. The project required the successful integration of three components: (1) appropriate sampling a field setting showing Se enrichment and possibly isotopic fractionation, (2) analytical chemical methods for isolating and purifying the various species of Se in waters and sediment, and (3) mass spectroscopic instrumentation for high precision isotope abundance measurements.

  6. Use of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system at Grandville, Michigan superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kala, R.; Powell, J.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation at the Organic Chemical, Inc. site in Grandville, Michigan. This site is on the National Priority List for cleanup, and is being overseen by the Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Region V office. The site was investigated utilizing the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, with a fiber optic fluorimeter sensor. This sensor allows the detection of hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface. A total of fifty pushes were completed at the site to an average depth of approximately 15 ft, covering approximately 80 acres. A hydrocarbon contaminant plume was located at the site extending from the OCI facility in a northerly direction. This matches the flow of the groundwater in the area as it moves toward the Grand River. The plume was successfully bounded on the North, South, and West sides. The plume boundary on the East side could not be established due to property constraints. The concentrations of contaminants in certain areas of the site exceeded 5000 ppm. Cone penetrometer, Geophysics, Fiber optic fluorescence.

  7. Characterization and control of organic compounds emitted from air pollution sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.J.; Kleeman, M.J.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-04-01

    A dilution source sampling system is used to quantify the air pollutant emissions from major urban air pollution sources. The emissions from catalyst-equipped gasoline powered-motor vehicles, noncatalyst gasoline-powered motor vehicls, diesel trucks, meat charbroiling, the cooking of vegetables with seed oils, fireplace combustion of softwood and hardwood, cigarette combustion, and paint spray coating operations are characterized. Semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds in the diluted source emissions are collected simultaneously by both a traditional filter/PUF (polyurethane foam) sampling train and by an advanced organic compound-based denuder/filter/PUF sampling train to provide information on the gas/particle phase distribution of the semi-volatile organic compounds. Emission rates of hundreds of organic compounds, spanning carbon number from C1 to C29 are determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Fine partile mass emission rates and fine particle elemental chemical composition are measured as well.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  9. Mass spectrometer for quantification and characterization of DNA damage in mammalian and human systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The instrument grant was used to purchase a Finnigan TSQ 7000 tandem quadruple mass spectrometer with electrospray and atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization ion sources for the amount of the grant, $371,857. MIT contributed $50,000 in refurbishing costs for the laboratory in which the instrument is used. This mass spectrometer has been in operation since July, 1995 in professor Steven Tannenbaum`s Laboratory in the MIT Division of Toxicology, under the direct supervision of Dr. John S. Wishnok. Its current location is in MIT Building 56, room 747. It is in good operating condition, and is being actively used. Since the original purchase, the instrument has been upgraded by the addition of a (1) dedicated high-performance liquid chromatograph with an autosampler and (2) a nanoelectrospray ion source. The instrument has been used in a number of research projects including the identification of proteins and oligonucleotides, identification of PAH-DNA and PAH-protein adducts, quantitation of food-related carcinogens, and characterization of nitric oxide- and peroxynitrite-related DNA damage.

  10. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  11. Characterization and optimization of sorbents utilized for emission control during coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1998-07-14

    To overcome the shortage of components required for high temperature operation required by current IGCC and PFBC systems, researchers recently have decided that the power systems can be optimized within an operation temperature range of 343 to 538 C. The findings of this research work support the use of iron oxides as an efficient, disposable hot gas desulfurization sorbent candidate to meet the temperature range of 343 to 538 C to further optimize its application for hot gas desulfurization. A parametric study was performed to characterize the controlling parameters dominating the absorption process of hydrogen sulfide by waste iron oxide as a sorbent alternative within a stringent environment with the use of simulated KRW reducing gas. The major parameters studied for hot gas desulfurization with the use of waste iron oxide; mixed in coal ash and reacted with hot sulfurized gas; in hot gas stream include (1) dust cake permeability during heavy dust loading, (2) feasibility of dust cake removal with current back pulse cleaning technology, (3) the reaction temperature, (4) the space velocity of the gas stream. Based on the parametric testing performed on hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration, the test results of this study indicate that the simultaneous operation of hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration is feasible. The significant savings of capital investment, system operation and maintenance justify the use of iron oxides as an excellent candidate for hot gas cleanup.

  12. Aerosol Characterization at Skukuza, South Africa, During the SAFARI 2000 Final dry Season Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Schwarz, J.; Chi, X.; Annegarn, H. J.

    2001-12-01

    Various collection devices, including single filter samplers with PM10 or PM2.5 inlet, PM10 stacked filter units and cascade impactors were used to take atmospheric aerosol samples at Skukuza in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, during the SAFARI 2000 final dry season campaign. Samples were collected continuously from 16 August until 19 September 2001, and the collection time per sample was either 12 or 24 hours. Depending upon the sampler type and collection substrates, the samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and/or over 40 elements. Besides the aerosol collections, also in-situ (real-time) measurements were performed for the PM and for black carbon (BC). These aerosol parameters were obtained with a Rupprecht and Patashnick tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) and a Magee Scientific aethalometer. These instruments were provided with a PM2.5 inlet and were operated with 5 min time resolution. The real-time data showed that there were occasionally episodes (of several hours duration) with very elevated levels of PM and BC in the PM2.5 fraction. This was the case in the period from 30 August to 4 September and on 14 September. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were obtained in the early morning of 1 September, with levels of over 250 and over 7 micrograms per cubic meter for PM and BC, respectively. The analyses of the filter samples indicated that the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio was 0.66 +/- 0.12 for the PM. The ratio of total carbon (TC = OC + EC) to PM in the PM2.5 aerosol was on average 0.33 +/- 0.07 and the ratio EC/TC was 0.082 +/- 0.022 in this same size fraction.

  13. A novel approach using Neuron 6F guiding catheter for the embolization of intracranial aneurysm with coiling of the parent internal carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donghai; Wang, Ying; Su, Wandong; Wang, Yunyan; Li, Gang; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    To describe our initial experience and early outcomes with distal placement of the Neuron 6F guiding catheter through coiled ICA for aneurysmal EVT. We examined the utility of the Neuronf 70 6F guiding catheter for the embolization procedure in such cases, fourteen cases of aneurysm with coiling of the parent ICA are presented via traditional guiding catheters. With the support of 8F ENVOY guiding catheter as a shuttle sheath, the NeuronTM 70 6F guiding catheter was successfully placed through coiled extracranial ICA, so the mirocatheter could be delivered to a more strategic position for embolization of the aneurysm. Coiling of extracranial ICA was found as parent artery on angiogram in all patients with ruptured aneurysms. Even where there were two curvatures of more than 360° in the coiled segment of the ICA, NeuronTM 70 6F guiding catheter could be placed through the coiling to a distal position and enabled EVT of intracranial aneurysms with no related neurological complications. Neuron guiding catheter is a useful device for embolization of aneurysm where there is coiling of parent ICA, easily placed through the coiling of the ICA and provided robust anatomical support via enhanced catheter-to-vessel wall engagement. PMID:25785169

  14. A novel approach using Neuron 6F guiding catheter for the embolization of intracranial aneurysm with coiling of the parent internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Wang, Ying; Su, Wandong; Wang, Yunyan; Li, Gang; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    To describe our initial experience and early outcomes with distal placement of the Neuron 6F guiding catheter through coiled ICA for aneurysmal EVT. We examined the utility of the Neuronf 70 6F guiding catheter for the embolization procedure in such cases, fourteen cases of aneurysm with coiling of the parent ICA are presented via traditional guiding catheters. With the support of 8F ENVOY guiding catheter as a shuttle sheath, the Neuron(TM) 70 6F guiding catheter was successfully placed through coiled extracranial ICA, so the mirocatheter could be delivered to a more strategic position for embolization of the aneurysm. Coiling of extracranial ICA was found as parent artery on angiogram in all patients with ruptured aneurysms. Even where there were two curvatures of more than 360° in the coiled segment of the ICA, Neuron(TM) 70 6F guiding catheter could be placed through the coiling to a distal position and enabled EVT of intracranial aneurysms with no related neurological complications. Neuron guiding catheter is a useful device for embolization of aneurysm where there is coiling of parent ICA, easily placed through the coiling of the ICA and provided robust anatomical support via enhanced catheter-to-vessel wall engagement. PMID:25785169

  15. Transgenic 6F tomatoes act on the small intestine to prevent systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia caused by Western diet and intestinally derived lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Buga, Georgette M; Su, Feng; Wagner, Alan C; Meriwether, David; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Gao, Feng; Grijalva, Victor; Danciger, Janet S; Van Lenten, Brian J; Org, Elin; Lusis, Aldons J; Pan, Calvin; Anantharamaiah, G M; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Smyth, Susan S; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Fogelman, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    We recently reported that levels of unsaturated lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the small intestine significantly correlated with the extent of aortic atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null (LDLR⁻/⁻) mice fed a Western diet (WD). Here we demonstrate that WD increases unsaturated (but not saturated) LPA levels in the small intestine of LDLR⁻/⁻ mice and causes changes in small intestine gene expression. Confirmation of microarray analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed that adding transgenic tomatoes expressing the apoA-I mimetic peptide 6F (Tg6F) to WD prevented many WD-mediated small intestine changes in gene expression. If instead of feeding WD, unsaturated LPA was added to chow and fed to the mice: i) levels of LPA in the small intestine were similar to those induced by feeding WD; ii) gene expression changes in the small intestine mimicked WD-mediated changes; and iii) changes in plasma serum amyloid A, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol levels, and the fast-performance liquid chromatography lipoprotein profile mimicked WD-mediated changes. Adding Tg6F (but not control tomatoes) to LPA-supplemented chow prevented the LPA-induced changes. We conclude that: i) WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia may be in part due to WD-induced increases in small intestine LPA levels; and ii) Tg6F reduces WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia by preventing WD-induced increases in LPA levels in the small intestine. PMID:24085744

  16. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  17. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  18. Reservoir characterization by cross-hole seismic imaging. Final report, September 15, 1989--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.M.; Matarese, J.R.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1995-07-01

    Better characterization of reservoirs requires better images of those reservoirs. This report documents the research undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) to improve seismic tomographic images. In addition, the new imaging method was applied to a data set collected in a producing oil field. The method developed is nonlinear travel time tomography. This technique uses the travel time of the first arriving energy at a receiver and distributes that time back along realistic ray paths. This is an important distinction between this method and previous methods that used either straight ray paths from source to receiver or fixed ray paths (ray paths fixed by an a priori model). The nonlinearity arises during each iteration in the matching of observed travel times with those determined from a model. In this technique the model is updated during each iteration (the velocity structure is changed) and new ray paths are computed in that update model. Thus the resulting image is based on physically realistic ray paths. Tomography resolution is not merely a simple function of the wavelength of the seismic energy used but also involves a measure of how well a given region has been sampled by ray paths. Moreover, the ray paths must represent a wide variation in inclination as they pass through a given spatial cell. This imaging technique was applied to a compressional wave data set collected at ERL`s Michigan Test Site located in the Northern Reef Trend of MI. It consists of two deep boreholes that straddle a producing reef. Two hundred source positions and two hundred receiver positions were used to obtain 40,000 ray paths. Although ERL`s boreholes are 2,000 ft apart, kilohertz data was obtained. The resulting image of the reservoir showed a low velocity zone inside the reef and a thin layer of low velocity that intersected one of the boreholes. The presence of this thin layer was confirmed by logs and borehole engineering.

  19. Experimental characterization of fluid film effects in various steam generator tube support geometries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Fluid film characteristics inside cylindrical steam generator tube support holes and near anti-vibration bar supports were determined experimentally. Test results were evaluated and empirical formulations were developed which adequately represent the observed fluid film phenomena. The empirical formulations are suited for incorporation into the ABAQUS computer code which has been developed by Foster Wheeler for EPRI for prediction of the dynamic behavior and work rates of vibrating steam generator tubes with non-linear support characteristics. A short rigid tube was cycled sinusoidally inside special, instrumented tube support samples. Alignment features enabled accurate positioning of the tube, thereby producing either non-contact or impact conditions with known excitation frequency, tube orbit, and amplitude. The complement of measurements consisted of the instantaneous values for tube motion, tube velocity, tube acceleration, contact condition, and the force exchange between tube and support. These measurements were digitized with high sampling rates and subsequently tabulated and graphed. Review of various 2-D and 3-D collages for a water environment at ambient revealed that the fluid film reaction forces, for reasonably large gaps between tube and support, are primarily dependent on tube acceleration, and to a lesser extent on tube velocity. For smooth cylindrical support surfaces there also exists a strong squeeze film effect for small gaps up to impact, and a suction effect during rebound. The squeeze film effect was found to be dependent on the instantaneous gap and tube velocity values. As influenced by the fluid viscosity, the dependency of the fluid reaction force on tube acceleration and on tube velocity was found to vary and was characterized in the experiments for one support clearance condition.

  20. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  1. Final Technical Report for "Feature Extraction, Characterization, and Visualization for Protein Interaction via Geometric and Topological Methods"

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yusu

    2013-03-25

    Shape analysis plays an important role in many applications. In particular, in molecular biology, analyzing molecular shapes is essential to the fundamental problem of understanding how molecules interact. This project aims at developing efficient and effective algorithms to characterize and analyze molecular structures using geometric and topological methods. Two main components of this project are (1) developing novel molecular shape descriptors; and (2) identifying and representing meaningful features based on those descriptors. The project also produces accompanying (visualization) software. Results from this project (09/2006-10/2009) include the following publications. We have also set up web-servers for the software developed in this period, so that our new methods are accessible to a broader scientific community. The web sites are given below as well. In this final technical report, we first list publications and software resulted from this project. We then briefly explain the research conducted and main accomplishments during the period of this project.

  2. Using Phenomenological Models to Characterize Transmissibility and Forecast Patterns and Final Burden of Zika Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Pell, Bruce; Tariq, Amna; Dahal, Sushma; Moghadas, Seyed; Smirnova, Alexandra; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. ZIKV disease in humans is characterized by a “dengue-like” syndrome including febrile illness and rash. However, ZIKV infection in early pregnancy has been associated with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and other developmental issues. Mechanistic models of disease transmission can be used to forecast trajectories and likely disease burden but are currently hampered by substantial uncertainty on the epidemiology of the disease (e.g., the role of asymptomatic transmission, generation interval, incubation period, and key drivers). When insight is limited, phenomenological models provide a starting point for estimation of key transmission parameters, such as the reproduction number, and forecasts of epidemic impact. Methods: We obtained daily counts of suspected Zika cases by date of symptoms onset from the Secretary of Health of Antioquia, Colombia during January-April 2016. We calibrated the generalized Richards model, a phenomenological model that accommodates a variety of early exponential and sub-exponential growth kinetics, against the early epidemic trajectory and generated predictions of epidemic size. The reproduction number was estimated by applying the renewal equation to incident cases simulated from the fitted generalized-growth model and assuming gamma or exponentially-distributed generation intervals derived from the literature. We estimated the reproduction number for an increasing duration of the epidemic growth phase. Results: The reproduction number rapidly declined from 10.3 (95% CI: 8.3, 12.4) in the first disease generation to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) in the second disease generation, assuming a gamma-distributed generation interval with the mean of 14 days and standard deviation of 2 days. The generalized-Richards model outperformed the logistic growth

  3. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project. Fiscal Year 2014 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Slonecker, Bruce D.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2015-03-15

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium–molybdenum (LEU-Mo) fuel plate samples and perform analysis in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. The primary research scope was to determine the thermo-physical properties as a function of temperature and burnup. Work conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 complemented measurements performed in FY 2013 on four additional irradiated LEU-Mo fuel plate samples. Specifically, the work in FY 2014 investigated the influence of different processing methods on thermal property behavior, the absence of aluminum alloy cladding on thermal property behavior for additional model validation, and the influence of higher operating surface heat flux / more aggressive irradiation conditions on thermal property behavior. The model developed in FY 2013 and refined in FY 2014 to extract thermal properties of the U-Mo alloy from the measurements conducted on an integral fuel plate sample (i.e., U-Mo alloy with a thin Zr coating and clad in AA6061) continues to perform very well. Measurements conducted in FY 2014 on samples irradiated under similar conditions compare well to measurements performed in FY 2013. In general, there is no gross influence of fabrication method on thermal property behavior, although the difference in LEU-Mo foil microstructure does have a noticeable influence on recrystallization of grains during irradiation. Samples irradiated under more aggressive irradiation conditions, e.g., higher surface heat flux, revealed lower thermal conductivity when compared to samples irradiated at moderate surface heat fluxes, with the exception of one sample. This report documents thermal

  4. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-105 for evaporator campaign 97-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1997-01-20

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-105 (hereafter referred to as AP-105) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the 222-S Laboratory as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4, and Engineering Change Notice, number 635332, Reference 5. This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report as described in Reference 1. This data package is also a follow-up to the 45-Day safety screen results for tank AP-105, Reference 8, which was issued on November 5, 1996, and is attached as Section II to this report. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance P1an, References 6 and 7. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation.

  5. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    PEEK is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area. • A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. • Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. • Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  6. Final Phase I-Phase II interim report : expedited site characterization, Morrill, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2005-10-20

    fumigants at the facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an environmental site investigation at Morrill. The investigation at Morrill is being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The primary goals of this investigation were (1) to verify any association of carbon tetrachloride with the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) to verify the contaminant migration pathway from the former facility; and (3) to identify any domestic wells located outside the Morrill city limits that are downgradient from and within 1 mi of the former CCC/USDA facility and thus are potential receptors of groundwater contamination.

  7. Characterization of pore evolution in ceramics during creep failure and densification. Final report, April 15, 1984--April 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.A.; Chan, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    This research program was divided into two phases, one involving creep cavitation, the other cavity evolution during sintering. In the former, work was aimed at determining the effect of microstructure and stress state upon creep cavitation, while in the latter, the principal objective was the characterization of pore evolution during sintering. In order to meet these objectives, the creep cavitation portion of the program was centered around small-angle neutron scattering, supplemented by electron microscopy and precision density measurements. The neutron scattering measurements yielded cavity nucleation and growth rates, and average pore, size, distribution, and morphology. These data were used to evaluate current cavitation models, and to implement improved modelling efforts. Additionally, stereoimaging analysis was used to determine grain boundary sliding displacements, which appear to be the critical driving force responsible for cavity nucleation and early growth. Effort in the pore sintering phase focussed on characterization of pore evolution during intermediate and final stage sintering of alumina using both single and multiple scattering techniques. Electron microscopy, density measurements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements complemented the scattering results. The effects of sintering trajectory, green state, powder morphology, and additives were evaluated. These results were compared to current sintering models.

  8. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    geometrical and slip-rate parameters, including full uncertainty distributions, and a set of logic trees that define alternative source characterizations, particularly for sets of fault systems having inter-dependent geometries and kinematics resulting from potential intersection and interaction in the sub-surface. All of these products exist in a form suitable for input to earthquake likelihood and seismic hazard analyses. In addition, moment-balanced Poissonian earthquake rates for the alternative multi-segment characterizations of each fault system have been estimated. Finally, this work has served an important integrative function in that the exchange and debate of data, results and ideas that it has engendered has helped to focus SCEC research over the past six years on to key issues in tectonic deformation and faulting.

  9. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3)

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Xander M.; Lawrence, Roger; Thijssen, Victor L.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A.; Troost, Ran; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Lefeber, Dirk J.; van Delft, Floris L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, and alterations in their amount and structure have been associated with diseases such as cancer. In this study, we probed 11 sugar analogs for their capacity to interfere with GAG biosynthesis. One analog, with a modification not directly involved in the glycosidic bond formation, 6F-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) (Ac3), was selected for further study on its metabolic and biologic effect. Treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with 50 μM 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) inhibited biosynthesis of GAGs (chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by ∼50–60%, heparan sulfate by ∼35%), N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)/GalNAc containing glycans recognized by the lectins Datura stramonium and peanut agglutinin (by ∼74 and ∼43%, respectively), and O-GlcNAc protein modification. With respect to function, 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) treatment inhibited growth factor signaling and reduced in vivo angiogenesis by ∼33%. Although the analog was readily transformed in cells into the uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP)-activated form, it was not incorporated into GAGs. Rather, it strongly reduced cellular UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcNAc pools. Together with data from the literature, these findings indicate that nucleotide sugar depletion without incorporation is a common mechanism of sugar analogs for inhibiting GAG/glycan biosynthesis.—Van Wijk, X. M., Lawrence, R., Thijssen, V. L., van den Broek, S. A., Troost, R., van Scherpenzeel, M., Naidu, N., Oosterhof, A., Griffioen, A. W., Lefeber, D. J., van Delft, F. L., van Kuppevelt, T. H. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3). PMID:25868729

  10. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3).

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Xander M; Lawrence, Roger; Thijssen, Victor L; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A; Troost, Ran; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; Griffioen, Arjan W; Lefeber, Dirk J; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2015-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, and alterations in their amount and structure have been associated with diseases such as cancer. In this study, we probed 11 sugar analogs for their capacity to interfere with GAG biosynthesis. One analog, with a modification not directly involved in the glycosidic bond formation, 6F-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) (Ac3), was selected for further study on its metabolic and biologic effect. Treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with 50 μM 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) inhibited biosynthesis of GAGs (chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by ∼50-60%, heparan sulfate by ∼35%), N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)/GalNAc containing glycans recognized by the lectins Datura stramonium and peanut agglutinin (by ∼74 and ∼43%, respectively), and O-GlcNAc protein modification. With respect to function, 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) treatment inhibited growth factor signaling and reduced in vivo angiogenesis by ∼33%. Although the analog was readily transformed in cells into the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-activated form, it was not incorporated into GAGs. Rather, it strongly reduced cellular UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcNAc pools. Together with data from the literature, these findings indicate that nucleotide sugar depletion without incorporation is a common mechanism of sugar analogs for inhibiting GAG/glycan biosynthesis.

  11. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3).

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Xander M; Lawrence, Roger; Thijssen, Victor L; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A; Troost, Ran; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; Griffioen, Arjan W; Lefeber, Dirk J; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2015-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, and alterations in their amount and structure have been associated with diseases such as cancer. In this study, we probed 11 sugar analogs for their capacity to interfere with GAG biosynthesis. One analog, with a modification not directly involved in the glycosidic bond formation, 6F-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) (Ac3), was selected for further study on its metabolic and biologic effect. Treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with 50 μM 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) inhibited biosynthesis of GAGs (chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by ∼50-60%, heparan sulfate by ∼35%), N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)/GalNAc containing glycans recognized by the lectins Datura stramonium and peanut agglutinin (by ∼74 and ∼43%, respectively), and O-GlcNAc protein modification. With respect to function, 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) treatment inhibited growth factor signaling and reduced in vivo angiogenesis by ∼33%. Although the analog was readily transformed in cells into the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-activated form, it was not incorporated into GAGs. Rather, it strongly reduced cellular UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcNAc pools. Together with data from the literature, these findings indicate that nucleotide sugar depletion without incorporation is a common mechanism of sugar analogs for inhibiting GAG/glycan biosynthesis. PMID:25868729

  12. Characterization of a flavoprotein oxidase from opium poppy catalyzing the final steps in sanguinarine and papaverine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J J; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-12-14

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The K(m) values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism.

  13. Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  14. Spectroscopic and DFT Investigation of [M{HB(3,5-iPr2pz)3}(SC6F5)] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) Model Complexes: Periodic Trends in Metal-thiolate Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Gorelsky, Serge I.; Basumallick, Lipika; Vura-Weis, Josh; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    A series of metal-varied model complexes [ML(SC6F5)] (where L = hydrotris(3,5-diisopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate and M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) related to blue copper proteins has been studied by the combination of absorption, MCD, resonance Raman, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Density functional calculations have been used to characterize these complexes and calculate their spectra. The observed variations in geometry, spectra, and bond energies are interpreted in terms of changes in the nature of metal-ligand bonding interactions. The metal 3d-ligand orbital interaction, which contributes to the covalent bonding in these complexes, becomes stronger in going from Mn(II) to Co(II) (the σ contribution) and to Cu(II) (the π contribution). This change in the covalency results from the increased effective nuclear charge of the metal atom in going from Mn(II) to Zn(II) and the change in the 3d orbital populations (d5→d10). Ionic bonding also plays an important role in determining the overall strength of the ML+-SC6F5− interaction. However, there is a compensating effect: as the covalent contribution to the metal-ligand bonding increases, the ionic contribution decreases. These results provide insight into the Irving-Williams series, where it is found that the bonding of the ligand being replaced by the thiolate makes a major contribution to the observed order of stability constants over the series of metal ions. PMID:15998022

  15. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012). The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8

  16. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  17. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (HMSD1111, LB4301_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C14H30 Tetradecane (HMSD1111, LB4301_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used.

  19. Mutation of Phe318 within the NPxxY(x)(5,6)F motif in melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 results in an efficient signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Akie; Horikawa, Manabu; Saho, Tomoko; Saito, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays an important role in feeding by coupling to Gα(q)- and Gα(i)-mediated signal transduction pathways. To interrogate the molecular basis for MCHR1 activation, we analyzed the effect of a series of site-directed mutations on rat MCHR1 function. In the highly conserved NPxxY(x)(5,6)F domain of GPCRs, the phenylalanine residue is involved in structural constraints; replacement with alanine generally leads to impaired/lost GPCR function. However, Phe-to-Ala (F318A) mutation in MCHR1 had no significant effect on the level of cell surface expression and receptor signaling. By analyzing a further series of mutants, we found that Phe-to-Lys substitution (F318K) caused the most significant reduction in the EC(50) value of MCH for calcium mobilization without affecting receptor expression at the cell surface. Interestingly, GTPγS-binding, which monitors Gα(i) activation, was not modulated by F318K. Our results, combined with computer modeling, provide new insight into the role of Phe in the NPxxY(x)(5,6)F motif as a structurally critical site for receptor dynamics and a determinant of Gα protein interaction.

  20. VUV spectroscopy of complex fluoride systems Na0.4(Y1-xREx)0.6F2.2 (RE3+ = Nd3+, Tm3+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, V. N.; Uvarova, T. V.; Kirm, M.; Vielhauer, S.

    2016-05-01

    Emission and excitation spectra as well as luminescence decay kinetics of complex non-stoichiometric fluoride crystals Na0.4(Y1-xNdx)0.6F2.2 (x = 0.005, 0.05, 0.2, 1) and Na0.4(Y1-xTmx)0.6F2.2 (x = 0.0005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1) have been studied in the VUV spectral range at liquid-helium (T ∼ 10 K) temperatures. It has been shown that these crystals show intense broad-band VUV luminescence due to the interconfiguration 5d-4f transitions in Nd3+ and Tm3+ ions. Remarkable concentration quenching is observed for Nd3+ 5d-4f luminescence whereas fast (spin-allowed) 5d-4f luminescence of Tm3+ shows no concentration quenching for the studied doping level up to 10%. The spin-allowed 5d-4f luminescence of Tm3+ in these crystals was found to be rather weak compared to spin-forbidden 5d-4f luminescence because of efficient nonradiative relaxation from higher-energy 5d states of Tm3+ to the lowest-energy 5d level responsible for spin-forbidden 5d-4f luminescence. The studied fluoride systems can be considered as promising active media for the development of VUV solid state lasers with optical pumping.

  1. A molecule in teleost fish, related with human MHC-encoded G6F, has a cytoplasmic tail with ITAM and marks the surface of thrombocytes and in some fishes also of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ken; Takizawa, Fumio; Tokumaru, Norihiro; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Toda, Hideaki; Fischer, Uwe; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus

    2010-08-01

    In teleost fish, a novel gene G6F-like was identified, encoding a type I transmembrane molecule with four extracellular Ig-like domains and a cytoplasmic tail with putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs including YxN and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). G6F-like maps to a teleost genomic region where stretches corresponding to human chromosomes 6p (with the MHC), 12p (with CD4 and LAG-3), and 19q are tightly linked. This genomic organization resembles the ancestral "Ur-MHC" proposed for the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The deduced G6F-like molecule shows sequence similarity with members of the CD4/LAG-3 family and with the human major histocompatibility complex-encoded thrombocyte marker G6F. Despite some differences in molecular organization, teleost G6F-like and tetrapod G6F seem orthologous as they map to similar genomic location, share typical motifs in transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions, and are both expressed by thrombocytes/platelets. In the crucian carps goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii), G6F-like was found expressed not only by thrombocytes but also by erythrocytes, supporting that erythroid and thromboid cells in teleost fish form a hematopoietic lineage like they do in mammals. The ITAM-bearing of G6F-like suggests that the molecule plays an important role in cell activation, and G6F-like expression by erythrocytes suggests that these cells have functional overlap potential with thrombocytes.

  2. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  3. Synthesis and reactivity of (C6F5)3B-N-heterocycle complexes. 1. Generation of highly acidic sp3 carbons in pyrroles and indoles.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Simona; Camurati, Isabella; Focante, Francesca; Angellini, Luca; Moscardi, Gilberto; Resconi, Luigi; Leardini, Rino; Nanni, Daniele; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Sironi, Angelo; Beringhelli, Tiziana; Maggioni, Daniela

    2003-07-11

    The reaction of pyrroles and indoles with B(C(6)F(5))(3) and BCl(3) produces 1:1 B-N complexes containing highly acidic sp(3) carbons, for example, N-[tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane]-5H-pyrrole (1) and N-[tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane]-3H-indole (2), that are formed by a new formal N-to-C hydrogen shift, the mechanism of which is discussed. With some derivatives, restricted rotation around the B-N bond and/or the B-C bonds was observed by NMR techniques, and some rotational barriers were calculated from experimental data. The acidity of the sp(3) carbons in these complexes is shown by their ability to protonate NEt(3), with formation of pyrrolyl- and indolyl-borate ammonium salts. The driving force for this reaction is given by the restoration of the aromaticity of the heterocycle. PMID:12839436

  4. The thermodynamics and kinetics of electron transfer between cytochrome b6f and photosystem I in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Johnson, Xenie; Finazzi, Giovanni; Barber, James; Rappaport, Fabrice; Telfer, Alison

    2008-09-12

    We have investigated the photosynthetic properties of Acaryochloris marina, a cyanobacterium distinguished by having a high level of chlorophyll d, which has its absorption bands shifted to the red when compared with chlorophyll a. Despite this unusual pigment content, the overall rate and thermodynamics of the photosynthetic electron flow are similar to those of chlorophyll a-containing species. The midpoint potential of both cytochrome f and the primary electron donor of photosystem I (P(740)) were found to be unchanged with respect to those prevailing in organisms having chlorophyll a, being 345 and 425 mV, respectively. Thus, contrary to previous reports (Hu, Q., Miyashita, H., Iwasaki, I. I., Kurano, N., Miyachi, S., Iwaki, M., and Itoh, S. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 13319-13323), the midpoint potential of the electron donor P(740) has not been tuned to compensate for the decrease in excitonic energy in A. marina and to maintain the reducing power of photosystem I. We argue that this is a weaker constraint on the engineering of the oxygenic photosynthetic electron transfer chain than preserving the driving force for plastoquinol oxidation by P(740), via the cytochrome b(6)f complex. We further show that there is no restriction in the diffusion of the soluble electron carrier between cytochrome b(6)f and photosystem I in A. marina, at variance with plants. This difference probably reflects the simplified ultrastructure of the thylakoids of this organism, where no segregation into grana and stroma lamellae is observed. Nevertheless, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements suggest that there is energy transfer between adjacent photosystem II complexes but not from photosystem II to photosystem I, indicating spatial separation between the two photosystems. PMID:18635535

  5. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, Brandon M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  6. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-09-17

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today’s technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  7. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Electrical Characterization of Printed Nanocrystalline Silicon Films, Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00241

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    2011-05-01

    This CRADA helped Innovalight characterize and quantify their ink-based selective emitter technology. Controlled localized doping of selective emitter structures via Innovalight Silicon Ink technology was demonstrated. Both secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning capacitance microscopy revealed; abrupt lateral dopant profiles at ink-printed boundaries. Uniform doping of iso- and pyramidal surfaces was also verified using scanning electron microscopy dopant contrast imaging.

  9. Final Characterization Report for Corrective Action Unit 109: Area 2 U-2BU Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 109, Area 2 U-2bu Crater, is an inactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Permit disposal unit located in Area 2 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit has been characterized under the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265 (CFR, 1996). The site characterization was performed under the RCRA Part A Permit Characterization Plan for the U-2bu Subsidence Crater (DOE/NV, 1998c), as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (Liebendorfer, 1998). The primary objective of the site characterization activities was to evaluate the presence, concentration, and extent of any Resource Conservation and Recovery Act contaminants in the crater. Surface soil samples were collected on April 22, 1998, and subsurface soil samples and geotechnical samples were collected from April 27-29, 1998. Soil samples were collected using a hand auger or a piston-type drive hammer to advance a 5-centimeter (2-inch) diameter steel sampling tool into the ground. The permit for the Nevada Test Site requires that Corrective Action Unit 109 be closed under 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265 Subpart G and 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265.310 (CFR, 1996). Analysis of the data collected during the characterization effort indicates that lead was detected in Study Area 1 at 5.7 milligrams per liter, above the regulatory level in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 261.24 of 5.0 milligrams per liter. Except for the lead detection at a single location within the crater, the original Resource Conservation Recovery Act constituents of potential concern determined between the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection during the Data Quality Objectives process (DOE/NV, 1998b) were not found to be present at Corrective Action Unit 109 above regulatory levels of

  10. Characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy in compression and shear: Final report for the period October 1987 to September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.R.; Colvin, G.E. Jr.

    1988-09-27

    This is a final report on a project entitled ''Characterization of IM7/8551-7 Carbon/Epoxy in Compression and Shear,'' for the period October 1987 to September 1988. The intent of this program is to determine the failure properties of carbon/epoxy laminates under multiaxial stress loadings, with particular emphasis on loadings involving compressive stresses. The work accomplished to date is summarized here, in the form of two published papers and a summary of other work. Appendix C contains a summary of the development of the multiaxial compression test fixture. 11 figs.

  11. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  12. Wastewater characterization survey, Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority and hazardous-waste survey at George AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Tetla, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of a survey of the Victor Wastewater Reclamation Authority Sewerage system, the sewage treatment plant, and effluent from the various operations at George AFB, California. The scope of work included the characterization of the wastewater from George AFB, as well as characterization of effluents from 29 oil/water separators servicing industrial operations on base, flow measurements at three locations on base, a microbiological evaluation of aeration basin foam, bench-scale activated-sludge studies, and a review of results from previous surveys. Recommendations: (1) AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) should never be discharged to the sewer. (2) Programming for pretreatment should proceed at selected operations. (3) More waste and wastestream analysis be performed. (4) Upgrade waste accumulation points. (5) Implement an aggressive inspection program for oil/water separators. (6) Cut down on nonessential washing.

  13. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  14. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Nonradiologic characterization and environmental assessment of BRC (Below-Regulatory Concern) waste: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Vogt, D.K.

    1989-02-01

    EPRI is characterizing nonradiologic properties and assessing the environmental impact of candidate BRC waste types in support of a utility rulemaking petition. Recent investigations confirmed that these chemical and physical properties resembled those of conventional wastes and would not preclude disposal by conventional methods. In accordance with the NRC policy statement on below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, petitions to exempt certain wastes from low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal regulations must include an assessment of the waste's nonradiologic properties. Petitions must also assure no significant environmental impact from BRC waste disposal, compatibility of the nonradiologic properties with the intended method of disposal, and negligible potential for recycling. This document characterizes the nonradiologic properties of candidate BRC waste types, as well as the properties of conventional waste and other materials associated with BRC waste disposal, and performs an environmental impact assessment of BRC waste disposal options.

  15. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The biological communities off North Carolina were poorly known, and prior to any drilling activities, a limited regional data base was required. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa both in terms of density, numbers of species, and biomass. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  16. Remote sensing data exploiration for geologic characterization of difficult targets : Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 38703 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Laurence S.; Walker, Charles A.; Lappin, Allen R.; Hayat, Majeed M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ford, Bridget K.; Paskaleva, Biliana (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Stormont, John C.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2003-09-01

    Characterizing the geology, geotechnical aspects, and rock properties of deep underground facility sites can enhance targeting strategies for both nuclear and conventional weapons. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the utility of remote spectral sensing for augmenting the geological and geotechnical information provided by traditional methods. The project primarily considered novel exploitation methods for space-based sensors, which allow clandestine collection of data from denied sites. The investigation focused on developing and applying novel data analysis methods to estimate geologic and geotechnical characteristics in the vicinity of deep underground facilities. Two such methods, one for measuring thermal rock properties and one for classifying rock types, were explored in detail. Several other data exploitation techniques, developed under other projects, were also examined for their potential utility in geologic characterization.

  17. High-speed microprocessor characterization. Final report/project accomplishments summary, CRADA Number KCP-94-1004

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.W.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the project was to characterize and document the critical operating parameters of an 0.8-micron, 350-MHz, 32-bit microprocessor prototype. The roles of FM and T and the participant company were: FM and T -- evaluation performance of the prototype 32-bit microprocessor using the IDS5000 and Tektronix S3260 Integrated Circuit Test System; Corda -- design and build the prototype microprocessor. This project was terminated with nearly all of the planned activities unaddressed.

  18. Characterization of propagation and communication properties of the natural and artificially disturbed ionosphere. Final report, September 1990-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Sales, G.S.; Brent, R.; Ostergaard, J.; Huang, Y.

    1995-05-01

    This basic research project, conducted during the period starting 12 September 1990 and ending 12 December 1994, studied the effects of natural and artificial ionospheric disturbances on HF and VHF propagation and communication. This project was reasonably divided into two parts where each stood by itself; VHF meteor scatter investigation and HF ionospheric modification studies. In addition to these two studies, a third study was later added to the project to include a Joint Electromagnetic Warfare Center (JEWC) electromagnetic wave propagation and signal loss study. Each of these studies are addressed independently within this final report.

  19. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  20. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-12-31

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  1. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  2. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  3. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  4. Low symmetry in molecules with heavy peripheral atoms. The gas-phase structure of perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), C6F11CF3.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Graeme R; Masters, Sarah L; Wann, Derek A; Robertson, Heather E; Rankin, David W H

    2010-10-21

    When refining structures using gas electron diffraction (GED) data, assumptions are often made in order to reduce the number of required geometrical parameters. Where these relate to light, peripheral atoms there is little effect on the refined heavy-atom structure, which is well defined by the GED data. However, this is not the case when heavier atoms are involved. We have determined the gas-phase structure of perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), C(6)F(11)CF(3), using three different refinement methods and have shown that our new method, which makes use of both MP2 and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations to restrain the peripheral-atom geometry, gives a realistic structure without the need for damaging constraints. Only the conformer with the CF(3) group in an equatorial position was considered, as ab initio calculations showed this to be 25 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the axial conformer. Refinements combining both high-level and low-level calculations to give constraints were superior both to those based only on molecular mechanics and to those in which assumptions about the geometry were imposed.

  5. The Rieske Fe/S protein of the cytochrome b6/f complex in chloroplasts: missing link in the evolution of protein transport pathways in chloroplasts?

    PubMed

    Molik, S; Karnauchov, I; Weidlich, C; Herrmann, R G; Klösgen, R B

    2001-11-16

    The Rieske Fe/S protein, a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex in chloroplasts, is retarded in the stromal space after import into the chloroplast and only slowly translocated further into the thylakoid membrane system. As shown by the sensitivity to nigericin and to specific competitor proteins, thylakoid transport takes place by the DeltapH-dependent TAT pathway. The Rieske protein is an untypical TAT substrate, however. It is only the second integral membrane protein shown to utilize this pathway, and it is the first authentic substrate without a cleavable signal peptide. Transport is instead mediated by the NH(2)-terminal membrane anchor, which lacks, however, the twin-arginine motif indicative of DeltapH/TAT-dependent transport signals. Furthermore, transport is affected by sodium azide as well as by competitor proteins for the Sec pathway in chloroplasts, demonstrating for the first time some cross-talk of the two pathways. This might take place in the stroma where the Rieske protein accumulates after import in several complexes of high molecular mass, among which the cpn60 complex is the most prominent. These untypical features suggest that the Rieske protein represents an intermediate or early state in the evolution of the thylakoidal protein transport pathways. PMID:11526115

  6. Sequence homology and structural similarity between cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex III and the chloroplast b6-f complex: position of the cytochrome b hemes in the membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Widger, W R; Cramer, W A; Herrmann, R G; Trebst, A

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of cytochrome b of complex III from five different mitochondrial sources (human, bovine, mouse, yeast, and Aspergillus nidulans) and the chloroplast cytochrome b6 from spinach show a high degree of homology. Calculation of the distribution of hydrophobic residues with a "hydropathy" function that is conserved in this family of proteins implies that the membrane-folding pattern of the 42-kilodalton (kDa) mitochondrial cytochromes involves 8-9 membrane-spanning domains. The smaller 23-kDa chloroplast cytochrome appears to fold in five spanning domains that are similar to the first five of the mitochondria. Four highly conserved histidines are considered to be the likely ligands for the two hemes. The positions of the histidines along the spanning segments and in a cross section of the membrane-spanning alpha helices implies that two ligand pairs, His-82-His-197/198 and His-96-His-183, bridge the spanning peptides II and V, and the two hemes reside on opposite sides of the hydrophobic membrane core. In addition, the 17-kDa protein of the chloroplast b6-f complex appears to contain one or more of the functions of the COOH-terminal end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b polypeptide. PMID:6322162

  7. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  8. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  9. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1993-09-30

    This project addressed two main goals and one much smaller one. The main goals were (1) to improve the significance, reliability and information content in high-resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization of coal samples and (2) to develop chemically informative NMR imaging techniques for coal. The minor goal was to explore advanced features of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) as a technique for coal characterization; this included the development of two DNP probes and the examination of DNP characteristics of various carbonaceous samples, including coals. {sup 13}C NMR advances for coal depended on large-sample MAS devices, employing either cross-polarization (CP) or direct polarization (DP) approaches. CP and DP spin dynamics and their relationships to quantitation and spin counting were elucidated. {sup 1}H NMR studies, based on CRAMPS, dipolar dephasing and saturation with perdeuteropyridine, led to a {sup 1}H NMR-based elucidation of chemical functionality in coal. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR imaging techniques, based on magic-angle spinning and rotating magnetic field gradients, were developed for introducing chemical shift information (hence, chemical detail) into the spatial imaging of coal. The TREV multiple-pulse sequence was found to be useful in the {sup 1}H CRAMPS imaging of samples like coal.

  10. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Composite Materials. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. ED36-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, D. C.; Huff, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to: (1) provide a concise and well-defined property profile of current and developing composite materials using thermal and chemical characterization techniques and (2) optimize analytical testing requirements of materials. This effort applied a diverse array of methodologies to ascertain composite material properties. Often, a single method of technique will provide useful, but nonetheless incomplete, information on material composition and/or behavior. To more completely understand and predict material properties, a broad-based analytical approach is required. By developing a database of information comprised of both thermal and chemical properties, material behavior under varying conditions may be better understood. THis is even more important in the aerospace community, where new composite materials and those in the development stage have little reference data. For example, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectral databases available for identification of vapor phase spectra, such as those generated during experiments, generally refer to well-defined chemical compounds. Because this method renders a unique thermal decomposition spectral pattern, even larger, more diverse databases, such as those found in solid and liquid phase FTIR spectroscopy libraries, cannot be used. By combining this and other available methodologies, a database specifically for new materials and materials being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center can be generated . In addition, characterizing materials using this approach will be extremely useful in the verification of materials and identification of anomalies in NASA-wide investigations.

  11. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  12. Technical approaches to characterizing and cleaning up iron and steel mill sites under the brownfields initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    EPA has developed this guide to provide decision-makers, such as city planners, private sector developers, and other involved in redeveloping brownfields, with a better understanding of the technical issues involved in assessing and cleaning up iron and steel mill sites so they can make the most informed decisions possible. This overview of the technical process involved in assessing and cleaning up brownfields sites can assist planners in making decisions at various stages of the project. An understanding of land use and industrial processes conducted in the past at a site can help the planner to conceptualize the site and identify likely areas of contamination that may require cleanup. Numerous resources are suggested to facilitate characterization of the site and consideration of cleanup technologies.

  13. Performance analysis and characterization of the Lumonics Inc. HyperDYE-300 laser-pumped dye laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.S.; Davenport, W.E.; Ehrlich, J.J.

    1990-07-11

    The laser analyzed in this research, the Lumonics, Inc. HyperDYE-300 laser pumped dye laser, was procured via the FSTC D650 Program and was characterized in order to support the technology development of that program. The dye laser was pumped with a Neodymium:YAG q-switched laser and it utilized Rhodamine-6G in methanol. It was found to be tunable from about 545 nm to 590 nm and produced a maximum ouput energy of 56 percent of the pump beam energy. The analysis involved the measuring of optimum dye/solvent concentration, output energy versus tunability, optical efficiency versus tunability, temporal and spatial profiles, beam divergence, linewidth, and amplified spontaneous emission versus laser emission.

  14. Electroseismic characterization of lithology and fluid type in the shallow subsurface. Final report, January 15, 1995--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haartsen, M.W.; Mikhailov, O.V.; Queen, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy funded the M.I.T. Earth Resources Laboratory to investigate electroseismic phenomena. Because electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media provide geophysicists with a unique opportunity to detect a seismic-wave-generated flow of pore fluid with respect to the porous matrix. The term {open_quotes}electroseismic{close_quotes} describes phenomena in which a seismic wave induces an electrical field or causes radiation of an electromagnetic wave. Electroseismic phenomena take place in fluid-saturated porous rocks, because the pore fluid carries an excess electrical charge. When the charged pore fluid is forced to flow through the rock by pressure gradients within a seismic wave, a streaming electrical current is generated. This electrical current results in charge separation, which induces an electrical field. Measuring this seismic-wave-induced electrical field allows detection of the fluid flow generated by the wave in the porous medium. In turn, detecting the fluid flow allows characterization of fluid transport properties of the medium. The major contribution of our research is in the following three areas: (1) Theory. Theoretical models of various electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media were developed. Numerical algorithms were developed for modeling electroseismic measurements in surface (Paper 1 in this report) and VSP (Paper 2) geometries. A closed-form analytical expression was obtained for the logging geometry (Paper 8). The major result is the theoretical models` prediction that porosity, permeability, and fluid chemistry can be characterized using electroseismic measurements; (2) Laboratory Experiments. A number of laboratory experiments were performed in surface (Paper 4), VSP (Paper 4), and logging (Paper 5) geometries. In addition, conversion of electrical energy into seismic energy was investigated (Paper 6), and (3) Field Measurements.

  15. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  16. Background Characterization and Discrimination in the Final Analysis of the CDMS II Phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, Matthew C.

    2011-02-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is designed to detectWeakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the Milky Way halo. The phase known as CDMS II was performed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The final set of CDMS II data, collected in 2007-8 and referred to as Runs 125-8, represents the largest exposure to date for the experiment. We seek collisions between WIMPs and atomic nuclei in disk-shaped germanium and silicon detectors. A key design feature is to keep the rate of collisions from known particles producing WIMP-like signals very small. The largest category of such background is interactions with electrons in the detectors that occur very close to one of the faces of the detector. The next largest category is collisions between energetic neutrons that bypass the experimental shielding and nuclei in the detectors. Analytical efforts to discriminate these backgrounds and to estimate the rate at which such discrimination fails have been refined and improved throughout each phase of CDMS. Next-generation detectors for future phases of CDMS require testing at cryogenic test facilities. One such facility was developed at the University of Minnesota in 2007 and has been used continuously since then to test detectors for the next phase of the experiment, known as SuperCDMS.

  17. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    . There was overall excellent agreement between participants in the identification and the quantification of the total and individual related structure impurities, water content, residual solvent and total non-volatile content of the sample. Appropriate technical justifications were developed to rationalise observed discrepancies in the limited cases where methodology differences led to inconsistent results. The comparison demonstrated that to perform a qNMR purity assignment the selection of appropriate parameters and an understanding of their potential influence on the assigned value is critical for reliable implementation of the method, particularly when one or more of the peaks to be quantified consist of complex multiplet signals. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Cloud and aerosol characterization for the ARM central facility: Multiple remote sensor techniques development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.

    1993-11-01

    In support of the initial phase of the Instrument Development Program (IDP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, the authors have researched the means by which multiple remote sensing techniques could be best applied to characterizing the cloudy atmosphere. This research has directly supported the short-term goal of aiding in the selection of the most appropriate instrumentation for ARM Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, but also has more long-term consequences for the application of remote sensing for measuring cloud properties of crucial concern to general circulation and climate models. To accomplish the goals they have (1) developed a mobile, state-of-the-art, scanning polarization diversity lidar (PDL) to test a variety of techniques for cloud remote sensing, including simultaneous dual-wavelength and dual-polarization, and high-speed variable field-of-view operations; (2) successfully participated in field projects using the PDL along with other remote sensors and instrumented aircraft to obtain detailed datasets for the testing of instrument techniques; (3) in collaboration with researchers at the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, used numerical cloud modeling and empirical studies to develop and refine remote sensing approaches for cloud property retrieval.

  19. Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Advanced Materials and PV Devices: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2001--31 January 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P. C.

    2005-11-01

    The major objectives of this subcontract have been: (1) understand the microscopic properties of the defects that contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect to eliminate this effect, (2) perform correlated studies on films and devices made by novel techniques, especially those with promise to improve stability or deposition rates, (3) understand the structural, electronic, and optical properties of films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) made on the boundary between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases, (4) search for more stable intrinsic layers of a-Si:H, (5) characterize the important defects, impurities, and metastabilities in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces in a-Si:H films and devices and in important alloy systems, and (6) make state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) devices out of new, advanced materials, when appropriate. All of these goals are highly relevant to improving photovoltaic devices based on a-Si:H and related alloys. With regard to the first objective, we have identified a paired hydrogen site that may be the defect that stabilizes the silicon dangling bonds formed in the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  20. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  1. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  2. Dover AFB characterization/hazardous-waste management survey, Dover AFB, Delaware. Final report, 25 February-31 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Slavich, F.E.

    1986-07-01

    The USAFOEHL conducted an on-site wastewater-characterization survey at Dover AFB, DE from 25 Feb to 7 Mar 86. The survey was designed to establish pretreatment requirements by determining quantities and concentrations of pollutants expected from the industrial operations or develop and evaluate alternate solutions to decrease the discharge of wastewater contaminants. Effluents from industrial and domestic wastewater were analyzed. Kent County DE has imposed stringent pretreatment standards by changing the sampling location from a point where industrial wastewater is combined with considerably more domestic wastewater to a point where only industrial wastewater combines. Effluent limitations of cadmium were exceeded during each of the seven days sampling. Sources of cadmium were found to be metal fabrication, corrosion control, and vehicle-maintenance operations. Recommendations: 1) Clean lift station sumps. 2) Change method of stripping. 3) Install pretreatment operation to remove chromium and cadium from the wastewater prior to discharge into the sanitary sewer. 4) Perform periodic EP Toxicity testing on neutralized battery acid. 5) Repipe vats in building 719 to provide piping dedicated to each vat. 6) Negotiate with a solvent-recovery representative to provide a system for a trial period.

  3. Waste water/storm water characterization survey, Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility, Pennsylvania. Final report, 15-26 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility from 15-26 July 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative data were also collected after a rain event to assess the quality of the water in the storm water holding pond. Sampling of the oil/water separators was also performed and recommendations were made concerning good management practices to implement to maintain the separators. Slight contamination of the wastewater discharged from the Facility was found, indicating the base is using good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial wastes through the sanitary sewer system. Results of the storm water sampling showed that the quality of the water in the holding pond was not greatly impacted by storm water runoff from the industrial areas on the Facility. A recommendation was made to install a pollution control device on the drain at the Bulk Fuels Storage Area. One oil/water separator was found to contain oil that had hazardous waste characteristics. All others had oil that was suitable for energy recovery.

  4. Alkylphenol Xenoestrogens with Varying Carbon Chain Lengths Differentially and Potently Activate Signaling and Functional Responses in GH3/B6/F10 Somatomammotropes

    PubMed Central

    Kochukov, Mikhail Y.; Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Watson, Cheryl S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alkylphenols varying in their side-chain lengths [ethyl-, propyl-, octyl-, and nonylphenol (EP, PP, OP, and NP, respectively)] and bisphenol A (BPA) represent a large group of structurally related xenoestrogens that have endocrine-disruptive effects. Their rapid nongenomic effects that depend on structure for cell signaling and resulting functions are unknown. Objectives We compared nongenomic estrogenic activities of alkylphenols with BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2) in membrane estrogen receptor-α–enriched GH3/B6/F10 pituitary tumor cells. These actions included calcium (Ca) signaling, prolactin (PRL) release, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and cell proliferation. Methods We imaged Ca using fura-2, measured PRL release via radioimmunoassay, detected ERK phosphorylation by fixed cell immunoassay, and estimated cell number using the crystal violet assay. Results All compounds caused increases in Ca oscillation frequency and intracellular Ca volume at 100 fM to 1 nM concentrations, although long-chain alkylphenols were most effective. All estrogens caused rapid PRL release at concentrations as low as 1 fM to 10 pM; the potency of EP, PP, and NP exceeded that of E2. All compounds at 1 nM produced similar increases in ERK phosphorylation, causing rapid peaks at 2.5–5 min, followed by inactivation and additional 60-min peaks (except for BPA). Dose–response patterns of ERK activation at 5 min were similar for E2, BPA, and PP, whereas EP caused larger effects. Only E2 and NP increased cell number. Some rapid estrogenic responses showed correlations with the hydrophobicity of estrogenic molecules; the more hydrophobic OP and NP were superior at Ca and cell proliferation responses, whereas the less hydrophobic EP and PP were better at ERK activations. Conclusions Alkylphenols are potent estrogens in evoking these nongenomic responses contributing to complex functions; their hydrophobicity can largely predict these behaviors. PMID

  5. Final Report U.S. Department of Energy Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data for Site Characterization and Restoration Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Bertete-Aguirre, H.; Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    2000-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to conduct basic research leading to significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of geophysical imaging of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical techniques are commonly used for underground imaging for site characterization and restoration monitoring. in order to improve subsurface imaging, the objective was to develop improved methods for interpreting geophysical data collected in the field, by developing better methods for relating measured geophysical properties, such as seismic velocity and electrical conductivity, to hydrogeology parameters of interest such as porosity, saturation, and soil composition. They met the objectives using an approach that combined laboratory experiments, comparison to available field data, rock physics theories, and modeling, to find relationships between geophysical measurements, hydrogeological parameters and soil composition. The primary accomplishments of this project in the last year (FY99) were that they completed the laboratory measurements of ultrasonic velocities in soils at low pressures and the measurements of complex electrical conductivity in those same soils; they used x-ray computed microtomography to image the microstructure of several soil samples; they used rock physics theories and modeling to relate the geophysical measurements to the microstructure and hydrological properties; they developed a theoretical technique for relating compressional and shear wave velocities to fluid distribution in porous media; they showed how electrical conductivity is related to clay content and microstructure; they developed an inversion algorithm for inferring soil composition given compressional and shear wave velocities and tested the algorithm on synthetic field seismic data; they completed two patent applications; they wrote three journal papers; and they made 15 presentations of their results at eight scientific meetings.

  6. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Radionuclide characterization of potential BRC waste types from nuclear power stations: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Hetzer, D.C.; Wynhoff, N.L.; Raney, P.J.; Forsythe, J.D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hara, K.T.; Strebin, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a detailed radiological characterization and statistical assessment of the measured radionuclide distributions for four candidate ''below regulatory concern'' (BRC) waste types from commercial nuclear power stations. These measurements and statistical evaluations will provide the bases for conducting detailed dose assessments associated with various disposal options for BRC wastes. The four waste types selected were dry active waste (DAW), oil, soil, and secondary side ion exchange resin. The measurement included gamma-spectrometric analyses of 558 total samples, including 102 DAW samples, 231 oil samples, 142 soil samples, and 83 resin samples. Radionuclides usually detected during the gamma spectrometry included /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 58/Co. Frequently, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 125/Sb were detected, especially in wastes from plants which had experienced a relatively high rate of fuel cladding failures. Selected aliquots of the gamma-counted samples were radiochemically analyzed for /sup 14/C, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 63/Ni, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 238/Pu, and /sup 239,240/Pu. The gamma-emitting radionuclides in the BRC wastes, which are the primary contributors to the limiting dose to the general population for BRC waste disposal, were dominated by /sup 60/Co and /sup 137/Cs. The variability in the major gamma-emitting nuclides was assessed as a function of reactor type and waste stream. A similar evaluation was conducted for the difficult-to-measure radionuclides. From these assessments, it was concluded that the variability in radionuclide composition from all waste streams and all plants was sufficiently small to justify the development of a single, conservative radionuclide composition that would be representative of the BRC waste generated at commercial US nuclear power stations.

  7. Detection and Characterization of Chemicals Present in Tank Waste - Final Report - 09/15/1998 - 09/14/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2001-09-14

    DOE has a strong commitment to the efficient and safe remediation of waste (high level radioactive waste, mixed waste, and hazardous waste) present in underground waste storage tanks. Safety issues arise from the presence of organic chemicals and oxidizers and concerns are raised about the flammability, explosivity, and the possible corrosion of storage tanks due to presence of nitrates and nitrites. Knowledge of the physical parameters and chemical and radioactive composition of waste is necessary for effective and safe tank remediation. New and improved characterization and monitoring of waste present in storage tanks is necessary. The overall goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate novel multi-parameter micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors based on Si and SiNx microcantilever (MC) structures that are robust and can be used to simultaneously detect the presence of target chemicals (analytes) in a mixture, radiation emitted from radioactive materials, an d the heat generated by the absorption of photons of specific wavelength by the target analytes. The mechanisms by which adsorption, photophysical, photothermal processes cause stress in MC surfaces are better understood. Methods of applying a wide variety of chemically selective coatings have been developed specifically for miniaturized MC surfaces, and the response characteristic of the cantilever were shown to be altered dramatically and predictably through incorporation of these phases on the surfaces. By addressing sensitivity and liquid matrix issues, the spectroscopic approach promises to provide an essential element of specificity for integrated sensors. We discovered early in these studies that fundamental limitations exist regarding the degree to which adsorption of analytes on smooth surfaces cause stress and this significantly limits chemi-mechanical response. To circumvent this limitation a concerted effort was made to devise and test ways to nanostructure cantilever

  8. Reactive characterization as a probe of the nature of catalytic sites. Final report, April 15, 1988--February 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, A.

    1998-05-01

    The primary goal of the last year of the research program was to create a new type of selective heterogeneous catalyst. The new catalysts were synthesized, their unusual selectivity assessed by a model reaction, and some of the parameters which are important in creating unusual selectivity in these catalysts determined. Near the end of this proposal, considerable excitement was generated by the discovery of high temperature superconductors. It was decided to briefly investigate the activity of some superconductors and related cuprates. This research was done in concert with a project funded by Ford Motor Company. Catalysts were investigated for two reactions useful in pollution control: CO oxidation and NO reduction. In addition, some stoichiometric measurements of the oxygen content of superconductors and related cuprates were made using a TPR apparatus in the lab. In addition, some experiments were done with the objective of preparing novel MO-Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in which the Mo and Pd were in close contact. These catalysts have the potential of replacing much more expensive rhodium containing catalysts which are currently used for emissions control. Progress on the following is described: H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange on transition metals; New method of determining the number of active sites; New method of determining the hydroxyl content of catalysts; H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange on metal oxides; Reactive characterization and atomic isolation of active sites; Site isolated catalysts synthesized by selective poisoning; Catalysts prepared from high temperature superconductors; Mixed metal Pd-Mo catalysts; and Selective reduction of nitric oxide.

  9. Detection and Characterization of Rocks and Rock Size-Frequency Distributions at the Final Four Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Huertas, A.; Kipp, D.; Calef, F.

    Background: Shadows cast from rocks in High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images were used during Phoenix landing site selection to measure the diameter and height of rocks in the northern plains using an automated rock detector algorithm that fits ellipses to the shadows and cylinders to the rocks. Results show that the size-frequency distribution of rocks >1.5 m diameter are fully resolvable in HiRISE images and follow the same exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks distributions at the landing sites. Method: Greater image complexity at prospective Mars Science landing sites required improvements in shadow segmentation, which included 4 blind deconvolution steps to sharpen the rock shadows and sectional image processing. Shadows of non-rocks were removed by fitting model size-frequency distributions to rocks 1.5-2.25 m diameter in 450 m bins, all of which significantly improved the rock detection algorithm. Conclusion: Rock distributions measured from orbit and the ground for the Phoenix landing site follow the same exponential model size-frequency distribution (within 1% rock abundance), further validating accurate extrapolations of rock abundance using HiRISE images. Size-frequency distributions determined in 450 m HiRISE bins matched model distributions and indicates average rock abundances of 5.4±2.6%, 3.9±3.0%, 0.3±1.1% and 3.3±2.7% at the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth final four landing sites, respectively. MSL landing simulations indicate the probability of failure due to landing on a rock higher than the rover belly pan is 0.30%, 0.17%, 0.03% and 0.08% at Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth, respectively. Because these probabilities are less than the engineering requirement of <0.5%, all sites are safe with respect to rocks and rocks were not a factor in landing site selection.

  10. Final Report: DoE SBIR Phase 2 Low-Cost Small Diameter NMR Technologies for In-Situ Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David Oliver

    2010-09-03

    In this Phase 2 SBIR program, Vista Clara successfully developed and field-tested small diameter NNR logging tools for subsurface characterization and monitoring. This effort involved the design and development surface electronics, a winch with 470ft cable, and three interchangeable downhole probes: a 3.5â diameter borehole NMR probe, a 1.67â diameter borehole NMR probe, and a 2.5â diameter NMR probe that can be deployed using a Geoprobe direct push machine. The 3.5â probe was tested extensively over a 6 week period including 4â to 8â boreholes in Washington, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The field test campaign was highly successful. The 1.67â probe was assembled, tested and calibrated in the laboratory. The 2.5â Geoprobe probe is in final assembly and testing at the time of this report. The completed Phase 2 R&D program has resulted in the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes of 4â diameter, the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes on 2â diameter, and the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed by a direct push machine. These small diameter tools make NMR logging technically and economically feasible, for the first time. Previously available NMR logging tools were developed for oilfield applications and are prohibitively large and expensive for the majority of near surface groundwater characterization problems.

  11. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  13. Structure electronic and ionic conductivity study versus Ca content in Ca{sub 10-x}Sr{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} apatites

    SciTech Connect

    Sghir, B.; Hlil, E.K.; Laghzizil, A.; Boujrhal, F.Z.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Fruchart, D.

    2009-07-01

    Substitution effect on the crystallographic structure in Ca{sub 10-x}Sr{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} solid solution are studied by X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinements. Full potential electronic structure calculations based on LCAO (linear combination atomic orbital) are also performed using the obtained crystallographic parameters. DOS modification and the charge transfer are estimated versus the calcium content. According to the complex impedance method, ionic conductivity changes are explained.

  14. Trivalent cation-controlled phase space of new U(IV) fluorides, Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+), Ga(3+), Ti(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)): mild hydrothermal synthesis including an in situ reduction step, structures, optical, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D; Morrison, Gregory; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-02-16

    A series of new, complex U(IV) fluorides, namely, Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+), Ga(3+), Ti(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), and Fe(3+)), containing trivalent transition- and main-group metal cations were synthesized via an in situ reduction step of U(VI) to U(IV). Single crystals of the series were grown in high yield under mild hydrothermal conditions and were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The reported compounds crystallize in the trigonal space group P3̅c1 and exhibit complex crystal structures with a three-dimensional (3-D) framework composed of corner- and edge-shared UF9 polyhedra. The arrangement of U2F16 dimers forms two types of hexagonal channels, where MF6 polyhedra and sodium atoms are located. The most interesting structural feature is the presence of the 3-D framework that can accommodate various transition-metal ions in low oxidation states, indicating that the framework acts as an excellent host. Trivalent transition metal ions, even reduced Ti(3+) and V(3+), were stabilized by both the rigid framework and by our synthetic conditions. Utilizing ionic radii of transition metal ions, a phase boundary was investigated, suggesting that there exists a size limit for the M site in the crystal structure. The valence state of uranium was studied by U 4f X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of U(4+). Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements yielded effective magnetic moments of 3.50 and 3.35 μB for Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+) and Ga(3+)), respectively. For the other compounds, combined effective magnetic moments of 8.93, 9.09, 9.18, and 10.39 μB were obtained for Ti, V, Cr, and Fe members, respectively. In all cases, large negative Weiss constants were observed, which are indicative of the existence of a spin gap in U(4+). Field-dependent magnetic property measurements at 2 K for Na3FeU6F30 demonstrated that U(4+) attains a nonmagnetic singlet ground state at low temperature. Optical and thermal properties were

  15. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    PubMed

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants.

  16. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-104 for 242-A evaporator, campaign 96-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1996-04-19

    This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report. It is a follow-up to the 45-day safety screen report for tank AP-104. Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-104 (hereafter referred to as AP-104) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory, and by the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Laboratory analyses at ACL Laboratory was performed according to the TSAP. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory`s Quality Assurance Plan, References 5 and 6. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation. SAMPLING The TSAP, section 2, provided sampling information for waste samples collected from tank AP-104. The bottle-on-a-string method was used to collect liquid grab samples from the tank. Each glass sample bottle was amber, precleaned, and contained approximately 100 milliliters. Each bottle was closed with a teflon seal cap (or teflon septum for volatile organic analysis samples). Field blank samples were prepared by placing deionized water into sampling bottles, lowering the unclosed bottles into the riser for a period of time, retrieving them from the riser, and then closing the bottles with the same types of caps used for the tank samples. None of the samples were preserved by acidification. Upon receipt, the sample bottles destined for organic analyses were placed in a refrigerator. No attempt was made during sampling to assure the complete

  17. Magnitude and origin of the attraction and directionality of the halogen bonds of the complexes of C6F5X and C6H5X (X = I, Br, Cl and F) with pyridine.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Ono, Taizo; Sonoda, Takaaki

    2012-01-16

    The geometries and interaction energies of complexes of pyridine with C(6)F(5)X, C(6)H(5)X (X = I, Br, Cl, F and H) and R(F)I (R(F) = CF(3), C(2)F(5) and C(3)F(7)) have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The CCSD(T) interaction energies (E(int)) for the C(6)F(5)X-pyridine (X = I, Br, Cl, F and H) complexes at the basis set limit were estimated to be -5.59, -4.06, -2.78, -0.19 and -4.37 kcal  mol(-1) , respectively, whereas the E(int) values for the C(6)H(5)X-pyridine (X = I, Br, Cl and H) complexes were estimated to be -3.27, -2.17, -1.23 and -1.78 kcal  mol(-1), respectively. Electrostatic interactions are the cause of the halogen dependence of the interaction energies and the enhancement of the attraction by the fluorine atoms in C(6)F(5)X. The values of E(int) estimated for the R(F)I-pyridine (R(F) = CF(3), C(2)F(5) and C(3)F(7)) complexes (-5.14, -5.38 and -5.44 kcal  mol(-1), respectively) are close to that for the C(6)F(5)I-pyridine complex. Electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the strong halogen bond although induction and dispersion interactions also contribute to the attraction. Short-range (charge-transfer) interactions do not contribute significantly to the attraction. The magnitude of the directionality of the halogen bond correlates with the magnitude of the attraction. Electrostatic interactions are mainly responsible for the directionality of the halogen bond. The directionality of halogen bonds involving iodine and bromine is high, whereas that of chlorine is low and that of fluorine is negligible. The directionality of the halogen bonds in the C(6)F(5)I- and C(2)F(5)I-pyridine complexes is higher than that in the hydrogen bonds in the water dimer and water-formaldehyde complex. The calculations suggest that the C-I and C-Br halogen bonds play an important role in controlling the structures of molecular assemblies, that the C-Cl bonds play a less important role and that C-F bonds

  18. Ab initio dynamics trajectory study of the heterolytic cleavage of H2 by a Lewis acid [B(C6F5)3] and a Lewis base [P(tBu)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Maoping; Privalov, Timofei

    2013-04-01

    Activation of H2 by a "frustrated Lewis pair" (FLP) composed of B(C6F5)3 and P(tBu)3 species has been explored with high level direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations at finite temperature (T = 300 K) in gas phase. The initial geometrical conditions for the AIMD trajectory calculations, i.e., the near attack conformations of FLP + H2, were devised using the host-guest model in which suitable FLP conformations were obtained from the dynamics of the B(C6F5)3/P(tBu)3 pair in gas phase. AIMD trajectory calculations yielded microscopic insight into effects which originate from nuclear motion in the reacting complex, e.g., the alternating compression/elongation of the boron-phosphorous distance and the change of the pyramidality of boron in B(C6F5)3. The ensemble averaged trajectory analysis has been compared with the minimum energy path (MEP) description of the reaction. Similar to MEP, AIMD shows that an attack of the acid/base pair on the H-H bond gives rise to the polarization of the H2 molecule and as a consequence generates a large dipole moment of the reacting complex. The MEP and AIMD portrayals of the reaction are fundamentally different in terms of the magnitude of the motion of nuclei in B(C6F5)3 and P(tBu)3 during the H2 cleavage. In the AIMD trajectory simulations, geometries of B(C6F5)3 and P(tBu)3 appear as nearly "frozen" on the short time scale of the H2 cleavage. This is contrary to the MEP picture. Several of the concepts which arise from this work, e.g., separation of time scales of nuclear motion and the time-dependence of the donor-acceptor interactions in the reacting complex, are important for the understanding of chemical reactivity and catalysis.

  19. Completing The Characterization Of Stellar Populations In The Galaxy: Final Catalogs Of Unique Galex Uv Sources And Of Milky Way Hot Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first extensive surveys in the Ultraviolet (UV), filling the last gap in our view of the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum. Its legacy is an unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV and near-UV. The UV surveys offer unique sensitivity for identifying and studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, both stellar and extra- galactic, notably hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and QSOs (redshift ≤sssim2.4). In order to examine the overall content and distribution of UV sources over the sky, and to classify them by astrophysical class, we propose to construct final catalogs of UV unique sources with homogeneous quality (eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source, excluding artifacts, adding science flags, etc). Such catalogs will facilitate a variety of science investigations on UV-selected samples by the community, in addition to our own science goal, as well as planning of observations with future instruments. We will build the catalogs (high-level science product) using recipes developed for our early version (Bianchi et al. 2011a) but with expanded tools, science flags, and corollary data, in addition to the much larger area coverage with respect to our early version. To facilitate UV source classification and characterization, we will also match the catalogs of unique UV sources with existing ground-based surveys, adding optical and infrared magnitudes to the two UV GALEX magnitudes, and construct flags to identify sources with multiple matches. These products will allow us (and the community) to extract UV-selected samples for several projects. We will use our catalogs for our own science goal: an unbiased census of Milky Way hot white dwarfs (WD). Hot WDs are elusive at all wavelengths except the UV, given their very high temperatures to which optical colors are insensitive, and low optical luminosity. From our proposed UV catalogs we will be

  20. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile

  1. Magnitude and Directionality of Halogen Bond of Benzene with C6F5X, C6H5X, and CF3X (X = I, Br, Cl, and F).

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Ono, Taizo

    2016-09-01

    Geometries of benzene complexes with C6F5X, C6H5X, and CF3X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) were optimized, and their interaction energies were evaluated. The CCSD(T) interaction energies at the basis set limit (Eint) of C6F5X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) with benzene were -3.24, -2.88, -2.31, and -0.92 kcal mol(-1). Eint of C6H5X (X is I, Br, and Cl) with benzene were -2.31, -1.97, and -1.48 kcal mol(-1). The fluorination of halobenzenes slightly enhances the attraction. Eint of CF3X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) with benzene (-3.11, -2.74, -2.22, and -0.71 kcal mol(-1)) were very close to Eint of corresponding C6F5X with benzene. In contrast to the halogen bond of iodine and bromine with pyridine (n-type halogen bond acceptor) where the main cause of the attraction is the electrostatic interactions, that of halogen bond with benzene (p-type acceptor) is dispersion interaction. In the halogen bonds with p-type acceptors (halogen-π interactions), the electrostatic interactions and induction interactions are small. The overall orbital-orbital interactions are repulsive. The directionality of halogen bonds with p-type acceptors is very weak, owing to the weak electrostatic interactions, in contrast to the strong directionality of the halogen bonds with n-type acceptors and hydrogen bonds. PMID:27525985

  2. Magnitude and Directionality of Halogen Bond of Benzene with C6F5X, C6H5X, and CF3X (X = I, Br, Cl, and F).

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Ono, Taizo

    2016-09-01

    Geometries of benzene complexes with C6F5X, C6H5X, and CF3X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) were optimized, and their interaction energies were evaluated. The CCSD(T) interaction energies at the basis set limit (Eint) of C6F5X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) with benzene were -3.24, -2.88, -2.31, and -0.92 kcal mol(-1). Eint of C6H5X (X is I, Br, and Cl) with benzene were -2.31, -1.97, and -1.48 kcal mol(-1). The fluorination of halobenzenes slightly enhances the attraction. Eint of CF3X (X is I, Br, Cl, and F) with benzene (-3.11, -2.74, -2.22, and -0.71 kcal mol(-1)) were very close to Eint of corresponding C6F5X with benzene. In contrast to the halogen bond of iodine and bromine with pyridine (n-type halogen bond acceptor) where the main cause of the attraction is the electrostatic interactions, that of halogen bond with benzene (p-type acceptor) is dispersion interaction. In the halogen bonds with p-type acceptors (halogen-π interactions), the electrostatic interactions and induction interactions are small. The overall orbital-orbital interactions are repulsive. The directionality of halogen bonds with p-type acceptors is very weak, owing to the weak electrostatic interactions, in contrast to the strong directionality of the halogen bonds with n-type acceptors and hydrogen bonds.

  3. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    . As a co-PI in the NSF/OPP-funded project, I was responsible for iron addition incubation and radiotracer experiments, and analysis of iron chemistry, including iron-organic speciation. This final technical report describes the results of my DOE funded project to analyse reduced iron species using an FeLume flow injection analysis chemiluminescence system as an extension of my work on the NSF/OPP project. On the cruise in 2004, spatial and temporal gradients in Fe(II) were determined, and on-board incubations were conducted to study Fe(II) lifetime and production. Following the cruise a further series of experiments was conducted in my laboratory to study Fe(II) lifetimes and photoproduction under conditions typical of high latitude waters. The findings of this study suggest that, in contrast to results observed during mesoscale iron addition experiments, steady-state levels of Fe(II) are likely to remain low (below detection) even within a significant gradient in dissolved Fe concentrations produced as a result of natural iron enrichment processes. Fe(II) is likely to be produced, however, as a reactive intermediate associated with photochemical reactions in surface waters. While Fe(II) lifetimes measured in the field in this study were commensurate with those determined in previously published Southern Ocean work, Fe(II) lifetimes reflective of realistic Southern Ocean environmental conditions have proven difficult to determine in a laboratory setting, due to contamination by trace levels of H2O2. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that direct ligand-to-metal charge transfer reactions of strong Fe(III)-organic complexes do appear to be a viable source of available Fe(II) in Antarctic waters, and further studies are needed to characterize the temperature dependence of this phenomenon.

  4. Tunable photoluminescence properties of Ca{sub 8}NaLa(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} phosphor under UV excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fen; Lan, Tong; Tang, Wanjun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ca{sub 8}NaLa(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} was prepared by a combustion-assisted synthesis method. • The phosphor presents blue and yellow double color emissions. • Efficient energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} in this phosphor is observed obviously. • White emitting was realized in Ca{sub 8}NaGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}:0.10Eu{sup 2+},0.32Mn{sup 2+},0.10B phosphor. - Abstract: A series of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} coactivated Ca{sub 8}NaLa(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} (CNLF) phosphors have been synthesized by a combustion-assisted synthesis method. The investigation revealed that Ca{sub 8}NaLa(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} crystallized in a hexagonal crystal system with the space group P6{sub 3}/m (176). The Eu{sup 2+} activated phosphors can be efficiently excited in the range of 270–400 nm and give intense blue emission peaking at 451 nm. By codoping the Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions into the CNLF host and singly varying the doping content of the Mn{sup 2+} ion, tunable colors from blue to white and eventually to yellow are obtained in CNLF:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} phosphors under the irradiation of 330 nm. The energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} in CNLF:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} has been demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole–dipole mechanism and the critical distance of energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} was estimated to be about 11.9 Å. The investigation indicates that the obtained samples might have potential application in white LEDs.

  5. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS, MODULE 3: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  6. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  7. Heavy perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: Atmospheric histories and top-down global emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Rigby, M. L.; Baasandorj, M.; Muhle, J.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Steele, P.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Burkholder, J. B.; Fraser, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - perfluorobutane (C4F10), perfluoropentane (C5F12), perfluorohexane (C6F14), perfluoroheptane (C7F16) and perfluorooctane (C8F18) - are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials of ~ 9000 for a 100 year time horizon [Forster et al., 2007]. Currently, the heavy PFCs are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, no atmospheric observations or top-down emission estimates for these gases have been published. In this study, atmospheric histories of the heavy PFCs were determined through new measurements of the Cape Grim Air Archive and a collection of Northern Hemispheric archive flasks using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) cryogenic preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system "Medusa" [Miller et al., 2008]. Furthermore, global top-down emissions were estimated from 1973-2010 based on the atmospheric histories using an inverse method and the 3-D chemical transport model, Model of OZone and Related Tracers (MOZARTv4.5) [Emmons et al., 2009]. Comparison of the top-down emission estimates with bottom-up estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.1) shows EDGARv4.1 emission estimates are underestimated by orders of magnitude for C4F10 and C5F12 [European Commission, 2009]. The bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.1 are comparable to the top-down estimates for C6F14 and C7F16; no bottom-up emission estimates are available for C8F18. Generally, UNFCCC reported inventories by countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are 5 to 10 times lower than the top-down emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 (C7F16 and C8F18 are not reported to the UNFCCC). The atmospheric histories and top-down emission estimates presented are the most accurate and comprehensive compiled so far for the high molecular weight PFCs. Furthermore, this study illustrates the importance of

  8. Gapless spin liquid ground state in the S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet [NH4]2[C7H14N][V7O6F18].

    PubMed

    Clark, L; Orain, J C; Bert, F; De Vries, M A; Aidoudi, F H; Morris, R E; Lightfoot, P; Lord, J S; Telling, M T F; Bonville, P; Attfield, J P; Mendels, P; Harrison, A

    2013-05-17

    The vanadium oxyfluoride [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)] (DQVOF) is a geometrically frustrated magnetic bilayer material. The structure consists of S = 1/2 kagome planes of V(4+) d(1) ions with S = 1 V(3+) d(2) ions located between the kagome layers. Muon spin relaxation measurements demonstrate the absence of spin freezing down to 40 mK despite an energy scale of 60 K for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. From magnetization and heat capacity measurements we conclude that the S = 1 spins of the interplane V(3+) ions are weakly coupled to the kagome layers, such that DQVOF can be viewed as an experimental model for S = 1/2 kagome physics, and that it displays a gapless spin liquid ground state.

  9. Laser-spectroscopy characterization of materials for frequency-agile solid-state laser systems. Final report, 15 Jan 88-14 Jan 91

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.C.

    1991-03-15

    This research involves the use of laser spectroscopy techniques to investigate materials which include laser crystals such as Cr{sup 3+}-doped alexandrite, emerald, garnets, and glass ceramics as well as Nd{sup 3+}-doped garnets and germinates and Ho{sup 3+}-doped fluorides. In addition, photorefractive processes were studied in potassium niobate crystals and in rare earth doped glasses. Some of the results of major importance from this work are: (1) The characterization of the properties of laser-induced gratings in glasses; (2) The elucidation of the effects of dopant ions on the photorefractive response of potassium niobate; (3) The observation of a new type of picosecond nonlinear optical response in potassium niobate associated with scattering from a Nb hopping mode; (4) The characterization of the properties of energy migration and radiationless relaxation processes in Cr{sup 3+} doped laser crystals; (5) The characterization of the pumping dynamics and lasing properties of Ho{sup 3+} in BaYb{sub 2}F{sub 8}; and (6) The characterization of the pumping dynamics and lasing properties of several Nd{sup 3+}-doped crystals.

  10. State-of-the-art study of resource characterization and planning for underground coal mining. Final technical report as of June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D.; Ingham, W.; Kauffman, P.

    1980-06-01

    With the rapid developments taking place in coal mining technology and due to high investment costs, optimization of the structure of underground coal mines is crucial to the success of the mining project. The structure of a mine, once it is developed, cannot be readily changed and has a decisive influence on the productivity, safety, economics, and production capacity of the mine. The Department of Energy desires to ensure that the resource characterization and planning activity for underground coal mining will focus on those areas that offer the most promise of being advanced. Thus, this project was undertaken by Management Engineers Incorporated to determine the status in all aspects of the resource characterization and planning activities for underground coal mining as presently performed in the industry. The study team conducted a comprehensive computerized literature search and reviewed the results. From this a selection of the particularly relevant sources were annotated and a reference list was prepared, catalogued by resource characterization and mine planning activity. From this data, and discussions with industry representatives, academia, and research groups, private and federal, an assessment and evaluation was made of the state-of-the-art of each element in the resource characterization and mine planning process. The results of this analysis lead to the identifcation of areas requiring research and, specifically, those areas where DOE research efforts may be focused.

  11. Generation, detection and characterization of gas-phase transition metal aggregates and compounds. Final technical report, September 15, 1991--July 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle, T.C.

    1994-11-12

    The goal of this research project has been to identify and characterize small gas-phase metal containing molecules and relate these properties to proposed reaction mechanisms. Of particular emphasis has been the elucidation of the mechanism for activation of C-H, N-H, S-H, and C-C bonds in CH{sub 4}, HCCH, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} by platinum, titanium, molybdenum, and niobium.

  12. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  13. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  14. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  15. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  16. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of novel polymers from non-petroleum sources for use in enhanced oil recovery. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are discussed for grafting of acrylamide to: (1) starch and related polysaccharides; and (2) cellulose solutions. In grafting acrylamide to various polysaccharide substrates such as okra polysaccharide, yellow dextrin, waxy corn starch, potato amylose, gum arabic, the efficiency of Ce/sup 4 +/ as initiator was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.89, depending on reaction conditions. Okra polysaccharide was isolated, characterized, and evaluated for use in enhanced oil recovery. A series of experiments designed to increase the viscosifying power of certain polymers by chain extension techniques has also been conducted. Characterization of the polymers by ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, membrane filtration, multi-cell equilibrium dialysis, and rheological studies has also been done. In grafting of acrylamide to cellulose solutions the following two courses were taken: (1) dissolution of cellulose in 70% aqueous zinc chloride, followed by Ce/sup 4 +/ initiated grafting of acrylamide, and (2) introduction of a 1,2-diol substituent onto the anhydroglucose units of the cellulose chain via dissolution of cellulose in concentrated aqueous NaOH, followed by treatment with glyceryl chlorohydrin. Considerable progress has been made via both approaches. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    The specific aims of the research were two fold: 1) to test the working hypothesis that space flight can alter normal development of vestibular sense organs and 2) to characterize adaptation of vestibular receptors to weightlessness and readaptation upon the return to earth. The proposed research has two scientific objectives: 1) In hatchlings (and perhaps embryos): to critically test the hypothesis that space flight can modify the ontogeny of vestibular gravity receptors, and 2) In adult birds: to characterize adaptation of vestibular gravity receptors to weightlessness and further to characterize re-adaptation of vestibular gravity receptors upon their return to earth.

  19. In-situ characterization of growth and interfaces in a-Si:H devices. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.W.; Wronski, C.R.; An, I.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes work to identify materials parameters that can quantitatively describe the solar cell performance correctly in the initial and stabilized states and are consistent with a microscopic model of the metastable defect site. The objective is to be accomplished by applying results of in-situ analyses of a-Si:H surfaces and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/p/i interfaces to complement the present understanding of the electronic properties of materials and devices. A second objective of the program is to demonstrate, characterize, and understand improved doped and undoped ``wide-gap`` materials for use in achieving 15% stabilized photovoltaic modules (``wide-gap`` materials are defined as those materials with a band gap of at least 1.9 eV).

  20. Characterization of extrinsic grain-boundary dislocations and grain-boundary dislocation sources by transmission electron microscopy. Final report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L E

    1981-06-01

    The microstructures attendant to specific peak strains along the strain axis of the stress-strain diagram for type 304 stainless steel and nickel have been examined and compared by transmission electron microscopy from epsilon = 0.05% to 55% in the former and from epsilon = 0.05% to 35% in the latter. The onset of flow is characterized by the emission of dislocations from grain boundary ledge source which form emission profiles resembling dislocation pileups in the stainless steel, and a random distribution of dislocations with evidence for very short emission profiles near the grain boundaries in nickel. At the engineering yield point (0.2%) every grain in the stainless steel shows evidence for dislocation emission profiles, while in the nickel every grain contains some dislocations distributed within the grain interior.

  1. Heat-pipe-coupled planar thermionic converter: Performance characterization, nondestructive testing, and evaluation. Final report, 1 Aug 90-30 Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Young, T.J.; Lamp, T.R.; Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.

    1992-03-15

    This report provides the technical details on the research activities conducted by Wright Laboratory and UES, Inc. personnel during the period of August 1990 to November 1991. The performance of two heat pipe coupled, planar thermionic energy converters was characterized using experimental and analytical methods. Nondestructive failure analysis was performed to evaluate the causes for the failure of a molybdenum-rhenium converter. The experimentation was carded out at the thermionic facilities at the USAF Wright Laboratory while the computer simulations were performed at Wright Laboratory and the University of Central Florida. A maximum current density of 10.1 amps/cm[sup 2] and a peak power density of 7.7 watts/cm[sup 2] were obtained from the rhenium-rhenium diode operating in the ignited mode.

  2. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  3. Characterization of MGP (manufactured gas plant) residues using proposed RCRA (Resource Conservation Recovery Act) tests. Topical report, May 1987-February 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, L.R.; Gould, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed two tests that may affect the regulation of residues associated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites which are not currently regulated by the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA): the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a revised reactivity test which includes interim guidance levels for reactive cyanide and sulfide as well as methods for determining reactive levels. Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc, carried out a research project under the Gas Research Institute program for the management of MGP sites. Several samples were tested using the proposed TCLP to determine the likelihood that MGP residues would be characterized as RCRA wastes under the new procedures. The reactivity tests for cyanide and sulfide also were run on samples collected from MGP sites to determine whether these specific residues would fall based on the revised technique. The results of the study are presented.

  4. Characterization of degraded EBR-II fuel from the ICPP-603 basin: National spent nuclear fuel program, FY 1999 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-04-17

    Characterization data is reported for sodium bonded Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the late 1970's. Sixteen stainless steel storage containers were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. Ten of the containers had leaked water due to improper sealing. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide particulate formed and filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas analysis determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium-137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a caustic solution of NaOH.

  5. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, April Z; Wan, Kai-tak

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  6. FINAL REPORT FOR THE INITIAL SOLID PHASE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 2011 GRAB SAMPLES AND COMPOSITE FOR THE C-109 HARD HEEL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAGE JS; COOKE G; PESTOVICH JA

    2011-12-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al[OHh]{sub 3}). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 {mu}m in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na{sub 7}[PO{sub 4}]{sub 2}F{center_dot}19[H{sub 2}O]) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD

  7. Final Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    This final chapter provides observations about institutional research in community colleges derived from the preceding chapters and the issue editors' own experiences. Taken as a whole, the chapters in this issue, as well as the editors' experiences, suggest several observations about institutional research in community colleges. These include the…

  8. The genes BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 from Brassica napus encoding the final enzyme of sinapine biosynthesis: molecular characterization and suppression.

    PubMed

    Weier, Diana; Mittasch, Juliane; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the molecular characterization of the genes BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) encoding the enzyme 1-O-sinapoyl-beta-glucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT; EC 2.3.1.91). SCT catalyzes the 1-O-beta-acetal ester-dependent biosynthesis of sinapoylcholine (sinapine), the most abundant phenolic compound in seeds of B. napus. GUS fusion experiments indicated that seed specificity of BnSCT1 expression is caused by an inducible promoter confining transcription to embryo tissues and the aleurone layer. A dsRNAi construct designed to silence seed-specifically the BnSCT1 gene was effective in reducing the sinapine content of Arabidopsis seeds thus defining SCT genes as targets for molecular breeding of low sinapine cultivars of B. napus. Sequence analyses revealed that in the allotetraploid genome of B. napus the gene BnSCT1 represents the C genome homologue from the B. oleracea progenitor whereas BnSCT2 was derived from the Brassica A genome of B. rapa. The BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 loci showed colinearity with the homologous Arabidopsis SNG2 gene locus although the genomic microstructure revealed the deletion of a cluster of three genes and several coding regions in the B. napus genome.

  9. Structure of coal: new approaches to characterizing organonitrogen and organosulfur functionalities in coal and coal liquids. Final report. [Finnigan triple quadrupole mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the application of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the analysis of coal-related materials. A Finnigan Triple State Quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for most of the results obtained in this study. Both collision energy (0 to 30 eV) and collision gas pressure (0 to 2.5 mtorr, typically argon) have significant effects on the spectra. Increasing the collision energy or collision pressure results in an increased fragmentation of the selected ion. The analytical utility of different chemical ionization (CI) reagent gases is shown. The MS/MS spectra of a selected ion obtained by isobutane and ammonia CI are identical, which paves the way for development of MS/MS libraries. A library is being developed especially for the analysis of coal-related materials. Three principal MS/MS scan modes (daughter, parent and neutral loss) are utilized in the analysis of coal-related materials. Parent and neutral loss scans characterize the complex mixture for particular chemical moieties (functional groups, structure type), while daughter scans are used for identification of specific components. SRC II was the principal sample studied by CI. Laser desorption methodology for coal analysis was developed. Other fuel-related materials were examined to generalize the analytical methodology being developed for the coal-related materials, including shale oil and diesel exhaust particulates. 35 references, 50 figures, 3 tables.

  10. The genes BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 from Brassica napus encoding the final enzyme of sinapine biosynthesis: molecular characterization and suppression.

    PubMed

    Weier, Diana; Mittasch, Juliane; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the molecular characterization of the genes BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) encoding the enzyme 1-O-sinapoyl-beta-glucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT; EC 2.3.1.91). SCT catalyzes the 1-O-beta-acetal ester-dependent biosynthesis of sinapoylcholine (sinapine), the most abundant phenolic compound in seeds of B. napus. GUS fusion experiments indicated that seed specificity of BnSCT1 expression is caused by an inducible promoter confining transcription to embryo tissues and the aleurone layer. A dsRNAi construct designed to silence seed-specifically the BnSCT1 gene was effective in reducing the sinapine content of Arabidopsis seeds thus defining SCT genes as targets for molecular breeding of low sinapine cultivars of B. napus. Sequence analyses revealed that in the allotetraploid genome of B. napus the gene BnSCT1 represents the C genome homologue from the B. oleracea progenitor whereas BnSCT2 was derived from the Brassica A genome of B. rapa. The BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 loci showed colinearity with the homologous Arabidopsis SNG2 gene locus although the genomic microstructure revealed the deletion of a cluster of three genes and several coding regions in the B. napus genome. PMID:17882453

  11. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  12. Waste water/storm water characterization and toxicity identification evaluation, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas. Final report, 22 Apr-3 May 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.; Holck, A.R.; Acker, A.M.

    1991-12-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Sheppard AFB TX from 22 April 1991 to 3 May 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality and Environmental Biology Functions of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative Data were also collected during a rain event to assess the quality of the storm water runoff from Sheppard AFB. Biomonitoring of the influent and effluent to the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) was also performed to identify the toxic fraction(s) in the wastewater causing periodic failures in biomonitoring. A qualitative odor survey was also performed to determine if the source of a pungent, onion-like odor could be identified. Measurable concentrations of industrial solvents were found in the wastewater, indicating that some industrial wastes are entering the sanitary sewer system. Phenol concentrations greater than the permitted 50 micrograms per liter were found in many of the sampling sites. The toxic fraction identified in the WWTP influent was an organic electrophile, possibly a petroleum hydrocarbon, oil, grease, or surfactant. The identity of the odor was not conclusively determined, but solids lying in the manholes are thought to be decomposing and emitting noxious gases.

  13. Characterization of a protein-generated O₂ binding pocket in PqqC, a cofactorless oxidase catalyzing the final step in PQQ production.

    PubMed

    RoseFigura, Jordan M; Puehringer, Sandra; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Toyama, Hirohide; Klinman, Judith P

    2011-03-01

    PQQ is an exogenous, tricyclic, quino-cofactor for a number of bacterial dehydrogenases. The final step of PQQ formation is catalyzed by PqqC, a cofactorless oxidase. This study focuses on the activation of molecular oxygen in an enzyme active site without metal or cofactor and has identified a specific oxygen binding and activating pocket in PqqC. The active site variants H154N, Y175F,S, and R179S were studied with the goal of defining the site of O(2) binding and activation. Using apo-glucose dehydrogenase to assay for PQQ production, none of the mutants in this "O(2) core" are capable of PQQ/PQQH(2) formation. Spectrophotometric assays give insight into the incomplete reactions being catalyzed by these mutants. Active site variants Y175F, H154N, and R179S form a quinoid intermediate (Figure 1) anaerobically. Y175S is capable of proceeding further from quinoid to quinol, whereas Y175F, H154N, and R179S require O(2) to produce the quinol species. None of the mutations precludes substrate/product binding or oxygen binding. Assays for the oxidation of PQQH(2) to PQQ show that these O(2) core mutants are incapable of catalyzing a rate increase over the reaction in buffer, whereas H154N can catalyze the oxidation of PQQH(2) to PQQ in the presence of H(2)O(2) as an electron acceptor. Taken together, these data indicate that none of the targeted mutants can react fully to form quinone even in the presence of bound O(2). The data indicate a successful separation of oxidative chemistry from O(2) binding. The residues H154, Y175, and R179 are proposed to form a core O(2) binding structure that is essential for efficient O(2) activation.

  14. Characterization of a Protein Generated O2 Binding Pocket in PqqC, a Cofactorless Oxidase Catalyzing the Final Step in PQQ Production†

    PubMed Central

    RoseFigura, Jordan M.; Puehringer, Sandra; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Toyama, Hirohide; Klinman, Judith P.

    2012-01-01

    PQQ is an exogenous, tricyclic, quino-cofactor for a number of bacterial dehydrogenases. The final step of PQQ formation is catalyzed by PqqC, a cofactorless oxidase. This study focuses on the activation of molecular oxygen in an enzyme active site without metal or cofactor and has identified a specific oxygen binding and activating pocket in PqqC. The active site variants H154N, Y175F,S and R179S were studied with the goal of defining the site of O2 binding and activation. Using apo-glucose dehydrogenase to assay for PQQ production, none of the mutants in this “O2 core” are capable of PQQ/PQQH2 formation. Spectrophotometric assays give insight into the incomplete reactions being catalyzed by these mutants. Active site variants Y175F, H154N and R179S form a quinoid intermediate (Figure 1) anaerobically. Y175S is capable of proceeding further from quinoid to quinol, whereas Y175F, H154N and R179S require O2 to produce the quinol species. None of the mutations precludes substrate/product binding or oxygen binding. Assays for the oxidation of PQQH2 to PQQ show that these O2 core mutants are incapable of catalyzing a rate increase over the reaction in buffer. Interestingly, H154N can catalyze the oxidation of PQQH2 to PQQ faster than buffer, but only with H2O2 as an electron acceptor, not with O2. Taken together, these data indicate that none of the targeted mutants can react fully to form quinone even in the presence of bound O2. The data indicate a successful separation of oxidative chemistry from O2 binding. The residues H154, Y175, and R179 are proposed to form a core O2 binding structure that is essential for O2 activation. PMID:21155540

  15. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  16. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  17. Arapahoe low-sulfur-coal fabric filter pilot plant: Volume 3, Characterization of sonic-assisted reverse-gas cleaning, May 1982--May 1984: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, K.M.; Bustard, C.J.; Pontius, D.H.; Pyle, B.E.; Smith, W.B.

    1989-02-01

    During 1981 intense interest developed in the utility industry regarding the use of horns as a supplement to reverse-gas bag cleaning. To characterize and assess sonic-enhanced, reverse-gas cleaning, horns were installed at EPRI's 10-MW Fabric Filter Pilot Plant (FFPP) at its Arapahoe Test Facility located at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapahoe Steam Plant in Denver, Colorado. In addition to the FFPP tests, laboratory studies of sonic cleaning were conducted to supplement the pilot plant data. To verify the applicability of the pilot plant and laboratory work to full-scale baghouses, field data from utility baghouses in which horns had been installed were collected. The purpose of the testing was to determine the range of horn frequencies and total output power most effective in removing residual dustcakes from bags in reverse-gas-cleaned baghouses and, hence, most effective in reducing baghouse pressure drop. No attempt was made to identify a specific horn or horns most appropriate for baghouse application. The report presents the results of this testing from May 1982 through May 1984. Results showed that horns can dislodge a significant fraction of residual dustcake, thereby reducing pressure drop by as much as 60% without any noticeable reduction in bag life. Although outlet particulate emissions are higher with sonic assistance, they are generally <0.01 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu---below the 1979 New Source Performance Standards of 0.03 lb/MBtu. The overall results of this sonic horn investigation indicate that reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance definitely promotes more effective bag filter cleaning and lower pressure drop, and it should be considered as a supplement for most reverse-gas cleaned baghouse applications. 10 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  19. Final Project Report, DE-SC0001280, Characterizing the Combined Roles of Iron and Transverse Mixing on Uranium Bioremediation in Groundwater using Microfluidic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finneran, Kevin; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy

    2015-01-10

    In situ bioremediation of U(VI) involves amending groundwater with an appropriate electron donor and limiting nutrients to promote biological reduction to the less soluble and mobile U(IV) oxidation state. Groundwater flow is laminar; mixing is controlled by hydrodynamic dispersion. Recent studies indicate that transverse dispersion along plume margins can limit mixing of the amended electron donor and accepter (such as U(VI) in remediation applications). As a result, microbial growth, and subsequently contaminant reaction, may be limited to these transverse mixing zones during bioremediation. The primary objective of this work was to characterize the combined effects of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology on the (bio)remediation of U(VI). Our underlying hypothesis was that U(VI) reaction in groundwater is controlled by transverse mixing with an electron donor along plume margins, and that iron bioavailability in these zones affects U(VI) reduction kinetics and U(IV) re-oxidation. Our specific objectives were to a) quantify reaction kinetics mediated by biological versus geochemical reactions leading to U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation, b) understand the influence of bioavailable iron on U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation along the transverse mixing zones, c) determine how transverse mixing limitations and the presence of biomass in pores affects these reactions, and d) identify how microbial populations that develop along transverse mixing zones are influenced by the presence of iron and the concentration of electron donor. In the completed work, transverse mixing zones along plume margins were re-created in microfluidic pore networks, referred to as micromodels. We conducted a series of experiments that allowed us to distinguish among the hydraulic, biological, and geochemical mechanisms that contribute to U(VI) reduction, U(IV) re-oxidation, and U(VI) abiotic reaction with the limiting biological nutrient HP042-. This systematic approach may lead to a

  20. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Normanly, J.

    1999-11-29

    The primary goal was the characterization of tryptophan (Trp)-independent biosynthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Our work and that of others indicates that indole is a precursor to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway and the objectives of this grant have been the isolation of indole-metabolizing genes from Arabidopsis.

  1. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, Gary E.

    2013-04-23

    This is the final report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2001-11-30

    This final report describes work involving 22 investigators from 11 institutions to explore the dynamics present in supernova explosions by means of experiments on the Omega laser. The specific experiments emphasized involved the unstable expansion of a spherical capsule and the coupling of perturbations at a first interface to a second interface by means of a strong shock. Both effects are present in supernovae. The experiments were performed at Omega and the computer simulations were undertaken at several institutions. B139

  3. A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Han, Ji-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Son, Hwa-Young

    2015-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to male and female CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice (N = 5 males and females per dose). The standard toxicological evaluations were conducted during the in-life and post-mortem phase. In the 100 mg/kg b.w./day group, 3 males and 1 female died during the study and showed clinical signs such as thin appearance and subdued behavior accompanied by significant decreases in mean b.w. Microscopy revealed tubular basophilia in the kidneys, exfoliated degenerative germ cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testes, vacuolation in the brain, axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve, and cardiomyopathy in the 100, ≥25, ≥50, 100, and 100 mg/kg b.w./day groups, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MCPD's target organs were the kidneys, testes, brain, sciatic nerve, and heart. The "no-observed-adverse-effect level" (NOAEL) of 3-MCPD was ≤25 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day in males and females, respectively. PMID:26434797

  4. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph T. Hupp

    2008-11-17

    The premise of this project was that coordination chemistry could be used to devise new kinds of microporous materials and that these materials could exhibit nanoscale porosity and selective chemical separation capabilities. Our initial materials focus was on aggregates of discrete hollow molecules, especially molecular squares. Subsequently our focus turned largely toward permanently microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Our approach emphasized coupling predictive & explanative computational modeling to materials design, synthesis, and property characterization.

  5. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen

    2014-08-31

    Uranium-containing and thorium-containing compounds have been produced using a laser ablation source. Spectral transitions from these compounds in the 6 GHz to 18 GHz frequency region have been recorded using advanced techniques in Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The pure rotational spectrum of thorium (II) oxide is particularly strong and rotational transitions have been observed in highly excited vibrational states. These measurements have allowed a further characterization of the molecules potential energy well.

  6. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  7. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  8. Characterization of metal cutting dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.

    1997-11-01

    A Hardinge CNC lathe has been fitted with sensors and a data acquisition system for the measurement, processing and storage of accelerations and forces associated with orthogonal cutting. This system has been completely validated. Orthogonal cutting experiments were designed in order to study the effects of critical cutting parameters on machining dynamics. Three major experimental sets were conducted. In the first set the depth of cut was increased in a stepwise fashion, while the workpiece surface speed, the spindle speed, and the tool feedrate were maintained invariant. In the second and third sets, the spindle speed and feedrate were varied, respectively, while maintaining all the other parameters invariant. In total over two hundred orthogonal cutting experiments were performed. In each experiment, the two non-zero components of the tool acceleration and the two non-zero components of the cutting force were measured. Despite high noise levels, mutual information calculations with smoothing kernels and false nearest neighbor algorithms proved to be sufficiently robust to provide upper bounds on attractor dimension for all fifty data sets studied. These results prove that the infinite dimensional cutting process has an associated attractor of dimension {le} 4. This result is important as a guide to model construction. An analysis of the power spectral sideband structure proved that sideband spacing is identical to the turning frequency. This result was further substantiated through envelope detection techniques. A linear delay model was shown to emulate the experimental power spectrum and possess predictive capacity.

  9. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  10. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  11. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  13. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Benson

    2012-09-24

    This project combines outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The study is designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work is based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project will explore the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. Our work at the Colorado School of Mines was focused on the following questions: 1) What are the effects of multi-scale geologic variability on transport of conservative and reactive solutes? 2) Can those transport effects be accounted for by classical methods, and if not, can the nonlocal fractional-order equations provide better predictions? 3) Can the fractional-order equations be parameterized through a link to some simple observable geologic features? 4) Are the classical equations of transport and reaction sufficient? 5) What is the effect of anomalous transport on chemical reaction in groundwater systems? The work is predicated on the observation that upscaled transport is defined by loss of information, or spatio-temporal averaging. This averaging tends to make the transport laws such as Fick's 2nd-order diffusion equation similar to central limit theory. The fractional-order advection-dispersion equations rely on limit theory for heavy-tailed random motion that has some diverging moments. The equations predict larger tails of a plume in space and/or time than those predicted by the classical 2nd-order advection-dispersion equation. The heavy tails are often seen in plumes at field sites.

  14. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Golden

    2005-03-31

    The originally funded project was geared to pursue research on regulation of photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We characterized a locus, psfR, (psbA stimulating factor) that affects expression of the psbAI gene, which encodes the PSII protein D1. Over-expression of psfR, which encodes a protein with receiver and pseudo-receiver domains, acts at the promoter region to elevate expression of psbAI and a subset of other loci. We reoriented the remainder of the funding to make a greater impact through completion of a functional genomics project that had been initiated with funding from another agency. The goal is inactivation of each gene individually in the S. elongatus genome, and completion of the entire genome sequence. At the end of the project we will have screened all loci for involvement in circadian rhythms of gene expression and assembled an archived set of clones that can be used to create the mutations to screen for any other phenotype. During the project period we: (1) prepared a functional genomics website for S. elongatus PCC 7942 that posts sequences prior to GenBank release, and presents the strategy and progress for the genomics project (http://www.bio.tamu.edu/synecho/); (2) determined the sequence of and annotated the S. elongatus 46 kb plasmid, pANL; (3) submitted assembled sequences with annotation of 8 cosmid inserts to GenBank (313 kb), with sites of transposon insertions indicated; (4) mutagenized approximately an additional 600 kb of the genome (16 cosmids) and identified sequences flanking the mutations; (5) recombined mutagenesis substrates into the S. elongatus genome to produce gene inactivations (at the sites of transposon insertions) for approximately 415 kb of mutagenized sequence (85% of these have already been screened for circadian phenotypes) (6) identified the clpPIIclpX locus as important in determining circadian period; and (7) demonstrated effectiveness of antisense RNA for decreasing

  15. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham

    2011-03-11

    Hydrogen storage systems based on the readily reversible adsorption of H{sub 2} in porous materials have a number of very attractive properties with the potential to provide superior performance among candidate materials currently being investigated were it not for the fact that the interaction of H{sub 2} with the host material is too weak to permit viable operation at room temperature. Our study has delineated in quantitative detail the structural elements which we believe to be the essential ingredients for the future synthesis of porous materials, where guest-host interactions are intermediate between those found in the carbons and the metal hydrides, i.e. between physisorption and chemisorption, which will result in H{sub 2} binding energies required for room temperature operation. The ability to produce porous materials with much improved hydrogen binding energies depends critically on detailed molecular level analysis of hydrogen binding in such materials. However, characterization of H{sub 2} sorption is almost exclusively carried by thermodynamic measurements, which give average properties for all the sites occupied by H{sub 2} molecules at a particular loading. We have therefore extensively utilized the most powerful of the few molecular level experimental probes available to probe the interactions of hydrogen with porous materials, namely inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the hindered rotations of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at various sites, which in turn can be interpreted in a very direct way in by computational studies. This technique can relate spectral signatures of various H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed at binding sites with different degrees of interaction. In the course of this project we have synthesized a rather large number of entirely new hybrid materials, which include structural modifications for improved interactions with adsorbed hydrogen. The results of our systematic studies on many porous materials provide detailed

  16. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Fred C.

    2003-01-15

    species of flagellates, Spumella sp. and Bodo sp. (identifications are tentative) were isolated from South Oyster sediments by repetitive serial dilution/extinction method. Protistan cells were cultured with Cereal leaf Prescott medium and pelleted by centrifugation. Protistan DNAs were extracted with a DNA extraction kit (Sigma Co.) and the sequencing of their SSrDNA is underway. Finally, to follow up on our collaboration of Dr. Bill Johnson (Univ. of Utah), one of the co-PIs under the same NABIR umbrella, we are pleased to report we have successfully tested antibody-ferrographic capture of protists (See previous year's report for more background). Polyclonal FITC-conjugated antibody specific for a flagellate, Spumella sp., was produced by Rockland Inc., and we now are able to enumerate that species using ferrographic capture. There are, however, some issues of non-specific staining that remain to be resolved.

  17. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph H. Simmons; Tracie J. Bukowski

    2002-08-07

    determine if photocarriers could be collected. Thus, we tested a variety of semiconductor-glass nano-composite structures for photoconductivity. Tests were conducted in collaboration with the Laser Physics Division at Sandia National Laboratories. Nano-composite samples were formed consisting of Ge nanocrystals embedded in an indium-tin-oxide matrix. Photoconductivity measurements were conducted with exposure of the films to sub-bandgap and super-bandgap light. The results showed a clear photoconductivity effect arising from exposure to super-bandgap light only. These results suggest that the high-efficiency photovoltaic cell structure proposed in DOE sponsored U.S. Patent 5,720,827 is viable. The results of fabrication studies, structural characterization studies and photovoltaic measurements are presented in the report. This report is taken from a PhD dissertation of Tracie J. Bukowski submitted to the University of Florida in May 2002. ''The optical and photoconductive response in germanium quantum dots and indium tin oxide composite thin film structures,'' Dr. Bukowski conducted her PhD study under this grant at the University of Arizona and under Grant No DE-FG05-91ER45462 at the University of Florida, as well as during a two-year fellowship at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Verb-Final Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  19. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  20. Electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy supports the suggested coordination of two histidine ligands to the Rieske Fe-S centers of the cytochrome b sub 6 f complex of spinach and the cytochrome bc sub 1 complexes of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26, and bovine heart mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, R.D.; Sauer, K.; Klein, M.P. ); Knaff, D.B.; Kriauciunas, A. ); Yu, Changan; Yu, Linda ); Malkin, R. )

    1991-02-19

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments performed on the Rieske Fe-S clusters of the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex of spinach chloroplasts and of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complexes of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26, and bovine heart mitochondria show modulation components resulting from two distinct classes of {sup 14}N ligands. At the g = 1.92 region of the Rieske EPR spectrum of the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex, the measured hyperfine couplings for the two classes of coupled nitrogens are A{sub 1} = 4.6 MHz and A{sub 2} = 3.8 MHz. Similar couplings are observed for the Rieske centers in the three cytochrome bc{sub 1} complexes. These ESEEM results indicate a nitrogen coordination environment for these Rieske Fe-S centers that is similar to that of the Fe-S cluster of a bacterial dioxygenase enzyme with two coordinated histidine ligands. The Rieske Fe-S cluster lacks modulation components from a weakly coupled peptide nitrogen observed in water-soluble spinach ferredoxin. Treatment with the quinone analogue inhibitor DBMIB causes a shift in the Rieske EPR spectrum to g = 1.95 with no alteration in the magnetic couplings to the two nitrogen atoms. However, the ESEEM pattern of the DBMIB-altered Rieske EPR signal shows evidence of an additional weakly coupled nitrogen similar to that observed in the spinach ferrodoxin ESEEM patterns.

  1. Final disposal room structural response calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    Finite element calculations have been performed to determine the structural response of waste-filled disposal rooms at the WIPP for a period of 10,000 years after emplacement of the waste. The calculations were performed to generate the porosity surface data for the final set of compliance calculations. The most recent reference data for the stratigraphy, waste characterization, gas generation potential, and nonlinear material response have been brought together for this final set of calculations.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  3. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions. PMID:26934755

  4. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

    1995-01-27

    The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

  6. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (<100,000 km) of Mimas and Enceladus remain as well as some of our best flybys of the tiny ring moons. Cassini will also continue to study seasonal and temporal changes in the system as northern summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet

  7. The final step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in turnip tops (Brassica rapa): molecular characterization of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase BrACO1 throughout zygotic embryogenesis and germination of heterogeneous seeds.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María; Nicolás, Carlos; Matilla, Angel Jesús

    2004-05-01

    In a previous report from the present authors, it was shown that the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidation may play a crucial role during zygotic embryogenesis of turnip tops seeds. The present study was performed to elucidate the contribution of the silique-wall and seeds in ethylene production during this developmental process. ACC content in the silique wall is only higher than in seeds during the middle phases of zygotic embryogenesis. The ACC-oxidase (ACO) activity peaks in the silique-wall and seeds during the onset of embryogenesis, declining gradually afterwards, being undetectable during desiccation period. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, one cDNA clone coding for an ACO and called BrACO1, was isolated. The deduced protein for BrACO1 has a molecular weight of 36.8 kDa and a high homology with other crucifer ACOs. The heterologous expression of this cDNA confirmed that BrACO1 is an ACO. The expression of this gene was high during the first phases of silique-wall development, low during the middle phases and undetectable during desiccation. By contrast, BrACO1 transcript was accumulated only in the earliest phases of seed embryogenesis and may participate in the highest ACO activity and ethylene production by seeds at the beginning of embryogenesis. Finally, in this work a correlation between the heterogeneity of Brassica rapa L. cv. Rapa seeds and the ability to oxidize the ACC to ethylene has been demonstrated.

  8. A simple synthesis and characterization of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and its final decomposition product CoFeP 4O 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonchom, Banjong; Danvirutai, Chanaiporn; Vittayakorn, Naratip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O by a simple, rapid and cost-effective method using CoCO 3-Fe(c)-H 3PO 4 system in water-acetone media at ambient temperature. Thermal transformation of the synthesized powder was investigated by TG/DTG/DTA and DSC techniques, which indicate that its final decomposed product was a binary cobalt iron cyclotetraphosphate CoFeP 4O 12. The FTIR and XRD results of the synthesized Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and the decomposed CoFeP 4O 12 indicate the pure monoclinic phases with space group P2 1/n and C2/c, respectively. The morphologies of Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and CoFeP 4O 12 powders appear non-uniform particle shapes and high agglomerates, which are different from the cases of the single compounds M(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and M 2P 4O 12 (where M = Co, Fe). The magnetic properties of the studied compounds are superparamagnetic behaviors, which are important for specific applications. The physical properties of the studied powders are comparable with those reported in our previous study, affected by medium and condition of preparation method.

  9. Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates in gas-saturated, anomalously pressured rocks and that affect the successful and efficient exploitation of tight gas sands. During the contract, IER researchers have (1) developed a natural gas exploration paradigm that can be be used to create improved exploitation strategies for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands, thereby lowing exploration risk; (2) detected and delineated sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of well log responses, petrographic and petrophysical studies, water chemistry analyses, and natural frature studies; (3) investigated the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production in the GGRB; (4) created an expanded database for the GGRB; (5) prioritized volunteered experimental drill sites in the GGRB for potential cooperative research and development; and (6) participated in joint studies on a horizontal well completion in the Almond Formation, Echo Springs field, Washakie Basin.

  10. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  11. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  12. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  13. Copper(II) ion catalytic oxidation of o-phenylenediamine and characterization, X-ray crystal structure and solution studies of the final product [DAPH][H3O][Cu(dipic)2]·3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Abdul Razak, Ibrahim; Refahi, Masoud; Moghimi, Abolghasem; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim

    2015-09-01

    The complex [DAPH][H3O][Cu(dipic)2]·3H2O, (1) (dipicH2 = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and DAP = 2,3-diaminophenazine) was prepared from the reaction of Cu(NO3)2·2H2O with mixture of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid in water. The complex was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, UV-Vis and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal system is monoclinic with the space group P21/c. This complex is stabilized in the solid state by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds between crystallized water, anionic and cationic fragments, which form a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, hydrogen bonds, π⋯π and Csbnd O⋯π stacking interactions seem to be effective in stabilizing the crystal structures. The protonation constants of dipic (L) and DAP (Q), the equilibrium constants for the dipic-DAP proton transfer system and the stoichiometry and stability constants of binary complexes including each of ligands (dipic, DAP) in presence Cu2+ ion, ternary complexes including, both of ligands (dipic-DAP) in presence of metal ion were calculated in aqueous solutions by potentiometric pH titration method using the Hyperquad2008 program. The stoichiometry of the most complexes species in solution was found to be very similar to the solid-state of cited metal ion complex.

  14. Final focus nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  15. NARSTO Texas Final Report

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-06

    Final Report for the Texas PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis Study (March 11, 1997, through March 12, 1998) ... files: Section 1: Introduction and Section 2: Sampling Network (PDF) Section 3: Data Base Structure (PDF) ...

  16. Cassini's Grand Finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Spilker, Linda J.

    2016-07-01

    After more than a decade exploring Saturn and its moons, the Cassini mission is in its closing act. Cassini's last year is an encore performance stuffed with science, including a final plunge into Saturn's atmosphere.

  17. Endeavour's Final Voyage

    NASA Video Gallery

    After nearly two decades of achievements in space, Endeavour makes one last reach for the stars on its 25th and final mission, STS-134. This webcast examines the mission to come and explores the st...

  18. Expedition 34 Final Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 34 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their Dec. 19 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Chris Hadfield, Roman...

  19. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  20. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  1. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of Army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of red phosphorus-butyl rubber and white phosphorus obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Li, S.M.W.; Thomas, B.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Bean, R.M.; Carlile, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)) smoke obscurant was performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A similar evaluation using white phosphorus (WP) smoke/obscurant is currently proceeding. The objective is to characterize the effects of smokes and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of representative of soils of those sites; and (3) soil microbiological communities. The influence and interactions of smoke/obscurant concentration, relative humidity (25%, 60%, 90% and simulated rain) and wind speed of 0.22 to 4.45 m/s by smoke is assessed. Five plant species and four soils were exposed to both single and repeated doses of RP/BR smokes in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory ''P-3'' rated recirculating environmental wind tunnel. Detailed results for RP/BR and limited results for WP are presented. Toxicity symptoms for plants exposed for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours to concentrations of RP/BR ranging from 200 mg/m/sup 3/ included leaf tip burn, leaf curl, leaf abscission and drop, floral abortion, chlorosis, neucrotic spotting, wilting, desiccation and dieback. Grass and bushbean were the most sensitive. The intensity and duration of these effects varied. Soils effects data suggest that there is an increase in the mobility of selected trace elements after exposure; however, this effect appears to be ameliorated with time. Soil microbial community effects show a reduction in the production of nitrate after soil is exposed to RP/BR smoke. Most of the plant, soil and soil microbial effects are transient in nature and are somewhat less intense resulting from repeated exposures; however, there is evidence that some of these environmental impacts may be persistent. 43 refs., 44 figs., 67 tabs.

  2. Characterization of the organization of the genome of methanogens and development of genetic exchange systems for Methanococcus vannielii: Final report for the period July 1, 1981-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.N.; Frea, J.I.

    1987-10-01

    The goals of this contract were to characterize gene organization and expression in methane microorganisms and to develop gene transfer systems for these unusual anaerobes. Antibiotic resistant mutants were isolated, potential shuttle vectors constructed and a number of methanogen genes cloned which when functionally expressed in Escherichia coli complemented auxotrophic mutations of eubacterial species. DNA sequencing of cloned genes was used to establish evolutionary relationships between methanogens and showed the conservation of DNA sequences in archaebacterial, eubacterial and eucaryotic species. Sequencing demonstrated that methanogens use the standard genetic code, have polypeptide-encoding genes organized into operons, initiate translation using ribosome binding sites (RBS) and terminate transcription by forming double-stranded loops in RNA molecules. All these are molecular biological features typical of eubacteria. In contrast, the presence of conserved sequences and protection of DNA from nuclease digestion by bound methanogen-derived RNA polymerases indicated that methanogen promoters do not resemble eubacterial promoters. The initial cloning and sequencing of amino-acid and purine biosynthetic genes from methanogens provided the necessary background information to undertake cloning and analysis of genes which encode enzymes directly involved in methanogenesis. The most abundant enzyme in all methanogens is methyl coenzyme-M reductase which catalyzes the terminal reaction in methanogenesis. The genes which encode the subunits of component C of this enzyme in Methanococcus vannielii have been cloned and sequenced. Their organization and structure indicates that, in vivo, component C may contain previously unrecognized subunits and its synthesis may be regulated at the level of translation. Genes encoding subunits of the major non-F/sub 420/ reducing hydrogenase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum have also been cloned and sequenced. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Characterization of ichthyoplankton within the U.S. Geological Survey's Northeastern Gulf of Mexico study area - based on analysis of Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) Sampling Surveys, 1982-1999. NEGOM ichthyoplankton synopsis final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyczkowski-Shultz, Joanne; Hanisko, David S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dennis, George D.

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis was undertaken to characterize the occurrence and abundance of fish eggs and larvae in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM) and to assess the region's relative importance in the early life history of fishes as compared to the entire U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Data for 66 selected taxa from 1,166 bongo and neuston net samples at 72 localities [comprising the UGSG NEGOM Ichthyoplankton Synopsis (UNIS) Study Area] were analyzed. These data were taken during annual Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) gulfwide surveys from 1982-1999, and were summarized by the NMFS to accomplish this objective. Comparison of the UNIS Study Area with the overall SEAMAP survey area revealed that the larvae of 16 taxa occurred more frequently and were relatively more abundant in the UNIS Study Area than the entire SEAMAP survey area while for other taxa occurrence and relative abundance were comparable. These taxa represented fishes from mesopelagic, continental shelf, and reef assemblages reflecting the wide diversity of habitats available in the NEGOM and included the young of two important resource taxa, Rhomboplites aurorubens (vermilion snapper) and Seriola spp. (amberjacks). Distinct distribution patterns were observed among larvae in the UNIS Study Area that appear to be associated with the presence of the DeSoto Canyon. One notable pattern was the predominance of certain taxa to either the west or east of longitude 86.5-87.0o W. Larvae of several characteristic reef-fish families were most common to the east of this apparent zoogeographic faunal discontinuity. An alternative pattern was seen among taxa whose larvae occurred primarily at locations over depth contours outlining the canyon. Additionally, the UNIS Study Area contributed more fish eggs, total larvae, and zooplankton to survey totals than would be expected from the number of samples taken in the study area. This pattern was more evident during spring than fall surveys. It may relate to

  4. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  5. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Chris

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  6. Rosetta: The Final Furlong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    By the time of the meeting, the Rosetta spacecraft will have formally arrived at its target comet, and final landing site selection will be in progress. One of the instruments that will be sent down to the surface of the comet is Ptolemy (a GC-MS).

  7. GENIE final state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-15

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  8. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  9. Project CHILD: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Presented is the final report of Project CHILD, a research effort to develop and validate screening procedures for the identification of language disabled (LD) children, three intervention models for LD children, and a competency based teacher education model. In the two phases of the first study, a battery of screening tests was evaluated with a…

  10. Final Prep on SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Alvin Pittman Sr., lead electronics technician with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Janine Cuevas, a mechanical technician with PWR, perform final preparations on the space shuttle main engine tested Oct. 25, 2005, at NASA's Stennis Space Center. It was the first main engine test since Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29.

  11. Perception of Final Lengthening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary

    A series of phonetic production and perception experiments were designed to describe the phonological or phonetic domains of two effects in spoken English: final lengthening, generally interpreted as a mark for the edge of some linguistically-defined unit of speech production, and stress-timed shortening, generally interpreted as evidence for…

  12. SCIS Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, James R.; Karplus, Robert

    Presented is the final report of the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS). Included is the background and a brief history of the SCIS project, an outline of the project development processes, evaluation made of SCIS during development, a summary of financial support for the project, names of advisory and staff members, a historical chart of…

  13. Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This final report of a study of the environmental characterization of the North Aleutian Shelf nearshore region includes: characterization, processes, and vulnerability to development; and annotated bibliography and keyword index.

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buttry, Daniel A

    2012-11-06

    We adapted and refined a synthesis of gold nanoparticles of type, Au101(PPh3)21Cl5 (Au101). In our hands, this method routinely gave fairly high yields of Au101 NPs. These NPs were characterized using several techniques, including TEM, AFM/STM and various NMR measurements, including solid state methods. We also used a simpler citrate-based preparation of Au NPs. We immobilized the Au NPs on carbon and characterized their electrochemical behavior. In addition, we prepared and characterized tin oxide NPs that were capped with phosphonic acid capping ligands. Our goal in this part of the project was to expand the NMR methods available to study ligand complexation in non-metallic NP materials that may be of interest as electrochemical materials. The use of tin oxide as a host material for tin metal that could be used to alloy of Li in battery anodes was the motivation for our interest in these types of materials.

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  16. Caregivers program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelegge, JP; Faull, KF

    2005-06-01

    entire proteome. While some of the IMTs were matched to masses calculated from translations of genomic open-reading frames allowing reasonably confident identification of about half of them (hypothetical IMTs), we are currently validating identifications using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting after cyanogen bromide cleavage and LC-MSMS after trypsin, of protein in fractions collected during LC-MS+. In order to gain more complete proteome coverage we are applying a liquid separation in front of the LC-MS+ experiment. Size-exclusion chromatography is the first separation technology to be employed, yielding immediate benefits, while still not satisfactory for overall resolution of complexes. Total membranes were solubilized with dodecyl maltoside (1.5%) and separated on deactivated silica (G 4000 SW). LC-MS+ analysis of less-retained chlorophyll-containing fractions, using reverse-phase and size-exclusion technologies, yielded intact protein mass spectra of the two large photosystem I subunits PsaA and PsaB as well as many other IMTs (Figures 1 & 2). These integral membrane proteins have eleven transmembrane helices and, at 81 and 83 kDa, represented one of the most significant challenges to the intact protein molecular weight approach. The identities of the proteins were confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting and while there is good general agreement between measured and calculated masses it is noted that modest post-translational modifications are necessary to account for the measured molecular weights of the intact proteins. Whether these discrepancies are due to genuine post-translational modifications or DNA sequence errors remains to be determined. The data have been published allowing us to claim to be the first to have completed high-resolution electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of the core subunits of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex providing effective proof-of-principle for application of the intact mass

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2005-10-27

    In this final technical report, a summary of work is provided. Work toward an improved representation of frontal clouds in global climate models occurred. This involved analysis of cloud variability in ARM observations and the careful contrast of single column model solutions with ARM data. In addition, high resolution simulations of frontal clouds were employed to diagnosis processes that are important for the development of frontal clouds.

  19. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  1. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Characterization of fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a four month study of the characteristics of multiphase flow in naturally fractured porous media. An assessment and evaluation of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive list of references compiled on the subject. Mathematical models presented in the various references cited were evaluated along with the stated assumptions or those inherent in the equations. Particular attention was focused upon identifying unique approaches which would lead to the formulation of a general mathematical model of multiphase/multi-component flow in fractured porous media. A model is presented which may be used to more accurately predict the movement of multi-phase fluids through such type formations. Equations of motion are derived for a multiphase/multicomponent fluid which is flowing through a double porosity, double permeability medium consisting of isotropic primary rock matrix blocks and an anisotropic fracture matrix system. The fractures are assumed to have a general statistical distribution in space and orientation. A general distribution function, called the fracture matrix function is introduced to represent the statistical nature of the fractures.

  3. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J

    2008-01-30

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase from a settled sample. This decant was not filtered prior to performing a warm nitric acid digestion of the material in order to measure the Si content by ICP-AES. Three Si standards, a blank, and a matrix standard were prepared and submitted along with the Tank 40 samples. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results reported here: (1) The elemental composition of this sample and the analyses conducted here are reasonable and consistent with DWPF batch data measurements; (2) There was no measurable Si in samples of Tank 40 decant; and (3) Ag and the Ru, Rh, and Pd noble metal concentrations agree well with the estimate used for the SB4 70/30 blend of SB3 and Tank 51 performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells.

  4. Leachate characterization and landfill-management implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J.; Pagano, J.J.; McDowell, W.H.; Lane, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Seneca Meadows sanitary landfill in Waterloo, New York, is permitted to manage 660,000 tons of municipal and non-hazardous industrial wastes annually. The approximate 100-acre facility consists of an older, unlined section bounded by nine discrete cells with compacted clay liners and leachate collection systems. Cells are divided into two or three subcells, each of which contain a discrete leachate collection system. Specific conductance, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pH were measured biweekly in samples collected from 18 subcells during the period July 1987 to July 1988. Spatial variability in leachate chemistry was high, with adjacent subcells varying as much as 100-fold in BOD concentrations. Data indicate that refuse buried in the newer cells at the Seneca Meadows Landfill is not decomposing rapidly; refuse stabilization appears to be delayed by a lack of sufficient moisture in the refuse mass. In several subcells it appears that the older portions of the landfill are the source of high-strength leachate. In some of the newer subcells, however, groundwater appears to be the major source of moisture.

  5. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

  6. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies.

  7. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. TANK 40 FINAL SB6 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2010-08-13

    A sample of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), and a portion of the sample was designated for SB6 processing studies. The SB6 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile composition, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB6. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB6 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids were allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 485 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples.

  9. Power plant material characterization by lasers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  10. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  11. TANK 40 FINAL SB7B CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-03-15

    A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB7b. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH{sup -}/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results reported here: (1) The ratios of the major elements for the SB7b WAPS sample are different from those measured for the SB7a WAPS sample. There is less Al and Mn relative to Fe than the previous sludge batch. (2) The elemental composition of this sample and the analyses conducted here are reasonable and consistent with DWPF batch data measurements in light of DWPF pre-sample concentration and SRAT product heel contributions to the DWPF SRAT receipt analyses. The element ratios for Al/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, and U/Fe agree within 10% between this work and the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt analyses. (3) Sulfur in the SB7b WAPS sample is 82% soluble, slightly less than results reported for SB3, SB4, and SB6 samples but unlike the 50% insoluble sulfur observed in the SB5 WAPS sample. In addition, 23% of the soluble sulfur is not present as sulfate in SB7b. (4) The average activities of the fissile isotopes of interest in the SB7b WAPS sample are (in {mu}Ci/g of total dried solids): 4.22E-02 U-233, 6.12E-04 U-235, 1.08E+01 Pu-239, and 5.09E+01 Pu-241. The full radionuclide composition will be reported in a future document. (5) The fission product noble metal and Ag concentrations appear to have largely peaked in previous DWPF sludge batches, with the exception of Ru, which still shows a slight increase in SB7b.

  12. Tank 40 Final SB7b Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-11-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass ? 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma ? atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma ? mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method.

  13. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described.

  14. Characterization of radio frequency HMC manufacturing processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckholz, K.A.; Taylor, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    A nondestructive inspection method for screening alumina substrates for proper values of dielectric constant and loss tangent was investigated. The method involves measuring the characteristics of a microstrip filter made with the substrate on a screening fixture. Acceptable accuracy was achieved when a relative deternmination approach to finding the dielectric constant was used; however, use of the screening fixture to test for values of loss tangent requires further study. 9 refs.

  15. CVD silicon carbide characterization. Final report, August 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, G.A.; Iden, D.

    1994-08-01

    Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide is a candidate material for high quality ground and space-based mirror substrates and high quality reflective optics. Statistically valid material property data has not been available, however, to make durability and lifetime predictions for such optics. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the Weibull and slow crack growth parameters for CVD silicon carbide. Specimens were cut from various locations in a 25 mm thick, 50 cm diameter piece of SiC to analyze bulk material property homogeneity. Flexural strength was measured using a four-point bend technique. In addition to mechanical testing for strength, hardness, and fracture toughness, the material crystallography and microstructure were studied. Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, optical absorption, and infrared reflectivity measurements were also conducted. Raman spectroscopy was used to check for any residual stress. Test results show this CVD silicon carbide is a high-purity, homogeneous, fine-grained substrate material with very good mechanical, optical, and thermal properties.

  16. SPECTROMICROSCOPY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DAVID, N.

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a prototype Cotiocal Hyperspectral Imaging Raman Microscope (CHIRM). The prototype consists of state of the art optical imaging hardware and integrated image acquisition and analysis software. We have tested this integrated instrument on a range of applications, including biomedical (red blood cell molecular imaging), weapons components characterization and novel molecular materials structure (artificial membranes). This new technology is clearly a highly versatile method for molecular specific imaging.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    drucker, jeff

    2014-08-18

    This project investigated the fundamental science of nanowire epitaxy using vapor-liquid-solid growth in the silicon-germanium material system. Ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV CVD) was the primary deposition method. Nanowires grown using UHV CVD were characterized ex situ using scanning electron microscopy and a variety of transmission electron microscopy techniques. In situ transmission electron microscopy was also employed to monitor growth in real time and was instrumental in elucidating growth mechanisms.

  18. MAGGIE Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siuzdak, Gary

    2012-11-05

    The mass spectrometry component of the MAGGIE effort included the generation of novel GTL technologies and comprehensive characterization to elucidate functional relationships and pathways. Toward this goal Component 4 has generated unique surface-based mass spectrometry and bioinformatic technologies as well as helped identified new biological interactions. The informatics and analytical technology platforms that we developed as well as the biochemistry that it has been developed for, are presented in detail in the attached document.

  19. 78 FR 44592 - Final General Management Plan, Final Wilderness Study, and Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan and Wilderness Study (Final EIS/GMP/WS) for Fort... policies and the purpose of the national monument, the Final EIS/GMP/WS will guide the management of the... the Final EIS/GMP/WS in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Electronic copies of the Final...

  20. Prometheus Project final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  1. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  2. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Silver

    2009-05-28

    The work done with DOE support during this 15 year period was extensive and successful. It is best summarized by the list of 58 publications (below) which reported progress made with DOE support. These are from the grant period and a few more recent reporting on grant research. Mostly these are primary research reports in reviewed journals. There are also, however, many summary reviews in review journals and in scientific monographs, as they also are key places for reporting research progress. What we did during this grant period (and much longer) was to characterize genetic determinants for bacterial resistances to additional toxic heavy metals of DOE concern, through starting with phenotypic properties of the resistant bacteria to DNA sequence determination and characterization of the genes involved. Over the years (and as shown in the list of publications), the toxic metal-forming elements we have studied included Ag, As, Cd, Cr, and Hg. In each case, we started with basically nothing (or very little) known, progressed through quite detailed understanding, until other laboratory groups also became strongly involved in related studies. More recently, with DOE support, we were the first laboratory group in the world to identify genes for bacterial resistance to silver salts (sil genes) and the closely related silver-and-copper resistance genes cus. This was initially reported in detail in Gupta et al. (1999; see publications list below). We also identified the first toxic metal 'gene island' (multiple transcripts and perhaps 25 genes each in need of detailed study) which encodes the subunits of arsenite oxidase (which we called aso; Silver and Phung, 2005; but most other researchers have subsequently settled on aox for the gene mnemonic). Both of these systems were firsts. Now a few years later, a search on GenBank shows that each is now represented by gene families with more than a dozen examples that have been identified and sequenced. Most of the additional

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Tanis

    2005-11-25

    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below.

  5. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion America’s technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee – Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  6. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  7. AIPM Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Mookken

    2006-06-30

    The final AIPM project report consists of six sections. Each section includes information on the original AIPM project and extension work on the high temperature design. The first section (1) provides an overview of the program and highlights the significant targets to meet at the end of the program. The next section (2) summarizes the significant technical accomplishments by the SEMIKRON AIPM team during the course of the project. Greater technical details are provided in a collection of all the quarterly reports which can be found in the appendix. Section three (3) presents some the more significant technical data collected from technology demonstrators. Section four (4) analyzes the manufacturing cost or economic aspects of producing 100,000 units/yr. Section five (5) describes the commercialization efforts of the AIPM technology into the automotive market. The last section (6) recommends follow on work that will build on the efforts and achievements of the AIPM program.

  8. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  9. Conference Summary Final Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Walter

    2007-05-01

    Finally we come to the last talk. The end of the Conference is near! I try to reflect on an interesting Conference, with many different - diverse - topics and 5 parallel afternoon sessions. How to solve this difficulty? I do it my way and present a selection of what I personally found interesting. I illustrate these topics with the help of slides which are borrowed from various speakers at the conference. There are outstanding problems, which will also find attention and interest if explained to non-nuclear physicists, common people. I will address four such topics which were were discussed at this conference: Heavy-Ion Cancer Therapy Extension of the Periodic Table - Superheavy Elements Nuclear Astrophysics Hot compressed elementary matter - Production - Phases

  10. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-09

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  11. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2013-09-10

    The biochemistry of bacterial proteins involved in redox transformations of metals and minerals is, without dispute, an important area of research. Nevertheless, most studies on bacterial metal transformation have focused not on biochemistry but on genetics and genomics. The objective of this research is to better understand the role of conformation change in electron transfer from cytochromes to minerals, a process that underpins respiratory metal reduction by bacteria in nature and in bioremediation strategies, including reductive immobilization of radioactive contaminants. Our DOE-funded work is specifically focused on answering long-standing questions about the biochemical behavior of these very interesting proteins, and our findings thus far have already made impacts in the fields of environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry. Among the key findings from the project are 1) Successful large-scale production of biomass for protein isolation; 2) Purification of several c-type cytochromes for biochemical study; 3) Characterization of these proteins using spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques; 4) Examination of protein conformational change and redox activity towards metal oxides using a small mass cytochrome c from Acidiphilium cryptum; 5) Proteomic characterization of A. cryptum biofilms; 6) Training of 2 undergraduate research assistants; 7) Publications and several meeting presentations.

  12. Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciolkosz, Daniel; Albright, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The initial focus of this GSRP project was to model and develop systems for optimized use of the Microwave lamp for use in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The microwave lamp, which has been developed for use in BLSS as part of a NASA small business innovation research (SBIR) grant, exhibits a number of characteristics that make it an excellent candidate for use in BLSS. However, we decided to shift the focus of the project, after discussions with scientists at KSC, to a broader question. Specifically, we decided to investigate the possibility of developing a decision tool for characterizing overall fighting system effectiveness in a plant growth system. It seemed pointless to optimize a microwave lamp for BLSS when there was no good way to decide what exactly an optimized system would look like. The problem is a complex one, involving multiple, conflicting objectives with irreconcilable units, significant constraints, and a wide range of relative importance among the objectives. The project would involve not only characterizing this complex decision process, but also would require some investigations into the physical properties of the lighting systems being considered. Thus, we turned to the field of Decision Modeling as a means of meeting this objective. After a thorough investigation of the literature, a technique was chosen and carefully developed. Implementation and analysis of the system are still in progress, and should be completed during the summer of 1999. Ancillary studies, which were conducted in the course of the project, have also been conducted, and are summarized below.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Xiaoxing

    2014-09-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a MgB2 superconducting RF (SRF) cavity technology. Compared to the currently-used SRF material niobium, MgB2 has a much higher Tc of 40 K, a lower residual resistivity (< 0.1 µΩcm), and a higher thermodynamic critical field Hc. SRF cavities with MgB2 coatings have the potentials for higher Q, higher gradient, and higher operation temperatures. A MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. In this project, we have made significant progresses in the deposition of large-area (2” diameter) MgB2 films for RF characterizations, deposition of MgB2 films on metal substrates including Nb, Mo, Ta, and stainless steel, enhancement of Hc1 with decreasing MgB2 film thickness, fabrication and characterization of MgB2/MgO multilayers, and deposition of MgB2 films of excellent superconducting properties on the wall of a 6-GHz RF cavity. These results have laid foundation for a MgB2 superconducting SRF cavity technology.

  14. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean; Tom Schechinger; Stuart Birrell; Jill Euken

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  16. Voyager Approaches Final Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.

    The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, Mayda

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  19. Tiger LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  20. Electrocatalytic hydrocracking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1992-06-01

    This report describes an electrocatalytic method for the chemical addition of hydrogen to a model hydrocarbon compound. In the method, hydrogen formed by water electrolysis at the counter electrode of an electrochemical cell is delivered via conduction through a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. The working electrode of the cell is, at the same time, a hydrocracking catalyst and therefore promotes the reaction of the hydrogen with the hydrocarbon. This process would have clear and distinct advantages over conventional hydroprocessing technologies in that the hydrogen concentration at the catalyst surface could be controlled and maintained by the applied electromotive force. This control would allow operation of the electrocatalytic reactor at ambient pressures instead of the extremely high hydrogen partial pressures required of conventional reactors. In addition, the direct delivery of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should inhibit coke formation and thus prolong the life of the catalyst. Finally, hydrogen utilization efficiencies should be greatly improved since the hydrogen is delivered directly to the reaction site thereby eliminating hydrogen solubility loss in the effluent stream. This report details the demonstration of (a) the ability of a solid electrolyte to perform as a catalyst, (b) the conduction of hydrogen through a solid electrolyte and (c) the simultaneous exploitation of these two properties. Hence, the essential concept of electrocatalytic hydrocracking has been demonstrated. An objective of future work in this area should be to determine whether the hydrocracking or hydrogenation reactions are actually enhanced during the electrocatalytic process when compared to the conventional catalytic process.

  1. Final technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel J. Candes

    2007-11-06

    In the last two dcades or so, many multiscale algorthms have been proposed to enable large scale computations which were thought as nearly intractable. For example, the fast multipole algorithm and other similar ideas have allowed to considerably speed up fundamental computations in electromagnetism, and many other fields. The thesis underlying this proposal is that traditional multiscale methods have been well-developed and it is clear that we now need new ideas in areas where traditional spatial multiscaling is ill-suited. In this context, the proposal argues that clever phase-space computations is bound to plan a crucial role in advancing algorithms and high-performance scientific computing. Our research past accomplishments have shown the existence of ideas beyond the traditional scale-space viewpoint such as new multiscale geometric representations of phase-space. We have shown that these clever representations lead to enhanced sparsity. We have shown that enhanced sparsity has significant important implications both for analysis, and for numerical applications, where sparsity allows for faster algorithms. We have implemented these ideas and built computational tools to be used as new building blocks of a new generation of wave propagation solvers. Finally, we have deployed these ideas into novel algorithms. In this last year, we assembled all these techniques and made significant progress in solving a variety of computational problems, which we then applied in selected areas of considerable scientific interest.

  2. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  3. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Pigarov

    2012-06-05

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  5. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  6. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Randolph

    2013-11-11

    Spider silks have the potential to provide new bio-inspired materials for numerous applications in bioenergetics and products ranging from protective clothing to artificial ligaments and tendons. A number of spider silk genes have been cloned and sequenced by the Lewis laboratory revealing the basis for understanding the key elements of spider silk proteins with respect to their materials performance. In particular, specific amino acid motifs have been identified which have been conserved for over 125 million years in all spiders that use their silk to physically trap prey. The key element in taking the next step toward generating bio-based materials from spider silks will be to move from the current descriptive data to predictive knowledge. Current efforts are focused on mimicking spider silk through synthetic proteins. In developing synthetic silk fibers, we first need to understand the complete secondary and tertiary structure of natural silk so that we can compare synthetic constructs to the natural material. Being able to compare the structure on a single fiber level is critical to the future of molecular directed mimic development because we can vary mechanical properties by different spinning methods. The new generation of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and neutron beamlines will allow, for the first time, determination of the molecular structure of silk fibers and synthetic mimics. We propose an exciting new collaborative research team working jointly between Argonne National Laboratory, Arizona State U. and the University of Wyoming to address the ?characterization of synthetic and natural spider silk fibers using x-ray and neutron diffraction.? Thus these new methodologies will provide understanding of current fibers and determine changes needed to produce fibers with specific properties. The following specific aims are proposed: ? Synthesize spider silk fibers with molecular structures mimicking that of natural silks. Test the mechanic properties of these

  7. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Bruce W

    2008-10-15

    Most prokaryotes of interest to DOE are poorly understood. Even when full genomic sequences are available, the function of only a small number of gene products are clear. The critical question is how to best infer the most probable network architectures in cells that are poorly characterized. The project goal is to create a computational hypothesis testing (CHT) framework that combines large-scale dynamical simulation, a database of bioinformatics-derived probable interactions, and numerical parallel architecture data-fitting routines to explore many “what if ?” hypotheses about the functions of genes and proteins within pathways and their downstream effects on molecular concentration profiles and corresponding phenotypes. From this framework we expect to infer signal transduction pathways and gene expression networks in prokaryotes. Detailed mechanistic models of E. Coli have been developed that directly incorporate DNA sequence information. The CHT framework is implemented in the NIEngine network inference software. NIEngine has been applied to recover gene regulatory networks in E. coli to assess performance. Application to Shewanel la oneidensi and other organism of interest DOE will be conducted in partnership with Jim Collin's Lab at Boston University and other academic partners. The CHT framework has also found broad application in the automated learning of biology for purposes of improving human health.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David B.

    2008-04-02

    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  9. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilewskie, Peter

    2009-05-27

    During the 1-year duration of this project a new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) was designed and developed for deployment at the Southern Great Plains Central Facility to measure zenith solar spectral radiance. The SWS is comprised of two Zeiss miniature monolithic spectrometers (MMS-1 and MMS-NIR) for visible and near-infrared detection in the wavelength range between 350 and 2250 nm. Spectral resolution is 8 nm for the MMS-1 and 12 nm for the MMS-NIR. The light collector is a narrow field of view (±1.5 º) collimator at the front end of a high-grade custom-made fiber optic bundle. The data acquisition and control system is a 933 MHz Pentium based PC in a PC104 format with a USB interface between the computer and the spectrometers. Spectral sampling rate is approximately 1 Hz. A prototype SWS was deployed at SGP in November and December 2004 and it collected zenith-sky solar spectra at 1 Hz continuously over a 29 day period. Prior to deployment it was calibrated and characterized at the NASA Ames Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) using a 30 inch Integrating Sphere. The SWS was also calibrated using a portable 12 inch integrating sphere at the Central Facility. The testing and calibration procedures were developed during this implementation. The planning and scheduling for permanent installation of the new SWS as well as data processing, calibration, archiving, and distribution was conducted.

  10. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Laub

    2008-12-29

    Our team of investigators from MIT (Michael Laub) and Stanford (Harley McAdams and Lucy Shapiro) conducted a multi-faceted, systematic experimental analysis of the 106 Caulobacter two-component signal transduction system proteins (62 histidine kinases and 44 response regulators) to understand how they coordinate cell cycle progression, metabolism, and response to environmental changes. These two-component signaling proteins were characterized at the genetic, biochemical, and genomic levels. The results generated by our laboratories have provided numerous insights into how Caulobacter cells sense and respond to a myriad of signals. As nearly all bacteria use two-component signaling for cell regulation, the results from this project help to deepen our general understanding of bacterial signal transduction. The tools and approaches developed can be applied to other bacteria. In particular, work from the Laub laboratory now enables the systematic, rational rewiring of two-component signaling proteins, a major advance that stands to impact synthetic biology and the development of biosensors and other designer molecular circuits. Results are summarized from our work. Each section lists publications and publicly-available resources which result from the work described.

  11. (Unraveling photosystems: Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, L.

    1987-01-09

    This project addresses the identification and characterization of thylakoid proteins and to understand their organization and function in photosynthesis. One segment of the work is to develop a reliable system for transforming, with foreign DNA, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 (S. 6803), which carries out oxygenic photosynthesis in the same manner as higher plants do and is a facultative photoheterotroph. The second part of the program deals with identifying photosynthetic genes coded by chloroplast DNA in higher plants. In the course of sequencing maize chloroplast DNA, unidentified open reading frames for proteins have been encountered. The protein products of these genes are found in photosynthetic membranes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria; in some cases traced to a functional thylakoid complex. To date, two S. 6803 genes corresponding to chloroplast genes for hitherto unrecognized thylakoid proteins have been identified and cloned. Another objective of the development of the transformation-gene deletion-gene replacement system is to be able to study functions of parts of a protein for which an individual gene codes and thus to understand the function of each component of the photosynthetic apparatus and its relationship with other proteins. We have explored the mechanism by which Cu/sup 2 +/ regulates the expression of plastocyanin vs cyt c/sub 552/ in Chlamydomonas rheinhardi. 65 refs.

  12. World Cup Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  13. MTX final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K.

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF RISKS POSED BY COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk characterization is the final step of the risk assessment process as practiced in the U.S. EPA. In risk characterization, the major scientific evidence and "bottom-line" results from the other components of the risk assessment process, hazard identification, dose-response as...

  15. ASEDRA Evaluation Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J; Detwiler, Dr. Rebecca; Sjoden, Dr, Glenn E.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of the Advanced Synthetically Enhanced Detector Resolution Algorithm (ASEDRA) was evaluated by performing a blind test of 29 sets of gamma-ray spectra that were provided by DNDO. ASEDRA is a post-processing algorithm developed at the Florida Institute of Nuclear Detection and Security at the University of Florida (UF/FINDS) that extracts char-acteristic peaks in gamma-ray spectra. The QuickID algorithm, also developed at UF/FINDS, was then used to identify nuclides based on the characteristic peaks generated by ASEDRA that are inferred from the spectra. The ASEDRA/QuickID analysis results were evaluated with respect to the performance of the DHSIsotopeID algorithm, which is a mature analysis tool that is part of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Data that were used for the blind test were intended to be challenging, and the radiation sources included thick shields around the radioactive materials as well as cargo containing naturally occurring radio-active materials, which masked emission from special nuclear materials and industrial isotopes. Evaluation of the analysis results with respect to the ground truth information (which was provided after the analyses were finalized) showed that neither ASEDRA/QuickID nor GADRAS could identify all of the radiation sources correctly. Overall, the purpose of this effort was primarily to evaluate ASEDRA, and GADRAS was used as a standard against which ASEDRA was compared. Although GADRAS was somewhat more accurate on average, the performance of ASEDRA exceeded that of GADRAS for some of the unknowns. The fact that GADRAS also failed to identify many of the radiation sources attests to the difficulty of analyzing the blind-test data that were used as a basis for the evaluation. This evaluation identified strengths and weaknesses of the two analysis approaches. The importance of good calibration data was also clear because the performance of both analysis methods was impeded by the

  16. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  17. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant`s lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J

    2009-12-31

    Final Technical Report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER55005 Nonlinear FLR Effects in Reduced Fluid Models Alain J. Brizard, Saint Michael's College The above-mentioned DoE grant was used to support research activities by the PI during a sabbatical leave from Saint Michael's College in 2009. The major focus of the work was the role played by guiding-center and gyrocenter (linear and nonlinear) polarization and magnetization effects in understanding transport processes in turbulent magnetized plasmas. The theoretical tools used for this work include Lie-transform perturbation methods and Lagrangian (variational) methods developed by the PI in previous work. The present final technical report lists (I) the peer-reviewed publications that were written based on work funded by the Grant; (II) invited and contributed conference presentations during the period funded by the Grant; and (III) seminars presented during the period funded by the Grant. I. Peer-reviewed Publications A.J. Brizard and N. Tronko, 2011, Exact momentum conservation for the gyrokinetic Vlasov- Poisson equations, Physics of Plasmas 18 , 082307:1-14 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3625554 ]. J. Decker, Y. Peysson, A.J. Brizard, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2010, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112513:1-12 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3519514]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Noether derivation of exact conservation laws for dissipationless reduced fluid models, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112503:1-8 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3515303]. F.-X. Duthoit, A.J. Brizard, Y. Peysson, and J. Decker, 2010, Perturbation analysis of trapped particle dynamics in axisymmetric dipole geometry, Physics of Plasmas 17, 102903:1-9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3486554]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Exact energy conservation laws for full and truncated nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, Physics of Plasmas 17, 042303:1-11 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3374428]. A

  19. Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles R

    2012-12-31

    The response of dielectric material to electromagnetic waves in the millimeter wavelength range (30 to 300 GHz) has received relatively little study and the processes that give rise to absorption in this region are often poorly understood. Understanding the origin of absorption at these wavelengths has basic significance for solid state physics as well as importance for development of technology in this region of the RF spectrum. This project has provided high-quality data on the temperature dependence of the dielectric loss in high-purity, semi-insulating silicon carbide (HPSI SiC), a material that holds much promise for application, especially in devices that must operate in the high power and high frequency regime. Comparison of this experimental data with theoretical predictions for various loss processes provides convincing evidence that the loss in HPSI SiC arises almost entirely from intrinsic lattice loss (ILL) as described by Garin. Fitting the data to this model yields an accurate value for the Debye temperature that characterizes crystalline SiC. In addition, our results refute a previous study(2) which reported much higher loss, attributed to the presence of free charge. The quality of the data acquired in this project is clear evidence for the value of the experimental technique that was employed here. This technique combines the excitation of a high-quality open resonator by a phase-locked backward wave oscillator (BWO) with use of a spectrum analyzer to measure the change in the resonator response curve when the sample is inserted. This system has demonstrated consistent results for very challenging measurements and does not suffer from the artifacts that often arise when using other techniques that rely on thermal sources. The low absorption loss found in HPSI SiC, when combined with its other outstanding material properties, e.g. high thermal conductivity, high tensile strength, and high carrier mobility, should provide incentive for designers to

  20. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Asok K. Ray

    2012-05-22

    During the past decades, considerable theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the electronic and geometric structures and related properties of surfaces. Such efforts are particularly important for systems like the actinides for which experimental work is relatively difficult to perform due to material problems and toxicity. The actinides are characterized by a gradual filling of the 5f-electron shell with the degree of localization increasing with the atomic number Z along the last series of the periodic table. The open shell of the 5f electrons determines the atomic, molecular, and solid state properties of the actinide elements and their compounds and understanding the quantum mechanics of the 5f electrons is the defining issue in the chemistry and physics of actinide elements. These elements are also characterized by the increasing prominence of relativistic effects and their studies can, in fact, help us understand the role of relativity throughout the periodic table. However, the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides, specifically the trans-uranium actinides and the roles of the 5f electrons in chemical bonding are still not well understood. This is crucial not only for our understanding of the actinides but also for the fact that the actinides constitute 'the missing link' between the d transition elements and the lanthanides. The 5f orbitals have properties intermediate between those of localized 4f and delocalized 3d orbitals. Thus, a proper understanding of the actinides will help us understand the behavior of the lanthanides and transition metals as well. In fact, there is an urgent need for continued extensive and detailed theoretical research in this area to provide significant and deep understandings of the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides. In this work, we have performed electronic structure studies for plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) surfaces, and molecular adsorptions on Pu and Am

  1. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Loren F. Goodrich

    2011-05-31

    to meet the aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I{sub c} testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I{sub c} measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I{sub c} results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I{sub c}(B,T,{var_epsilon}), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, {var_epsilon}) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance. In the

  2. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  3. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    The mission of the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM) was to serve the Department of Energy and the nation as a center of excellence dedicated to advancing basic research in nano-structured materials and devices for applications to solar electricity, thermoelectric conversion of waste heat to electricity, and solidstate lighting. The foundation of CEEM was based on the unique capabilities of UCSB and its partner institutions to control, synthesize, characterize, model, and apply materials at the nanoscale for more efficient sustainable energy resources. This unique expertise was a key source of the synergy that unified the research of the Center. Although the Center’s focus was basic research, It’s longer-term objective has been to transfer new materials and devices into the commercial sector where they will have a substantial impact on the nation’s need for efficient sustainable energy resources. As one measure of the impact of the Center, two start-up companies were formed based on its research. In addition, Center participants published a total of 210 archival journal articles, of which 51 were exclusively sponsored by the DOE grant. The work of the Center was structured around four specific tasks: Organic Solar Cells, Solid-State Lighting, Thermoelectrics, and High Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic devices. A brief summary of each follows – detailed descriptions are in Sections 4 & 5 of this report. Research supported through CEEM led to an important shift with respect to the choice of materials used for the fabrication of solution deposited organic solar cells. Solution deposition opens the opportunity to manufacture solar cells via economically-viable high throughput tools, such as roll to roll printing. Prior to CEEM, most organic semiconductors utilized for this purpose involved polymeric materials, which, although they can form thin films reliably, suffer from batch to batch variations due to the statistical nature of the chemical

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2009-09-08

    emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or asymmetric configurations lacking magnetic null lines. The collisionless electron energization in a toroidal null line usually produces non-Maxwellian distributions. Off the null axis electrons gain more perpendicular than parallel energy. Distributions with T{sub {perpendicular}} > T{sub {parallel}} lead to whistler instabilities which have been observed. A whistler spheromak is a source of high-frequency whistler emissions. These are usually small amplitude whistlers propagating in a complicated background magnetic field. The waves are emitted from a moving source. High frequency whistlers propagate faster than the spheromak, thus partly move ahead of it and partly in the reverse direction. In test wave experiments wave growth opposite to the direction of the hot electron flow has been observed, confirming that Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance instabilities account for the emission process. Propagating whistler mirrors produce no significant instabilities except when they interact with other fields which exhibit null lines. For example, a whistler mirror has been launched against a stationary FRC, resulting in strong FRC heating and whistler instabilities. In the whistler mirror configuration the antenna near-zone field produces a toroidal null line outside the coil which can also become a source for whistler emissions. Finally, nonlinear EMHD research has been extended to initially unmagnetized plasmas where a new nonlinear skin depth has been discovered. When a small-amplitude oscillating magnetic field is applied to a plasma the field penetration is governed by the skin depth, collisional or collisionless depending on frequency, collision frequency and plasma frequency. However, when the magnetic field increases the electrons become magnetized and the field penetration occurs in the whistler mode if the cyclotron frequency exceeds the oscillating frequency. This phenomenon has been

  5. In-Situ Radiation Detection Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MOHAGHEGHI,AMIR H.; REESE,ROBERT; MILLER,DAVID R.; MILLER,MARK LAVERNE; DUCE,STEPHEN

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has hundreds of facilities where radioactive materials have been used or are being used, including firing ranges, low-level radioactive waste disposal areas, and areas where past activities have resulted in environmental contamination. Affected sites range in size from a few acres to square miles. Impact to the DoD comes through military base closure and release to the public. It is important that radioactive contaminants are remediated to levels that result in acceptable risk to the public. Remediation requires characterization studies, e.g., sampling and surveys, to define the affected areas, removal actions, and final confirmatory sampling and surveys. Characterization of surface contamination concentrations has historically been performed using extensive soil sampling programs in conjunction with surface radiation surveys conducted with hand-held radiation monitoring equipment. Sampling is required within the suspect affected area and a large buffer area. Surface soil contaminant characterization using soil sampling and hand held monitoring are costly, time consuming, and result in long delays between submission of samples for analysis and obtaining of final results. This project took an existing, proven radiation survey technology that has had limited exposure and improved its capabilities by documenting correlation factors for various detector/radionuclide geometries that commonly occur in field surveys. With this tool, one can perform characterization and final release surveys much more quickly than is currently possible, and have detection limits that are as good as or better than current technology. This paper will discuss the capabilities of a large area plastic scintillation detector used in conjunction with a global positioning system (GPS) to improve site characterization, remediation, and final clearance surveys of the radioactively contaminated site. Survey results can rapidly identify areas that require remediation as

  6. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  7. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  8. Carbon bridged triphenolate lanthanide complexes: synthesis, characterization, DFT studies and catalytic activities for isoprene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Liang, Zhenhua; Ling, Jun; Ni, Xufeng; Shen, Zhiquan

    2015-06-28

    The dinuclear lanthanide complexes [Ln2(L)2(THF)n] (Ln = Nd (1) n = 4, Gd (2) n = 3, Lu (3) n = 2) supported by carbon bridged triphenolate ligands [LH3 = tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)methane] were synthesized via a salt metathesis reaction between lanthanide trichlorides and LNa3 in THF. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography, and complex 3 was characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Agostic interactions were found in these complexes and were further substantiated by DFT calculations of complex 3. These lanthanide complexes in combination with aluminum alkyls and [Ph3C](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) generated efficient homogeneous catalysts for the cis-1,4 polymerization of isoprene, with complex 1 having the best catalytic activity. PMID:26008592

  9. Final focus system for TLC

    SciTech Connect

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  11. Final Vowel-Consonant-e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmeister, Lou E.

    The utility value of the final vowel-consonant-e phonic generalization was examined using 2,715 common English words. When the vowel was defined as a single-vowel, the consonant as a single-consonant, and the final e as a single-e the generalization was found to be highly useful, contrary to other recent findings. Using the total sample of 2,715…

  12. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  13. Neutron activation of NIF Final Optics Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaraman, S.; Dauffy, L.; Khater, H.; Brereton, S.

    2010-08-01

    Analyses were performed to characterize the radiation field in the vicinity of the Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) due to neutron activation following Deuterium-Deuterium (DD), Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD), and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) shots associated with different phases of the NIF operations. The activation of the structural components of the FOAs produces one of the larger sources of gamma radiation and is a key factor in determining the stay out time between shots to ensure worker protection. This study provides estimates of effective dose rates in the vicinity of a single FOA and concludes that the DD and THD targets produce acceptable dose rates within10 minutes following a shot while about 6-days of stay out time is suggested following DT shots. Studies are ongoing to determine the combined effects of multiple FOAs and other components present in the Target Bay on stay-out time and worker dose.

  14. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal.

  15. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  16. Characterizing extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary radius, mass, and orbital parameters. I also show how visible-light and infrared spectroscopy can be valuable tools for understanding the composition, temperature, and dynamics of the atmospheres of transiting planets. Finally, I relate the outcome of a participatory lecture-hall exercise relating to one term in the Drake equation, namely the lifetime of technical civilizations.

  17. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal. PMID:21242176

  18. Transducer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, B. T.; Eoff, J. M.; Schuetz, L. J.; Cunningham, K. R.

    1980-07-02

    This report has been prepared specifically for ultrasonic transducer users within the Nondestructive Testing Evaluation (NDE) community of the weapons complex. The purpose of the report is to establish an initial set of uniform procedures for measuring and recording transducer performance data, and to establish a common foundation on which more comprehensive transducer performance evaluations may be added as future transducer performance criteria expands. Transducer parameters and the problems with measuring them are discussed and procedures for measuring transducer performance are recommended with special precautionary notes regarding critical aspects of each measurement. An important consideration regarding the recommended procedures is the cost of implementation. There are two distinct needs for transducer performance characterization in the complex. Production oriented users need a quick, reliable means to check a transducer to ascertain its suitability for continued service. Development groups and the Transducer Center need a comprehensive characterization means to collect adequate data to evaluate theoretical concepts or to build exact replacement transducers. The instrumentation, equipment, and procedures recommended for monitoring production transducers are utilitarian and provide only that information needed to determine transducer condition.

  19. Vertical-junction solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-20

    The goal of this program was to develop and evaluate an acceptable coversliding technology for vertical-junction solar cells. The technical program was divided into the following sub-tasks: 1.0. to fabricate 80 vertical junction cells of most recent configuration for evaluation as individual samples and for test-module assembly. 2.1. to develop a satisfactory method for coversliding V.J. cells to withstand deep thermal cycle in space. 2.2. to establish welding parameters for V.J. cells and evaluate their weldability. 3.0. Using techniques from 2.1 and 2.2 four modules (4 cell each) to be fabricated and thermal cycled in dry nitrogen (115 c to +125 c 25 cycles) and thermal vacuum tested at 135 c. 4.0. based on results of tasks 2 and 3, two six cell modules to be designed: 1 soldered, 1 welded, and design to be discussed with COTR prior to finalization and 5.0. final design to be fabricated subjected to a thermal vacuum test at +135 c, thermal cycled -115 c to + 125 c, and characterized by I-V measurements and delivered to NRL for testing and evaluation.

  20. Final Technical Report of Research

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Taube, H.

    1972-04-03

    The studies conducted embrace the following subject areas: ion solvation, mechanistic studies on substitution reactions in metal complexes, oxidation of coordinated ligands, mechanistic studies on electron transfer reactions, preparation and characterization of new species in the aquo and ammino systems.

  1. MPO B593110 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brooksby, C

    2011-07-25

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) shall provide one (1) Mechanical Engineer to support the Linear Collider Subsystem Development Program at Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS). The NSTec Mechanical Engineer's efforts will include engineering, design, and drawing support for the Vacuum Seal Test. NSTec will also provide a final report of the setup and input to LLNL's project management on project status. The NSTec Mechanical Engineer's efforts will also include engineering, design, and drawing support to the conceptual design for manufacturing of the Flux Concentrator Magnet. NSTec will also contribute to LLNS's final report on the Flux Concentrator Magnet. The deliverables are drawings, sketches, engineering documents, and final reports delivered to the LLNS Technical Representative.

  2. JANUS characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The JANUS Reactor was operated from 1965 to 1992. All of the fuel was removed and shipped offsite in 1993. To provide information for use in finalizing the planning for the decommissioning of the reactor, the Health Physics Section of Argonne National Laboratory performed a characterization of the facility in January and February 1996. The characterization included measurements for radioactivity, hazardous materials, lead in wall paint, and asbestos. Measurements and smear samples for surface contamination were collected from every wall, ceiling and floor of the facility. Samples to determine activity concentrations were collected from vertical and horizontal corings into the reactor shield and foundation, and from coring into walls of the high dose and low dose rooms. Soil samples were collected outdoors from two drill holes, one south and one north of the JANUS exhaust stack. The predominant radionuclides detected were {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu. The highest exposure rate was 175 mR/h at the center of the reactor core. No hazardous materials were found in pits or sumps. There are 20 identified areas with asbestos and 7 objects with lead based paint.

  3. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions

  4. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  5. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  6. The Thy Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billimoria, Roshan R., Ed.

    Inspiried by a United Nations effort to establish a worldwide university, the four and one-half year project carried out in Thy (Denmark) is explained in this final report, from its historical beginnings in 1973 to its official completion in 1978. Dedicated to the solution of problems which could be considered universal, the project goals are…

  7. Stable Black Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    This document is the final report of a study conducted to determine what factors contribute to strong Black family life and how these strong families solve problems, in order to add to the knowledge base on stable families so as to enhance practical intervention with families in need, and to identify models of self-help strategies used by stable…

  8. The Trine Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Jon R.; And Others

    The final report describes the Trine Project which addressed three needs in the education of handicapped children: the need for an alternate writing system, the need for communication, and the need for access to general purpose computers used in the schools. The project had three major objectives: (1) to design a low-cost portable writing and…

  9. Project Dakota Outreach: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjerland, Linda

    This final report describes the activities of Project Dakota Outreach, an early education program for children with disabilities designed to assist families living in Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Empowerment and Enterprise Zones in Texas, New York, and Minnesota. The major feature of the model is power-balancing, a concept…

  10. Deaths: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…

  11. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  12. SLC Final Performance and Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, Nan

    2000-10-25

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) was the first prototype of a new type of accelerator, the electron-positron linear collider. Many years of dedicated effort were required to understand the physics of this new technology and to develop the techniques for maximizing performance. Key issues were emittance dilution, stability, final beam optimization and background control. Precision, non-invasive diagnostics were required to measure and monitor the beams throughout the machine. Beam-based feedback systems were needed to stabilize energy, trajectory, intensity and the final beam size at the interaction point. variety of new tuning techniques were developed to correct for residual optical or alignment errors. The final focus system underwent a series of refinements in order to deliver sub-micron size beams. It also took many iterations to understand the sources of backgrounds and develop the methods to control them. The benefit from this accumulated experience was seen in the performance of the SLC during its final run in 1997-98. The luminosity increased by a factor of three to 3*10 30 and the 350,000 Z data sample delivered was nearly double that from all previous runs combined.

  13. Multihandicapped Blind. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lloyd

    The final report of the Garden Grove unified school district project for 1969 through 1972 (funded through Title III) involving six multiply handicapped, legally blind children, 7- to 10-years-old, who were previously excluded from special education (SE) classes is presented. Described as the main procedural objective is development of a…

  14. Environmental Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Joan; Batty, Sara O.

    This final report deals with the efforts of the Environmental Action Coalition of New York City to change its network of recycling centers from collection points to educational centers for learning about solid waste and related environmental problems. This change was accomplished by first increasing the efficiency and the stability of the centers…

  15. Russian Cargo Craft Final Undocking

    NASA Video Gallery

    The ISS Progress 47 resupply vehicle, loaded with trash, undocked from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment for the final time July 30 at 5:19 p.m. EDT. The cargo ship undo...

  16. LSCA Final Reports: Third Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Collin, Ed.

    This document includes final summary reports from 16 recent federally funded Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) projects in California. This volume covers generally the period 1984-85, and reports are presented in six subject areas: programs for children, information and referral projects, institutional services, literacy, local history,…

  17. Space storable propellant performance program coaxial injector characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize the circular coaxial injector concept for application with the space-storable gas/liquid propellant combination FLOX(82.6% F2)/CH4(g) at high pressure. The primary goal of the program was to obtain high characteristic velocity efficiency in conjunction with acceptable injector/chamber compatibility. A series of subscale (single element) cold flow and hot fire experiments was employed to establish design criteria for a 3000-lbf (sea level) engine operating at 500 psia. The subscale experiments characterized both high performance core elements and peripheral elements with enhanced injector/chamber compatibility. The full-scale injector which evolved from the study demonstrated a performance level of 99 percent of the theoretical shifting characteristic exhaust velocity with low chamber heat flux levels. A 44-second-duration firing demonstrated the durability of the injector. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular, coaxial injectors that operate with injection dynamics (fuel and oxidizer velocity, etc.) similar to those employed in the work reported.

  18. Originating super-strong liquid crystalline polymers (SSLCPs). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill focused on the experimental characterization of ring mobility in labeled polyaramides with deuterium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Los Alamos National Laboratory prepared the deuterium-labeled analogs of Super-Strong (SS), Liquid Crystalline Polymers (LCPs) and oligomers. These materials were studied to ascertain the influence of substituent size (at the diacid moiety) on the mobility of the labeled diamine. The results are currently being finalized for publication.

  19. Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

    2001-01-01

    This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

  20. Expedited technology demonstration project final report: final forms

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R W

    1999-05-01

    ETDP Final Forms was an attempt to demonstrate the fabrication and performance of a ceramic waste form immobilizing the hazardous and radioactive elements of the MSO/SR mineral residues. The ceramic material had been developed previously. The fabrication system was constructed and functioned as designed except for the granulator. Fabrication of our particular ceramic, however, proved unsatisfactory. The ceramic material design was therefore changed toward the end of the project, replacing nepheline with zircon as the sink for silica. Preliminary results were encouraging, but more development is needed. Fabrication of the new ceramic requires major changes in the processing: Calcination and granulation would be replaced by spray drying; and sintering would be at higher temperature. The main goal of the project--demonstrating the fabrication and performance of the waste form--was not achieved. This report summarizes Final Forms' activities. The problem of immobilizing the MSO/SR mineral residues is discussed.

  1. CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Jessica

    2011-08-31

    This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.

  2. Luminosities for Final Flash Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth; Joyce, Richard; Lebzelter, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    A brief yet common evolutionary process is a post-AGB final episode of helium shell burning. This occurs after a low mass star has ejected a planetary nebula and has started on the white dwarf track. Seven stars are now classified with varying degrees of certainty as one of these ``final flash'' objects. Two of these have actually been observed to eject a shell of gas first as a pseudo-photosphere and then as a thick dust envelope. The dust envelopes are expanding at ~100 km s^-1. We propose AO imaging of the circumstellar shells to measure changes from images recorded a decade or more ago. From these changes we will determine geometric parallaxes and hence luminosities. The luminosity will be compared to stellar evolution models. In an additional challenge to models we will calibrate the He I emission line flux and through this the mass loss rate from the fast stellar wind.

  3. [Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and edema disease (ED)].

    PubMed

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Cappuccio, Javier A; Insarralde, Lucas; Perfumo, Carlos J; Quiroga, María A; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and three pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 %) of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and 2 (4.5 %) as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Fourteen (33.3 %) ETEC strains were positive for est/estII/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estI/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stx2e/aidA carriers. Eleven (25 %) strains carried the gene encoding adhesin protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED. PMID:22997765

  4. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Holmes

    2005-12-31

    This document is the final report on the work completed on DE-FG02-95ER25238 since the start of the second renewal period: Jan 1, 2001. It supplements the annual reports submitted in 2001 and 2002. In the renewal proposal I envisaged work in three main areas: Analytical and topological tools for studying flows and maps Low dimensional models of fluid flow Models of animal locomotion and I describe the progess made on each project.

  5. Inelastic final-state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Mahiko; Suzuki, Mahiko

    2007-10-29

    The final-state interaction in multichannel decay processes is systematically studied with application to B decay in mind. Since the final-state interaction is intrinsically interwoven with the decay interaction in this case, no simple phase theorem like"Watson's theorem" holds for experimentally observed final states. We first examine in detail the two-channel problem as a toy-model to clarify the issues and to remedy common mistakes made in earlier literature. Realistic multichannel problems are too challenging for quantitative analysis. To cope with mathematical complexity, we introduce a method of approximation that is applicable to the case where one prominent inelastic channel dominates over all others. We illustrate this approximation method in the amplitude of the decay B to pi K fed by the intermediate states of a charmed meson pair. Even with our approximation we need more accurate information of strong interactions than we have now. Nonetheless we are able to obtain some insight in the issue and draw useful conclusions on general features on the strong phases.

  6. Inelastic final-state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Mahiko

    2008-03-01

    The final-state interaction in multichannel decay processes is systematically studied in the hadronic picture with application to B decay in mind. Since the final-state interaction is intrinsically interwoven with the decay interaction in this case, no simple phase theorem like ''Watson's theorem'' holds for experimentally observed final states. We first solve exactly the two-channel problem as a toy model in order to clarify the issues. The constraints of the two-channel approximation turns out to be too stringent for most B decay modes, but realistic multichannel problems are too complex for useful quantitative analysis at present. To alleviate the stringent constraints of the two-body problem and to cope with complexity beyond it, we introduce a method of approximation that is applicable to the case where one prominent inelastic channel dominates over all others. We illustrate this approximation method with the amplitude of the decay B{yields}K{pi} fed by the intermediate states of a charmed-meson pair. Even with our approximation we need more accurate information of strong interactions than we have now. Nonetheless we are able to obtain some insight in the issue and draw useful conclusions on general features on the strong phases.

  7. 75 FR 29915 - Direct Final Rulemaking Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Transportation published a final rule adopting direct final rule procedures (69 FR 4455) and the Federal Railroad Administration published a final rule adopting direct final rule ] procedures on March 7, 2007 (72 FR 10086... Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19476) or you may visit http://dms.dot.gov ....

  8. Orion: The Final Epoch (OrionTFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, Tom; Allen, Tom; Arce, Hector; Booker, Joseph; Calvet, Nuria; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, Will; Gonzales, Beatriz; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartman, Lee; Henning, Thomas; Hora, Joe; Karnath, Nicole; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kounkel, Marina; Mazur, Brian; Offner, Stella; Osorio, Mayra; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Pipher, Judy; Prchlik, Jakub; Rebull, Luisa; Terebey, Susan; Tobin, John; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; Watson, Dan; Wolk, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The Orion molecular clouds are an essential laboratory for studying low mass star formation over the broad range of environments in which they form. Starting with the Spitzer survey of Orion in 2004, more than a decade of observations with Spitzer, WISE, HST and Herschel, have accumulated an unparalleled characterization of the young stellar object population in Orion. We propose a final epoch of observations divided into two separate, complementary observations: A repeat of the entire Orion molecular cloud survey to 1.) identify ejected stars from clusters, 2.) measure the bulk proper motions of groups and clusters of stars, 3.) constrain the rate of luminous, accretion driven outbursts from both protostars and pre-main sequence stars with disks and 4.) use proper motions of IR Herbig-Haro knots as a fossil record of previous accretion events. A high cadence variability survey of the L1641 cloud extending the YSOVAR variability survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster across the Orion A cloud with the goals of 1.) constraining the star formation history of Orion A, 2.) studying the evolution of mid-IR variability from the protostellar to pre-main sequence phase, 3.) searching for periodicities in (nearly) edge-on protostars and disks due to orbiting clumps and structures from orbiting planets, and 4.) assessing whether inner disk processes - as traced by variability - are affected by their birth environment. This program completes an unparalleled, > 12 year multi-epoch, mid-IR study of the nearest large molecular cloud complex with both a wide spatial coverage and a uniformity that will not be exceeded in the forseeable future. It will place unique constraints on the highly dynamic processes that control low mass star formation, serve as a pathfinder to molecular cloud surveys of WFIRST, and provide well characterized targets needed to study mass accretion and planet formation around young low mass stars with SOFIA and JWST.

  9. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  10. Field practice internship final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.

    1994-05-01

    This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

  11. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Virtualized Network Control. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, Nasir

    2013-02-01

    This document is the final report for the Virtualized Network Control (VNC) project, which was funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. This project was also informally referred to as Advanced Resource Computation for Hybrid Service and TOpology NEtworks (ARCHSTONE). This report provides a summary of the project's activities, tasks, deliverable, and accomplishments. It also provides a summary of the documents, software, and presentations generated as part of this projects activities. Namely, the Appendix contains an archive of the deliverables, documents, and presentations generated a part of this project.

  13. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  14. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P.

    1995-05-01

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  15. Technical approach to groundwater restoration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures.

  16. The Final Stages of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D.

    2014-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars end their lives as white dwarf stars. These stars and their environs have a deep personal significance for humanity: this is the expected fate of our own sun. Once a star becomes a white dwarf, its remaining evolution is best described as an exponential cooling. In the final throws of post-main sequence mass-loss the former stellar core becomes a white dwarf, emerging phoenix-like from amongst the ashes. Some planets may survive and others may form as a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. Life may survive or may be reborn on any planets that remain; life may also arise on newly formed planets. The prospects will depend in a significant way on the timescales of the central white dwarf star's cooling evolution and how its radiation shapes the environment. We will discuss white dwarf evolutionary timescales with an eye towards the potential habitability of planets, both new and old. We will consider the uncertainties in these timescales from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. We will critique the existing evidence for planets and summarize what we have learned so far through direct imaging and stellar pulsations. We will close with the very bright prospects for the future of planets and life in the final stages.

  17. Space tug applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This article is the final report of the conceptual design efforts for a `space tug`. It includes preliminary efforts, mission analysis, configuration analysis, impact analysis, and conclusions. Of the several concepts evaluated, the nuclear bimodal tug was one of the top candidates, with the two options being the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 systems. Several potential tug benefits were identified during the mission analysis. The tug enables delivery of large (>3,500 kg) payloads to the outer planets and it increases the GSO delivery capability by 20% relative to current systems. By providing end of life disposal, the tug can be used to extend the life of existing space assets. It can also be used to reboost satellites which were not delivered to their final orbit by the launch system. A specific mission model is the key to validating the tug concept. Once a mission model can be established, mission analysis can be used to determine more precise propellant quantities and burn times. In addition, the specific payloads can be evaluated for mass and volume capability with the launch systems. Results of the economic analysis will be dependent on the total years of operations and the number of missions in the mission model. The mission applications evaluated during this phase drove the need for large propellant quantities and thus did not allow the payloads to step down to smaller and less expensive launch systems.

  18. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  19. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time.

  20. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  1. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  2. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  3. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  4. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  5. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Beverages: bottled water. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water quality standard regulations by revising the existing allowable level for the contaminant arsenic. As a consequence, bottled water manufacturers are required to monitor their finished bottled water products for arsenic at least once each year under the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers are also required to monitor their source water for arsenic as often as necessary, but at least once every year unless they meet the criteria for the source water monitoring exemptions under the CGMP regulations. This final rule will ensure that the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by arsenic, remains comparable with the quality of public drinking water that meets the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards.

  7. The final portrait of Christ.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, K

    1989-09-01

    Artistic presentations of Jesus are as numerous and varied as the artists who created them. Whether on canvas or in music, Jesus has been portrayed as a redeemer, revolutionary, teacher, and clown. While some people are inspired by a particular presentation of Jesus, others are angered and incensed at what they perceive to be blasphemous. An example of the latter is Martin Scorsese's film, "The Last Temptation of Christ." This article examines why people responded so negatively to this and other artistic presentations of Jesus. It suggests they have failed to recognize how the portrayal reflects a personal experience of the artist and is not meant to be a final portrait of Christ. And on a more unconscious level, these works of art evoke feelings within people which they fear to acknowledge and which they escape by condemning the work. PMID:24276910

  8. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  9. The final portrait of Christ.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, K

    1989-09-01

    Artistic presentations of Jesus are as numerous and varied as the artists who created them. Whether on canvas or in music, Jesus has been portrayed as a redeemer, revolutionary, teacher, and clown. While some people are inspired by a particular presentation of Jesus, others are angered and incensed at what they perceive to be blasphemous. An example of the latter is Martin Scorsese's film, "The Last Temptation of Christ." This article examines why people responded so negatively to this and other artistic presentations of Jesus. It suggests they have failed to recognize how the portrayal reflects a personal experience of the artist and is not meant to be a final portrait of Christ. And on a more unconscious level, these works of art evoke feelings within people which they fear to acknowledge and which they escape by condemning the work.

  10. Oxygen-bridged borate anions from tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane: synthesis, NMR characterization, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Di Saverio, Alessia; Focante, Francesca; Camurati, Isabella; Resconi, Luigi; Beringhelli, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Donghi, Daniela; Maggioni, Daniela; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Sironi, Angelo

    2005-07-11

    The previously known anion [(C6F5)3B(mu-OH)B(C6F5)3]- (2) has been prepared by a two-step procedure, involving deprotonation of (C6F5)3BOH2 to give [B(C6F5)3OH]- (1), followed by addition of B(C6F5)3. The solution structure and the dynamics of 2 have been investigated by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. The reaction of [NHEt3]2 with NEt3 resulted in the formation of [NHEt3]+ [(C6F5)3BOH]-, [NHEt3]+ [(C6F5)3BH]-, and (C6F5)3B- (CH2CH=N+ Et2). This indicates that in the presence of a nucleophile anion 2 can dissociate to B(C6F5)3 and 1. The reaction of [HDMAN]2 with 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) confirmed this trend. In the presence of water, 2 transformed into the adduct [(C6F5)3BO(H)H...O(H)B(C6F5)3]- (3), containing the borate 1 hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule coordinated to B(C6F5)3. The same compound is formed by treating (C6F5)3BOH2 with 0.5 equiv of a base. A competition study established that for 1 the Lewis acid-base interaction with B(C6F5)3 is about 5 times preferred over H-bonding to (C6F5)3BOH2. The X-ray single-crystal analysis of [2-methyl-3H-indolium]3 provided the first experimental observation of an asymmetric H-bond in the [H3O2]- moiety, the measured O-H and H...O bond distances being significantly different [1.14(2) vs 1.26(2) A]. The reaction of NEt3 with an equimolar mixture of B(C6F5)3 and bis(pentafluorophenyl)borinic acid, (C6F5)2BOH, afforded the novel borinatoborate salt [NHEt3]+ [(C6F5)3BOB(C6F5)2]- ([NHEt3]4). X-ray diffraction showed that the B-O bond distances are significantly shorter than in [(C6F5)3B(mu-OH)B(C6F5)3]-. Variable-temperature 19F NMR revealed high mobility of the five aryl rings, at variance with the more crowded anion 2. 2D NMR correlation experiments showed that in CD2Cl2 the two anions [(C6F5)3BOH]- and [(C6F5)3BH]- form tight ion pairs with [NHEt3]+, in which the NH proton establishes a conventional (BO...HN) or an unconventional (BH...HN), respectively, hydrogen bond with the anion. The diborate anions 2

  11. Application specific compression : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  12. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  13. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  17. Materials Data on SrLiTa2O6F (SG:74) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on BaCeC2O6F (SG:165) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on LiCaTa2O6F (SG:74) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ca3Ta4(O6F)2 (SG:212) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Ca3Nb4(O6F)2 (SG:212) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on BaH6F8 (SG:190) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Ca2Ta2O6F (SG:227) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-18

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on KTh6F25 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-05-18

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. 16 CFR 1.12 - Final notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final notice. 1.12 Section 1.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.12 Final notice. A final notice...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.56 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final determination. 1301.56 Section 1301.56 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... Proceedings § 1301.56 Final determination. The General Counsel makes the final determination whether a...

  7. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective...

  8. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective immediately unless the Order specifies a...

  9. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  10. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  11. 25 CFR 575.9 - Final assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final assessment. 575.9 Section 575.9 Indians NATIONAL... § 575.9 Final assessment. (a) If the respondent fails to request a hearing as provided in part 577 of this chapter, the proposed civil fine assessment shall become a final order of the Commission....

  12. 31 CFR 92.17 - Final action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 92.17 Section 92.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND... States Mint § 92.17 Final action. (a) In making a final determination whether to impose a penalty,...

  13. 18 CFR 1301.56 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final determination. 1301.56 Section 1301.56 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... Proceedings § 1301.56 Final determination. The General Counsel makes the final determination whether a...

  14. 18 CFR 1301.56 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final determination. 1301.56 Section 1301.56 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... Proceedings § 1301.56 Final determination. The General Counsel makes the final determination whether a...

  15. 18 CFR 1301.56 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final determination. 1301.56 Section 1301.56 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... Proceedings § 1301.56 Final determination. The General Counsel makes the final determination whether a...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination...

  17. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination...

  20. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  1. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  2. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  3. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  4. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  5. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  6. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  7. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  8. 20 CFR 636.11 - Final action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final action. 636.11 Section 636.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPLAINTS, INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.11 Final action. The final decision of the Secretary pursuant to section 166(b) of the...

  9. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  10. The SAMPIE flight experimental final technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a shuttle based flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. SAMPIE will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased through a series of high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here in its final form. The experiment is being developed at NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, and is sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST).

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, John H.

    2015-08-06

    This project addressed the following research need in the Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Program Plan: "Measurements downwind of urban sources of aerosol particles and precursor gases have shown that the mass concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be several-fold greater than can be explained on the basis of current model calculations using observed precursor concentrations. ASR will continue conducting laboratory experiments on both gas-phase and aqueous-phase SOA formation to characterize the particle formation and the organic gases that react to form new organic aerosol material on aerosol seeds. ASR will use these experiments to guide the development of comprehensive chemical mechanisms... to guide the development of parameterizations that are simple enough to be applied to aerosol life cycle models."

  12. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  13. Novette diagnostic support. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

    1985-02-01

    The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

  14. Laser Damage Inspection Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J T; Brase, J M; Bliss, E S; Carrano, C J; Kegelmeyer, L M; Miller, M G; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A

    2001-02-26

    Large, high-power laser systems are often designed as reimaging multipass cavities to maximize the extraction of energy from the amplifiers. These multipass cavities often have vacuum spatial filters that suppress the growth of beam instability via B-integral effects. These spatial filters also relay images of laser damage, often nearly superimposing these images in common planes. Also, the fluence damage threshold limits the minimum size of the optics. When used as vacuum barriers in the spatial filters, these large optics present a safety hazard from the risk of implosion if the laser damage were sufficiently large. The objective of the project was to develop algorithms and methods for optical detection and characterization of laser-induced damage of optics. The system should detect small defects (about 5% of the critical size), track their growth over multiple laser shots, and characterize the defects accurately so that the optic can be replaced (at 25% of the critical size) and, hence, minimize the risk of implosion. The depth of field must be short enough to isolate the damaged vacuum barrier from other damaged optics in the beamline, and the system should also be capable of inspecting other optics in the beamline, since damage on one optic can subsequently damage subsequent optics. Laser induced damage starts as a small (<<1mm) crater and grows as material is removed on subsequent laser shots. The highly fractured rough surface of the crater scatters light from the illuminating inspection beam. This scattered light is imaged by the inspection system. Other types of defects may occur as well including inclusions in the bulk glass, tooling marks, and surface contamination. This report will discuss the detection and characterization of crater-like surface defects although the general techniques may prove useful for other types of defects. The work described here covers the development of an image processing approach and specific algorithms for defect detection

  15. [Biophysical Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals, Including Antibody Drugs].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, including antibody drugs, are now popular because of their high specificity with low adverse effects, especially in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, because the active pharmaceutical ingredients of biopharmaceuticals are proteins, biophysical characterization of these therapeutic proteins should be required. In this manuscript, methods of chemical and physical characterization of therapeutic proteins are described. In terms of chemical characterization, analysis of chemical modifications of the constituent amino acids is explained. Physical characterization includes higher order structural analysis and assessment of protein aggregates. Quantification methods of aggregates with different sizes, recently encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are introduced. As for the stability of therapeutic proteins, the importance of chemical and physical stability is explained. Finally, the contribution of colloidal and structural stability to the production of an antibody drug less prone to aggregation is introduced.

  16. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four

  17. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  18. Final shape of a drying thin film.

    PubMed

    Okuzono, Tohru; Kobayashi, Masaru; Doi, Masao

    2009-08-01

    Drying processes of polymer solutions on a solid substrate enclosed by bank are studied in the slow limit of the solvent evaporation. A simple model is proposed to examine the final shape of the film after drying. Analytical expressions of the final shape in terms of the initial parameters are obtained. It is shown that the craterlike and basinlike shapes appear as final shapes of the film depending on the initial parameters. The "shape diagrams" which show parameter dependence of the final shape are presented in the absence/presence of diffusion. The final shape of the film in the geometry without bank is also discussed.

  19. Advanced power conditioning for maglev systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nerem, A.; Bowles, E.E.; Chapelle, S.; Callanan, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    The final report contains parametric scaling data and computer models of power conditioning equipment applicable to the design of an advanced maglev system. The power conditioning topologies were selected based on data from a literature search, on characteristics of present power semiconductor technology devices, and on actual performance characterization of designs using a circuit analysis program. The analyses show that GTOs are the best switches for traction drives, input power conditioning equipment, and the braking chopper. At lower power levels, as required for auxiliary power and superconducting coil power conditioning, the IGBT appeared to be the best switch.

  20. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.